327,302 results match your criteria Cirrhosis


Knockout of Wdr1 results in cardiac hypertrophy and impaired cardiac function in adult mouse heart.

Gene 2019 Feb 19. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Biomedical Research Institute, College of Life Science and Health, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei Province 430081, PR China. Electronic address:

WDR1 is a major cofactor of the actin depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilin, accelerating ADF/cofilin-mediated actin disassembly. We had previously showed that WDR1-mediated actin dynamics is required for postnatal myocardial growth and adult myocardial maintenance in mice, in which the detailed phenotypes of adult cardiomyocyte-specific Wdr1 deletion mice had not been analyzed. In this study, we systematically analyzed the role of Wdr1 in adult mouse heart. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2019.02.023DOI Listing
February 2019

Cytoplasmic OH scavenger TA293 attenuates cellular senescence and fibrosis by activating macrophages through oxidized phospholipids/TLR4.

Life Sci 2019 Feb 19. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Laboratory of Physiological Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Takasaki University of Health and Welfare, 60 Nakaorui-machi, Takasaki, Gunma 370-0033, Japan.

Aims: Elucidation of the biological roles of the mitochondrial and cytoplasmic hydroxyl radical (cyto OH) is hampered by the absence of site-specific OH scavengers. Earlier findings using cyto OH scavenger, TA293, indicated that cyto OH causes cellular senescence, and senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) factors secreted from cells cause macrophage infiltration, inflammation, and apoptosis. However, we found that macrophage infiltration occurs before senescent cells appear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2019.02.038DOI Listing
February 2019

Heparan sulfate in chronic kidney diseases: Exploring the role of 3-O-sulfation.

Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj 2019 Feb 19. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Institute of Cellular Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Newcastle University, NE2 4HH, UK. Electronic address:

One of the main feature of chronic kidney disease is the development of renal fibrosis. Heparan Sulfate (HS) is involved in disease development by modifying the function of growth factors and cytokines and creating chemokine gradients. In this context, we aimed to understand the function of HS sulfation in renal fibrosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbagen.2019.02.009DOI Listing
February 2019

A first approach for an evidence-based in vitro digestion method to adjust pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy in cystic fibrosis.

PLoS One 2019 22;14(2):e0212459. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Universitat Politècnica de València, Research Institute of Food Engineering for Development, Valencia, Spain.

Background: Patients with cystic fibrosis have to take enzymatic supplements to allow for food digestion. However, an evidence-based method to adjust Pancreatic Enzyme Replacement Therapy (PERT) is inexistent, and lipid content of meals is used as a rough criterion.

Objective: In this study, an in vitro digestion model was set up to determine the theoretical optimal dose (TOD) of enzymatic supplement for a selection of foods, which is the dose that allows for maximum lipolysis extent. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0212459PLOS
February 2019

No need to discontinue hepatitis C virus therapy at the time of liver transplantation.

PLoS One 2019 22;14(2):e0211437. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

The Transplant Institute, Department of Surgery, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Objectives: Direct antiviral agents (DAA) has dramatically improved the therapy outcome of hepatitis C-virus (HCV) infection, both on the waiting-list and post liver transplantation (LT). DAA are generally well-tolerated in patients with mild to moderate liver and kidney failure, but some DAAs are contraindicated in patients with severe dysfunction of these organs. Today there are few studies of peri-LT DAA use and treatment is commonly discontinued at the time of LT. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0211437PLOS
February 2019

C-reactive protein exacerbates epithelial-mesenchymal transition through Wnt/β-catenin and ERK signaling in streptozocin-induced diabetic nephropathy.

FASEB J 2019 Feb 22:fj201801865RR. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Ministry of Education (MOE) Key Laboratory of Cell Activities and Stress Adaptations, School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, China.

Previous studies have reported the pathogenic role of C-reactive protein (CRP) during diabetic kidney disease (DKD) in human CRP transgenic and Crp mice. However, because humans and mice have inverse acute phase expression patterns of CRP and serum amyloid P component, this could lead to the inaccurate evaluation of CRP function with the above-mentioned CRP transgenic mouse. But different from mice, rats have the same acute phase protein expression pattern as human, which might avoid this problem and be a better choice for CRP function studies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.201801865RRDOI Listing
February 2019

Histopathology of Basal Cell Carcinoma After Treatment With Vismogedib

J Drugs Dermatol 2019 Feb;18(2):136-138

Background: Vismodegib used in the treatment of metastatic basal cell carcinoma (BCC) or locally advanced, recurrent BCC not amenable to surgery or radiation leads to various clinical changes. Objective: Aim was to elucidate the histopathology that corresponds to tumor involution observed with vismodegib therapy. Methods: Retrospective case series of patients treated with vismodegib between May 2012 and April 2017 with intra- or post-treatment biopsy. Read More

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February 2019

Knockout of receptor for advanced glycation end-products attenuates age-related renal lesions.

Aging Cell 2019 Feb 22:e12850. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

U995 - Lille Inflammation Research International Center, INSERM, CHU Lille, University of Lille, Lille, France.

Pro-aging effects of endogenous advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) have been reported, and there is increasing interest in the pro-inflammatory and -fibrotic effects of their binding to RAGE (the main AGE receptor). The role of dietary AGEs in aging remains ill-defined, but the predominantly renal accumulation of dietary carboxymethyllysine (CML) suggests the kidneys may be particularly affected. We studied the impact of RAGE invalidation and a CML-enriched diet on renal aging. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acel.12850DOI Listing
February 2019

Antiviral treatment with PEG-IFN and clinical outcomes in a cohort of immigrants patients affected by hepatitis delta: a retrospective analysis.

J Med Virol 2019 Feb 22. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Unit of Infectious Diseases, University of Turin, Department of Medical Sciences, Amedeo di Savoia Hospital, Turin, Italy.

Chronic hepatitis delta (CHD) is the most severe chronic hepatitis, with not satisfactory treatment options and severe clinical outcomes. This infection is frequent in the migrant subjects from endemic areas, especially from Africa and East-Europe. The pegylated (PEG)-interferon alfa (IFN) is limited by side-effects and poor response. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25438DOI Listing
February 2019

Cost-effectiveness Analysis of Bariatric Surgery for Patients With Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis Cirrhosis.

JAMA Netw Open 2019 Feb 1;2(2):e190047. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Division of Digestive and Liver Diseases, Department of Medicine,Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York.

Importance: Obesity is the most common risk factor for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), the progressive form of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease that can lead to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Weight loss can be an effective treatment for obesity and may slow the progression of advanced liver disease.

Objective: To assess the cost-effectiveness of bariatric surgery in patients with NASH and compensated cirrhosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.0047DOI Listing
February 2019

Management of residual masses in testicular germ cell tumors.

Expert Rev Anticancer Ther 2019 Feb 22:1-10. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

a Department of Urology, Urologic Oncology, Robot-assisted and Specialized Urologic Surgery , University Hospital Cologne , Köln , Germany.

Introduction: About 50% of all patients with advanced testicular cancer demonstrate residual retroperitoneal or extraretroperitoneal masses. About two thirds of the masses harbour necrosis/fibrosis only whereas as about 10% and 40% harbour vital cancer or teratoma. Appropriate therapy will result in a high cure rate if performed properly. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14737140.2019.1580146DOI Listing
February 2019

Redox Imbalance in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: A Role for Oxidant Cross-Talk Between NOX Enzymes and Mitochondria.

Antioxid Redox Signal 2019 Feb 22. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

University of Vermont, Pathology , D205 Given Medical Building , 89 Beaumont Avenue , Burlington , Burlington, Vermont, United States , 05405 ;

Significance: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive age-related lung disease with a median survival of only 3 years after diagnosis. The pathogenic mechanisms behind IPF are not clearly understood and current therapeutic approaches have not been successful in improving disease outcomes. Recent advances: IPF is characterized by increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), primarily by NADPH oxidases (NOXes) and mitochondria, as well as altered antioxidant defenses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/ars.2019.7742DOI Listing
February 2019

Normative values for magnetic resonance elastography-based liver stiffness in a healthy population.

Pol Arch Intern Med 2019 Feb 22. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

INTRODUCTION Chronic liver disease resulting in fibrosis, and ultimately cirrhosis, is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. None of the conventional imaging techniques are able to detect early fibrosis and compare its grade with the histopathologic scale. Liver biopsy, as the diagnostic standard for liver fibrosis, also has limitations and is not well accepted by patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.20452/pamw.4456DOI Listing
February 2019

Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Diabetes. Part I: Epidemiology and Diagnosis.

Diabetes Metab J 2019 Feb;43(1):31-45

Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and diabetes are common metabolic disorders whose prevalence rates are expected to rise worldwide, corresponding to aging and increasingly obese populations. Compared to the general population (around 25%), 50% to 70% of people with diabetes have NAFLD, and NAFLD severity (including fibrosis) tends to be worsened by the presence of diabetes. NAFLD is considered an emerging risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus and a contributor to the development of chronic diabetes-related complications. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2019.0011DOI Listing
February 2019

Easy surveillance of muscle volume decline in chronic liver disease patients using finger-circle (yubi-wakka) test.

J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 2019 Feb 21. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Gastroenterology Center, Ehime Prefectural Central Hospital, 83 Kasuga-cho, Matsuyama, 790-0024, Japan.

Background: Muscle atrophy (MA) and muscle strength decline are important clinical features in chronic liver disease (CLD) patients. An easy to perform MA screening method without need for special equipment would be helpful. We evaluated the usefulness of the previously reported finger-circle test as screening for MA in CLD patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcsm.12392DOI Listing
February 2019

Is there a place for dornase alfa therapy in lung transplantation?

Transpl Int 2019 Feb 21. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Transplantation Centre, University Medical Center Ljubljana, Zaloška 7, 1000, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Dornase alfa is a DNase, produced by recombinant gene technology, that digests extracellular deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Nebulized dornase alfa exerts a mucolytic effect. It is indicated for use in cystic fibrosis (CF) which is characterised by the presence of viscous purulent airways secretions rich in highly polymerized DNA. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tri.13414DOI Listing
February 2019

Association Between Diverticular Disease Requiring Surgical Intervention and Mortality in The Post-Lung Transplant Population - a retrospective cohort study.

Transpl Int 2019 Feb 21. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Loyola University Chicago Health Science Division, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care, Maywood, IL.

Background: Lung Transplant recipients are at increased risk of complicated diverticular disease. We aim to assess the rate of diverticular surgery in a post-lung transplantation population and identify risk factors for surgery.

Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study of lung transplant recipients from 2007-2011. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tri.13417DOI Listing
February 2019

Differential roles of VEGF: Relevance to tissue fibrosis.

J Cell Biochem 2019 Feb 21. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Department of Urology, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Nan Gang, China.

Excessive extracellular matrix deposition and pathological vascularization are characteristics of fibrosis, which compromises the normal functioning of organs. Although whether angiogenesis can be induced and can occur in parallel with the progression of fibrosis has not been definitely determined, angiogenesis undoubtedly plays a vital role in fibrosis. Since vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is one of the most effective proangiogenic factors, VEGF-targeting interventions have been a focus for the development of therapeutic strategies against fibrosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcb.28489DOI Listing
February 2019

Posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus development after germinal matrix hemorrhage: Established mechanisms and proposed pathways.

J Neurosci Res 2019 Feb 21. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, Loma Linda, California.

In addition to being the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in premature infants, germinal matrix hemorrhage (GMH) is also the leading cause of acquired infantile hydrocephalus. The pathophysiology of posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus (PHH) development after GMH is complex and vaguely understood, although evidence suggests fibrosis and gliosis in the periventricular and subarachnoid spaces disrupts normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics. Theories explaining general hydrocephalus etiology have substantially evolved from the original bulk flow theory developed by Dr. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jnr.24394DOI Listing
February 2019

Clinical outcomes in patients with hepatitis D, cirrhosis and persistent hepatitis B virus replication, and receiving long-term tenofovir or entecavir.

Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2019 Feb 21. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Infectious Diseases, Campania University "Luigi Vanvitelli", Naples, Italy.

Background: Suppression of hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication with nucles(t)ide analogues should be considered for patients with chronic hepatitis D virus (HDV) infection and ongoing HBV replication.

Aim: To verify the clinical outcome after long-term entecavir or tenofovir treatment in patients with advanced fibrosis/cirrhosis, ineligible to peg-interferon therapy.

Methods: Patients were prospectively followed-up at 3-6 month intervals; measured outcomes were decompensation, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), liver transplant and liver related death. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/apt.15188DOI Listing
February 2019

The cholic acid extension study in Zellweger spectrum disorders: Results and implications for therapy.

J Inherit Metab Dis 2019 Feb 21. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Department of Pediatric Neurology, Emma Children's Hospital, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Introduction: Currently, no therapies are available for Zellweger spectrum disorders (ZSDs), a group of genetic metabolic disorders characterised by a deficiency of functional peroxisomes. In a previous study, we showed that oral cholic acid (CA) treatment can suppress bile acid synthesis in ZSD patients and, thereby, decrease plasma levels of toxic C -bile acid intermediates, one of the biochemical abnormalities in these patients. However, no effect on clinically relevant outcome measures could be observed after 9 months of CA treatment. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/jimd.12042
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jimd.12042DOI Listing
February 2019
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Vitamin D for the Immune System in Cystic Fibrosis (DISC): a double-blind, multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 Feb 22. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Lipids, Department of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA.

Background: Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) have increased risk of vitamin D deficiency owing to fat malabsorption and other factors. Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with increased risk of pulmonary exacerbations of CF.

Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to examine the impact of a single high-dose bolus of vitamin D3 followed by maintenance treatment given to adults with CF during an acute pulmonary exacerbation on future recurrence of pulmonary exacerbations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy291DOI Listing
February 2019

MG53 promotes corneal wound healing and mitigates fibrotic remodeling in rodents.

Commun Biol 2019 20;2:71. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

3Department of Surgery, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, USA.

The cornea plays an important role in transmitting light and providing protection to the eye, but is susceptible to injury and infection. Standard treatments for corneal wounds include topical lubricants, antibiotics, bandage contact lens, and surgery. However, these measures are often ineffective. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s42003-019-0316-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6382791PMC
February 2019

Evaluation of Pathological Association between Stroke-Related QTL and Salt-Induced Renal Injury in Stroke-Prone Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat.

Biomed Res Int 2019 16;2019:5049746. Epub 2019 Jan 16.

Department of Functional Pathology, Shimane University Faculty of Medicine, Izumo, Japan.

The stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHRSP) suffers from severe hypertension and hypertensive organ damage such as cerebral stroke and kidney injury under salt-loading. By a quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis between SHRSP and SHR (the stroke-resistant parental strain of SHRSP), two major QTLs for stroke susceptibility were identified on chromosomes 1 and 18 of SHRSP, which were confirmed in congenic strains constructed between SHRSP and SHR. As the progression of renal dysfunction was suggested to be one of the key factors inducing stroke in SHRSP, we examined effects of the stroke-related QTLs on kidney injury using two congenic strains harboring either of SHRSP-derived fragments of chromosomes 1 and 18 in the SHR genome. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/5049746DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6354164PMC
January 2019

Research highlights from the 2018 ERS International Congress: interstitial lung diseases.

ERJ Open Res 2019 Feb 18;5(1). Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Dept of Diseases of the Thorax, Ospedale GB Morgagni, Forlì, Italy.

This article reviews a selection of the scientific presentations on interstitial lung disease (ILD)/diffuse parenchymal lung disease (DPLD) that were made at the 2018 European Respiratory Society (ERS) International Congress in Paris. A number of advances in the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of these disorders were presented and discussed by clinicians and researchers. The research topics span over all four groups of ERS Assembly 12: Interstitial Lung Diseases (Group 12. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1183/23120541.00215-2018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6378342PMC
February 2019

Direct Oral Anticoagulants in Cirrhotic Patients: Current Evidence and Clinical Observations.

Can J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2019 8;2019:4383269. Epub 2019 Jan 8.

The Department of Gastroenterology at Staten Island University Hospital, Northwell Health, USA.

The introduction of Direct Oral Anticoagulants (DOACs) to the pharmaceutical market provided patients and clinicians with novel convenient and safe options of anticoagulation. The use of this class of medications is currently limited to venous thromboembolic therapy and prophylaxis, in addition to stroke prophylaxis in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. Despite their altered hemostasis, patients with cirrhosis are thought to be in a procoagulant state and thus prone to thrombus formation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/4383269DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6354142PMC
January 2019

Successful Treatment of Sinusitis in Two Lung Transplant Recipients: Review of the Literature and Recommendations for Management.

Allergy Rhinol (Providence) 2019 Jan-Dec;10:2152656719827253. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Department of Head and Neck Surgery, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California.

Background: fungal infection is an emerging disease which is difficult to diagnose and treat. Patients undergoing lung transplant may be colonized prior to transplantation and are at risk for lethal allograft infection after transplantation.

Objectives: To identify and evaluate treatment options. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2152656719827253DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6376547PMC
February 2019

Repeated hot water and steam disinfection of pari LC Plus® nebulizers alters nebulizer output.

J Cyst Fibros 2019 Feb 18. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Associate Medical Director, Hospital Epidemiology Yale New Haven Children's Hospital, Department of Infectious Disease, Yale New Haven Children's Hospital, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcf.2019.01.014DOI Listing
February 2019

Impact of high-fat diet and vitamin D supplementation on aortic stenosis establishment in waved-2 epidermal growth factor receptor mutant mice.

J Integr Med 2019 Jan 30. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

Department of Biology, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, U1096 (Endothélium, Valvulopathies et Insuffisance Cardiaque), Normandie University, Unirouen, 76000 Rouen, France; Fédération Hospitalo-Universitaire REMODeling in Valvulopathy and Heart Failure, Rouen, France; Department of Cardiology, Rouen University Hospital, 76031 Rouen Cedex, France. Electronic address:

Objective: The use of animal models of aortic stenosis (AS) remains essential to further elucidate its pathophysiology and to evaluate new therapeutic strategies. The waved-2 mouse AS model has been proposed; data have indicated that while aortic regurgitation (AR) is effectively induced, development of AS is rare. We aimed to evaluate the effect of high-fat diet (HFD) and vitamin D supplementation in this model. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joim.2019.01.010DOI Listing
January 2019

Cystic fibrosis and portal hypertension: Distal splenorenal shunt can prevent the need for future liver transplant.

J Pediatr Surg 2019 Feb 2. Epub 2019 Feb 2.

Division of Transplant Surgery, Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA. Electronic address:

Background: The management of portal hypertension (PHT) in children with well compensated cirrhosis and cystic fibrosis (CF) is controversial. We present our experience with distal splenorenal shunting (DSRS) for the treatment of PHT as an alternative to liver transplantation (LT).

Methods: Between 2008 and 2017, 5 CF children underwent a DSRS at a pediatric hepatobiliary and transplantation referral center. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2019.01.035DOI Listing
February 2019

Wnt/β-catenin signalling plays diverse functions during the process of fibrotic remodelling in the exocrine pancreas.

Pancreatology 2019 Feb 11. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Tampere Pancreas Laboratory and Department of Gastroenterology and Alimentary Tract Surgery, Tampere University Hospital and Faculty of Medicine and Health Technology, Tampere University, Tampere, Finland. Electronic address:

Background/objectives: Wnt/β-catenin signalling plays vital roles in tissue homeostasis. Dysregulation of the pathway has been implicated in the pathogenesis of cancer and fibroses in numerous tissues, including the pancreas. We studied the effect of microenvironmental changes pertaining to fibrotic tissue remodelling on the expression of selected Wnt/β-catenin pathway proteins in the human exocrine pancreas. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pan.2019.02.003DOI Listing
February 2019

Late-onset megaconial myopathy in mice lacking group I Paks.

Skelet Muscle 2019 Feb 21;9(1). Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Department of Cell, Developmental, and Regenerative Biology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, One Gustave L. Levy Place, Box 1020, New York, NY, 10029, USA.

Background: Group I Paks are serine/threonine kinases that function as major effectors of the small GTPases Rac1 and Cdc42, and they regulate cytoskeletal dynamics, cell polarity, and transcription. We previously demonstrated that Pak1 and Pak2 function redundantly to promote skeletal myoblast differentiation during postnatal development and regeneration in mice. However, the roles of Pak1 and Pak2 in adult muscle homeostasis are unknown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13395-019-0191-4DOI Listing
February 2019

Ritonavir-boosted paritaprevir, ombitasvir plus ribavirin could improve eGFR in patients with renal impairment and HCV: an Egyptian cohort.

Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2019 Jan 13;13(1):89-93. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

a Endemic Medicine and Hepato-gastroenterology Department, Faculty of Medicine , Cairo University , Cairo , Egypt.

Background: The present study aimed at evaluation of changes in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) among chronic Hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) Stages 3-5 who were treated with 12 weeks of ritonavir-boosted paritaprevir, ombitasvir plus ribavirin.

Methods: Changes in renal functions were compared across follow up time points (baseline, SVR4, and SVR8). Data on on-treatment adverse events (AEs), serious AEs, laboratory abnormalities, treatment discontinuation were collected. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17474124.2019.1544070DOI Listing
January 2019

Is treating the gut microbiome the key to achieving better outcomes in cirrhosis?

Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2019 Jan 13;13(1):1-2. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

a Liver Sciences, School of Immunology and Microbial Science, Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine , King's College London , London , UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17474124.2019.1543587DOI Listing
January 2019

Sarcopenia and chronic liver diseases.

Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2018 Dec 16;12(12):1229-1244. Epub 2018 Oct 16.

c Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine , National Taiwan University College of Medicine , Taipei , Taiwan.

Introduction: Sarcopenia is a syndrome characterized by progressive and generalized loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength, which is commonly associated with various chronic diseases, including chronic liver diseases. Growing lines of evidence indicate that sarcopenia not only correlates with the clinical outcomes and survival of patients undergoing liver transplant, but also serves as a prognostic factor for candidates of liver transplantation and patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Areas covered: In this review, we conducted a narrative review and search of literature from PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Library database up to August 2018. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17474124.2018.1534586DOI Listing
December 2018

Direct acting antivirals failure: cause and retreatment options.

Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2018 Dec 31;12(12):1245-1250. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

a Department of Hepatology , Cochin Hospital , Paris , France.

Introduction: Chronic hepatitis C (HCV) infection is a systemic life-threatening condition that can lead to hepatic and extra-hepatic complications. Sustained virological response (SVR) is associated with a regression of most liver and non-liver manifestations, which reduce mortality. The history of HCV infection therapy radically changed in the last decade, with the introduction of the first generation direct acting antivirals (DAAs). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17474124.2018.1541237DOI Listing
December 2018

Trends in hepatocellular carcinoma due to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2019 Feb 29;13(2):179-187. Epub 2018 Dec 29.

a Medical School , University of Western Australia , Nedlands , Australia.

Introduction: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease worldwide and is associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the most frequent malignant liver tumor. The increasing prevalence of obesity and diabetes is influencing the epidemiology of HCC with the most dramatic increases in NAFLD-related HCC seen in Western countries. Although cirrhosis is the major risk factor for HCC in NAFLD, there is increasing recognition that NAFLD-HCC occurs in the absence of cirrhosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17474124.2019.1549989DOI Listing
February 2019

An update on the pathogenesis and clinical management of cirrhosis with refractory ascites.

Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2018 Dec 3:1-13. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

a Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Toronto General Hospital , University of Toronto , Toronto , Ontario , Canada.

Introduction: Ascites commonly complicates cirrhosis, becoming refractory to treatment with diuretics and sodium restriction in approximately 10% of patients. Pathogenesis of refractory ascites (RA) is multifactorial, the common final pathway being renal hypoperfusion and avid sodium retention. Refractory ascites has a negative prognostic implication in the natural history of cirrhosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17474124.2018.1555469DOI Listing
December 2018

Non-invasive assessment of liver fibrosis and prognosis: an update on serum and elastography markers.

Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2019 Feb 6:1-14. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

b Baylor University Medical Center , Dallas , TX , USA.

Introduction: Non-invasive assessment of fibrosis is increasingly utilized in clinical practice to diagnose hepatic fibrosis. Non-invasive assessment of liver fibrosis relies on biologic and/or physical properties to assess tissue fibrosis. Serum markers estimate fibrosis by incorporating markers reflecting hepatic function (indirect markers) and/or markers measuring extracellular matrix degradation/fibrogenesis (direct markers). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17474124.2019.1579641DOI Listing
February 2019

Gut microbiota: novel therapeutic target for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2019 Mar 25;13(3):193-204. Epub 2019 Jan 25.

a Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology , Hallym University College of Medicine , Chuncheon , South Korea.

Introduction: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common and increasing liver diseases worldwide with a prevalence of 20-33%. NAFLD may progress to fibrosis, compensated cirrhosis, advanced cirrhosis, or hepatocellular carcinoma. Despite the increasing prevalence of NAFLD, definitive medical treatment has not been established, with the exception of lifestyle modification with exercise. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17474124.2019.1569513DOI Listing

Perspectives on the interlinked nature of systemic sclerosis and reflux disease.

Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2019 Mar 4;13(3):213-227. Epub 2019 Jan 4.

b Department of Rheumatology and Internal Medicine , Medical University of Bialystok , Bialystok , Poland.

Introduction: Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a multisystem connective tissue disease, characterized by chronic inflammation and vascular changes that result in esophageal smooth muscle atrophy and fibrosis. Subsequent progressive loss of peristalsis in the distal esophagus and loss of lower esophageal sphincter function lead to problems with the protective barrier and exposure of sensitive tissues to the gastroduodenal contents, a disorder called reflux disease. Areas covered: Depending on the range, nature and symptoms of the disease, the term 'reflux disease' may refer to gastroesophageal reflux, laryngopharyngeal reflux, microaspiration into the airways and silent reflux. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17474124.2019.1561274DOI Listing

Upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage in acute-on-chronic liver failure: prevalence, characteristics, and impact on prognosis.

Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2019 Mar 18;13(3):263-269. Epub 2019 Jan 18.

a State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Disease, The First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine , Zhejiang University , Hangzhou , China.

Background: Upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage (UGH) is a life-threatening complication in patients with cirrhosis; however, data regarding the role of UGH in acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) are limited.

Methods: A prospective, observational cohort study was performed from February 2014 to Mach 2015.

Results: UGH was identified in 170 of 492 cirrhotic patients with acute decompensation (AD) at the time of admission. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17474124.2019.1567329DOI Listing

Combined effect of hepatic venous pressure gradient and liver stiffness on long-term mortality in patients with cirrhosis.

Korean J Intern Med 2019 Feb 25. Epub 2019 Feb 25.

Department of Radiology, Hanyang University Guri Hospital, Guri, Korea.

Background/aims: Both hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) and liver stiffness (LS) are useful tools for predicting mortality in patients with cirrhosis. We investigated the combined effect of HVPG and LS on long-term mortality in patients with cirrhosis.

Methods: We retrospectively collected data from 103 patients with cirrhosis, whose HVPG and LS were measured between November 2009 and September 2013. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3904/kjim.2018.151DOI Listing
February 2019

Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Novel Thiazolyl-Coumarin Derivatives as Potent Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors with Antifibrotic Activity.

Molecules 2019 Feb 19;24(4). Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacology, Department of Pharmacological & Toxicological Chemistry, Faculty of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences; University of Chile, Santiago 8380000, Chile.

New histone deacetylases (HDAC) inhibitors with low toxicity to non-cancerous cells, are a prevalent issue at present because these enzymes are actively involved in fibrotic diseases. We designed and synthesized a novel series of thiazolyl-coumarins, substituted at position 6 (R = H, Br, OCH₃), linked to classic zinc binding groups, such as hydroxamic and carboxylic acid moieties and alternative zinc binding groups such as disulfide and catechol. Their in vitro inhibitory activities against HDACs were evaluated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules24040739DOI Listing
February 2019

New Insights into the Role of Epithelial⁻Mesenchymal Transition during Aging.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Feb 19;20(4). Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Department of Medical Sciences and Institute of Biomedicine-iBiMED, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal.

Epithelial⁻mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a cellular process by which differentiated epithelial cells undergo a phenotypic conversion to a mesenchymal nature. The EMT has been increasingly recognized as an essential process for tissue fibrogenesis during disease and normal aging. Higher levels of EMT proteins in aged tissues support the involvement of EMT as a possible cause and/or consequence of the aging process. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20040891DOI Listing
February 2019

SPHK1-induced autophagy in peritoneal mesothelial cell enhances gastric cancer peritoneal dissemination.

Cancer Med 2019 Feb 21. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Department of Surgical Oncology, First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

Gastric cancer peritoneal dissemination (GCPD) has been recognized as the most common form of metastasis in advanced gastric cancer (GC), and the survival is pessimistic. The injury of mesothelial cells plays an important role in GCPD. However, its molecular mechanism is not entirely clear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cam4.2041DOI Listing
February 2019

Real impact of liver cirrhosis on the development of hepatocellular carcinoma in various liver diseases-meta-analytic assessment.

Cancer Med 2019 Feb 21. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Hatano Red Cross Hospital, Kanagawa, Japan.

Background: It is well known that the incidence of developing hepatocelluler carcinoma (HCC) is increased in liver cirrhosis of different etiologies. However, comparison of HCC incidence in various liver diseases has not yet been estimated. We surveyed this comparison. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cam4.1998DOI Listing
February 2019

The Spectrum of Hepatic Involvement in Patients with Telomere Disease.

Hepatology 2019 Feb 21. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Liver Diseases Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, NIH, Bethesda.

Background: Loss-of-function mutations in genes that encode for components of the telomere repair complex cause accelerated telomere shortening. Hepatic involvement has been recognized as a cause of morbidity in telomere diseases, but very few studies have characterized the nature and extent of liver involvement in affected patients. We report the prevalence and characteristics of liver involvement in a large cohort of patients with telomere disease evaluated serially at the National Institutes of Health. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep.30578DOI Listing
February 2019

Magnetic beads-assisted endoscopic submucosal dissection of duodenal heterotopic gastric mucosa with fibrosis.

Endoscopy 2019 Feb 21. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Department of Gastroenterology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-0836-2545DOI Listing
February 2019