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    23494 results match your criteria Clinical Chemistry[Journal]

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    High-Sensitivity Cardiac Troponin I as a Gatekeeper for Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography and Stress Testing in Patients with Acute Chest Pain.
    Clin Chem 2017 Sep 18. Epub 2017 Sep 18.
    Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.
    Background: Most patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with suspected acute coronary syndrome (ACS) undergo noninvasive cardiac testing with a low diagnostic yield. We determined whether a combination of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) and cardiovascular risk factors might improve selection of patients for cardiac testing.

    Methods: We included patients from the Rule Out Myocardial Infarction/Ischemia Using Computer Assisted Tomography (ROMICAT) I and II trials who presented to the ED with acute chest pain and were referred for cardiac testing. Read More

    Evaluation of Lipoprotein(a) Electrophoretic and Immunoassay Methods in Discriminating Risk of Calcific Aortic Valve Disease and Incident Coronary Heart Disease: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.
    Clin Chem 2017 Sep 13. Epub 2017 Sep 13.
    Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN;
    Background: A number of lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] analytical techniques are available that quantify distinct particle components, yet their clinical efficacy has not been comprehensively evaluated. This study determined whether Lp(a) mass [Lp(a)-M], Lp(a) cholesterol content [Lp(a)-C], and particle concentration [Lp(a)-P] differentially discriminated risk of calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) or incident coronary heart disease (CHD) among 4679 participants of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

    Methods: Lp(a)-M, Lp(a)-C, and Lp(a)-P were measured in individuals without clinical evidence of CHD at baseline. Read More

    Simultaneously Monitoring Immune Response and Microbial Infections During Pregnancy through Plasma cfRNA Sequencing.
    Clin Chem 2017 Sep 13. Epub 2017 Sep 13.
    Departments of Bioengineering and Applied Physics, Stanford University, and Chan Zuckerberg Biohub, Stanford, CA;
    Background: Plasma cell-free RNA (cfRNA) encompasses a broad spectrum of RNA species that can be derived from both human cells and microbes. Because cfRNA is fragmented and of low concentration, it has been challenging to profile its transcriptome using standard RNA-seq methods.

    Methods: We assessed several recently developed RNA-seq methods on cfRNA samples. Read More

    A 13-Steroid Serum Panel Based on LC-MS/MS: Use in Detection of Adrenocortical Carcinoma.
    Clin Chem 2017 Sep 13. Epub 2017 Sep 13.
    Department of Clinical Biochemistry (Viapath), King's College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.
    Background: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignancy, with an annual incidence of 1 or 2 cases per million. Biochemical diagnosis is challenging because up to two-thirds of the carcinomas are biochemically silent, resulting from de facto enzyme deficiencies in steroid hormone biosynthesis. Urine steroid profiling by GC-MS is an effective diagnostic test for ACC because of its capacity to detect and quantify the increased metabolites of steroid pathway synthetic intermediates. Read More

    Cardiovascular Biomarkers in Hypertensive Patients with Medical Treatment-Results from the Randomized TEAMSTA Protect I Trial.
    Clin Chem 2017 Sep 13. Epub 2017 Sep 13.
    Department of General and Interventional Cardiology, University Heart Center Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.
    Background: High blood pressure (BP) is associated with an increased rate of cardiovascular events and mortality. Cardiovascular biomarkers are able to predict long-term risk in the general population, particularly in diseased cohorts. We undertook an investigation of the effect of 2 different antihypertensive treatments on cardiovascular biomarkers in a randomized trial. Read More

    High Lipoprotein(a) and Low Risk of Major Bleeding in Brain and Airways in the General Population: a Mendelian Randomization Study.
    Clin Chem 2017 Sep 6. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    Department of Clinical Biochemistry and
    Background: The physiological role of lipoprotein(a) is unclear; however, lipoprotein(a) may play a role in hemostasis and wound healing. We tested the hypothesis that high lipoprotein(a) concentrations are associated with low risk of major bleeding in the brain and airways both observationally and causally (from human genetics).

    Methods: We examined 109169 individuals from the Copenhagen City Heart Study and the Copenhagen General Population study, 2 similar prospective studies conducted in the Danish general population. Read More

    Very Deep Convolutional Neural Networks for Morphologic Classification of Erythrocytes.
    Clin Chem 2017 Sep 6. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT.
    Background: Morphologic profiling of the erythrocyte population is a widely used and clinically valuable diagnostic modality, but one that relies on a slow manual process associated with significant labor cost and limited reproducibility. Automated profiling of erythrocytes from digital images by capable machine learning approaches would augment the throughput and value of morphologic analysis. To this end, we sought to evaluate the performance of leading implementation strategies for convolutional neural networks (CNNs) when applied to classification of erythrocytes based on morphology. Read More

    Human Hepatocyte Metabolism of Novel Synthetic Cannabinoids MN-18 and Its 5-Fluoro Analog 5F-MN-18.
    Clin Chem 2017 Aug 18. Epub 2017 Aug 18.
    Chemistry and Drug Metabolism, IRP, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD;
    Background: In 2014, 2 novel synthetic cannabinoids, MN-18 and its 5-fluoro analog, 5F-MN-18, were first identified in an ongoing survey of novel psychoactive substances in Japan. In vitro pharmacological assays revealed that MN-18 and 5F-MN-18 displayed high binding affinities to human CB1 and CB2 receptors, with Ki being 1.65-3. Read More

    High-speed Melting Analysis: The Effect of Melting Rate on Small Amplicon Microfluidic Genotyping.
    Clin Chem 2017 Aug 17. Epub 2017 Aug 17.
    Canon U.S. Life Sciences, Inc., Rockville, MD.
    Background: High-resolution DNA melting analysis of small amplicons is a simple and inexpensive technique for genotyping. Microfluidics allows precise and rapid control of temperature during melting.

    Methods: Using a microfluidic platform for serial PCR and melting analysis, 4 targets containing single nucleotide variants were amplified and then melted at different rates over a 250-fold range from 0. Read More


    High-Resolution, Accurate-Mass (HRAM) Mass Spectrometry Urine Steroid Profiling in the Diagnosis of Adrenal Disorders.
    Clin Chem 2017 Aug 16. Epub 2017 Aug 16.
    Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.
    Background: Steroid profiling is a promising diagnostic tool for those with adrenal tumors, Cushing syndrome (CS), and disorders of steroidogenesis. Our objective was to develop a multiple-steroid assay using liquid-chromatography, high-resolution, accurate-mass mass spectrometry (HRAM LC-MS) and to validate the assay in patients with various adrenal disorders.

    Methods: We collected 24-h urine samples from 114 controls and 71 patients with adrenal diseases. Read More

    Surface Plasmon Resonance is an Analytically Sensitive Method for Antigen Profiling of Extracellular Vesicles.
    Clin Chem 2017 Aug 7. Epub 2017 Aug 7.
    Department of Biomedical Engineering and Physics.
    Background: Identification, enumeration, and characterization of extracellular vesicles (EVs) are hampered by the small size of EVs, a low refractive index, and low numbers of antigens on their surface.

    Methods: We investigated the potential of a 48-multiplex surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) system to perform EV phenotyping. Antigen surface density of 11 antigens was measured on the human breast cancer cell lines HS578T, MCF7, and SKBR3 and their EVs by use of both SPRi and the widely used flow cytometry (FCM). Read More

    DNA of Erythroid Origin is Present in Human Plasma and Informs the Types of Anemia.
    Clin Chem 2017 Aug 7. Epub 2017 Aug 7.
    Li Ka Shing Institute of Health Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong SAR, China;
    Background: There is much interest in the tissue of origin of circulating DNA in plasma. Data generated using DNA methylation markers have suggested that hematopoietic cells of white cell lineages are important contributors to the circulating DNA pool. However, it is not known whether cells of the erythroid lineage would also release DNA into the plasma. Read More

    Gene Expression Signatures in Circulating Tumor Cells Correlate with Response to Therapy in Metastatic Breast Cancer.
    Clin Chem 2017 Aug 3. Epub 2017 Aug 3.
    Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital Essen, Essen, Germany
    Background: Circulating tumor cells (CTC) are thought to be an ideal surrogate marker to monitor disease progression in metastatic breast cancer (MBC). We investigated the prediction of treatment response in CTC of MBC patients on the basis of the expression of 46 genes.

    Methods: From 45 MBC patients and 20 healthy donors (HD), 2 × 5 mL of blood was collected at the time of disease progression (TP0) and at 2 consecutive clinical staging time points (TP1 and TP2) to proceed with the AdnaTest EMT-2/StemCellSelect™ (QIAGEN). Read More

    Commentary.
    Clin Chem 2017 Aug;63(8):1330
    Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, Carl J. Shapiro Institute for Education and Research, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA.

    Reducing Artifactual EGFR T790M Mutations in DNA from Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Tissue by Use of Thymine-DNA Glycosylase.
    Clin Chem 2017 Sep 18;63(9):1506-1514. Epub 2017 Jul 18.
    Translational Genomics and Epigenomics Laboratory, Olivia Newton-John Cancer Research Institute, Melbourne, Australia;
    Background: False-positive EGFR T790M mutations have been reported in formalin-fixed lung tumors, but the cause of the false positives has not been identified. The T790M mutation results from a C>T change at the cytosine of a CpG dinucleotide. The presence or absence of methylation at this cytosine has different consequences following deamination, resulting in a thymine or uracil, respectively, both of which however result in an artifactual change. Read More

    The EuBIVAS Project: Within- and Between-Subject Biological Variation Data for Serum Creatinine Using Enzymatic and Alkaline Picrate Methods and Implications for Monitoring.
    Clin Chem 2017 Sep 18;63(9):1527-1536. Epub 2017 Jul 18.
    Central Laboratory, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda, Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy.
    Background: The European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM) European Biological Variation Study (EuBIVAS) has been established to deliver rigorously determined biological variation (BV) indices. EuBIVAS determined BV for serum creatinine using the enzymatic and alkaline picrate measurement methods.

    Method: In total, 91 healthy individuals (38 males, 53 females; age range, 21-69 years) were bled for 10 consecutive weeks at 6 European laboratories. Read More

    Potential for Monitoring Gut Microbiota for Diagnosing Infections and Graft-versus-Host Disease in Cancer and Stem Cell Transplant Patients.
    Clin Chem 2017 Jul 18. Epub 2017 Jul 18.
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX;
    Background: Gut microbiota, the collective community of microorganisms inhabiting the intestine, have been shown to provide many beneficial functions for the host. Recent advances in next-generation sequencing and advanced molecular biology approaches have allowed researchers to identify gut microbiota signatures associated with disease processes and, in some cases, establish causality and elucidate underlying mechanisms.

    Content: This report reviews 3 commonly used methods for studying the gut microbiota and microbiome (the collective genomes of the gut microorganisms): 16S rRNA gene sequencing, bacterial group or species-specific quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and metagenomic shotgun sequencing (MSS). Read More

    Standardization of Free Thyroxine Measurements Allows the Adoption of a More Uniform Reference Interval.
    Clin Chem 2017 Jul 18. Epub 2017 Jul 18.
    Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium;
    Background: The IFCC Committee for Standardization of Thyroid Function Tests intended to standardize free thyroxine (FT4) immunoassays. We developed a Système International d'Unités traceable conventional reference measurement procedure (RMP) based on equilibrium dialysis and mass spectrometry. We describe here the latest studies intended to recalibrate against the RMP and supply a proof of concept, which should allow continued standardization efforts. Read More

    Synthetic Circulating Cell-free DNA as Quality Control Materials for Somatic Mutation Detection in Liquid Biopsy for Cancer.
    Clin Chem 2017 Sep 18;63(9):1465-1475. Epub 2017 Jul 18.
    National Center for Clinical Laboratories, Beijing Hospital, National Center of Gerontology, Beijing, People's Republic of China;
    Background: Detection of somatic genomic alterations in tumor-derived cell-free DNA (cfDNA) in the plasma is challenging owing to the low concentrations of cfDNA, variable detection methods, and complex workflows. Moreover, no proper quality control materials are available currently.

    Methods: We developed a set of synthetic cfDNA quality control materials (SCQCMs) containing spike-in cfDNA on the basis of micrococcal nuclease digestion carrying somatic mutations as simulated cfDNA and matched genomic DNA as genetic background to emulate paired tumor-normal samples in real clinical tests. Read More

    Diagnostic Performance of High Sensitivity Compared with Contemporary Cardiac Troponin I for the Diagnosis of Acute Myocardial Infarction.
    Clin Chem 2017 Jul 12. Epub 2017 Jul 12.
    Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Hennepin County Medical, Minneapolis, MN;
    Background: We examined the diagnostic performance of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) vs contemporary cTnI with use of the 99th percentile alone and with a normal electrocardiogram (ECG) to rule out acute myocardial infarction (MI) and serial changes (deltas) to rule in MI.

    Methods: We included consecutive patients presenting to a US emergency department with serial cTnI on clinical indication (NCT02060760). Diagnostic performance for acute MI, including MI subtypes, and 30-day outcomes were examined. Read More

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