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    1172 results match your criteria Clinical Genitourinary Cancer [Journal]

    1 OF 24

    Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte Ratio, Platelet-to-lymphocyte Ratio, and C-reactive Protein as New and Simple Prognostic Factors in Patients With Metastatic Renal Cell Cancer Treated With Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors: A Systemic Review and Meta-analysis.
    Clin Genitourin Cancer 2018 Feb 2. Epub 2018 Feb 2.
    Medical University in Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.
    Background: Inflammation plays a crucial role in cancer development. In this study, we evaluate the prognostic values of systemic inflammation markers such as neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and C-reactive protein (CRP) for the progression-free survival and overall survival in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    Materials And Methods: PubMed and the Cochrane Library databases were searched for published studies on the effect of NLR, PLR, and CRP in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Read More

    Testosterone Levels and Prostate Cancer Prognosis: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.
    Clin Genitourin Cancer 2018 Feb 2. Epub 2018 Feb 2.
    Medical Oncology Unit, Department of Medical and Surgical Specialties, Radiological Sciences and Public Health, University of Brescia at Spedali Civili Hospital, Brescia, Italy. Electronic address:
    Androgen receptor is the major driver of and testosterone the natural growth factor of prostate cancer (PC). Studies exploring the relationship among circulating testosterone levels, PC aggressiveness, and patient prognosis showed contradictory results. We performed a comprehensive literature search for studies reporting the independent relationship between serum testosterone and prognosis of PC patients. Read More

    Dramatically Polarized Opinion on the Role of Brachytherapy Boost in Management of High-risk Prostate Cancer: A Survey of North American Genitourinary Expert Radiation Oncologists.
    Clin Genitourin Cancer 2018 Feb 2. Epub 2018 Feb 2.
    Department of Radiation Medicine, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR. Electronic address:
    Introduction: Three randomized clinical trials have established brachytherapy (BT) boost in combination with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) and androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) as superior to definitive EBRT and ADT alone in terms of biochemical control (but not overall survival) at the expense of increased toxicity in men with high-risk (HR) prostate cancer (PCa). The current view regarding these 2 treatment algorithms among North American genitourinary (GU) experts is not known.

    Methods: A survey was distributed to 88 practicing North American GU physicians serving on decision-making committees of cooperative group research organizations. Read More

    Adjuvant Therapies in Nonmetastatic Renal-Cell Carcinoma: A Review of the Literature.
    Clin Genitourin Cancer 2018 Feb 2. Epub 2018 Feb 2.
    Centre de recherche du Centre Hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal (CR-CHUM) and Institut du cancer de Montréal, Montréal, Québec, Canada.
    To conduct a review of literature on adjuvant therapy in nonmetastatic renal-cell carcinoma (nmRCC) treated with nephrectomy and to describe the efficacy of adjuvant agents on cancer control outcomes. A review of the literature was performed in January 2018 to identify all studies evaluating adjuvant therapy in patients with nmRCC treated with nephrectomy using PubMed, Embase, Medline, and Cochrane Library databases. The following keywords were used: adjuvant therapy, renal-cell carcinoma, nonmetastatic, targeted molecular therapy, kidney cancer. Read More

    Clinical and Molecular Characteristics and Burden of Kidney Cancer Among Hispanics and Native Americans: Steps Toward Precision Medicine.
    Clin Genitourin Cancer 2018 Feb 12. Epub 2018 Feb 12.
    Department of Surgery, Division of Urology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.
    Cancer disparities in Native Americans (NAs) and Hispanic Americans (HAs) vary significantly in terms of cancer incidence and mortality rates across geographic regions. This review reports that kidney and renal pelvis cancers are unevenly affecting HAs and NAs compared to European Americans of non-Hispanic origin, and that currently there is significant need for improved data and reporting to be able to advance toward genomic-based precision medicine for the assessment of such cancers in these medically underserved populations. More specifically, in states along the US-Mexico border, HAs and NAs have higher kidney cancer incidence rates as well as a higher prevalence of kidney cancer risk factors, including obesity and chronic kidney disease. Read More

    Drug Holiday in Metastatic Renal-Cell Carcinoma Patients Treated With Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor Inhibitors.
    Clin Genitourin Cancer 2018 Jan 4. Epub 2018 Jan 4.
    Cleveland Clinic Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland, OH.
    Introduction: Tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy in metastatic renal-cell carcinoma (mRCC) is noncurative and may be associated with significant toxicities. Some patients may receive treatment breaks as a result of TKI-related adverse effects or planned drug holidays.

    Patients And Methods: In this retrospective study, mRCC patients who underwent drug holidays during TKI therapy at 2 different institutions were analyzed. Read More

    Association Between Pretreatment Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio and Outcome of Patients With Metastatic Renal-Cell Carcinoma Treated With Nivolumab.
    Clin Genitourin Cancer 2018 Jan 4. Epub 2018 Jan 4.
    Department of Urology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA.
    Background: Biomarkers to guide treatment in metastatic renal-cell carcinoma (mRCC) are lacking. We aimed to investigate the association between pretreatment neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and outcome of patients with mRCC receiving nivolumab.

    Patients And Methods: Through retrospective chart review, we identified 38 patients with mRCC treated with standard-of-care nivolumab between 2015 and 2016 at Winship Cancer Institute of Emory University. Read More

    Treatments, Outcomes, and Validity of Prognostic Scores in Patients With Sarcomatoid Renal Cell Carcinoma: A 20-Year Single-Institution Experience.
    Clin Genitourin Cancer 2017 Dec 28. Epub 2017 Dec 28.
    Department of Medical Oncology, Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France.
    Introduction: Metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with a sarcomatoid component is a rare disease associated with a poor prognosis. We report the outcomes of 47 patients with metastatic sarcomatoid RCC (SRCC) treated with different modalities including chemotherapy, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, or immunotherapy over 2 decades in a French cancer center. Furthermore, we assessed the validity of prognostic scores in this subset of RCC. Read More

    Placental Site Trophoblastic Tumor in Nonseminomatous Mixed Germ Cell Tumors of the Testis: a Case Report and Review of the Literature.
    Clin Genitourin Cancer 2017 Dec 27. Epub 2017 Dec 27.
    Service de Pathologie, Hôpital Saint-Louis, AP-HP, Paris, France; Service de Recherches en Hémato-immunologie, CEA, Hôpital Saint-Louis, Paris, France; Université Paris Diderot, UMR E_5, Institut Universitaire d'Hématologie, Paris, France; Université Paris Diderot, Inserm, UMR_S1165, Institut Universitaire d'Hématologie, Paris, France. Electronic address:

    Real-world Outcomes in Advanced Urothelial Cancer and the Role of Neutrophil to Lymphocyte Ratio.
    Clin Genitourin Cancer 2017 Dec 29. Epub 2017 Dec 29.
    Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Department of Oncology, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada.
    Introduction: In the first- and second-line metastatic urothelial carcinoma (mUC) treatment setting, we investigated real-world outcomes and evaluated the prognostic role of neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR).

    Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on patients with mUC treated with systemic therapy. Overall response rates (ORRs), median time to treatment failure (mTTF), and median overall survival (mOS) were calculated. Read More

    Prognostic Value of Pretreatment Albumin-to-Globulin Ratio in Patients With Non-Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer.
    Clin Genitourin Cancer 2018 Jan 4. Epub 2018 Jan 4.
    Department of Urology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.
    Purpose: To investigate the relationship between albumin-to-globulin ratio (AGR) and oncologic outcomes in patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC).

    Patients And Methods: We identified 364 patients with primary NMIBC who underwent transurethral surgery between 2000 and 2015. The association between pretreatment AGR and clinicopathologic variables, including oncologic outcomes, was statistically evaluated. Read More

    Prognostic and Therapeutic Implications of Circulating Androgen Receptor Gene Copy Number in Prostate Cancer Patients Using Droplet Digital Polymerase Chain Reaction.
    Clin Genitourin Cancer 2017 Dec 29. Epub 2017 Dec 29.
    Department of Urology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium.
    Background: Resistance mechanisms in the androgen receptor (AR) signaling pathway remain key drivers in the progression to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and relapse under antihormonal therapy.

    Materials And Methods: We evaluated the circulating AR gene copy number (CN) gain using droplet digital polymerase chain reaction in 21 control and 91 prostate cancer serum samples and its prognostic and therapeutic implications in prostate cancer.

    Results: In CRPC, AR CN gain was associated with faster progression to CRPC (P = . Read More

    The Clinical Presentation, Survival Outcomes, and Management of Patients With Renal Cell Carcinoma and Cardiac Metastasis Without Inferior Vena Cava Involvement: Results From a Pooled Clinical Trial Database and Systematic Review of Reported Cases.
    Clin Genitourin Cancer 2017 Dec 6. Epub 2017 Dec 6.
    Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA; Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology/Oncology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA. Electronic address:
    Background: Cardiac metastases from renal cell carcinoma (RCC) are uncommon and there are limited data regarding the presentation and outcomes of this population. The objective of this study was to evaluate the characteristics and outcomes of patients with RCC with cardiac metastasis without inferior vena cava (IVC) involvement.

    Materials And Methods: We conducted a pooled retrospective analysis of metastatic RCC patients treated in 4 clinical trials. Read More

    Effect of Single-agent Daily Prednisone on Outcomes and Toxicities in Metastatic Castration-resistant Prostate Cancer: Pooled Analysis of Prospective Studies.
    Clin Genitourin Cancer 2017 Dec 27. Epub 2017 Dec 27.
    Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA. Electronic address:
    The clinical effect of prednisone in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) is unknown. We performed a pooled analysis of control arms of randomized controlled trials that had or had not administered single-agent prednisone. Randomized controlled trials with a control arm that included single-agent placebo (or no anticancer therapy) or single-agent prednisone (with or without placebo) were eligible for analysis. Read More

    Clinical Variables Associated With Overall Survival in Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer Patients Treated With Sipuleucel-T Immunotherapy.
    Clin Genitourin Cancer 2017 Dec 27. Epub 2017 Dec 27.
    Division of Hematology/Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, San Francisco, CA.
    Background: Sipuleucel-T is an autologous cell-based cancer immunotherapy for men with asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Its approval by the Food and Drug Administration was based on demonstration of an overall survival (OS) benefit in randomized placebo-controlled phase III trials. However, treatment was associated with a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) decline in only a small minority of patients. Read More

    The Cardiovascular Toxicity of Abiraterone and Enzalutamide in Prostate Cancer.
    Clin Genitourin Cancer 2017 Dec 27. Epub 2017 Dec 27.
    Medical Oncology Unit, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Integrata, Verona, Italy.
    Introduction: The cardiovascular toxicity related to abiraterone and enzalutamide has been previously studied by our group. In this analysis, we aim to update our previous findings related to abiraterone and enzalutamide, including the new available evidence, both in castration-resistant and hormone-sensitive prostate cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Prospective studies were identified by searching the MEDLINE/PubMed, Cochrane Library, and ASCO Meeting abstracts. Read More

    The Relationship Between Red Cell Distribution Width and Cancer-Specific Survival in Patients With Renal Cell Carcinoma Treated With Partial and Radical Nephrectomy.
    Clin Genitourin Cancer 2017 Dec 27. Epub 2017 Dec 27.
    Department of Urology, Medical University of Silesia, Zabrze, Poland.
    Introduction: The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of red cell distribution width (RDW) on cancer-specific survival (CSS) in patients who undergo nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma (RCC).

    Patients And Methods: A total number of 434 patients with pathologically proven RCC treated with radical or partial nephrectomy between 2003 and 2012 were identified in a single tertiary academic center. To evaluate the accuracy of RDW for CSS prediction, a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was plotted. Read More

    Changing Practice Evaluation-Stage 1 Seminoma: Outcomes With Adjuvant Treatment Versus Surveillance: Risk Factors for Recurrence and Optimizing Follow-up Protocols-Experience From a Supraregional Center.
    Clin Genitourin Cancer 2017 Dec 11. Epub 2017 Dec 11.
    Department of Oncology, Churchill Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom.
    Background: Stage 1 seminoma is frequently cured by radical orchiectomy; however, the management strategies after this diagnosis vary in terms of the use of adjuvant treatment and the nature of the follow-up protocols. We analyzed stage 1 seminomas treated in the Thames Valley Cancer Network for outcomes to determine whether any factors are predictive of recurrence. We also studied relapses to determine the optimal follow-up schedule and protocol. Read More

    Clinical Outcomes of First-line Abiraterone Acetate or Enzalutamide for Metastatic Castration-resistant Prostate Cancer After Androgen Deprivation Therapy + Docetaxel or ADT Alone for Metastatic Hormone-sensitive Prostate Cancer.
    Clin Genitourin Cancer 2017 Dec 27. Epub 2017 Dec 27.
    Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA. Electronic address:
    Background: The CHAARTED (ChemoHormonal Therapy Versus Androgen Ablation Randomized Trial for Extensive Disease in Prostate Cancer) and STAMPEDE (Systemic Therapy in Advancing or Metastatic Prostate Cancer: Evaluation of Drug Efficacy) trials showed that the addition of docetaxel (D) to androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) prolonged longevity of men with metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer (mHSPC). However, the impact of upfront D on subsequent therapies is still unexplored. As abiraterone acetate (AA) and enzalutamide (E) are the most commonly used first-line treatment for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC), we aimed to assess whether they maintained their efficacy after ADT+D versus ADT alone. Read More

    Reintroducing Pazopanib Reverses the Primary Resistance of Nivolumab in a Patient With Metastatic Clear-cell Renal Cell Carcinoma.
    Clin Genitourin Cancer 2017 Dec 21. Epub 2017 Dec 21.
    Division of Hematology Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan; Clinical Trial Center, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan. Electronic address:

    Anti-Programmed Cell Death 1/Ligand 1 (PD-1/PD-L1) Antibodies for the Treatment of Urothelial Carcinoma: State of the Art and Future Development.
    Clin Genitourin Cancer 2017 Dec 6. Epub 2017 Dec 6.
    Bladder Cancer Section, Genitourinary Malignancies Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD, USA. Electronic address:
    Immunotherapy with programmed cell death 1/ligand 1 (PD-1/PD-L1) checkpoint inhibitors has expanded a previously limited pool of effective treatment options for patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma, particularly those with recurring or refractory disease and those who are ineligible for cisplatin. This review reports key findings from completed and ongoing clinical trials that highlight the potential of PD-1/PD-L1 blockade in urothelial carcinoma. A literature search was performed of PubMed, Embase, ClinicalTrials. Read More

    The Effect of Patient and Surgical Characteristics on Renal Function After Partial Nephrectomy.
    Clin Genitourin Cancer 2017 Dec 6. Epub 2017 Dec 6.
    Department of Medicine, Nephrology Division, Weill-Cornell Medical College, New York, NY; Department of Medicine, Renal Service, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY. Electronic address:
    Background: The purpose of the study was to identify patient and disease characteristics that have an adverse effect on renal function after partial nephrectomy.

    Patients And Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of 387 patients who underwent partial nephrectomy for renal tumors between 2006 and 2014. A line plot with a locally weighted scatterplot smoothing was generated to visually assess renal function over time. Read More

    Contemporary Patterns of Multidisciplinary Care in Patients With Muscle-invasive Bladder Cancer.
    Clin Genitourin Cancer 2017 Dec 6. Epub 2017 Dec 6.
    Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, ON, Canada.
    Background: Multidisciplinary clinics integrate the expertise of several specialties to provide effective treatment to patients. This exposure is especially relevant in the management of muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC), which requires critical input from urology, radiation oncology, and medical oncology, among other supportive specialties.

    Materials And Methods: In the present study, we sought to catalog the different styles of multidisciplinary care models used in the management of MIBC and to identify barriers to their implementation. Read More

    The Association Between Sarcopenia and Oncologic Outcomes After Radical Prostatectomy.
    Clin Genitourin Cancer 2017 Dec 6. Epub 2017 Dec 6.
    Department of Urology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN. Electronic address:
    Purpose: Sarcopenia is associated with inferior perioperative and oncologic outcomes in patients undergoing surgery for multiple malignancies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between sarcopenia and outcomes after radical prostatectomy (RP) for men with prostate cancer.

    Patients And Methods: Using a representative computed tomographic image from the L3 level, preoperative skeletal muscle indices (SMI) calculated for 698 patients who underwent RP between 2007 and 2010. Read More

    Association Between Symptomatic Versus Asymptomatic Recurrence and Survival in Bladder Cancer.
    Clin Genitourin Cancer 2017 Dec 6. Epub 2017 Dec 6.
    Abramson Cancer Center, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA. Electronic address:
    Background: The benefit of surveillance after curative cystectomy in bladder cancer is unproven, but might be justified if detection of asymptomatic recurrence improves survival. Previous studies showing a benefit of surveillance might have been affected by lead-time or length-time bias.

    Materials And Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study among 463 cystectomy patients at the University of Pennsylvania. Read More


    Comparison of Alternative Androgen Receptor-axis-targeted Agent (ARATA) and Docetaxel as Second-line Therapy for Patients With Metastatic Castration-resistant Prostate Cancer With Progression After Initial ARATA in Real-world Clinical Practice in Japan.
    Clin Genitourin Cancer 2017 Dec 6. Epub 2017 Dec 6.
    Department of Urology, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu, Japan.
    Background: The objective of the present study was to assess the oncologic outcomes of patients receiving second-line therapy against metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC).

    Patients And Methods: The present study included 222 consecutive mCRPC patients with progression during initial androgen receptor-axis-targeted agent (ARATA) therapy with either abiraterone acetate (AA) or enzalutamide (Enz). Of these 222 patients, 108 subsequently received an alternative ARATA (AA-to-Enz, n = 49; Enz-to-AA, n = 59) and 114 received docetaxel (DTX; AA-to-DTX, n = 54; Enz-to-DTX, n = 60). Read More

    Molecular Subtypes of Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma Are Associated With Outcome During Pazopanib Therapy in the Metastatic Setting.
    Clin Genitourin Cancer 2017 Nov 7. Epub 2017 Nov 7.
    Laboratory of Experimental Oncology, Department of Oncology, University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium; Department of General Medical Oncology, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven Cancer Institute, Leuven, Belgium; Inserm, UMR-1162, Génomique fonctionnelle des tumeurs solides, Institut Universitaire Hématologie, Paris, France. Electronic address:
    Background: We previously described 4 molecular subtypes of metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma (mccRCC), named ccrcc1-4 (Beuselinck et al, 2015). These have both prognostic and predictive value for patients treated with first-line sunitinib, with distinctive objective response rate (ORR), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS). The ccrcc2 and ccrcc3 tumors have the best outcomes, followed by ccrcc1 and then ccrcc4. Read More

    Oncologic Effect of Cumulative Smoking Exposure in Patients Treated With Salvage Radical Prostatectomy for Radiation-recurrent Prostate Cancer.
    Clin Genitourin Cancer 2017 Nov 10. Epub 2017 Nov 10.
    Department of Urology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria; Karl Landsteiner Institute of Urology and Andrology, Vienna, Austria; Department of Urology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY; Department of Urology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX. Electronic address:
    Introduction: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the association of smoking with biochemical recurrence (BCR) and metastasis in radiation-recurrent prostate cancer (PCa) patients undergoing salvage radical prostatectomy (SRP).

    Patients And Methods: A total of 214 patients treated with SRP for radiation-recurrent PCa in 5 tertiary referral centers were included from January 2007 to December 2015. Kaplan-Meier analyses were used to assess the time to BCR and metastasis. Read More

    Selected High-Risk Patients With Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma Treated With Radical Nephroureterectomy for Adjuvant Chemotherapy: A Multi-Institutional Retrospective Study.
    Clin Genitourin Cancer 2017 Nov 7. Epub 2017 Nov 7.
    Department of Urology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kanagawa, Japan.
    Background: No definitive evidence exists regarding use of adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) for high-risk cases after radical nephroureterectomy (RNU), and the benefit of AC remains controversial. The aims of this study were to evaluate the efficacy of AC in patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) and to determine those who qualified for AC.

    Patients And Methods: From 1990 to 2015, 449 patients with nonmetastatic UTUC underwent RNU at 6 Kitasato University-affiliated hospitals. Read More

    The Current Status and Future Role of the Phosphoinositide 3 Kinase/AKT Signaling Pathway in Urothelial Cancer: An Old Pathway in the New Immunotherapy Era.
    Clin Genitourin Cancer 2017 Nov 3. Epub 2017 Nov 3.
    Division of Hematology-Oncology, Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA; Institute of Urologic Oncology, Department of Urology, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA; Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA. Electronic address:
    The phosphoinositide 3 kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is a well studied signaling pathway that regulates diverse cellular functions including proliferation, metabolism, and transcription. Aberrant activation of this pathway has been implicated in multiple cancers. Genomic studies have shown that activating mutations in oncogenes as well as inactivating mutations in tumor suppressor genes are present across a variety of malignancies, including urothelial carcinoma. Read More

    Serum Testosterone Levels in Prostate Cancer Patients Undergoing Luteinizing Hormone-Releasing Hormone Agonist Therapy.
    Clin Genitourin Cancer 2017 Nov 30. Epub 2017 Nov 30.
    Department of Urology, Vall d'Hebron Hospital, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address:
    Background: Serum testosterone measurement is recommended to assess the efficacy of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and to diagnose castration resistance in patients with prostate cancer (PCa). Currently, the accepted castrate level of serum testosterone is 50 ng/dL. Liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC MSMS) is the appropriate method to measure testosterone, especially at low levels. Read More

    Baseline Multiparametric MRI for Selection of Prostate Cancer Patients Suitable for Active Surveillance: Which Features Matter?
    Clin Genitourin Cancer 2017 Nov 21. Epub 2017 Nov 21.
    Paul Strickland Scanner Centre, Mount Vernon Hospital, London, United Kingdom.
    Introduction: Increasing evidence has supported the use of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) for the detection of prostate cancer. However, its role in selecting patients clinically suitable for active surveillance (AS) is still in development. We aimed to find relevant mpMRI features that might be helpful for refinement of the selection of low-risk prostate cancer patients for AS. Read More

    Pathologic Outcomes of Gleason 6 Favorable Intermediate-Risk Prostate Cancer Treated With Radical Prostatectomy: Implications for Active Surveillance.
    Clin Genitourin Cancer 2017 Nov 9. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA; Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women's Hospital/Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA. Electronic address:
    Background: The safety of active surveillance (AS) for Gleason 6 favorable intermediate-risk (FIR) prostate cancer is unknown. To provide guidance, we examined the incidence and predictors of upgrading or upstaging for Gleason 6 FIR patients treated with radical prostatectomy.

    Patients And Methods: We identified 2807 men in the National Cancer Database diagnosed from 2010 to 2012 with Gleason 6 FIR disease (<50% positive biopsy cores [PBC] with either prostate-specific antigen [PSA] of 10-20 ng/mL or cT2b-T2c disease) treated with radical prostatectomy. Read More

    eRADicAte: A Prospective Evaluation Combining Radium-223 Dichloride and Abiraterone Acetate Plus Prednisone in Patients With Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer.
    Clin Genitourin Cancer 2017 Nov 7. Epub 2017 Nov 7.
    Carolina Urologic Research Center, Myrtle Beach, SC.
    Background: Multiple castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) therapies are approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration. Radium-223 dichloride (Ra-223) with abiraterone acetate plus prednisone have different mechanisms of action and distinct off-target side-effect profiles. We prospectively investigated their combined safety, tolerability, and patient-reported outcome measures. Read More

    Intravesical Immunomodulatory Imiquimod Enhances Bacillus Calmette-Guérin Downregulation of Nonmuscle-invasive Bladder Cancer.
    Clin Genitourin Cancer 2017 Nov 7. Epub 2017 Nov 7.
    Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil; Department of Urologic Oncology, Pontifical Catholic University of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Background: The Toll-like receptor (TLR)2/4 agonist bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), although not failure proof, has been the most efficient immunomodulatory treatment of immunogenic nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) for > 40 years. We investigated the role of the immunomodulatory molecule TLR7 agonist imiquimod through the BCG key receptors TLR2/4 and the main downstream molecules of the mammalian target of rapamycin pathway in NMIBC treatment.

    Materials And Methods: A total of 40 Fischer-344 rats, 7 weeks old, received 4 doses of 1. Read More

    External Validation of the Arterial-Based Complexity Score and First Head-to-Head Comparison With the R.E.N.A.L. and PADUA Scores and C-index.
    Clin Genitourin Cancer 2017 Nov 7. Epub 2017 Nov 7.
    Unit of Urology, Spedali Civili Hospital, University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy.
    Introduction: We performed an external validation of the arterial-based complexity (ABC) score using a head-to-head comparison with the R.E.N. Read More

    Active Surveillance for Low and Intermediate Risk Prostate Cancer: Opinions of North American Genitourinary Oncology Expert Radiation Oncologists.
    Clin Genitourin Cancer 2017 Nov 7. Epub 2017 Nov 7.
    Department of Radiation Medicine, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR. Electronic address:
    Introduction: The ProtecT trial has provided level 1 evidence supporting active surveillance for prostate cancer patients with low-risk and intermediate-risk disease. The effect of these findings on the opinions of North American genitourinary (GU) experts regarding the role of active surveillance for these patients has not been previously examined.

    Materials And Methods: A survey was distributed to 88 practicing North American GU physicians serving on decision-making committees of cooperative group research organizations. Read More

    Oncologic Outcomes of Partial Nephrectomy for Stage T3a Renal Cell Cancer.
    Clin Genitourin Cancer 2017 Nov 7. Epub 2017 Nov 7.
    Department of Urology, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, affiliated with Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.
    Background: Partial nephrectomy (PN) for clinical stage T3 tumors is controversial. Radical nephrectomy (RN) has been associated with a greater rate of chronic kidney disease, an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, and increased mortality compared with PN. We present our long-term 2-center experience with PN for stage pT3a tumors and compare the oncologic outcomes with those of similar patients treated with RN. Read More

    Associations Between Prostate Volume and Oncologic Outcomes in Men Undergoing Focal Cryoablation of the Prostate.
    Clin Genitourin Cancer 2017 Oct 28. Epub 2017 Oct 28.
    Glickman Urological and Kidney Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH.
    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship of total prostate volume (TPV) and oncologic outcomes following focal prostate cryoablation.

    Materials And Methods: A query of the Cryo On-Line Database (COLD) registry for men who underwent primary focal prostate cryoablation revealed 829 patients with complete data. The impact of TPV on oncologic outcomes including progression-free survival (PFS) and post-cryoablation biopsy outcome was assessed using Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox and logistic regression models. Read More

    Phase 2 Study of Weekly Paclitaxel Plus Estramustine in Metastatic Hormone-Refractory Prostate Carcinoma: ECOG-ACRIN Cancer Research Group (E1898) Trial.
    Clin Genitourin Cancer 2017 Oct 16. Epub 2017 Oct 16.
    University of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center, Madison, WI.
    Introduction: This multicenter phase 2 study assessed the combination of estramustine and weekly paclitaxel with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC).

    Patients And Methods: We enrolled 77 patients who had received no prior chemotherapy for CRPC between 1998 and 2000; a total of 74 subjects were eligible for the study. Each 8-week cycle included paclitaxel 90 mg/mprovided intravenously weekly for 6 weeks, followed by 2 weeks off therapy and oral estramustine 280 mg twice daily for 3 days beginning 24 hours before the first dose of paclitaxel. Read More

    Bone Metastases as the Only Metastatic Site in Patients With Urothelial Carcinoma: Focus on a Special Patient Population.
    Clin Genitourin Cancer 2017 Nov 1. Epub 2017 Nov 1.
    Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Tisch Cancer Institute, New York, NY.
    Background: Patients with exclusive bone metastatic spread from urothelial carcinoma (UC) throughout their disease course represent a rare subgroup with unique clinical features. These patients deserved special consideration in a retrospective multicenter study.

    Patients And Methods: Analyses were made from a pool of 1911 patients with a diagnosis of metastatic UC, from 23 centers. Read More

    Patient Characteristics, Treatment Patterns and Prognostic Factors in Squamous Cell Bladder Cancer.
    Clin Genitourin Cancer 2017 Oct 17. Epub 2017 Oct 17.
    Department of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH. Electronic address:
    Background: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is an uncommon histologic subtype of bladder cancer with limited data on treatment patterns, outcomes, and prognostic factors. "Real world" information might inform decision-making, prognostic estimates, and clinical trial designs.

    Patients And Methods: A retrospective review of patients with tissue-confirmed bladder SCC treated at Cleveland Clinic from 2007 to 2016 was performed. Read More

    Immune Analysis of Radium-223 in Patients With Metastatic Prostate Cancer.
    Clin Genitourin Cancer 2017 Oct 24. Epub 2017 Oct 24.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT; Prostate and Urological Cancers Program, Yale Comprehensive Cancer Center, New Haven, CT.
    Background: Radium223 (Ra223) delivers high-energy radiation to osteoblastic metastasis of prostate cancer, resulting in irreparable double-stranded DNA damage. The effects of Ra223 on CD8+ T cell subsets in patients with prostate cancer is unknown.

    Patients And Methods: Fifteen men with metastatic prostate cancer with clinical indication for Ra223 without any autoimmune or immune deficiency conditions were enrolled. Read More

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