544 results match your criteria Clinical Epidemiology [Journal]


Development and validation of novel algorithms to identify patients with inflammatory bowel diseases in Israel: an epi-IIRN group study.

Clin Epidemiol 2018 7;10:671-681. Epub 2018 Jun 7.

The Juliet Keidan Institute of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Shaare Zedek Medical Center, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel.

Background: Before embarking on administrative research, validated case ascertainment algorithms must be developed. We aimed at developing algorithms for identifying inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients, date of disease onset, and IBD type (Crohn's disease [CD] vs ulcerative colitis [UC]) in the databases of the four Israeli Health Maintenance Organizations (HMOs) covering 98% of the population.

Methods: Algorithms were developed on 5,131 IBD patients and 2,072 controls, following independent chart review (60% CD and 39% UC). Read More

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Self-reported perinatal depressive symptoms and postnatal symptom severity after treatment with antidepressants in pregnancy: a cross-sectional study across 12 European countries using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale.

Clin Epidemiol 2018 6;10:655-669. Epub 2018 Jun 6.

PharmacoEpidemiology and Drug Safety Research Group, School of Pharmacy and PharmaTox Strategic Research Initiative, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

Purpose: This study aimed at exploring the prevalence of self-reported antenatal and postnatal depressive symptoms by severity across multiple countries and the association between antidepressant treatment in pregnancy and postnatal symptom severity.

Materials And Methods: This was a multinational web-based study conducted across 12 European countries (n=8069). Uniform data collection was ensured via an electronic questionnaire. Read More

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The impact of different strategies to handle missing data on both precision and bias in a drug safety study: a multidatabase multinational population-based cohort study.

Clin Epidemiol 2018 5;10:643-654. Epub 2018 Jun 5.

Centre for Statistics in Medicine, Botnar Research Centre, Nuffield Department of Orthopaedics, Rheumatology and Musculoskeletal Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Background: Missing data are often an issue in electronic medical records (EMRs) research. However, there are many ways that people deal with missing data in drug safety studies.

Aim: To compare the risk estimates resulting from different strategies for the handling of missing data in the study of venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk associated with antiosteoporotic medications (AOM). Read More

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June 2018
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Familial aggregation of Parkinson's disease and coaggregation with neuropsychiatric diseases: a population-based cohort study.

Clin Epidemiol 2018 30;10:631-641. Epub 2018 May 30.

Department of Anesthesiology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan.

Background: Individuals with a family history of Parkinson's disease (PD) appear to have a higher risk of developing PD and other neuropsychiatric diseases. However, estimates of the relative risks (RRs) of PD and the roles of genetic and environmental factors in PD susceptibility are unclear. The aim of this study was to examine familial aggregation and genetic contributions to PD and the RRs of other neuropsychiatric diseases in relatives of PD patients. Read More

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May 2018
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Vitamin K antagonist use and renal function in pre-dialysis patients.

Clin Epidemiol 2018 29;10:623-630. Epub 2018 May 29.

Department of Nephrology and Hypertension, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands.

Purpose: A post hoc analysis of a recent trial on direct oral anticoagulants versus vitamin K antagonists showed that amongst patients with mildly decreased kidney function, use of vitamin K antagonists was associated with a greater decline in renal function than use of direct oral anticoagulants. Whether these vitamin K antagonist effects are the same in pre-dialysis patients is unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the association between vitamin K antagonist use and the rate of renal function decline and time until start of dialysis in incident pre-dialysis patients. Read More

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Decline of kidney function during the pre-dialysis period in chronic kidney disease patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Clin Epidemiol 2018 25;10:613-622. Epub 2018 May 25.

Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands.

Purpose: Substantial heterogeneity exists in reported kidney function decline in pre-dialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD). By design, kidney function decline can be studied in CKD 3-5 cohorts or dialysis-based studies. In the latter, patients are selected based on the fact that they initiated dialysis, possibly leading to an overestimation of the true underlying kidney function decline in the pre-dialysis period. Read More

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BMI at school age and incident asthma admissions in early adulthood: a prospective study of 310,211 children.

Clin Epidemiol 2018 25;10:605-612. Epub 2018 May 25.

Section of Metabolic Genetics and Section of Epidemiology, Faculty of Health and Medical Science, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Background: Excess body weight in adulthood is associated with risk for asthma admission (AA). Our aim was to investigate if this association also applies to the relation between body mass index (BMI) in childhood and AAs in early adulthood (age 20-45 years).

Methods: This was a prospective study of 310,211 schoolchildren (born 1930-1989) from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register. Read More

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Impact of parental cancer on IQ, stress resilience, and physical fitness in young men.

Clin Epidemiol 2018 24;10:593-604. Epub 2018 May 24.

Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: A parental cancer diagnosis is a stressful life event, potentially leading to increased risks of mental and physical problems among children. This study aimed to investigate the associations of parental cancer with IQ, stress resilience, and physical fitness of the affected men during early adulthood.

Materials And Methods: In this Swedish population-based study, we included 465,249 men born during 1973-1983 who underwent the military conscription examination around the age of 18 years. Read More

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Lifetime risks, loss of life expectancy, and health care expenditures for 19 types of cancer in Taiwan.

Clin Epidemiol 2018 25;10:581-591. Epub 2018 May 25.

Department of Public Health, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan.

Background: The mortality rates for different cancers are no longer an efficient tool for making national policy. The purpose of this study were to quantify the lifetime risks, life expectancies (LEs) after diagnosis, expected years of life lost (EYLL), and lifetime health care expenditures for 19 major cancers in Taiwan.

Methods: A total of 831,314 patients with 19 pathologically proven cancers were abstracted from the Taiwan Cancer Registry from 1998 to 2012. Read More

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May 2018
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Removal of ineligible outcome cases reduces confounding.

Clin Epidemiol 2018 21;10:575-579. Epub 2018 May 21.

Analysis Group, Inc., Boston, MA, USA.

Background: When an exclusionary criterion is an imperfect screen, some ineligible patients will remain in a study. Medical record review for outcome adjudication can reveal such individuals.

Objective: To ascertain the circumstances under which it is advisable to remove outcome cases first found to be ineligible on chart review. Read More

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Describing the association between socioeconomic inequalities and cancer survival: methodological guidelines and illustration with population-based data.

Clin Epidemiol 2018 17;10:561-573. Epub 2018 May 17.

Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon, France.

Background: Describing the relationship between socioeconomic inequalities and cancer survival is important but methodologically challenging. We propose guidelines for addressing these challenges and illustrate their implementation on French population-based data.

Methods: We analyzed 17 cancers. Read More

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May 2018
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Validity of a method for the self-screening of cardiovascular risk.

Clin Epidemiol 2018 10;10:549-560. Epub 2018 May 10.

Cardiovascular Epidemiology and Genetics Research Group, IMIM-Hospital del Mar Research Institute.

Background: The validity of a cardiovascular risk self-screening method was assessed. The results obtained for self-measurement of blood pressure, a point-of-care system's assessment of lipid profile and glycated hemoglobin, and a self-administered questionnaire (sex, age, diabetes, tobacco consumption) were compared with the standard screening (gold standard) conducted by a health professional.

Methods: Crossover clinical trial on a population-based sample from Girona (north-eastern Spain), aged 35-74, with no cardiovascular disease at recruitment. Read More

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May 2018
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High mortality due to cutaneous melanoma in Norway: a study of prognostic factors in a nationwide cancer registry.

Clin Epidemiol 2018 9;10:537-548. Epub 2018 May 9.

Oslo Centre for Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Department of Biostatistics, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine why Norway has the highest rate of mortality due to cutaneous melanoma (CM) in Europe. The Norwegian Malignant Melanoma Registry (NMMR) enables the study of clinical and histopathological characteristics of patients who die due to CM.

Results: The NMMR and the Norwegian Cause of Death Registry provided data on the clinical and histopathological factors as well as the date and cause of death, through June 2015 for all first invasive CMs diagnosed in 2008-2012 (n=8087). Read More

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Imbalance values for baseline covariates in randomized controlled trials: a last resort for the use of values? A pro and contra debate.

Clin Epidemiol 2018 8;10:531-535. Epub 2018 May 8.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Cologne Medical School, Cologne, Germany.

Background: Results of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are usually accompanied by a table that compares covariates between the study groups at baseline. Sometimes, the investigators report values for imbalanced covariates. The aim of this debate is to illustrate the pro and contra of the use of these values in RCTs. Read More

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Use of histamine H receptor antagonists and outcomes in patients with heart failure: a nationwide population-based cohort study.

Clin Epidemiol 2018 7;10:521-530. Epub 2018 May 7.

Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark.

Background: Histamine H receptor activation promotes cardiac fibrosis and apoptosis in mice. However, the potential effectiveness of histamine H receptor antagonists (H2RAs) in humans with heart failure is largely unknown. We examined the association between H2RA initiation and all-cause mortality among patients with heart failure. Read More

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Noncommunicable disease and multimorbidity in young adults with cerebral palsy.

Clin Epidemiol 2018 1;10:511-519. Epub 2018 May 1.

Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Michigan Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

Purpose: Individuals with cerebral palsy (CP) are at increased risk for frailty and chronic disease due to factors experienced throughout the lifespan, such as excessive sedentary behaviors and malnutrition. However, little is known about noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) and multimorbidity profiles in young adults with CP. The study objective was to compare NCD and multimorbidity profiles between young adults with and without CP. Read More

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May 2018
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How do patients with diabetes report their comorbidities? Comparison with administrative data.

Clin Epidemiol 2018 30;10:499-509. Epub 2018 Apr 30.

Institute of Health Services Research and Health Economics, German Diabetes Center, Düsseldorf, Germany.

Aims: Patients with diabetes are probably often unaware of their comorbidities. We estimated agreement between self-reported comorbidities and administrative data.

Methods: In a random sample of 464 diabetes patients, data from a questionnaire asking about the presence of 14 comorbidities closely related to diabetes were individually linked with statutory health insurance data. Read More

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Attributing diseases to multiple pathways: a causal-pie modeling approach.

Clin Epidemiol 2018 27;10:489-497. Epub 2018 Apr 27.

Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.

Characterizing the relations between exposures and diseases is the central tenet of epidemiology. Researchers may want to evaluate exposure-disease causation by assessing whether the disease under concern is induced by the various exposures - the so-called "attribution". In this paper, the authors propose a method to attribute diseases to multiple pathways based on the causal-pie model. Read More

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Lower-extremity amputations in people with and without diabetes in Germany, 2008-2012 - an analysis of more than 30 million inhabitants.

Clin Epidemiol 2018 20;10:475-488. Epub 2018 Apr 20.

Institute for Health Services Research and Health Economics, German Diabetes Center (DDZ) Leibniz Center for Diabetes Research at Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany.

Background And Purpose: Lower-extremity amputations (LEAs) in people with diabetes are associated with reduced quality of life and increased health care costs. Detailed knowledge on amputation rates (ARs) is of utmost importance for future health care and economics strategies. We conducted the present cohort study in order to estimate the incidences of LEA as well as relative and attributable risk due to diabetes and to investigate time trends for the period 2008-2012. Read More

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Derivation and validation of a multivariable model to predict when primary care physicians prescribe antidepressants for indications other than depression.

Clin Epidemiol 2018 18;10:457-474. Epub 2018 Apr 18.

Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics, and Occupational Health, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada.

Objective: Physicians commonly prescribe antidepressants for indications other than depression that are not evidence-based and need further evaluation. However, lack of routinely documented treatment indications for medications in administrative and medical databases creates a major barrier to evaluating antidepressant use for indications besides depression. Thus, the aim of this study was to derive a model to predict when primary care physicians prescribe antidepressants for indications other than depression and to identify important determinants of this prescribing practice. Read More

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Use of risk-adjusted CUSUM charts to monitor 30-day mortality in Danish hospitals.

Clin Epidemiol 2018 18;10:445-456. Epub 2018 Apr 18.

Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus N, Denmark.

Background: Monitoring hospital outcomes and clinical processes as a measure of clinical performance is an integral part of modern health care. The risk-adjusted cumulative sum (CUSUM) chart is a frequently used sequential analysis technique that can be implemented to monitor a wide range of different types of outcomes.

Objective: The aim of this study was to describe how risk-adjusted CUSUM charts based on population-based nationwide medical registers were used to monitor 30-day mortality in Danish hospitals and to give an example on how alarms of increased hospital mortality from the charts can guide further in-depth analyses. Read More

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The impact of moderate wine consumption on the risk of developing prostate cancer.

Clin Epidemiol 2018 17;10:431-444. Epub 2018 Apr 17.

Department of Urology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Objective: To investigate the impact of moderate wine consumption on the risk of prostate cancer (PCa). We focused on the differential effect of moderate consumption of red versus white wine.

Design: This study was a meta-analysis that includes data from case-control and cohort studies. Read More

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April 2018
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Severe mental illness and chronic kidney disease: a cross-sectional study in the United Kingdom.

Clin Epidemiol 2018 16;10:421-429. Epub 2018 Apr 16.

Department of Non-Communicable Disease Epidemiology, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.

Objective: We investigated the burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) among patients with severe mental illness (SMI).

Methods: We identified patients with SMI among all those aged 25-74 registered in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink as on March 31, 2014. We compared the prevalence of CKD (two measurements of estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1. Read More

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The 2015 and 2016 terrorist attacks in France: was there a short-term impact on hospitalizations for cardiovascular disease?

Clin Epidemiol 2018 13;10:413-419. Epub 2018 Apr 13.

Non-Communicable Diseases and Trauma Direction, The French Public Health Agency, Saint-Maurice, France.

Background: The terrorist attacks in Paris and Nice in 2015 and 2016 generated widespread emotional stress in France. Given that acute emotional stress is a well-known trigger for cardiovascular disease, we investigated whether these attacks had any short-term impact on hospitalizations for acute cardiovascular disease in France.

Methods: Annual hospital discharge data from 2009 to 2016 were extracted from the French Hospital Discharge Database. Read More

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April 2018
2 Reads

Thrombocytopenia and bleeding in myelosuppressed transfusion-dependent patients: a simulation study exploring underlying mechanisms.

Clin Epidemiol 2018 11;10:401-411. Epub 2018 Apr 11.

Center for Clinical Transfusion Research, Sanquin Research, Leiden, the Netherlands.

Background: Hematology-oncology patients often become severely thrombocytopenic and receive prophylactic platelet transfusions when their platelet count drops below 10×10 platelets/L. This so-called "platelet count trigger" of 10×10 platelets/L is recommended because currently available evidence suggests this is the critical concentration at which bleeding risk starts to increase. Yet, exposure time and lag time may have biased the results of studies on the association between platelet counts and bleeding risks. Read More

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Pediatric acquired demyelinating syndromes: a nationwide validation study of the Danish National Patient Register.

Clin Epidemiol 2018 10;10:391-399. Epub 2018 Apr 10.

National Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Objective: To validate the Danish National Patient Register's (NPR) diagnoses of pediatric acquired demyelinating syndromes (ADS) including multiple sclerosis (MS).

Study Design And Setting: We identified ADS diagnostic groups using International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes and reviewed medical records to validate the NPR diagnoses during 2008-2015.

Results: Among 409 children in the study, 184 children had a validated and final ADS diagnosis after reviewing medical records as follows: optic neuritis (ON; n=46), transverse myelitis (TM; n=16), acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM; n=50), clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) including dissemination in space (CIS [DIS]) but not dissemination in time (n=6), neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOsd; n=5), and MS (n=61). Read More

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Variation of diagnostic performance of fecal immunochemical testing for hemoglobin by sex and age: results from a large screening cohort.

Clin Epidemiol 2018 5;10:381-389. Epub 2018 Apr 5.

Division of Clinical Epidemiology and Aging Research, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany.

Objective: Fecal immunochemical tests (FITs) for hemoglobin in stool are increasingly used for colorectal cancer screening. Reported sensitivities and specificities have strongly varied between studies, but it is unclear to what extent such variation reflects differences between tests or between study population characteristics. We aimed to evaluate the key parameters of FIT performance for detecting advanced neoplasia (AN) according to sex and age. Read More

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April 2018
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Apathy and depressive symptoms in older people and incident myocardial infarction, stroke, and mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data.

Clin Epidemiol 2018 4;10:363-379. Epub 2018 Apr 4.

Department of Neurology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Background: Previous findings suggest that apathy symptoms independently of depressive symptoms measured using the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) are associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) in older individuals.

Aims: To study whether apathy and depressive symptoms in older people are associated with future CVD, stroke, and mortality using individual patient-data meta-analysis.

Methods: Medline, Embase, and PsycInfo databases up to September 3, 2013, were systematically searched without language restrictions. Read More

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April 2018
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Why was this transfusion given? Identifying clinical indications for blood transfusion in health care data.

Clin Epidemiol 2018 29;10:353-362. Epub 2018 Mar 29.

Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands.

Background: To enhance the utility of transfusion data for research, ideally every transfusion should be linked to a primary clinical indication. In electronic patient records, many diagnostic and procedural codes are registered, but unfortunately, it is usually not specified which one is the reason for transfusion. Therefore, a method is needed to determine the most likely indication for transfusion in an automated way. Read More

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March 2018
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Critical concepts in adaptive clinical trials.

Clin Epidemiol 2018 23;10:343-351. Epub 2018 Mar 23.

Department of Health Research Methods, Evidence, and Impact (HEI), McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada.

Adaptive clinical trials are an innovative trial design aimed at reducing resources, decreasing time to completion and number of patients exposed to inferior interventions, and improving the likelihood of detecting treatment effects. The last decade has seen an increasing use of adaptive designs, particularly in drug development. They frequently differ importantly from conventional clinical trials as they allow modifications to key trial design components during the trial, as data is being collected, using preplanned decision rules. Read More

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March 2018
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Comparing methods to combine functional loss and mortality in clinical trials for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Clin Epidemiol 2018 19;10:333-341. Epub 2018 Mar 19.

Department of Biostatistics, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands.

Objective: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) clinical trials based on single end points only partially capture the full treatment effect when both function and mortality are affected, and may falsely dismiss efficacious drugs as futile. We aimed to investigate the statistical properties of several strategies for the simultaneous analysis of function and mortality in ALS clinical trials.

Methods: Based on the Pooled Resource Open-Access ALS Clinical Trials (PRO-ACT) database, we simulated longitudinal patterns of functional decline, defined by the revised amyotrophic lateral sclerosis functional rating scale (ALSFRS-R) and conditional survival time. Read More

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March 2018
6 Reads

Mode of delivery is not associated with celiac disease.

Clin Epidemiol 2018 19;10:323-332. Epub 2018 Mar 19.

Hans Christian Andersen Children's Hospital, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between mode of delivery and the risk of celiac disease in two large population-based birth cohorts with different prevalence of diagnosed celiac disease.

Patients And Methods: This is an observational register-based cohort study using two independent population cohorts. We used data from administrative registers and health administrative registers from Denmark and Norway and linked the data at the individual level. Read More

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March 2018
9 Reads

Lifestyle in pregnancy and cryptorchidism in sons: a study within two large Danish birth cohorts.

Clin Epidemiol 2018 19;10:311-322. Epub 2018 Mar 19.

Department of Public Health, Section for Epidemiology, Aarhus University, Aarhus.

Purpose: Cryptorchidism is the most frequent congenital malformation in boys and is associated with low sperm count, infertility and testicular cancer. Unhealthy maternal lifestyle during pregnancy such as smoking, high prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) as well as alcohol and caffeine intake may constitute possible risk factors for cryptorchidism, but results from the few previous studies are conflicting. We aimed to explore the association between maternal lifestyle factors and occurrence of cryptorchidism in sons. Read More

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March 2018
2 Reads

The trends and projections in the incidence and mortality of liver cancer in urban Shanghai: a population-based study from 1973 to 2020.

Clin Epidemiol 2018 9;10:277-288. Epub 2018 Mar 9.

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Background: In 2012, liver cancer ranked as the fifth and eighth most common cancer in men and women, respectively, in urban Shanghai. This study aims to present the trend and projection of age-specific incidence and mortality of liver cancer in Shanghai.

Methods: We extracted data of liver cancer incident cases and deaths between 1973 and 2012. Read More

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March 2018
1 Read

Acetaminophen administration and the risk of acute kidney injury: a self-controlled case series study.

Clin Epidemiol 2018 6;10:265-276. Epub 2018 Mar 6.

Division of Medical Informatics and Administration Planning, Kyoto University Hospital, Kyoto.

Background: Acetaminophen (APAP) is frequently used for analgesia and is considered safer than nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for the kidneys. However, there is little epidemiological evidence of the association between APAP and acute kidney injury (AKI).

Objectives: To examine the association between APAP and AKI using the self-controlled case series (SCCS) method, which is a novel strategy to control between-person confounders by comparing the risk and reference periods in each patient. Read More

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March 2018
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From ideas to studies: how to get ideas and sharpen them into research questions.

Clin Epidemiol 2018 6;10:253-264. Epub 2018 Mar 6.

Department of Medical Statistics and Centre for Global NCDs, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.

Where do new research questions come from? This is at best only partially taught in courses or textbooks about clinical or epidemiological research. Methods are taught under the assumption that a researcher already knows the research question and knows which methods will fit that question. Similarly, the real complexity of the thought processes that lead to a scientific undertaking is almost never described in published papers. Read More

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March 2018
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Combining statistical techniques to predict postsurgical risk of 1-year mortality for patients with colon cancer.

Clin Epidemiol 2018 6;10:235-251. Epub 2018 Mar 6.

Health Services Research on Chronic Patients Network (REDISSEC), Galdakao, Bizkaia, Spain.

Introduction: Colorectal cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed malignancies and a common cause of cancer-related mortality. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a clinical predictive model for 1-year mortality among patients with colon cancer who survive for at least 30 days after surgery.

Methods: Patients diagnosed with colon cancer who had surgery for the first time and who survived 30 days after the surgery were selected prospectively. Read More

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March 2018
4 Reads

A cohort study on the risk of lymphoma and skin cancer in users of topical tacrolimus, pimecrolimus, and corticosteroids (Joint European Longitudinal Lymphoma and Skin Cancer Evaluation - JOELLE study).

Clin Epidemiol 2018 13;10:299-310. Epub 2018 Mar 13.

Department of Epidemiology, RTI Health Solutions, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: There is a concern that topical tacrolimus and pimecrolimus, indicated for second-line treatment of atopic dermatitis, may increase the risk of lymphoma and skin cancer, particularly in children.

Objective: The aim of this study was to compare incidence rates (IRs) of lymphoma and skin cancer between new users of topical tacrolimus or pimecrolimus and users of moderate- to high-potency topical corticosteroids (TCSs) and untreated subjects.

Methods: This is a multicenter cohort study with frequency matching by strata of propensity scores in population databases in the Netherlands, Denmark, Sweden, and the UK. Read More

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March 2018
3 Reads

The epidemiology of polypharmacy in older adults: register-based prospective cohort study.

Clin Epidemiol 2018 12;10:289-298. Epub 2018 Mar 12.

Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Objective: Polypharmacy is the concomitant use of several drugs by a single person, and it increases the risk of adverse drug-related events in older adults. Little is known about the epidemiology of polypharmacy at the population level. We aimed to measure the prevalence and incidence of polypharmacy and to investigate the associated factors. Read More

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March 2018
1 Read

Thyroid function and atrial fibrillation: Is there a mediating role for epicardial adipose tissue?

Clin Epidemiol 2018 1;10:225-234. Epub 2018 Mar 1.

Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: The underlying mechanism of the association between thyroid function and atrial fibrillation (AF) is poorly understood, but epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) could be a promising mediator.

Methods: In the 1995 participants (mean age 64.5 years) from the population-based Rotterdam Study, we measured thyroid function (thyroid-stimulating hormone, free thyroxine [FT4]) and performed computed tomography to quantify EAT volumes. Read More

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March 2018
2 Reads

Erratum: Effect modification, interaction and mediation: an overview of theoretical insights for clinical investigators [Corrigendum].

Authors:

Clin Epidemiol 2018 1;10:223. Epub 2018 Mar 1.

[This corrects the article on p. 331 in vol. 9, PMID: 28652815. Read More

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March 2018
1 Read

Feasibility of salivary DNA collection in a population-based case-control study: a pilot study of pediatric Crohn's disease.

Clin Epidemiol 2018 28;10:215-222. Epub 2018 Feb 28.

Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark.

Background: Epidemiologic studies combining exposure and outcome data with the collection of biosamples are needed to study gene-environment interactions that might contribute to the etiology of complex diseases such as pediatric Crohn's disease (CD). Nationwide registries, including those in Denmark and other Scandinavian countries, provide efficient and reliable sources of data for epidemiological studies evaluating the environmental determinants of disease. We performed a pilot study to test the feasibility of collecting salivary DNA to augment registry data in established cases of pediatric CD and randomly selected, population-based controls. Read More

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February 2018
1 Read

Population-based cohort study on comparative effectiveness and safety of biologics in inflammatory bowel disease.

Clin Epidemiol 2018 5;10:203-213. Epub 2018 Feb 5.

Department of Epidemiology, Lazio Regional Health Service, Rome, Italy.

Background: The comparison of effectiveness and safety of anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha agents for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is relevant for clinical practice and stakeholders.

Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the risk of abdominal surgery, steroid utilization, and hospitalization for infection in Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC) patients newly treated with infliximab (IFX) or adalimumab (ADA).

Methods: A retrospective population-based cohort study was performed using health information systems data from Lazio region, Italy. Read More

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February 2018
9 Reads

Acute kidney injury and infections in patients taking antihypertensive drugs: a self-controlled case series analysis.

Clin Epidemiol 2018 30;10:187-202. Epub 2018 Jan 30.

Department of Non-Communicable Disease Epidemiology.

Background: The relative risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) following different infections, and whether angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs)/angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) modify the risk, is unclear. We aimed to determine the risks of hospital admission with AKI following infections (urinary tract infection [UTI], lower respiratory tract infection [LRTI], and gastroenteritis) among users of antihypertensive drugs.

Methods: We used UK electronic health records from practices contributing to the Clinical Practice Research Datalink linked to the Hospital Episode Statistics database. Read More

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January 2018
1 Read

Replacing sedentary time with physical activity: a 15-year follow-up of mortality in a national cohort.

Clin Epidemiol 2018 25;10:179-186. Epub 2018 Jan 25.

Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society (NVS).

Background: Sedentary behavior is associated with health risks in adults. The potential benefits of reducing sedentary time may be dependent not only on decrease per se, but also on the type of activity it replaces. Few longitudinal studies have investigated the effects on mortality when replacing objectively assessed sedentary time with another physical activity (PA) behavior. Read More

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January 2018
1 Read

Cardiovascular health status among Australian adults.

Clin Epidemiol 2018 24;10:167-178. Epub 2018 Jan 24.

Centre for Chronic Disease, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.

Background: The American Heart Association (AHA) committee recently set a guideline to define and monitor the cardiovascular health status. This study aimed to estimate cardiovascular health status among Australian adults using the guideline.

Methods: We used data from a nationally representative sample of 7499 adults (age ≥18 years) from 2011 to 2012 Australian Health Survey. Read More

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January 2018
1 Read

High-potency statins but not all statins decrease the risk of new-onset osteoporotic fractures: a nationwide population-based longitudinal cohort study.

Clin Epidemiol 2018 18;10:159-165. Epub 2018 Jan 18.

Division of Internal Cardiology, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan, Republic of China.

Background: Statins have been linked to new-onset osteoporotic fractures (NOFs), and different statins may alter the risk for the development of NOFs.

Aim: In this study, we investigated the association between different statins and the development of NOFs.

Patients And Methods: This was a longitudinal cohort study performed using data from claim forms submitted to the Taiwan Bureau of National Health Insurance, including case patients with NOFs from January 2004 to December 2013 and non-NOF subjects. Read More

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January 2018
1 Read

Guidance for using pilot studies to inform the design of intervention trials with continuous outcomes.

Clin Epidemiol 2018 18;10:153-157. Epub 2018 Jan 18.

Medical Statistics Group, Design, Trials and Statistics, School of Health and Related Research (ScHARR), University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.

Background: A pilot study can be an important step in the assessment of an intervention by providing information to design the future definitive trial. Pilot studies can be used to estimate the recruitment and retention rates and population variance and to provide preliminary evidence of efficacy potential. However, estimation is poor because pilot studies are small, so sensitivity analyses for the main trial's sample size calculations should be undertaken. Read More

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January 2018
1 Read

Strongly enhanced colorectal cancer risk stratification by combining family history and genetic risk score.

Clin Epidemiol 2018 19;10:143-152. Epub 2018 Jan 19.

Division of Clinical Epidemiology and Aging Research, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg.

Background And Aim: Family history (FH) and genetic risk scores (GRSs) are increasingly used for risk stratification for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. However, they were mostly considered alternatively rather than jointly. The aim of this study was to assess the potential of individual and joint risk stratification for CRC by FH and GRS. Read More

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January 2018
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Cardiovascular medication changes over 5 years in a national data linkage study: implications for risk prediction models.

Clin Epidemiol 2018 15;10:133-141. Epub 2018 Jan 15.

Section of Epidemiology and Biostatistics.

Background: Despite widespread use of cardiovascular disease (CVD) preventive medications in cohorts used to develop CVD risk prediction models, only some incorporate baseline CVD pharmacotherapy and none account for treatment changes during study follow-up. Therefore, current risk prediction scores may underestimate the true CVD event risk. We examined changes in CVD pharmacotherapy over 5 years in preparation for developing new 5-year risk prediction models. Read More

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January 2018
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