Clin Auton Res 2018 Feb 2;28(1):23-33. Epub 2018 Jan 2.
Clinical Neurocardiology Section, Clinical Neurosciences Program, Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, 20892, USA.
Signs of autonomic dysfunction, although at times seemingly mysterious, can contribute to diagnostic clarification and clinical investigation. Even when sophisticated autonomic testing equipment is not readily available, the experienced clinician, through educated observation and inductive reasoning-in conjunction with an intelligently obtained autonomic medical history-can discern much by a careful physical examination. Elements of the autonomic examination include variations in the pulse, postural measurements of blood pressure and heart rate, pupillary light reactions, skin coloration and temperature, patterns of sweating, and other organ-specific physical findings relevant to the individual patient's presentation. Read More