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    1456 results match your criteria Clinical Autonomic Research[Journal]

    1 OF 30

    Assessment of sudomotor function.
    Clin Auton Res 2018 May 8. Epub 2018 May 8.
    Department of Neurology, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universität Dresden, Fetscherstr. 74, 01307, Dresden, Germany.
    Purpose: To review the currently available literature on clinical autonomic tests of sudomotor function.

    Methods: We searched PubMED/MEDLINE for articles on technical principles and clinical applications of sudomotor tests with a focus on their drawbacks and perspectives in order to provide a narrative review.

    Results: The quantitative sudomotor axon reflex sweat test (QSART) is the most widely used test of sudomotor function. Read More

    Roles of catechol neurochemistry in autonomic function testing.
    Clin Auton Res 2018 Apr 28. Epub 2018 Apr 28.
    Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL, 32224, USA.
    Catechols are a class of compounds that contain adjacent hydroxyl groups on a benzene ring. Endogenous catechols in human plasma include the catecholamines norepinephrine, epinephrine (adrenaline), and dopamine; the catecholamine precursor DOPA, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycol (DHPG), which is the main neuronal metabolite of norepinephrine; and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), which is the main neuronal metabolite of dopamine. In the diagnostic evaluation of patients with known or suspected dysautonomias, measurement of plasma catechols is rarely diagnostic but often is informative. Read More

    Modeling human orthostatic responses on the Moon and on Mars.
    Clin Auton Res 2018 Apr 26. Epub 2018 Apr 26.
    Department of Space Physiology, Institute of Aerospace Medicine, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Linder Höhe, 51147, Cologne, Germany.
    Purpose: Since manned missions to the Moon and Mars are planned, we conducted active standing tests with lunar, Martian, terrestrial, and 1.8 loads of inertial resistance (+G) modeled through defined parabolic flight maneuvers. We hypothesized that the cardiovascular response to active standing is proportional to the +G load. Read More

    The neurobiology of human crying.
    Clin Auton Res 2018 Apr 23. Epub 2018 Apr 23.
    Tilburg University, Tilburg, The Netherlands.
    The production of emotional tears appears to be uniquely present in Homo sapiens. Despite the ubiquity of this human behavior, research is only just beginning to uncover the neurobiologic underpinnings of human emotional crying. In this article, we review the current state of the literature investigating the neurobiologic aspects of this uniquely human behavior, including the neuroanatomical, neurochemical, and psychophysiologic findings. Read More

    Heart rate variability and baroreflex sensitivity abnormalities in Guillain-Barré syndrome: a pilot study.
    Clin Auton Res 2018 Apr 13. Epub 2018 Apr 13.
    Division of Geriatric Medicine, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
    Objective: The current study aimed to investigate autonomic dysfunction in Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) patients and describe the results of computational heart rate variability (HRV)/baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) and autonomic challenge tests.

    Methods: GBS patients were consecutively recruited and the results were compared to age- and gender-matched healthy controls. A series of autonomic function tests including computation-dependent tests (power spectrum analysis of HRV and BRS at rest) and challenge maneuvers (deep breathing, eyeball compression, active standing, the Valsalva maneuver, sustained handgrip, and the cold pressor test) were performed. Read More

    Autonomic nervous system and cancer.
    Clin Auton Res 2018 Mar 28. Epub 2018 Mar 28.
    Neuro-Oncology Unit, Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge-Catalan Institute of Oncology (ICO) l'Hospitalet, Bellvitge Institute for Biomedical Research (IDIBELL), Feixa Llarga s/n, 08907, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain.
    The autonomic nervous system (ANS) is the main homeostatic regulatory system of the body. However, this widely distributed neural network can be easily affected by cancer and by the adverse events induced by cancer treatments. In this review, we have classified the ANS complications of cancer into two categories. Read More

    Ventilatory and cerebrovascular regulation and integration at high-altitude.
    Clin Auton Res 2018 Mar 24. Epub 2018 Mar 24.
    Centre for Heart, Lung and Vascular Health, School of Health and Exercise Sciences, University of British Columbia-Okanagan Campus, 3333 University Way, Kelowna, BC, V1V 1V7, Canada.
    Ascent to high-altitude elicits compensatory physiological adaptations in order to improve oxygenation throughout the body. The brain is particularly vulnerable to the hypoxemia of terrestrial altitude exposure. Herein we review the ventilatory and cerebrovascular changes at altitude and how they are both implicated in the maintenance of oxygen delivery to the brain. Read More

    Gastrointestinal symptoms in postural tachycardia syndrome: a systematic review.
    Clin Auton Res 2018 Mar 16. Epub 2018 Mar 16.
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 506 RRB, 2222 Pierce Ave, Nashville, TN, 37232, USA.
    Gastrointestinal symptoms are among the most common complaints in patients with postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS). In some cases, they dominate the clinical presentation and cause substantial disabilities, including significant weight loss and malnutrition, that require the use of invasive treatment to support caloric intake. Multiple cross-sectional studies have reported a high prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms in POTS patients with connective tissue diseases, such as Ehlers-Danlos, hypermobile type, and in patients with evidence of autonomic neuropathy. Read More

    Neural pathways involved in infection-induced inflammation: recent insights and clinical implications.
    Clin Auton Res 2018 Mar 14. Epub 2018 Mar 14.
    INCIA, Institut de Neurosciences Cognitive et Intégrative d'Aquitaine, UMR 5287, Bordeaux, France.
    Although the immune and nervous systems have long been considered independent biological systems, they turn out to mingle and interact extensively. The present review summarizes recent insights into the neural pathways activated by and involved in infection-induced inflammation and discusses potential clinical applications. The simplest activation concerns a reflex action within C-fibers leading to neurogenic inflammation. Read More

    Autonomic involvement in hereditary transthyretin amyloidosis (hATTR amyloidosis).
    Clin Auton Res 2018 Mar 6. Epub 2018 Mar 6.
    Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, Mexico City, México.
    Purpose: Hereditary transthyretin amyloidosis (hATTR amyloidosis) is a progressive disease primarily characterized by adult-onset sensory, motor, and autonomic neuropathy. In this article, we discuss the pathophysiology and principal findings of autonomic neuropathy in hATTR amyloidosis, the most common methods of assessment and progression, and its relation as a predictive risk factor or a measure of progression in the natural history of the disease.

    Methods: A literature search was performed using the terms "autonomic neuropathy," "dysautonomia," and "autonomic symptoms" in patients with hereditary transthyretin amyloidosis and familial amyloid polyneuropathy. Read More

    Autonomic symptoms following Zika virus infection.
    Clin Auton Res 2018 Apr 1;28(2):211-214. Epub 2018 Mar 1.
    Center for Autoimmune Diseases Research (CREA), School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universidad del Rosario, Carrera 26-63-B-51, 110010, Bogotá, Colombia.
    Purpose: To determine if autonomic symptoms are associated with previous Zika virus infection.

    Methods: Case-control study including 35 patients with Zika virus infection without evidence of neurological disease and 105 controls. Symptoms of autonomic dysfunction were assessed with the composite autonomic symptom scale 31 (COMPASS-31). Read More

    Initial validation of symptom scores derived from the orthostatic discriminant and severity scale.
    Clin Auton Res 2018 Feb 28. Epub 2018 Feb 28.
    Department of Clinical Neurological Sciences, London Health Sciences Centre, Rm. C7-131, University Hospital, 339 Windermere Road, London, ON, N6A 5A5, Canada.
    Objective: To develop a scale to quantify and discriminate orthostatic from non-orthostatic symptoms. In the current study, we present validation and reliability of orthostatic and non-orthostatic symptom scores taken from the orthostatic discriminate and severity scale (ODSS).

    Methods: Validity and reliability were assessed in participants with and without orthostatic intolerance. Read More

    The sacral autonomic outflow is parasympathetic: Langley got it right.
    Clin Auton Res 2018 Apr 16;28(2):181-185. Epub 2018 Feb 16.
    Department of Neurobiology and Center for Neuroscience, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, 15238, USA.
    A recent developmental study of gene expression by Espinosa-Medina, Brunet and colleagues sparked controversy by asserting a revised nomenclature for divisions of the autonomic motor system. Should we re-classify the sacral autonomic outflow as sympathetic, as now suggested, or does it rightly belong to the parasympathetic system, as defined by Langley nearly 100 years ago? Arguments for rejecting Espinosa-Medina, Brunet et al.'s scheme subsequently appeared in e-letters and brief reviews. Read More

    Cyclic vomiting syndrome: epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment.
    Clin Auton Res 2018 Apr 13;28(2):203-209. Epub 2018 Feb 13.
    Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, USA.
    Cyclic-vomiting syndrome (CVS) is a chronic functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of nausea and vomiting. Although once thought to be a pediatric disorder, there has been a considerable increase in recognition of CVS in adults. The exact pathogenesis is unknown and several theories have been proposed. Read More

    Ambulatory blood pressure profiles in familial dysautonomia.
    Clin Auton Res 2018 Feb 12. Epub 2018 Feb 12.
    Hypertension Unit, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel-HaShomer, Israel.
    Objective: Familial dysautonomia (FD) is a rare genetic disease that involves extreme blood pressure fluctuations secondary to afferent baroreflex failure. The diurnal blood pressure profile, including the average, variability, and day-night difference, may have implications for long-term end organ damage. The purpose of this study was to describe the circadian pattern of blood pressure in the FD population and relationships with renal and pulmonary function, use of medications, and overall disability. Read More

    Autonomic function testing in spinocerebellar ataxia type 2.
    Clin Auton Res 2018 Feb 12. Epub 2018 Feb 12.
    Department of Neurology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Anichstrasse 35, 6020, Innsbruck, Austria.
    Purpose: To assess whether autonomic failure belongs to the clinical spectrum of spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2), an autosomal dominant genetic disorder showing progressive cerebellar and brainstem dysfunction.

    Methods: We evaluated cardiovascular autonomic function in 8 patients with SCA2 and 16 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Other autonomic domains were examined through standardized questionnaires and by testing the skin sympathetic reflex. Read More

    Diagnostic accuracy of ICD-9 code 780.2 for the identification of patients with syncope in the emergency department.
    Clin Auton Res 2018 Feb 12. Epub 2018 Feb 12.
    Dipartimento di Medicina Interna, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda, Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Via Francesco Sforza 35, 20122, Milan, Italy.
    Purpose: Syncope is a common condition that affects individuals of all ages and is responsible for 1-3% of all emergency department (ED) visits. Prospective studies on syncope are often limited by the exiguous number of subjects enrolled. A possible alternative approach would be to use of hospital discharge diagnoses from administrative databases to identify syncope subjects in epidemiological observational studies. Read More

    Modulation of renal sympathetic innervation: recent insights beyond blood pressure control.
    Clin Auton Res 2018 Feb 10. Epub 2018 Feb 10.
    Kardiologie, Angiologie und Internistische Intensivmedizin, Universität des Saarlandes, Saarbrücken, Germany.
    Renal afferent and efferent sympathetic nerves are involved in the regulation of blood pressure and have a pathophysiological role in hypertension. Additionally, several conditions that frequently coexist with hypertension, such as heart failure, obstructive sleep apnea, atrial fibrillation, renal dysfunction, and metabolic syndrome, demonstrate enhanced sympathetic activity. Renal denervation (RDN) is an approach to reduce renal and whole body sympathetic activation. Read More

    Spectrum of abnormalities of sympathetic tyrosine hydroxylase and alpha-synuclein in chronic autonomic failure.
    Clin Auton Res 2018 Apr 2;28(2):223-230. Epub 2018 Feb 2.
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, 10 Center Drive MSC-1620, Building 10 Room 8N260, Bethesda, MD, 20892-1620, USA.
    Objective: Lewy body forms of primary chronic autonomic failure (CAF) such as incidental Lewy body disease (ILBD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and pure autonomic failure evolving into dementia with Lewy bodies (PAF+DLB) feature cardiac sympathetic denervation, whereas multiple system atrophy (MSA) in most cases does not. What links Lewy bodies with cardiac sympathetic denervation in CAF? In familial PD, abnormalities of the alpha-synuclein (AS) gene cause CAF and cardiac sympathetic denervation; and in sporadic PD, brainstem Lewy bodies contain AS co-localized with tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), a marker of catecholaminergic neurons. Cytotoxicity from AS deposition within sympathetic neurons might explain noradrenergic denervation in Lewy body forms of CAF. Read More

    Lateral medullary infarction with cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction: an unusual presentation with review of the literature.
    Clin Auton Res 2018 Jan 24. Epub 2018 Jan 24.
    Department of Neurology, University of Vermont Medical Center, Burlington, VT, 05405, USA.
    Purpose: We report an unusual case of lateral medullary infarction presenting with orthostatic hypotension with pre-syncope without vertigo or Horner's syndrome.

    Methods: Case report with review of the literature.

    Results: A 67-year-old man presented with pre-syncope and ataxia without vertigo. Read More

    Sympathetic mechanisms in an animal model of vasovagal syncope.
    Clin Auton Res 2018 Jan 24. Epub 2018 Jan 24.
    Department of Cardiology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, 238 Jiefang Road, Wuchang, Wuhan, 430060, People's Republic of China.
    Purpose: Individuals predisposed to vasovagal syncope may have different autonomic nervous system control mechanisms from those without predisposition to vasovagal events. To test this hypothesis, we investigated different sympathetic responses in a canine model of vasovagal syncope.

    Methods: Left thoracotomy was performed on 20 mongrel dogs. Read More

    First symptoms in multiple system atrophy.
    Clin Auton Res 2018 Apr 8;28(2):215-221. Epub 2018 Jan 8.
    Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, 4500 San Pablo Rd., Jacksonville, FL, 32224, USA.
    Purpose: The initial symptoms of multiple system atrophy (MSA) and, in particular, early autonomic symptoms, have received less attention than motor symptoms. Whereas pathognomonic motor signs are essential to diagnostic specificity, early symptoms important to recognition of a neurodegenerative disorder may be less apparent or diagnostically ambiguous. This observational study sought to identify the very earliest symptoms in the natural history of MSA. Read More

    Cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction in sudden infant death syndrome.
    Clin Auton Res 2018 Jan 3. Epub 2018 Jan 3.
    The Ritchie Centre, Department of Paediatrics and Hudson Institute of Medical Research, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.
    A failure of cardiorespiratory control mechanisms, together with an impaired arousal response from sleep, are believed to play an important role in the final event of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). The 'triple risk model' describes SIDS as an event that results from the intersection of three overlapping factors: (1) a vulnerable infant, (2) a critical developmental period in homeostatic control and (3) an exogenous stressor. In an attempt to understand how the triple risk hypothesis is related to infant cardiorespiratory physiology, many researchers have examined how the known risk and protective factors for SIDS alter infant cardiovascular control during sleep. Read More

    The physical examination as a window into autonomic disorders.
    Clin Auton Res 2018 Feb 2;28(1):23-33. Epub 2018 Jan 2.
    Clinical Neurocardiology Section, Clinical Neurosciences Program, Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, 20892, USA.
    Signs of autonomic dysfunction, although at times seemingly mysterious, can contribute to diagnostic clarification and clinical investigation. Even when sophisticated autonomic testing equipment is not readily available, the experienced clinician, through educated observation and inductive reasoning-in conjunction with an intelligently obtained autonomic medical history-can discern much by a careful physical examination. Elements of the autonomic examination include variations in the pulse, postural measurements of blood pressure and heart rate, pupillary light reactions, skin coloration and temperature, patterns of sweating, and other organ-specific physical findings relevant to the individual patient's presentation. Read More

    Seronegative autoimmune autonomic neuropathy: a distinct clinical entity.
    Clin Auton Res 2018 Feb 26;28(1):115-123. Epub 2017 Dec 26.
    Department of Neurology and Neurotherapeutics, UT Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Blvd, Dallas, TX, 75390, USA.
    Purpose: Autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy (AAG) is associated with ganglionic acetylcholine receptor (gAChR) antibodies. We describe a similar but distinct series of patients with autoimmune autonomic failure lacking this antibody.

    Methods: Retrospective chart review. Read More

    The endocannabinoid system in cardiovascular function: novel insights and clinical implications.
    Clin Auton Res 2018 Feb 8;28(1):35-52. Epub 2017 Dec 8.
    Neurology Service, Electromyography, Motor Control and Neuropathic Pain Unit, Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Rationale: Cardiovascular disease is now recognized as the number one cause of death in the world, and the size of the population at risk continues to increase rapidly. The dysregulation of the endocannabinoid (eCB) system plays a central role in a wide variety of conditions including cardiovascular disorders. Cannabinoid receptors, their endogenous ligands, as well as enzymes conferring their synthesis and degradation, exhibit overlapping distributions in the cardiovascular system. Read More

    Correction to: Electrocardiogram-based predictors for arrhythmia after spinal cord injury.
    Clin Auton Res 2018 Feb;28(1):135
    Department of Biomedical Physiology and Kinesiology, Faculty of Science, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, V5A 1S6, Canada.
    There is a typographical error in the formula presented for QTVI. While the formula was correctly applied to the data presented, the description of the formula has an incorrectly placed parenthesis. It should read. Read More

    The hemodynamic and pain impact of peripheral nerve block versus spinal anesthesia in diabetic patients undergoing diabetic foot surgery.
    Clin Auton Res 2017 Dec 1. Epub 2017 Dec 1.
    Department of Anaesthesiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
    Purpose: Comparison of hemodynamic profiles and pain scores in diabetic patients undergoing diabetic foot surgery receiving peripheral nerve block (PNB) or spinal anesthesia [subarachnoid block (SAB)].

    Methods: This was a prospective, randomised controlled trial. We recruited diabetic patients aged > 18 years, American Society of Anesthesiologists class II-III, who were scheduled for unilateral diabetic foot surgery below the knee. Read More

    Urological dysfunction in synucleinopathies: epidemiology, pathophysiology and management.
    Clin Auton Res 2018 Feb 9;28(1):83-101. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Continence Center, Dokkyo Medical College, Mibu, Japan.
    Objective: Parkinson's disease (PD) and multiple system atrophy (MSA) are major neurogenerative diseases characterized pathologically by abnormal alpha-synuclein aggregation. PD and MSA are clinically characterized by motor disorder and bladder dysfunction (mainly urinary urgency and frequency, also called overactive bladder). However, few literatures are available concerning bladder dysfunction in PD or MSA. Read More

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