Bull Exp Biol Med 2022 May 28;173(1):160-168. Epub 2022 May 28.
Department of Histology, Embryology, and Cytology, Pacific State Medical University, Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, Vladivostok, Russia.
We studied localization of VEGF, TGF-β1, BMP-2, caspase-3, Bcl-2, and TNFα in the callus samples obtained from 5 patients (4 women and 1 man) aged 41-53 years during planned surgery for nonunion and pseudarthrosis of the clavicle (n=1), ulna (n=1), femur (n=1), and tibia (n=2) bones. Two control groups included material of hypertrophied callus (n=3) with consolidated fractures of long bones and samples of intact bones (n=3) obtained by postmortem autopsy of subjects without pathology of the musculoskeletal system. A nonuniform distribution of the studied markers was revealed. Read More