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    23617 results match your criteria Clinical Chemistry[Journal]

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    Measurement of Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A2 by Use of 3 Different Methods: Exploration of Discordance between ELISA and Activity Assays.
    Clin Chem 2018 Jan 10. Epub 2018 Jan 10.
    Cleveland HeartLab, Cleveland, OH;
    Background: Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2), an enzyme associated with inflammation, is used as a biomarker for cardiovascular disease risk. Both the concentration and activity of Lp-PLA2 have been shown to be clinically relevant. However, there is a discordance between the serum concentration of Lp-PLA2 measured by the standard ELISA-based immunoassays and the activity of this enzyme, leading to substantial discordance in risk categorization depending on assay format. Read More

    In Situ Detection and Quantification of AR-V7, AR-FL, PSA, and KRAS Point Mutations in Circulating Tumor Cells.
    Clin Chem 2018 Jan 4. Epub 2018 Jan 4.
    Institute of Cell Biology, Histology and Embryology, Medical University Graz, Austria.
    Background: Liquid biopsies can be used in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) to detect androgen receptor splice variant 7 (AR-V7), a splicing product of the androgen receptor. Patients with AR-V7-positive circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have greater benefit of taxane chemotherapy compared with novel hormonal therapies, indicating a treatment-selection biomarker. Likewise, in those with pancreatic cancer (PaCa), KRAS mutations act as prognostic biomarkers. Read More

    Genetic Evidence That Carbohydrate-Stimulated Insulin Secretion Leads to Obesity.
    Clin Chem 2018 Jan;64(1):192-200
    Departments of Medicine and Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA;
    Background: A fundamental precept of the carbohydrate-insulin model of obesity is that insulin secretion drives weight gain. However, fasting hyperinsulinemia can also be driven by obesity-induced insulin resistance. We used genetic variation to isolate and estimate the potentially causal effect of insulin secretion on body weight. Read More

    Digital PCR: A Sensitive and Precise Method for KIT D816V Quantification in Mastocytosis.
    Clin Chem 2017 Dec 13. Epub 2017 Dec 13.
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria;
    Background: The analytically sensitive detection of KIT D816V in blood and bone marrow is important for diagnosing systemic mastocytosis (SM). Additionally, precise quantification of the KIT D816V variant allele fraction (VAF) is relevant clinically because it helps to predict multilineage involvement and prognosis in cases of advanced SM. Digital PCR (dPCR) is a promising new method for sensitive detection and accurate quantification of somatic mutations. Read More

    The Biological Variation Data Critical Appraisal Checklist:A Standard for Evaluating Studies on Biological Variation.
    Clin Chem 2017 Dec 8. Epub 2017 Dec 8.
    Norwegian Porphyria Centre, Laboratory of Clinical Biochemistry, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway.
    Background: Concern has been raised about the quality of available biological variation (BV) estimates and the effect of their application in clinical practice. A European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine Task and Finish Group has addressed this issue. The aim of this report is to (a) describe the Biological Variation Data Critical Appraisal Checklist (BIVAC), which verifies whether publications have included all essential elements that may impact the veracity of associated BV estimates, (b) use the BIVAC to critically appraise existing BV publications on enzymes, lipids, kidney, and diabetes-related measurands, and (c) apply metaanalysis to deliver a global within-subject BV (CVI) estimate for alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Read More

    Blood Sample Transportation by Pneumatic Transportation Systems: A Systematic Literature Review.
    Clin Chem 2017 Dec 8. Epub 2017 Dec 8.
    Facilities Management, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark.
    Background: Pneumatic transportation systems (PTSs) are increasingly used for transportation of blood samples to the core laboratory. Many studies have investigated the impact of these systems on different types of analyses, but to elucidate whether PTSs in general are safe for transportation of blood samples, existing literature on the subject was systematically assessed.

    Methods: A systematic literature review was conducted following the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and metaanalyses (PRISMA) Statement guidelines to gather studies investigating the impact of PTS on analyses in blood samples. Read More

    Plasma Steroid Metabolome for Diagnosis and Subtyping Patients with Cushing Syndrome.
    Clin Chem 2017 Dec 5. Epub 2017 Dec 5.
    Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik IV, Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Munich, Germany.
    Background: Diagnosis of Cushing syndrome requires a multistep process that includes verification of hypercortisolism followed by identification of the cause of adrenocortical hyperfunction. This study assessed whether pituitary, ectopic, and adrenal subtypes of Cushing syndrome were characterized by distinct plasma steroid profiles that might assist diagnosis.

    Methods: In this retrospective cross-sectional study, mass spectrometric measurements of a panel of 15 plasma steroids were applied to 222 patients tested for Cushing syndrome. Read More

    Rapid Diagnosis of Tick-Borne Illnesses by Use of One-Step Isothermal Nucleic Acid Amplification and Bio-Optical Sensor Detection.
    Clin Chem 2017 Dec 5. Epub 2017 Dec 5.
    Departments of Infectious Diseases, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea;
    Background: Scrub typhus and severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) are the most common tick-borne illnesses in South Korea. Early differentiation of SFTS from scrub typhus in emergency departments is essential but difficult because of their overlapping epidemiology, shared risk factors, and similar clinical manifestations.

    Methods: We compared the diagnostic performance of one-step isothermal nucleic acid amplification with bio-optical sensor detection (iNAD) under isothermal conditions, which is rapid (20-30 min), with that of real-time PCR, in patients with a confirmed tick-borne illness. Read More

    Unbiased Approach to Counteract Upward Drift in Cerebrospinal Fluid Amyloid-β 1-42 Analysis Results.
    Clin Chem 2017 Dec 5. Epub 2017 Dec 5.
    Neurochemistry Laboratory and Biobank, Department of Clinical Chemistry, VUmc, Amsterdam Neuroscience, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
    Background: Low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) amyloid-β 1-42 (Aβ 1-42) concentrations indicate amyloid plaque accumulation in the brain, a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer disease (AD). Innotest assay values of Aβ 1-42 have gradually increased over the past 2 decades, which might lead to misclassification of AD when a single cutpoint for abnormality is used. We propose an unbiased approach to statistically correct for drift. Read More

    HDL Particle Measurement: Comparison of 5 Methods.
    Clin Chem 2017 Dec 4. Epub 2017 Dec 4.
    Cardiovascular Nutrition Laboratory, Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, Boston, MA;
    Background: HDL cell cholesterol efflux capacity has been documented as superior to HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) in predicting cardiovascular disease risk. HDL functions relate to its composition. Compositional assays are easier to perform and standardize than functional tests and are more practical for routine testing. Read More

    Dairy Consumption and Body Mass Index Among Adults: Mendelian Randomization Analysis of 184802 Individuals from 25 Studies.
    • Authors:
    Clin Chem 2018 Jan 29;64(1):183-191. Epub 2017 Nov 29.
    Background: Associations between dairy intake and body mass index (BMI) have been inconsistently observed in epidemiological studies, and the causal relationship remains ill defined.

    Methods: We performed Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis using an established dairy intake-associated genetic polymorphism located upstream of the lactase gene (LCT-13910 C/T, rs4988235) as an instrumental variable (IV). Linear regression models were fitted to analyze associations between (a) dairy intake and BMI, (b) rs4988235 and dairy intake, and (c) rs4988235 and BMI in each study. Read More

    State of the Science in Dried Blood Spots.
    Clin Chem 2017 Nov 29. Epub 2017 Nov 29.
    Department of Environmental Health and Engineering, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD.
    Background: Advancements in the quality and availability of highly sensitive analytical instrumentation and methodologies have led to increased interest in the use of microsamples. Among microsamples, dried blood spots (DBS) are the most well-known. Although there have been a variety of review papers published on DBS, there has been no attempt at describing the full range of analytes measurable in DBS, or any systematic approach published for characterizing the strengths and weaknesses associated with adoption of DBS analyses. Read More

    Metabolic Effects of Bariatric Surgery.
    Clin Chem 2018 Jan 21;64(1):72-81. Epub 2017 Nov 21.
    Diabetes Complications Research Centre, Conway Institute, University College Dublin, Ireland.
    Background: Obesity can be defined as a chronic subcortical brain disease, as there is an important neurophysiological component to its etiology based on changes in the functioning of those areas of the brain controlling food intake and reward. Extensive metabolic changes accompany bariatric surgery-based treatment of obesity. Consequently, the term "metabolic" surgery is being increasingly adopted in relation to the beneficial effects these procedures have on chronic diseases like type 2 diabetes. Read More

    Weight History and Subclinical Myocardial Damage.
    Clin Chem 2018 Jan 20;64(1):201-209. Epub 2017 Nov 20.
    Department of Epidemiology and the Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology, and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD.
    Background: Excess weight is associated with subclinical myocardial damage, as reflected by high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) concentrations, which portends high heart failure risk. However, the association between weight history and myocardial damage is unknown.

    Methods: We evaluated 9062 Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) visit 4 (1996-1999) participants with a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 18. Read More

    Food Addiction, High-Glycemic-Index Carbohydrates, and Obesity.
    Clin Chem 2018 Jan 20;64(1):64-71. Epub 2017 Nov 20.
    Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Pathology, Center for Integrated Diagnostics & Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.
    Background: Treatment success in obesity remains low, and recently food addiction has been delineated as an underlying etiologic factor with therapeutic relevance. Specifically, current treatment focuses on reduced food intake and increase of physical activity, whereas interventions for addiction encompass behavioral therapy, abstinence, and environmental interventions such as taxation, restrictions on advertising, and regulation of school menus.

    Content: Here, we reviewed the pertinent literature on food addiction with a specific focus on the role of high-glycemic-index carbohydrates in triggering addictive symptoms. Read More

    Role of Physical Activity and Exercise in Treating Patients with Overweight and Obesity.
    Clin Chem 2018 Jan 20;64(1):99-107. Epub 2017 Nov 20.
    Physical Activity and Weight Management Research Center, Healthy Lifestyle Institute, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburg, PA.
    Background: Overweight and obesity are significant public health concerns that are linked to numerous negative health consequences. Physical activity is an important lifestyle behavior that contributes to body weight regulation.

    Content: Physical activity is inversely associated with weight gain and the incidence of obesity. Read More

    Improved Detection of HER2 by a Quasi-Targeted Proteomics Approach Using Aptamer-Peptide Probe and Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.
    Clin Chem 2017 Nov 15. Epub 2017 Nov 15.
    Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China;
    Background: Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer is a particularly aggressive type of the disease. To date, much evidence has indicated that accurate HER2 status detection is crucial for prognosis and treatment strategy selection. Thus, bioanalytical techniques for early and accurate detection of HER2 have the potential to improve patient care. Read More

    Addressing the Perfect Storm: Biomarkers in Obesity and Pathophysiology of Cardiometabolic Risk.
    Clin Chem 2018 Jan 14;64(1):142-153. Epub 2017 Nov 14.
    Molecular Epidemiology Research Group, Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine in the Helmholtz Association, Berlin, Germany;
    Background: The worldwide rise of obesity has provoked intensified research to better understand its pathophysiology as a means for disease prevention. Several biomarkers that may reflect various pathophysiological pathways that link obesity and cardiometabolic diseases have been identified over the past decades.

    Content: We summarize research evidence regarding the role of established and novel obesity-related biomarkers, focusing on recent epidemiological evidence for detrimental associations with cardiometabolic diseases including obesity-related cancer. Read More

    Low- and High-renin Heart Failure Phenotypes with Clinical Implications.
    Clin Chem 2017 Nov 14. Epub 2017 Nov 14.
    Department of Internal Medicine II, Clinical Division of Cardiology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria;
    Background: Blockade of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) represents a main strategy in the therapy of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), but the role of active renin concentration (ARC) for guiding therapy in the presence of an RAS blockade remains to be established. This study assessed angiotensin profiles of HFrEF patients with distinct RAS activations as reflected by ARC.

    Methods: Two cohorts of stable chronic HFrEF patients on optimal medical treatment (OMT) were enrolled. Read More

    Multiplex Gene Expression Profiling of In Vivo Isolated Circulating Tumor Cells in High-Risk Prostate Cancer Patients.
    Clin Chem 2017 Nov 9. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Analysis of Circulating Tumor Cells Lab, Department of Chemistry, University of Athens, Athens, Greece
    Background: Molecular characterization of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) is important for selecting patients for targeted treatments. We present, for the first time, results on gene expression profiling of CTCs isolated in vivo from high-risk prostate cancer (PCa) patients compared with CTC detected by 3 protein-based assays-CellSearch®, PSA-EPISPOT, and immunofluorescence of CellCollector® in vivo-captured CTCs-using the same blood draw.

    Methods: EpCAM-positive CTCs were isolated in vivo using the CellCollector from 108 high-risk PCa patients and 36 healthy volunteers. Read More

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