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    502 results match your criteria Clinical Epidemiology [Journal]

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    Population-based cohort study on comparative effectiveness and safety of biologics in inflammatory bowel disease.
    Clin Epidemiol 2018 5;10:203-213. Epub 2018 Feb 5.
    Department of Epidemiology, Lazio Regional Health Service, Rome, Italy.
    Background: The comparison of effectiveness and safety of anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha agents for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is relevant for clinical practice and stakeholders.

    Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the risk of abdominal surgery, steroid utilization, and hospitalization for infection in Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC) patients newly treated with infliximab (IFX) or adalimumab (ADA).

    Methods: A retrospective population-based cohort study was performed using health information systems data from Lazio region, Italy. Read More

    Acute kidney injury and infections in patients taking antihypertensive drugs: a self-controlled case series analysis.
    Clin Epidemiol 2018 30;10:187-202. Epub 2018 Jan 30.
    Department of Non-Communicable Disease Epidemiology.
    Background: The relative risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) following different infections, and whether angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs)/angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) modify the risk, is unclear. We aimed to determine the risks of hospital admission with AKI following infections (urinary tract infection [UTI], lower respiratory tract infection [LRTI], and gastroenteritis) among users of antihypertensive drugs.

    Methods: We used UK electronic health records from practices contributing to the Clinical Practice Research Datalink linked to the Hospital Episode Statistics database. Read More

    Replacing sedentary time with physical activity: a 15-year follow-up of mortality in a national cohort.
    Clin Epidemiol 2018 25;10:179-186. Epub 2018 Jan 25.
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society (NVS).
    Background: Sedentary behavior is associated with health risks in adults. The potential benefits of reducing sedentary time may be dependent not only on decrease per se, but also on the type of activity it replaces. Few longitudinal studies have investigated the effects on mortality when replacing objectively assessed sedentary time with another physical activity (PA) behavior. Read More

    Cardiovascular health status among Australian adults.
    Clin Epidemiol 2018 24;10:167-178. Epub 2018 Jan 24.
    Centre for Chronic Disease, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.
    Background: The American Heart Association (AHA) committee recently set a guideline to define and monitor the cardiovascular health status. This study aimed to estimate cardiovascular health status among Australian adults using the guideline.

    Methods: We used data from a nationally representative sample of 7499 adults (age ≥18 years) from 2011 to 2012 Australian Health Survey. Read More

    High-potency statins but not all statins decrease the risk of new-onset osteoporotic fractures: a nationwide population-based longitudinal cohort study.
    Clin Epidemiol 2018 18;10:159-165. Epub 2018 Jan 18.
    Division of Internal Cardiology, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan, Republic of China.
    Background: Statins have been linked to new-onset osteoporotic fractures (NOFs), and different statins may alter the risk for the development of NOFs.

    Aim: In this study, we investigated the association between different statins and the development of NOFs.

    Patients And Methods: This was a longitudinal cohort study performed using data from claim forms submitted to the Taiwan Bureau of National Health Insurance, including case patients with NOFs from January 2004 to December 2013 and non-NOF subjects. Read More

    Guidance for using pilot studies to inform the design of intervention trials with continuous outcomes.
    Clin Epidemiol 2018 18;10:153-157. Epub 2018 Jan 18.
    Medical Statistics Group, Design, Trials and Statistics, School of Health and Related Research (ScHARR), University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.
    Background: A pilot study can be an important step in the assessment of an intervention by providing information to design the future definitive trial. Pilot studies can be used to estimate the recruitment and retention rates and population variance and to provide preliminary evidence of efficacy potential. However, estimation is poor because pilot studies are small, so sensitivity analyses for the main trial's sample size calculations should be undertaken. Read More

    Strongly enhanced colorectal cancer risk stratification by combining family history and genetic risk score.
    Clin Epidemiol 2018 19;10:143-152. Epub 2018 Jan 19.
    Division of Clinical Epidemiology and Aging Research, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg.
    Background And Aim: Family history (FH) and genetic risk scores (GRSs) are increasingly used for risk stratification for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. However, they were mostly considered alternatively rather than jointly. The aim of this study was to assess the potential of individual and joint risk stratification for CRC by FH and GRS. Read More

    Cardiovascular medication changes over 5 years in a national data linkage study: implications for risk prediction models.
    Clin Epidemiol 2018 15;10:133-141. Epub 2018 Jan 15.
    Section of Epidemiology and Biostatistics.
    Background: Despite widespread use of cardiovascular disease (CVD) preventive medications in cohorts used to develop CVD risk prediction models, only some incorporate baseline CVD pharmacotherapy and none account for treatment changes during study follow-up. Therefore, current risk prediction scores may underestimate the true CVD event risk. We examined changes in CVD pharmacotherapy over 5 years in preparation for developing new 5-year risk prediction models. Read More

    Independent and combined effect of bilirubin and smoking on the progression of chronic kidney disease.
    Clin Epidemiol 2018 15;10:121-132. Epub 2018 Jan 15.
    National Clinical Research Center for Kidney Disease, State Key Laboratory for Organ Failure Research, Renal Division, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou.
    Objective: Whether serum bilirubin and cigarette smoking affect the risk of renal function decline remains inconclusive. We aimed to test the independent and combined effects of bilirubin and cigarette smoking on the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in hypertensive adults.

    Methods: The study population consisted of 12,633 patients in the renal sub-study of the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial. Read More

    A validation study of the CirCom comorbidity score in an English cirrhosis population using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink.
    Clin Epidemiol 2018 15;10:107-120. Epub 2018 Jan 15.
    Department of Hepatology and Gastroenterology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Purpose: The CirCom score has been developed from Danish data as a specific measure of comorbidity for cirrhosis to predict all-cause mortality. We compared its performance with the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) in an English cirrhosis population.

    Patients And Methods: We used comorbidity scores in a survival model to predict mortality in a cirrhosis cohort in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. Read More

    Familial aggregation of tonsillectomy in early childhood and adolescence.
    Clin Epidemiol 2018 12;10:97-105. Epub 2018 Jan 12.
    Department of Epidemiology Research, Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Background: The tonsils are immunological gatekeepers against pathogens. Immunological response to tonsillitis may vary clinically from no enlargement of the tonsils to nearly obstructive conditions. In this investigation, we studied the familial aggregation of tonsillectomy, as an indicator of the extent to which tonsillar immune responses to infections might be genetically controlled. Read More

    Metabolic syndrome as a risk factor for total hip or knee replacement due to primary osteoarthritis: a prospective cohort study (the HUNT study and the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register).
    Clin Epidemiol 2018 10;10:83-96. Epub 2018 Jan 10.
    Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo.
    Objective: Biochemical changes associated with obesity may accelerate osteoarthritis beyond the effect of mechanical factors. This study investigated whether metabolic syndrome and its components (visceral obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance) were risk factors for subsequent total hip replacement (THR) or total knee replacement (TKR) due to primary osteoarthritis.

    Design: In this prospective cohort study, data from the second survey of the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study 2 (HUNT2) were linked to the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register for identification of the outcome of THR or TKR. Read More

    Comparison of the performance of five screening methods for sarcopenia.
    Clin Epidemiol 2018 29;10:71-82. Epub 2017 Dec 29.
    Department of Public Health, Epidemiology and Health Economics, WHO Collaborating Centre for Public Health Aspects of Musculoskeletal Health and Aging, University of Liège.
    Background: Sarcopenia leads to serious adverse health consequences. There is a dearth of screening tools for this condition, and performances of these instruments have rarely been evaluated. Our aim was to compare the performance of five screening tools for identifying elders at risk of sarcopenia against five diagnostic definitions. Read More

    Does breast density measured through population-based screening independently increase breast cancer risk in Asian females?
    Clin Epidemiol 2018 28;10:61-70. Epub 2017 Dec 28.
    National Cancer Center Graduate School of Cancer Science and Policy, Goyang, Republic of Korea.
    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of breast density on breast cancer risk among women screened via a nationwide mammographic screening program.

    Patients And Methods: We conducted a nested case-control study for a randomly selected population of 1,561 breast cancer patients and 6,002 matched controls from the National Cancer Screening Program. Breast density was measured and recorded by two independent radiologists using the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS). Read More

    Performance of the LACE index to predict 30-day hospital readmissions in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
    Clin Epidemiol 2018 27;10:51-59. Epub 2017 Dec 27.
    Department of Respiratory Medicine, Liverpool Hospital.
    Background And Objective: Patients hospitalized for acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have a high 30-day hospital readmission rate, which has a large impact on the health care system and patients' quality of life. The use of a prediction model to quantify a patient's risk of readmission may assist in directing interventions to patients who will benefit most. The objective of this study was to calculate the rate of 30-day readmissions and evaluate the accuracy of the LACE index (length of stay, acuity of admission, co-morbidities, and emergency department visits within the last 6 months) for 30-day readmissions in a general hospital population of COPD patients. Read More

    Using a chronic hepatitis B Registry to support population-level liver cancer prevention in Sydney, Australia.
    Clin Epidemiol 2018 21;10:41-49. Epub 2017 Dec 21.
    Faculty of Medicine, University of Sydney, Camperdown.
    Background: Approximately 1% of Australians have chronic hepatitis B (CHB), which disproportionately affects people born in hepatitis B-endemic countries. Currently, approximately half of the people affected remain undiagnosed and antiviral treatment uptake is suboptimal (~5%). This increases the likelihood of developing end-stage disease complications, particularly hepatocellular cancer (HCC), and largely accounts for the significant increases in HCC incidence and mortality in Australia over the last decades. Read More

    Can information on functional and cognitive status improve short-term mortality risk prediction among community-dwelling older people? A cohort study using a UK primary care database.
    Clin Epidemiol 2018 19;10:31-39. Epub 2017 Dec 19.
    Department of Biomedical and Dental Sciences and Morphofunctional Imaging, University of Messina, Messina, Italy.
    Background: Functional and cognitive domains have rarely been evaluated for their prognostic value in general practice databases. The aim of this study was to identify functional and cognitive domains in The Health Improvement Network (THIN) and to evaluate their additional value for the prediction of 1-month and 1-year mortality in elderly people.

    Materials And Methods: A cohort study was conducted using a UK nationwide general practitioner database. Read More

    The right combination - treatment outcomes among HIV-positive patients initiating first-line fixed-dose antiretroviral therapy in a public sector HIV clinic in Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Clin Epidemiol 2018 18;10:17-29. Epub 2017 Dec 18.
    Health Economics and Epidemiology Research Office, Department of Internal Medicine, School of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Background: Long-term antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence is critical for achieving optimal HIV treatment outcomes. Fixed-dose combination (FDC) single-pill regimens, introduced in South Africa in April 2013, has simplified pill taking. We evaluated treatment outcomes among patients initiated on a FDC compared to a similar multi-pill ART regimen in Johannesburg, South Africa. Read More

    Physical activity derived from questionnaires and wrist-worn accelerometers: comparability and the role of demographic, lifestyle, and health factors among a population-based sample of older adults.
    Clin Epidemiol 2018 18;10:1-16. Epub 2017 Dec 18.
    Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Background: Agreement between questionnaires and accelerometers to measure physical activity (PA) differs between studies and might be related to demographic, lifestyle, and health characteristics, including disability and depressive symptoms.

    Methods: We included 1,410 individuals aged 51-94 years from the population-based Rotterdam Study. Participants completed the LASA Physical Activity Questionnaire and wore a wrist-worn accelerometer on the nondominant wrist for 1 week thereafter. Read More

    Association between coffee or caffeine consumption and fecundity and fertility: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis.
    Clin Epidemiol 2017 15;9:699-719. Epub 2017 Dec 15.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Herlev and Gentofte Hospital, Herlev, Denmark.
    Objective: The aim was to investigate whether coffee or caffeine consumption is associated with reproductive endpoints among women with natural fertility (ie, time to pregnancy [TTP] and spontaneous abortion [SAB]) and among women in fertility treatment (ie, clinical pregnancy rate or live birth rate).

    Design: This study was a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis including data from case-control and cohort studies.

    Methods: An extensive literature search was conducted in MEDLINE and Embase, with no time and language restrictions. Read More

    The use of random-effects models to identify health care center-related characteristics modifying the effect of antipsychotic drugs.
    Clin Epidemiol 2017 14;9:689-698. Epub 2017 Dec 14.
    Farr Institute, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.
    Purpose: A case study was conducted, exploring methods to identify drugs effects modifiers, at a health care center level.

    Patients And Methods: Data were drawn from the Schizophrenia Outpatient Health Outcome cohort, including hierarchical information on 6641 patients, recruited from 899 health care centers from across ten European countries. Center-level characteristics included the following: psychiatrist's gender, age, length of practice experience, practice setting and type, countries' Healthcare System Efficiency score, and psychiatrist density in the country. Read More

    Clinical course of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: an assessment of severity, progression, and outcomes.
    Clin Epidemiol 2017 14;9:679-688. Epub 2017 Dec 14.
    Real-world Evidence, Evidera, Waltham, MA, USA.
    Purpose: To identify the characteristics and initial disease severity of patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and assess incidence and risk factors for disease progression in a retrospective study.

    Methods: Patients ≥18 years of age without alcoholism or other liver diseases (eg, hepatitis B/C) were selected from Geisinger Health System electronic medical record data from 2004 to 2015. Initial disease stage was stratified into uncomplicated NAFLD, advanced fibrosis, cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and liver transplant using clinical biomarkers, diagnosis, and procedure codes. Read More

    Incidence of diabetes and its mortality according to body mass index in South Koreans aged 40-79 years.
    Clin Epidemiol 2017 7;9:667-678. Epub 2017 Dec 7.
    Department of Medicine, Kangwon National University Hospital, Kangwon National University School of Medicine, Chuncheon, Gangwon-do, South Korea.
    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess diabetes incidence and all-cause mortality according to baseline body mass index (BMI) and to compare relative risks of mortality associated with incident diabetes across various BMI classes in a cohort of South Korean adults.

    Patients And Methods: Based on data from the National Health Insurance database of Korean individuals aged 40-79 years without preexisting diabetes, we calculated BMI at the baseline health examination. We estimated the relative risk of mortality associated with incident diabetes using time-dependent Cox models and considering the time of diabetes diagnosis. Read More

    Prenatal exposure to antipsychotic medication and use of primary health care system in childhood: a population-based cohort study in Denmark.
    Clin Epidemiol 2017 1;9:657-666. Epub 2017 Dec 1.
    Research Unit for General Practice.
    Background: Antipsychotic (AP) medication is increasingly used for many health conditions. Prenatal exposure to AP medication has been associated with several adverse outcomes, but the findings remain inconsistent.

    Purpose: We aimed to investigate prenatal exposure to AP medication and the use of primary health care system in childhood. Read More

    Validation of asthma recording in electronic health records: a systematic review.
    Clin Epidemiol 2017 1;9:643-656. Epub 2017 Dec 1.
    Department of Non-Communicable Disease Epidemiology, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
    Objective: To describe the methods used to validate asthma diagnoses in electronic health records and summarize the results of the validation studies.

    Background: Electronic health records are increasingly being used for research on asthma to inform health services and health policy. Validation of the recording of asthma diagnoses in electronic health records is essential to use these databases for credible epidemiological asthma research. Read More

    Maternal diabetes and incidence of childhood cancer - a nationwide cohort study and exploratory genetic analysis.
    Clin Epidemiol 2017 30;9:633-642. Epub 2017 Nov 30.
    Unit of Epidemiology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Background: The etiology of childhood cancer is not well understood, but may be linked to prenatal and perinatal factors, such as maternal diabetes. However, this association has not been examined in depth. We aimed to determine if maternal diabetes is associated with risk of childhood brain tumor (CBT), leukemia (all types combined and acute lymphoblastic leukemia [ALL] separately), and lymphoma. Read More

    Validity and completeness of rheumatoid arthritis diagnoses in the nationwide DANBIO clinical register and the Danish National Patient Registry.
    Clin Epidemiol 2017 29;9:627-632. Epub 2017 Nov 29.
    DANBiO and Copenhagen Center for Arthritis Research, Center for Rheumatology and Spine Diseases, Rigshospitalet - Glostrup, Glostrup.
    Objectives: In Denmark, patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are registered in the nationwide clinical DANBIO quality register and the Danish National Patient Registry (DNPR). The aim was to study the validity of the RA diagnosis and to estimate the completeness of relevant RA cases in each registry.

    Study Design And Setting: Patients registered for the first time in 2011 with a diagnosis of RA were identified in DANBIO and DNPR in January 2013. Read More

    Conditioning on future exposure to define study cohorts can induce bias: the case of low-dose acetylsalicylic acid and risk of major bleeding.
    Clin Epidemiol 2017 23;9:611-626. Epub 2017 Nov 23.
    Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.
    Background: A principle of cohort studies is that cohort membership is defined by current rather than future exposure information. Pharmacoepidemiologic studies using existing databases are vulnerable to violation of this principle. We evaluated the impact of using data on future redemption of prescriptions to determine cohort membership, motivated by a published example seeking to emulate a "per-protocol" association between continuous versus never use of low-dose acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and major bleeding (e. Read More

    Comorbidity index in central cancer registries: the value of hospital discharge data.
    Clin Epidemiol 2017 20;9:601-609. Epub 2017 Nov 20.
    California Cancer Reporting and Epidemiologic Surveillance Program, Institute for Population Health Improvement, UC Davis Health, CA, USA.
    Background: The presence of comorbid medical conditions can significantly affect a cancer patient's treatment options, quality of life, and survival. However, these important data are often lacking from population-based cancer registries. Leveraging routine linkage to hospital discharge data, a comorbidity score was calculated for patients in the California Cancer Registry (CCR) database. Read More

    Birth weight, sex, and celiac disease: a nationwide twin study.
    Clin Epidemiol 2017 10;9:567-577. Epub 2017 Nov 10.
    Department Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Objective: Earlier research suggests that birth weight may be associated with celiac disease (CD), but the direction of association has been unclear potentially due to confounding effect from genetic and intrafamilial factors. Through within-twin analyses, we aimed to minimize confounding effects such as twins that share genetic and early environmental exposures.

    Materials And Methods: Using the Swedish Twin Registry, we examined the birth weight of 146,830 twins according to the CD status. Read More

    The relation of CUN-BAE index and BMI with body fat, cardiovascular events and diabetes during a 6-year follow-up: the Hordaland Health Study.
    Clin Epidemiol 2017 8;9:555-566. Epub 2017 Nov 8.
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.
    Objective: We compared Clínica Universidad de Navarra-Body Adiposity Estimator (CUN-BAE) and body mass index (BMI) as correlates of body fat percent (BF%) and the association with future risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes in a Caucasian population.

    Methods: We used data from 6796 individuals (born 1925-27 and 1950-52) from the Hordaland Health Study, a prospective cohort study in Norway. The study was conducted in 1992-1993 and 1997-1999. Read More

    Development and validation of a panel of five proteins as blood biomarkers for early detection of colorectal cancer.
    Clin Epidemiol 2017 31;9:517-526. Epub 2017 Oct 31.
    Division of Clinical Epidemiology and Aging Research, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany.
    Objective: Reliable noninvasive biomarkers for early detection of colorectal cancer (CRC) are highly desirable for efficient population-based screening with high adherence rates. We aimed to discover and validate blood-based protein markers for the early detection of CRC.

    Patients And Methods: A two-stage design with a discovery and a validation set was used. Read More

    Prescription duration and treatment episodes in oral glucocorticoid users: application of the parametric waiting time distribution.
    Clin Epidemiol 2017 16;9:591-600. Epub 2017 Nov 16.
    Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital.
    Purpose: Glucocorticoids are widely used medications. In many pharmacoepidemiological studies, duration of individual prescriptions and definition of treatment episodes are important issues. However, many data sources lack this information. Read More

    Validation of algorithms to determine incidence of Hirschsprung disease in Ontario, Canada: a population-based study using health administrative data.
    Clin Epidemiol 2017 14;9:579-590. Epub 2017 Nov 14.
    Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa.
    Objective: Incidence rates of Hirschsprung disease (HD) vary by geographical region, yet no recent population-based estimate exists for Canada. The objective of our study was to validate and use health administrative data from Ontario, Canada to describe trends in incidence of HD between 1991 and 2013.

    Study Design: To identify children with HD we tested algorithms consisting of a combination of diagnostic, procedural, and intervention codes against the reference standard of abstracted clinical charts from a tertiary pediatric hospital. Read More

    Effects of chronic exposure of hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine on the risk of cancer, metastasis, and death: a population-based cohort study on patients with connective tissue diseases.
    Clin Epidemiol 2017 3;9:545-554. Epub 2017 Nov 3.
    Department of Primary Care and Population Health, University College London, UK.
    Background: Hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine may reduce the risk of cancer as they inhibit autophagy, in particular, in people with connective tissue diseases.

    Methods: The hazard ratios of cancers, metastases, and death were assessed in adults with connective tissue diseases prescribed hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine for at least 1 year in comparison with unexposed individuals with the same underlying conditions. A competing risk survival regression analysis was performed. Read More

    Mortality in adults with and without diabetes: is the gap widening?
    Clin Epidemiol 2017 3;9:537-544. Epub 2017 Nov 3.
    Public Health College, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, China.
    Objective: We aimed to assess if the gap in mortality between adults with and without diabetes has widened over time in US adults.

    Methods And Study Design: This cohort study included 44,041 adults with diabetes from the US National Health Interview Survey between 1986 and 2009 linked to the National Mortality Index data up to 2011. Each participant with diabetes was matched to two participants without diabetes by age, sex, race, survey year, and region of residence (88,082 persons without diabetes). Read More

    Familial aggregation of myasthenia gravis in affected families: a population-based study.
    Clin Epidemiol 2017 2;9:527-535. Epub 2017 Nov 2.
    Department of Anesthesiology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital.
    Introduction: Myasthenia gravis (MG) is clinically heterogeneous and can be life-threatening if bulbar or respiratory muscles are involved. However, relative contributions of genetic, shared, and nonshared environmental factors to MG susceptibility remain unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the familial aggregation and heritability of MG and the relative risks (RRs) of other autoimmune diseases in the relatives of patients with MG. Read More

    Liver-related morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic hepatitis C and cirrhosis with and without sustained virologic response.
    Clin Epidemiol 2017 24;9:501-516. Epub 2017 Oct 24.
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre.
    Background: Chronic hepatitis C (CHC) causes liver cirrhosis in 5%-20% of patients, leading to increased morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to estimate liver-related morbidity and mortality among patients with CHC and cirrhosis in Denmark with and without antiviral treatment and sustained virologic response (SVR). Furthermore we aimed to estimate the rate of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and decompensation associated with certain prognostic factors. Read More

    Healthy lifestyle behavior and risk of long duration troublesome neck pain or low back pain among men and women: results from the Stockholm Public Health Cohort.
    Clin Epidemiol 2017 11;9:491-500. Epub 2017 Oct 11.
    Unit of Epidemiology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Background: The role of healthy lifestyle behavior (HLB) in terms of physical activity, alcohol intake, smoking, and diet put together has not yet been explored for the risk of low back pain (LBP) and neck pain (NP). Our aim was to study if an HLB is protective against the onset of long duration troublesome LBP and NP in men and women.

    Methods: Two cohorts from the Stockholm Public Health Cohort, free from LBP (n=12,483) and NP (n=10,539), respectively, in 2006, were surveyed with questionnaires. Read More

    Accuracy of the hypospadias diagnoses and surgical treatment registrations in the Danish National Patient Register.
    Clin Epidemiol 2017 3;9:483-489. Epub 2017 Oct 3.
    Department of Public Health, Section for Epidemiology, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Purpose: The Danish National Health registers provide a valuable data source that offers unique opportunities for observational research, including studies on the congenital anomaly hypospadias. The accuracy of the diagnosis and surgical treatment registration of hypospadias in the Danish National Patient Register (DNPR) remains unknown.

    Patients And Methods: We randomly sampled 500 patients diagnosed with hypospadias in the DNPR from January 1, 1995 to December 31, 2012. Read More

    Validation of autism spectrum disorder diagnoses recorded in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, 1990-2014.
    Clin Epidemiol 2017 15;9:475-482. Epub 2017 Sep 15.
    Boston Collaborative Drug Surveillance Program, Boston University School of Public Health, Lexington, MA, USA.
    Background: Prior studies have reported that the validity of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnoses recorded in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) was high; however, diagnostic criteria and screening practices have changed since the last study was published in 2004.

    Objectives: 1) To calculate the positive predictive value (PPV) of ASD diagnoses recorded in the CPRD compared to original medical records and 2) to describe characteristics of cases and use of clinical codes that support the ASD diagnosis as recorded in the electronic data by general practitioners over time.

    Methods: We identified children with a code for ASD (autism spectrum disorder, autism, Asperger's, or pervasive developmental disorder) in the CPRD from 1990 to 2014. Read More

    Psychiatric conditions and general practitioner attendance prior to HPV vaccination and the risk of referral to a specialized hospital setting because of suspected adverse events following HPV vaccination: a register-based, matched case-control study.
    Clin Epidemiol 2017 12;9:465-473. Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    Section for Epidemiology, Department of Public Health, Aarhus University, Aarhus C, Denmark.
    Aim: No association between human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination and numerous diseases has been found. Still, a large number of Danish women are reporting suspected adverse events. Other factors may play a role, and the aim of this study is to examine the association between psychiatric conditions, general practitioner (GP) attendance and indicators of psychological symptoms prior to HPV vaccination and the risk of referral to an HPV center following vaccination. Read More

    Prediction models for the mortality risk in chronic dialysis patients: a systematic review and independent external validation study.
    Clin Epidemiol 2017 5;9:451-464. Epub 2017 Sep 5.
    Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden.
    Objective: In medicine, many more prediction models have been developed than are implemented or used in clinical practice. These models cannot be recommended for clinical use before external validity is established. Though various models to predict mortality in dialysis patients have been published, very few have been validated and none are used in routine clinical practice. Read More

    Migraine and risk of stroke and acute coronary syndrome in two case-control studies in the Danish population.
    Clin Epidemiol 2017 31;9:439-449. Epub 2017 Aug 31.
    Research Center for Prevention and Health, Rigshospitalet - Glostrup, Copenhagen University, Glostrup, Denmark.
    Introduction: Migraine has consistently been associated with increased risk of ischemic stroke, while the evidence for a relation with other types of stroke or coronary outcomes is limited. We examined the association between migraine and stroke and acute coronary syndrome (ACS) subtypes and the influence of potential confounding factors.

    Methods: All first-time hospital contacts for stroke (n=155,216) or ACS (n=97,799) were identified in Danish National Patient Registers and matched with 2 control groups of the background population. Read More

    Somatic symptom profiles in the general population: a latent class analysis in a Danish population-based health survey.
    Clin Epidemiol 2017 23;9:421-433. Epub 2017 Aug 23.
    Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen.
    Purpose: The aim of this study was to identify and describe somatic symptom profiles in the general adult population in order to enable further epidemiological research within multiple somatic symptoms.

    Methods: Information on 19 self-reported common somatic symptoms was achieved from a population-based questionnaire survey of 36,163 randomly selected adults in the Capital Region of Denmark (55.4% women). Read More

    Positive predictive values of ICD-10 codes to identify incident acute pancreatitis and incident primary malignancy in the Scandinavian national patient registries among women with postmenopausal osteoporosis.
    Clin Epidemiol 2017 17;9:411-419. Epub 2017 Aug 17.
    Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Background: Validation of definitions used to identify conditions of interest is imperative to epidemiologic studies based on routinely collected data. The objective of the study was thus to estimate positive predictive values (PPVs) of International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10) codes to identify cases of incident acute pancreatitis leading to hospitalization and incident primary malignancy in the Scandinavian (Denmark, Norway, and Sweden) national patient registries in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMO).

    Methods: This validation study included postmenopausal (defined as 55 years or older) women with osteoporosis, identified between 2005-2014. Read More

    Misclassification of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: validation of diagnostic codes.
    Clin Epidemiol 2017 9;9:403-410. Epub 2017 Aug 9.
    Heart Center and Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Purpose: To validate diagnostic codes for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), analyze misclassfications, and estimate the prevalence of HCM in an unselected Swedish regional cohort.

    Patients And Methods: Using the hospitals' electronic medical records (used for the Swedish National Patient Register), we identified 136 patients from 2006 to 2016 with the HCM-related codes 142.1 and 142. Read More

    Irritable bowel symptoms and the development of common mental disorders and functional somatic syndromes identified in secondary care - a long-term, population-based study.
    Clin Epidemiol 2017 31;9:393-402. Epub 2017 Jul 31.
    Research Centre for Prevention and Health, Capital Region of Denmark, Glostrup.
    Objective: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is associated with mental vulnerability, and half of patients report comorbid somatic and mental symptoms. We aimed to investigate the relationship between an IBS symptom continuum and the subsequent development of common mental disorders (CMDs) and functional somatic syndromes (FSSs).

    Methods And Study Design: A longitudinal population-based study comprising two 5-year follow-up studies, Dan-MONICA 1 (1982-1987) and Inter99 (1999-2004), recruited from the western part of Copenhagen County. Read More

    Incidence, clinical presentation, and outcome of HIV-1-associated cryptococcal meningitis during the highly active antiretroviral therapy era: a nationwide cohort study.
    Clin Epidemiol 2017 21;9:385-392. Epub 2017 Jul 21.
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen.
    Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection with advanced immunosuppression predisposes to cryptococcal meningitis (CM). We describe the incidence, clinical presentation, and outcome of CM in HIV-infected individuals during the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era.

    Methods: A nationwide, population-based cohort of HIV-infected individuals was used to estimate incidence and mortality of CM including risk factors. Read More

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