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    1409 results match your criteria Clinical Autonomic Research[Journal]

    1 OF 29

    Urological dysfunction in synucleinopathies: epidemiology, pathophysiology and management.
    Clin Auton Res 2017 Nov 9. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Continence Center, Dokkyo Medical College, Mibu, Japan.
    Objective: Parkinson's disease (PD) and multiple system atrophy (MSA) are major neurogenerative diseases characterized pathologically by abnormal alpha-synuclein aggregation. PD and MSA are clinically characterized by motor disorder and bladder dysfunction (mainly urinary urgency and frequency, also called overactive bladder). However, few literatures are available concerning bladder dysfunction in PD or MSA. Read More

    The "sacral parasympathetic": ontogeny and anatomy of a myth.
    Clin Auton Res 2017 Nov 4. Epub 2017 Nov 4.
    Institut de Biologie de l'ENS (IBENS), INSERM, CNRS, École Normale Supérieure, PSL Research University, 75005, Paris, France.
    We recently defined genetic traits that distinguish sympathetic from parasympathetic neurons, both preganglionic and ganglionic (Espinosa-Medina et al., Science 354:893-897, 2016). By this set of criteria, we found that the sacral autonomic outflow is sympathetic, not parasympathetic as has been thought for more than a century. Read More

    Cardiovascular autonomic effects of vagus nerve stimulation.
    Clin Auton Res 2017 Oct 25. Epub 2017 Oct 25.
    Autonomic and Movement Disorders Unit, Biocruces Research Institute, Barakaldo, Bizkaia, Spain.
    The vagus nerve is responsible for the parasympathetic innervation of the major thoracic and abdominal organs. It also carries sensory afferent fibres from these viscera and reaches different brain structures. These connections have proven useful in the treatment of different diseases. Read More

    Carotid artery reactivity during sympathetic activation following acute resistance exercise.
    Clin Auton Res 2017 Dec 19;27(6):417-421. Epub 2017 Oct 19.
    Department of Sport Science, University of Seoul, Seoul, 130-743, South Korea.
    Objective: Acute resistance exercise has been shown to reduce brachial endothelial function. Whether there are concomitant reductions in carotid endothelial function remains unexplored.

    Methods: Cold pressor test-mediated vasodilation of the carotid artery was used to assess carotid endothelial function in 15 young and healthy participants (age 26 ± 1 years, body mass index 24 ± 1 kg/m(2)) after acute resistance exercise or an inactive time control condition. Read More

    Beat-to-beat blood pressure and heart rate responses to the Valsalva maneuver.
    Clin Auton Res 2017 Dec 19;27(6):361-367. Epub 2017 Oct 19.
    Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL, 32224, USA.
    Measurement of beat-to-beat blood pressure and heart rate responses to the Valsalva maneuver is the basis for a highly informative autonomic function test. Whereas in the past this measurement required intra-arterial cannulation, the development of finger cuff devices that acquire arterial pressure waveforms indistinguishable from those recorded intra-arterially has made it possible to obtain accurate measurements noninvasively. In a patient with orthostatic hypotension, the pattern of blood pressure responses during and after the release of the maneuver can identify a neurogenic basis: sympathetic neurocirculatory failure. Read More

    The link between narcolepsy and autonomic cardiovascular dysfunction: a translational perspective.
    Clin Auton Res 2017 Oct 10. Epub 2017 Oct 10.
    Department of Biomedical and Neuromotor Sciences, University of Bologna, Piazza di Porta San Donato 2, 40126, Bologna, Italy.
    Narcolepsy is a rare disease that entails excessive daytime sleepiness, often associated with sudden episodes of muscle weakness known as cataplexy. Narcolepsy with cataplexy (NC) is due to the loss of hypothalamic neurons that release the neuropeptides orexin A and B. Orexin neuron projections prominently target brain structures involved in wake-sleep state switching and the central autonomic network. Read More

    Long-term anabolic steroids in male bodybuilders induce cardiovascular structural and autonomic abnormalities.
    Clin Auton Res 2017 Oct 10. Epub 2017 Oct 10.
    Department of Physiology, Institute of Biological and Natural Sciences, Federal University of Triângulo Mineiro, Uberaba, MG, Brazil.
    Objective: The aims of this study were to examine the hypothesis that users of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) would have cardiac autonomic disorders and that there is a correlation between sympathetic modulation, high blood pressure (BP) and alterations to cardiac dimensions.

    Methods: Forty-five male subjects were enrolled in the study. They were categorized into three groups comprising bodybuilders actively using AAS (AAS users; n = 15), bodybuilders who had never used AAS (nonusers; n = 15) and age-paired healthy sedentary controls (n = 15). Read More

    Electrochemical skin conductance: a systematic review.
    Clin Auton Res 2017 Sep 26. Epub 2017 Sep 26.
    Autonomic Laboratory, Department of Neurology, Brigham and Women's Faulkner Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 1153 Centre Street, Boston, MA, 02103, USA.
    Purpose: Currently available techniques for the evaluation of small fiber neuropathy and related sudomotor function remain suboptimal. Electrochemical skin conductance (ESC) has recently been introduced as a simple noninvasive and fast method for the detection of sudomotor dysfunction. The purpose of this review is to synthesize and appraise research using ESC measurements for sudomotor evaluation in adults. Read More

    The pathophysiology of the trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias, with clinical implications.
    Clin Auton Res 2017 Sep 23. Epub 2017 Sep 23.
    Department of Clinical Physiology, Nuclear Medicine and PET, Rigshospitalet-Glostrup, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    The hallmark of primary headaches belonging to the group known as the trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias is unilateral headache accompanied by cranial autonomic symptoms. Being relatively rare and poorly understood, they represent a clinical challenge, leading to underdiagnosis and undertreatment. While the headache is the most obvious and disabling symptom, it is only part of a complex symptomatology which hints at the involved pathophysiological mechanisms. Read More

    Risk reduction of long-term major adverse cardiovascular events after endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy in palmar hyperhidrosis.
    Clin Auton Res 2017 Dec 19;27(6):393-400. Epub 2017 Sep 19.
    Department of Medical Research, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, 7115R, No.325, Section 2, Cheng-Kung Road, Neihu District, Taipei City, 11490, Taiwan, ROC.
    Purpose: Palmar hyperhidrosis (PH) is excessive sweating of the palms resulting from sympathetic overactivity, and patients who undergo endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy (ETS) show reduced cardiac demand after 1 year and improved cerebral perfusion within 2-4 weeks. However, the long-term risks of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) following ETS remain unclear.

    Methods: We searched the Longitudinal National Health Insurance Database in Taiwan and identified PH patients (International Classification of Disease, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification diagnostic code 708. Read More

    Epidemiology, pathogenesis, and management of takotsubo syndrome.
    Clin Auton Res 2017 Sep 15. Epub 2017 Sep 15.
    Department of Clinical Science and Education Södersjukhuset, Karolinska Institutet, Sjukhusbacken 10, 118 83, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Takotsubo syndrome is a recently recognized acute cardiac disease entity with a clinical presentation resembling that of an acute coronary syndrome. The typical takotsubo syndrome patient has a unique circumferential left (bi-) ventricular contraction abnormality profile that extends beyond a coronary artery supply territory and appears to follow the anatomical cardiac sympathetic innervation. The syndrome predominantly affects postmenopausal women and is often preceded by emotional or physical stress. Read More

    Recruitment strategies in efferent sympathetic nerve activity.
    Clin Auton Res 2017 Dec 4;27(6):369-378. Epub 2017 Sep 4.
    School of Kinesiology, The University of Western Ontario, Room 3159C Thames Hall, 1151 Richmond St. N., London, ON, N6A 3K7, Canada.
    In 1968, the first reported microneurographic recordings of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) in humans revealed the bursty behavior of efferent sympathetic nerve activity. The timing of bursts could be explained by baroreflex physiology, but the variability in size of each burst was left unexplained. On the basis of shorter latencies of larger bursts, Wallin's group [53] proposed the existence of variable supraspinal synaptic delays and/or options for recruitment of faster-conducting sympathetic neurons when bursts become stronger. Read More

    REM sleep behavior disorder, autonomic dysfunction and synuclein-related neurodegeneration: where do we stand?
    Clin Auton Res 2017 Sep 4. Epub 2017 Sep 4.
    Department of Biomedical and Neuromotor Sciences, Bellaria Hospital, University of Bologna, Via Altura, 3, 40139, Bologna, Italy.
    Introduction: From newfound parasomnia to a marker of future synucleinopathy, since its first description in 1986, REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) has been systematically tackled from virtually many viewpoints in basic, translational, and clinical studies. The time delay between RBD and synucleinopathy onset offers an exceptional window for observation and design of neuroprotective trials. In the last few years, research has focused on characterizing possible differences within RBD patients in order to draw potential profiles more or less susceptible to further neurodegeneration. Read More

    Pupillary autonomic dysfunction in patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis.
    Clin Auton Res 2017 Dec 1;27(6):385-392. Epub 2017 Sep 1.
    Medizinische Klinik IV, Rheumaeinheit, Klinikum der Universität München, Munich, Germany.
    Objective: To assess autonomic function by infrared dynamic pupillometry in patients with ANCA-vasculitis (AAV) in correlation to autonomic symptoms, disease specific clinical parameters and cardiovascular reflex tests.

    Methods: Patients with AAV and healthy controls underwent pupillometry at rest and after sympathetic stimulation (cold pressor test). Three parasympathetic parameters (amplitude, relative amplitude, maximum constriction velocity) and one sympathetic parameter (late dilatation velocity) were assessed. Read More

    The Etiology of Primary Hyperhidrosis: A Systematic Review.
    Clin Auton Res 2017 Dec 19;27(6):379-383. Epub 2017 Aug 19.
    Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Odense University Hospital, Odense, 5000, Denmark.
    Purpose: Primary hyperhidrosis is a pathological disorder of unknown etiology, affecting 0.6-5% of the population, and causing severe functional and social handicaps. As the etiology is unknown, it is not possible to treat the root cause. Read More

    Transcranial Doppler in autonomic testing: standards and clinical applications.
    Clin Auton Res 2017 Aug 18. Epub 2017 Aug 18.
    Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 185 Pilgrim Road, Palmer 127, Boston, MA, 02215, USA.
    When cerebral blood flow falls below a critical limit, syncope occurs and, if prolonged, ischemia leads to neuronal death. The cerebral circulation has its own complex finely tuned autoregulatory mechanisms to ensure blood supply to the brain can meet the high metabolic demands of the underlying neuronal tissue. This involves the interplay between myogenic and metabolic mechanisms, input from noradrenergic and cholinergic neurons, and the release of vasoactive substrates, including adenosine from astrocytes and nitric oxide from the endothelium. Read More

    Influence of sex, menstrual cycle, and oral contraceptives on the cerebrovascular response to paced deep breathing.
    Clin Auton Res 2017 Dec 1;27(6):411-415. Epub 2017 Aug 1.
    School of Kinesiology and Health Sciences, York University, 355 Bethune College, 4700 Keele St, Toronto, ON, M3J 1P3, Canada.
    Purpose: Deep breathing assesses autonomic function; however, many researchers/clinicians do not account for hyperventilation, brain blood flow or blood pressure.

    Methods: Men and women (with/without oral contraceptives) participated. women participated during low and high hormone phases of the menstrual cycle. Read More

    Infectious diseases causing autonomic dysfunction.
    Clin Auton Res 2017 Jul 20. Epub 2017 Jul 20.
    Neurology Department, Raigmore Hospital, Inverness, UK.
    Objectives: To review infectious diseases that may cause autonomic dysfunction.

    Methods: Review of published papers indexed in medline/embase.

    Results: Autonomic dysfunction has been reported in retrovirus (human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), human T-lymphotropic virus), herpes viruses, flavivirus, enterovirus 71 and lyssavirus infections. Read More

    Heart-rate response to alpha2-adrenergic receptor antagonism by antipsychotics.
    Clin Auton Res 2017 Dec 3;27(6):407-410. Epub 2017 Jul 3.
    Department of Psychiatry, University of British Columbia, Room A3-111, 938 West 28th Avenue, Vancouver, BC, V5Z 4H4, Canada.
    Purpose: To explore the relationship between antipsychotic-associated antagonism of alpha2-adrenergic receptors and resting heart rate in individuals with schizophrenia.

    Methods: Thirty-one inpatients treated with antipsychotics were included in this exploratory analysis. Antipsychotic doses were converted to haloperidol equivalents for alpha2-adrenergic receptor antagonism. Read More

    Muscle sympathetic nerve activity peaks in the first trimester in healthy pregnancy: a longitudinal case study.
    Clin Auton Res 2017 Dec 3;27(6):401-406. Epub 2017 Jul 3.
    School of Science and Health, Western Sydney University, Campbelltown Campus, Locked Bag 1797, Penrith, Sydney, NSW, 2751, Australia.
    Objective And Methods: Muscle sympathetic nerve activity and baroreflex sensitivity were examined at rest before, during (weeks 6, 11, 17, 22, 25, 33 and 36) and after a normotensive pregnancy.

    Results: Muscle sympathetic nerve activity is elevated during pregnancy with a large peak in the first trimester (Δ17 bursts/min) and a secondary peak in the third trimester (Δ11 bursts/min). Cardiac baroreflex sensitivity peaked in the first trimester (10 vs. Read More

    Intranasal dexmedetomidine for adrenergic crisis in familial dysautonomia.
    Clin Auton Res 2017 Aug 3;27(4):279-282. Epub 2017 Jul 3.
    Department of Neurology, Dysautonomia Center, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA.
    Purpose: To report the use of intranasal dexmedetomidine, an α2-adrenergic agonist for the acute treatment of refractory adrenergic crisis in patients with familial dysautonomia.

    Methods: Case series.

    Results: Three patients with genetically confirmed familial dysautonomia (case 1: 20-year-old male; case 2: 43-year-old male; case 3: 26-year-old female) received intranasal dexmedetomidine 2 mcg/kg, half of the dose in each nostril, for the acute treatment of adrenergic crisis. Read More

    Vasovagal syncope with asystole: the role of cardiac pacing.
    Clin Auton Res 2017 Aug 1;27(4):245-251. Epub 2017 Jul 1.
    BIOTRONIK Italy S.p.A., Vimodrone, Italy.
    Whereas cardiac pacing has a very limited role overall in patients with vasovagal syncope (VVS), there are three reasons which support pacing efficacy in tilt-induced asystolic VVS. These are: (1) contrary to mixed and vasodepressor forms, an asystolic tilt response is specific, i.e. Read More

    Typical vasovagal syncope as a "defense mechanism" for the heart by contrasting sympathetic overactivity.
    Clin Auton Res 2017 Aug 1;27(4):253-261. Epub 2017 Jul 1.
    Department of Zoology and Anthropology, University of Sassari, Sassari, Italy.
    Many observations suggest that typical (emotional or orthostatic) vasovagal syncope (VVS) is not a disease, but rather a manifestation of a non-pathological trait. Some authors have hypothesized this type of syncope as a "defense mechanism" for the organism and a few theories have been postulated. Under the human violent conflicts theory, the VVS evolved during the Paleolithic era only in the human lineage. Read More

    Can syncope cause convulsive seizures in adults?
    Clin Auton Res 2017 Aug 30;27(4):283-287. Epub 2017 Jun 30.
    Epilepsy Service, Department of Neurology, Cork University Hospital, Cork, Ireland.
    Purpose: Convulsive epileptic seizures triggered by transient cerebral hypoperfusion 'reflex anoxic seizures' are well-described in children but are not commonly recognized in adults.

    Methods: We report a case series of 12 adults who presented acutely after generalized tonic-clonic seizures with a clear syncopal phase before the convulsion. We describe the aetiology, semiology and natural history of these events. Read More

    Animal and cellular models of familial dysautonomia.
    Clin Auton Res 2017 Aug 30;27(4):235-243. Epub 2017 Jun 30.
    Department of Biological and Physical Sciences, Montana State University Billings, Billings, MT, 59101, USA.
    Since Riley and Day first described the clinical phenotype of patients with familial dysautonomia (FD) over 60 years ago, the field has made considerable progress clinically, scientifically, and translationally in treating and understanding the etiology of FD. FD is classified as a hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy (HSAN type III) and is both a developmental and a progressive neurodegenerative condition that results from an autosomal recessive mutation in the gene IKBKAP, also known as ELP1. FD primarily impacts the peripheral nervous system but also manifests in central nervous system disruption, especially in the retina and optic nerve. Read More

    Reproducibility of 24-h heart rate variability in children.
    Clin Auton Res 2017 Aug 30;27(4):273-278. Epub 2017 Jun 30.
    Medical Faculty, University of Nis, Nis, Serbia.
    Background: Over the last decades, time domain heart rate (HR) variability analysis has been explored in different pediatric clinical settings to obtain information on the cardiac autonomic tone. However, the consistency over time of 24 h time domain HRV measurements in children is not well-known.

    Methods: We investigated the reproducibility of 24 h HRV time-domain indices (1 day apart), from 39 healthy children (9. Read More

    Postprandial hypotension in neurological disorders: systematic review and meta-analysis.
    Clin Auton Res 2017 Aug 24;27(4):263-271. Epub 2017 Jun 24.
    School of Medicine, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Purpose: Postprandial hypotension (PPH) has been associated with increased risk of syncope, falls, stroke, angina and mortality. As the majority of patients with PPH are asymptomatic, the diagnosis is often overlooked. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of available scientific evidence on the likelihood of PPH in neurological diseases. Read More

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