From the Section of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine (A.F., A.J.S.) and Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging (A.J.S.), Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT.
A healthy, functional microcirculation in combination with nonobstructed epicardial coronary arteries is the prerequisite of normal myocardial perfusion. Quantitative assessment in myocardial perfusion and determination of absolute myocardial blood flow can be achieved noninvasively using dynamic imaging with multiple imaging modalities. Extensive evidence supports the clinical value of noninvasively assessing indices of coronary flow for diagnosing coronary microvascular dysfunction; in certain diseases, the degree of coronary microvascular impairment carries important prognostic relevance. Read More
From the Cardiovascular Imaging Program, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine and Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Department and Radiology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.
Objectives: This study aimed to derive age-specific multivariate reference regions (MVRs) able to classify subjects into those having normal or abnormal filling patterns and to evaluate the prognostic impact of this classification.
Background: The integration of several parameters is necessary to diagnose disorders of left ventricular (LV) filling because no single measurement accurately describes the complexity of diastolic function. However, no generally accepted validated multiparametric algorithm currently exists. Read More
Background: The correlation between angiographic assessment of coronary stenoses and fractional flow reserve (FFR) is weak. Whether and how risk factors impact the diagnostic accuracy of angiography is unknown. We sought to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of angiography by visual estimate and by quantitative coronary angiography when compared with FFR and evaluate the influence of risk factors (RF) on this accuracy. Read More
Background: There has been a gradual decline in the prevalence of abnormal stress single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging studies among patients without history of coronary artery disease (CAD). The trends of SPECT studies among patients with known CAD have not been evaluated previously.
Methods And Results: We assessed the Mayo Clinic nuclear cardiology database for all stress SPECT tests performed between January 1991 and December 2012 in patients with history of CAD defined as having previous myocardial infarction, percutaneous coronary intervention, and coronary artery bypass grafting. Read More
From the Cardiovascular Division, Department of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, and Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville (M.S.); Biomedical Imaging Research Institute, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (B.S., D.L.); Department of Clinical Sciences, Clinical Physiology, Lund University, Skane University Hospital, Sweden (H.A.); Cardiology Division, Department of Medicine, Northern Ontario School of Medicine, Sudbury, Canada (A.K.); Department of Radiology and Department of Medicine, New York University, New York (L.A.); and Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Oxford Center for Clinical Magnetic Resonance Research, University of Oxford, London, United Kingdom (S.N.).
Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging has become the gold standard for evaluating myocardial function, volumes, and scarring. Additionally, cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging is unique in its comprehensive tissue characterization, including assessment of myocardial edema, myocardial siderosis, myocardial perfusion, and diffuse myocardial fibrosis. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging has become an indispensable tool in the evaluation of congenital heart disease, heart failure, cardiac masses, pericardial disease, and coronary artery disease. Read More
Background: The incidence of angiographic no reflow (NR) and microvascular obstruction (MVO) at cardiac magnetic resonance is significantly different. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of NR and MVO in a cohort of consecutive patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction treated with primary percutaneous coronary interventions.
Methods And Results: In this prospective study, 88 consecutive ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction patients were enrolled within 12 hours from symptoms onset. Read More
From the Department for Cardiovascular Imaging, University College London, UK (J.A.H., A.M.T., B.P.); Cardiorespiratory Division, Great Ormond Street Hospital, London, UK (J.A.H., A.M.T.); and Barts Heart Centre, St Bartholomew's Hospital, London, UK (B.P.).
Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois; Feinberg Cardiovascular Research Institute, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois.
Objectives: This study sought to investigate how right ventricular (RV) contractile function and its coupling with pulmonary circulation (PC) stratify clinical phenotypes and outcome in heart failure preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) patients.
Background: Pulmonary hypertension and RV dysfunction are key hemodynamic abnormalities in HFpEF.
Methods: Three hundred eighty seven HFpEF patients (mean age 64 ± 12 years, 59% females, left ventricular ejection fraction 59 ± 7%) underwent RV and pulmonary hemodynamic evaluation by echocardiography (entire population) and right heart catheterization (219 patients). Read More
From the Centre for Advanced Cardiovascular Imaging, William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, United Kingdom and Barts Heart Centre, St Bartholomew's Hospital, Barts Health NHS Trust, London, United Kingdom (A.R., A.W., F. Pirro, F. Pugliese); Siemens Healthineers, Forchheim, Germany (E.K.); Institute of Cardiovascular Science, University College London, United Kingdom (J.C.M.); and Departments of Cardiology and Radiology, Erasmus MC University Medical Centre Rotterdam, The Netherlands (K.N.).
Background: The clinical analysis of myocardial dynamic computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging lacks standardization. The objective of this prospective study was to compare different analysis approaches to diagnose ischemia in patients with stable angina referred for invasive coronary angiography.
Methods And Results: Patients referred for evaluation of stable angina symptoms underwent adenosine-stress dynamic computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging with a second-generation dual-source scanner. Read More
Aims: Prolonged central circulation transit time (TT) has long been associated with heart failure (HF) and left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. In this study, we assessed the central circulation TT using cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) in patients with HF of preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and of reduced EF (HFrEF) and investigated its relation to haemodynamics.
Methods And Results: Fifty eight prospectively recruited volunteers underwent CMR. Read More
From the Weatherhead PET Center For Preventing and Reversing Atherosclerosis (A.E.R., D.D.S., K.L.G.), Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine (D.K., N.P.J., M.B.P., R.K.), McGovern Medial Medical School, University of Texas, and Memorial Hermann Hospital, Houston; and Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (D.L., H.Z.).
Background: Different adenosine stress imaging protocols have not been systemically validated for absolute myocardial perfusion and coronary flow reserve (CFR) by positron emission tomography, where submaximal stress precludes assessing physiological severity of coronary artery disease.
Methods And Results: In 127 volunteers, serial rest-stress positron emission tomography scans using rubidium-82 with various adenosine infusion protocols identified (1) the protocol with maximum stress perfusion and CFR, (2) test-retest precision in same subject, (3) stress perfusion and CFR after adenosine compared with dipyridamole, (4) heterogeneity of coronary flow capacity combining stress perfusion and CFR, and (5) potential relevance for patients with risk factors or coronary artery disease. The adenosine 6-minute infusion with rubidium-82 injection at 3 minutes caused CFR that was significantly 15. Read More
JACC Cardiovasc Imaging 2017 Feb 18;10(2):157-167. Epub 2017 Jan 18.
Division of Nuclear Medicine-Cardiovascular Section, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland; Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland. Electronic address:
Objectives: This study sought to evaluate the effects of inflammatory sarcoid disease on coronary circulatory function and the response to immune-suppressive treatment.
Background: Although positron emission tomography assessment of myocardial inflammation is increasingly applied to identify active cardiac sarcoidosis, its effect on coronary flow and immune-suppressive treatment remains to be characterized.
Methods: Thirty-two individuals, who were referred for positron emission tomography/computed tomography, were evaluated for known or suspected cardiac sarcoidosis applying (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose to determine inflammation and (13)N-ammonia to assess for perfusion deficits following a high-fat/low-carbohydrate diet and fasting state >12 h to suppress myocardial glucose uptake. Read More
From the King's College London, Division of Biomedical Engineering and Imaging Sciences, St. Thomas' Hospital, The Rayne Institute, United Kingdom (F.D., N.P.S., D.A.N., P.L.); Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Radcliffe Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, United Kingdom (S.M., M.M.B., S.N.); University of Auckland, New Zealand (N.P.S.); and Department of Non Invasive Cardiology, King's College Hospital, London, United Kingdom (M.J.M.).
Background: Transvalvular peak pressure drops are routinely assessed noninvasively by echocardiography using the Bernoulli principle. However, the Bernoulli principle relies on several approximations that may not be appropriate, including that the majority of the pressure drop is because of the spatial acceleration of the blood flow, and the ejection jet is a single streamline (single peak velocity value).
Methods And Results: We assessed the accuracy of the Bernoulli principle to estimate the peak pressure drop at the aortic valve using 3-dimensional cardiovascular magnetic resonance flow data in 32 subjects. Read More
Objectives: The hypothesis of this study was that left atrial (LA) dynamic impairment during exercise may trigger right ventricular (RV)-to-pulmonary circulation (PC) uncoupling and ventilation inefficiency.
Background: LA function plays a key role in the hemodynamics of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Extensive investigation of LA dynamics, however, has been performed exclusively at rest. Read More
Background: Computed tomographic (CT) angiography is an important tool for the evaluation of coronary artery disease but often correlates poorly with myocardial ischemia. Current dynamic CT perfusion techniques can assess ischemia but have limited accuracy and deliver high radiation dose. Therefore, an accurate, low-dose, dynamic CT perfusion technique is needed. Read More
From the Cardiovascular Engineering, Inc., Norwood, MA (L.L.C., G.F.M.); Cardiovascular Research Center, Lifespan Cardiovascular Institute, W. Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI (L.L.C.); Data Coordinating Center (J.N.P.), Department of Epidemiology (E.J.B., R.S.V.), and Department of Biostatistics (M.G.L.), Boston University School of Public Health, MA; Boston University and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Framingham Study, MA (E.J.B., M.G.L., R.S.V.); and Cardiology and Preventive Medicine Sections, Department of Medicine (E.J.B., R.S.V.), Evans Department of Medicine (E.J.B., R.S.V., N.M.H.), and Whitaker Cardiovascular Institute (E.J.B., R.S.V., N.M.H.), Boston University School of Medicine, MA.
Background: Arterial dysfunction contributes to cardiovascular disease (CVD) progression and clinical events. Inter-relations of aortic stiffness and vasodilator function with incident CVD remain incompletely studied.
Methods And Results: We used proportional hazards models to relate individual measures of vascular function to incident CVD in 4547 participants (mean age, 51±11 years; 54% women) in 2 generations of Framingham Heart Study participants. Read More
From the Greenberg Cardiology Division, Department of Medicine (J.K., T.S., A.S., P.N.K., A.G., S.R.G., S.A.K., M.S., P.M., M.R., T.S., R.B.D., J.W.W.) and Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery (A.D.F.), Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY; Division of Cardiology, Department of Surgery (M.B.R., A.E.M.), and Department of Bioengineering (M.B.R., A.E.M.), University of California, San Francisco; Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, CA (M.B.R., A.E.M.); and Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston (R.A.L.).
Background: Right ventricular (RV) and left ventricular (LV) function are closely linked due to a variety of factors, including common coronary blood supply. Altered LV perfusion holds the potential to affect the RV, but links between LV ischemia and RV performance, and independent impact of RV dysfunction on effort tolerance, are unknown.
Methods And Results: The population comprised 2051 patients who underwent exercise stress myocardial perfusion imaging and echo (5. Read More
From the Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (A.K., I.C., R.T., H.-J.Y., A.K., D.U., E.M., R.D.); University of California, Los Angeles (A.K., H.-J.Y., D.U., E.M., R.D.); Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Richland, WA (A.D., L.K.); Lawson Health Research Institute, University of Western Ontario, London, Canada (F.S.P.); and Children's Hospital Los Angeles, CA (J.C.W.).
Background: Emerging evidence indicates that persistent microvascular obstruction (PMO) is more predictive of major adverse cardiovascular events than myocardial infarct (MI) size. But it remains unclear how PMO, a phenomenon limited to the acute/subacute period of MI, drives adverse remodeling in chronic MI setting. We hypothesized that PMO resolves into chronic iron crystals within MI territories, which in turn are proinflammatory and favor adverse remodeling post-MI. Read More
From the Department of Radiology (Y.H., Z.T., Y.Z., J.H.G.), EPSRC Centre for Mathematical and Statistical Analysis of Multimodal Clinical Imaging (Y.H.), Department of Engineering (Z.T.), Division of Cardiovascular Medicine (M.E., J.M.T., I.B.W., J.H.F.R.), Wolfson Brain Imaging Centre (T.D.F.), and Statistical Laboratory (A.Y.P.), University of Cambridge, United Kingdom; British Heart Foundation Centre for Cardiovascular Science, University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom (N.J., D.E.N.); Department of Vascular Surgery (J.R. Boyle) and Department of Nuclear Medicine (J.R. Buscombe), Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, United Kingdom; and Department of Vascular Surgery, Changhai Hospital, Shanghai, China (Y.Z.).
Background: Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) wall inflammation and mechanical structural stress may influence AAA expansion and lead to rupture. We hypothesized a positive correlation between structural stress and fluorine-18-labeled 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-d-glucose ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography-defined inflammation. We also explored the influence of computed tomography-derived aneurysm morphology and composition, including intraluminal thrombus, on both variables. Read More
From the Hatter Cardiovascular Institute, Institute of Cardiovascular Science, University College London, United Kingdom (H.B., S.K.W., M.R., A.H., D.M.Y., D.J.H.); National Institute of Health Research, University College London Hospitals Biomedical Research Centre, United Kingdom (H.B., S.K.W., M.R., A.H., A.S., D.M.Y., J.C.M., D.J.H.); Barts Heart Centre, St Bartholomew's Hospital, London, United Kingdom (H.B., S.R., A.A.-G., S.K.W., A.N.B., T.A.T., M.F., M.R., A.H., A.S., A.S.H., C.M., J.C.M., D.J.H.); National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (P.K.); Cardiovascular and Metabolic Disorders Program, Duke-National University of Singapore (D.J.H.); and National Heart Research Institute Singapore, National Heart Centre Singapore (D.J.H.).
Background: The presence of intramyocardial hemorrhage (IMH) in ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction patients reperfused by primary percutaneous coronary intervention has been associated with residual myocardial iron at follow-up, and its impact on adverse left ventricular (LV) remodeling is incompletely understood and is investigated here.
Methods And Results: Forty-eight ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction patients underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance at 4±2 days post primary percutaneous coronary intervention, of whom 40 had a follow-up scan at 5±2 months. Native T1, T2, and T2* maps were acquired. Read More
From the Johns Hopkins Hospital and School of Medicine (A.P., A.L.V., J.M.M., A.A.-Z, J.A.C.L.) and Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health (A.B., C.C.), Baltimore, MD; National Heart Lung and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (A.Y.H., M.Y.C.); Toshiba Medical Systems Corporation, Japan (C.S); Charité Medical School, Humboldt, Berlin, Germany (E.Z., M.D.); Heart Institute, InCor, University of São Paulo Medical School, Brazil (C.E.R.); Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Denmark (K.F.K); St Luke's International Hospital, Tokyo, Japan (H.N.); and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (M.F.D.C.).
Background: Coronary computed tomographic angiography (CTA) and myocardial perfusion imaging (CTP) is a validated approach for detection and exclusion of flow-limiting coronary artery disease (CAD), but little data are available on gender-specific performance of these modalities. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of combined coronary CTA and CTP in detecting flow-limiting CAD in women compared with men.
Methods And Results: Three hundred and eighty-one patients who underwent both CTA-CTP and single-photon emission computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging preceding invasive coronary angiography as part of the CORE320 multicenter study (Coronary Artery Evaluation Using 320-row Multidetector Computed Tomography Angiography and Myocardial Perfusion) were included in this ancillary study. Read More
From the Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Heart Vascular Stroke Institute, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea (J.M.L.); Department of Internal Medicine, Cardiovascular Center (C.H.K., B.-K.K., D.H., J.P., J.Z., Y.T., H.-S.K.), Department of Nuclear Medicine (J.-I.B., M.S., J.C.P., G.J.C.), and Department of Internal Medicine, Emergency Medical Center (S.-H.N.), Seoul National University Hospital, Korea; Institute of Aging, Seoul National University, Korea (B.-K.K., S.-H.N.); Department of Internal Medicine, Sejong General Hospital, Bucheon, Korea (K.-H.J.); and Department of Cardiology, Heart Institute, Center for Medical Research and Information, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Korea (J.-M.A., S.-J.P.).
Background: Recent evidence suggests that the diagnostic accuracy of myocardial perfusion imaging is improved by quantifying stress myocardial blood flow (MBF) in absolute terms. We evaluated a comprehensive quantitative (13)N-ammonia positron emission tomography ((13)NH3-PET) diagnostic panel, including stress MBF, coronary flow reserve (CFR), and relative flow reserve (RFR) in conjunction with relative perfusion defect (PD) assessments to better detect functionally significant coronary artery stenosis.
Methods And Results: A total of 130 patients (307 vessels) with coronary artery disease underwent both (13)NH3-PET and invasive coronary angiography with fractional flow reserve (FFR) measurement. Read More
From the Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares Carlos III (CNIC), Madrid, Spain (D.P., I.G.-L., F.S., C.B., V.F., B.I., A.G.-Á.); Hospital Clínic, IDIBAPS, Barcelona, Spain (D.P., E.S., J.F.E., A.G.-Á.); Hospital Universitario Quirón Madrid, UEM, Spain (I.G.-L.); Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Extremadura, Badajoz, Spain (D.S.-Q.); IIS-Fundación Jiménez Díaz, Madrid, Spain (B.I.); Philips Healthcare, Madrid, Spain (J.S.-G.); and Zena and Michael A. Wiener Cardiovascular Institute, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York (V.F.).
Background: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) and right ventricular (RV) dysfunction are strong predictors of morbidity and mortality among patients with congenital heart disease. Early detection of RV involvement may be useful in the management of these patients. We aimed to assess progressive cardiac adaptation and quantify myocardial extracellular volume in an experimental porcine model of PH because of aorto-pulmonary shunt using cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). Read More
From the Division of Cardiology, Heart Institute, Children's Hospital Colorado, University of Colorado, Aurora (D.A.B., S.S.P., D.D.I., A.K.Y.); and Division of Cardiology, The Labatt Family Heart Center, Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada (C.S., A.N.R., L.M., M.K.F.).
Background: Through ventricular interdependence, pulmonary hypertension (PH) induces left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. We hypothesized that pediatric PH patients have LV diastolic dysfunction, related to adverse pulmonary hemodynamics, leftward septal shift, and prolonged right ventricular systole.
Methods And Results: Echocardiography was prospectively performed at 2 institutions in 54 pediatric PH patients during cardiac catheterization and in 54 matched controls. Read More
From the Department of Cardiology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China (J.W.); Department of Cardiology, Internal Medicine, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha (D.B., F.X., E.O'L., G.P., T.R.P.); and Nebraska Heart, Lincoln (J.S.).
Background: Real-time myocardial contrast echocardiography (RTMCE) directly measures capillary flow (CBF), which in turn is a major regulator of coronary flow and resistance during demand or hyperemic stress. Although fractional flow reserve (FFR) was developed to assess the physiological relevance of an epicardial stenosis, it assumes maximal microvascular vasodilation and minimal resistance during vasodilator stress. Therefore, we sought to determine the relationship between CBF assessed with RTMCE during stress echocardiography and FFR in intermediate coronary lesions. Read More
From the Cardiac MR Group, Department of Clinical Physiology (D.N., E.H., M.C., A.H.A., H.E., H.A.) and Department of Cardiology (S.K., D.E.), Skåne University Hospital, Lund University, Sweden; Department of Radiology, Odense University Hospital, Denmark (E.-T.F.); Section for Interventional Cardiology, Division of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Diseases, Department of Cardiology, Oslo University Hospital, Ullevaal, Norway (P.H.); Department of Cardiology B, Oslo University Hospital Ullevål, and Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Norway (D.A.); and Laboratory of Medical Informatics, School of Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece (A.H.A.).
Background: Contrast-enhanced steady state free precession (CE-SSFP) and T2-weighted short tau inversion recovery (T2-STIR) have been clinically validated to estimate myocardium at risk (MaR) by cardiovascular magnetic resonance while using myocardial perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography as reference standard. Myocardial perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography has been used to describe the coronary perfusion territories during myocardial ischemia. Compared with myocardial perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography, cardiovascular magnetic resonance offers superior image quality and practical advantages. Read More
Division of Nuclear Medicine - Cardiovascular Section, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, JHOC 3225, 601 N. Caroline Street, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA.
Aims: We aimed to evaluate whether a PET-determined longitudinal decrease in myocardial blood flow (MBF) or gradient, assumed as a more specific flow parameter for epicardial resistance, correlates with invasively measured fractional flow reserve (FFR) in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients.
Methods And Results: In 29 patients with suspected or known CAD, myocardial perfusion and MBF in mL/g/min was determined with 13N-ammonia PET/CT during regadenoson stimulation and at rest, and corresponding myocardial flow reserve (MFR = MBF stress/MBF rest) was calculated. MBF parameters were assessed in the myocardial region with stress-related perfusion defect and with stenosis ≥50% (Region 1), without defect but with stenosis ≥50% (Region 2), or without stenosis ≥50% (Region 3). Read More
Centre for Advanced Cardiovascular Imaging, NIHR Cardiovascular Biomedical Research Unit at Barts, William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine, Queen Mary University of London and St Bartholomew's Hospital, 2nd floor, King George V Building, West Smithfield, London EC1A 7BE, UK.
Aims: South Asian (SA) patients are known to have an increased incidence of acute cardiovascular events compared with Caucasians. The aim of this observational study was to compare the prevalence of coronary stenoses, the amount and composition of coronary atherosclerosis in a cohort of Caucasian and SA patients with stable chest pain, in non-acute settings.
Methods And Results: The study protocol conformed to the ethical guidelines of the 1975 Declaration of Helsinki. Read More
Background: The prognostic value of coronary artery calcium (CAC) scoring on top of myocardial perfusion imaging with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in patients suspected for coronary artery disease is not well established.
Methods And Results: Four thousand eight hundred ninety-seven symptomatic patients without a history of coronary artery disease referred for SPECT and CAC scoring were included. Major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) were defined as late revascularization (>90 days after scanning), nonfatal myocardial infarction, and all-cause mortality. Read More
Department of Pathophysiology, Faculty of Medicine of the Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium; Pulmonary Hypertension Clinic of the Erasmus Hospital, Brussels, Belgium. Electronic address:
Microvascular dysfunction or disease is most commonly associated with diffuse epicardial coronary atherosclerosis and endothelial dysfunction, whereas it is less common as a distinct, separate, isolated pathophysiology. The different manifestations of coronary artery disease in women relate in part to their smaller coronary arteries, higher coronary blood flow, and higher endothelial shear stress, which have profound effects on endothelial function and development or resistance to atherosclerosis, its symptomatic presentation, outcomes, and treatment. The complex interactions of focal stenosis, diffuse epicardial atherosclerotic coronary narrowing, and microvascular dysfunction make definitive diagnosis and management difficult by use of standard noninvasive and invasive physiological and anatomic technologies. Read More
Department of Medicine, Cardiology Division, Columbia University Medical Center and New York-Presbyterian Hospital, New York, New York; Department of Radiology, Columbia University Medical Center and New York-Presbyterian Hospital, New York, New York. Electronic address:
Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate gender-based differences in nuclear cardiology practice globally, with a particular focus on laboratory volume, radiation dose, protocols, and best practices.
Background: It is unclear whether gender-based differences exist in radiation exposure for nuclear cardiology procedures.
Methods: In a large, multicenter, observational, cross-sectional study encompassing 7,911 patients in 65 countries, radiation effective dose was estimated for each examination. Read More
Objectives: This study sought to evaluate myocardial perfusion reserve index (MPRI) and diastolic strain rate, both assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) as a noninvasive tool for the detection of microvasculopathy.
Background: Long-term survival of cardiac allograft recipients is limited primarily by cancer and cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV). Besides epicardial CAV, diagnosed by coronary angiography, stenotic microvasculopathy was found to be an additional independent risk factor for survival after heart transplantation. Read More
From the The Hatter Cardiovascular Institute, Institute of Cardiovascular Science, University College London, UK (H.B., S.K.W., G.M.F., A.N., D.M.Y., D.J.H.); The National Institute of Health Research, University College London Hospitals Biomedical Research Centre, UK (H.B., S.K.W., A.S., J.C.M., D.M.Y., D.J.H.); Independent Researcher (S.G.C.); UCL Institute of Nuclear Medicine, University College London Hospital, UK (C.O., S.M.Y.W., A.G., L.M.); London School Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK (J.N.); Siemens Healthcare, Frimley, UK (P.W.); Cardiovascular and Metabolic Disorders Program, Duke-National University of Singapore, Singapore (D.J.H.); and National Heart Research Institute Singapore, National Heart Centre Singapore, Singapore (D.J.H.).
Background: Hybrid positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance allows the advantages of magnetic resonance in tissue characterizing the myocardium to be combined with the unique metabolic insights of positron emission tomography. We hypothesized that the area of reduced myocardial glucose uptake would closely match the area at risk delineated by T2 mapping in ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction patients.
Methods And Results: Hybrid positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance using (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) for glucose uptake was performed in 21 ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction patients at a median of 5 days. Read More
Background: Normal endothelial function is a measure of vascular health and dysfunction is a predictor of coronary events. Nitric oxide-mediated coronary artery endothelial function, as assessed by vasomotor reactivity during isometric handgrip exercise (IHE), was recently quantified noninvasively with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Because the internal mammary artery (IMA) is often visualized during coronary MRI, we propose the strategy of simultaneously assessing systemic and coronary endothelial function noninvasively by MRI during IHE. Read More
From the Working Group Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, Experimental and Clinical Research Center, a Joint Cooperation Between the Charité Medical Faculty and the Max-Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine and HELIOS Klinikum Berlin Buch, Department of Cardiology and Nephrology, Berlin, Germany (F.v.K.-B., A.K., R.F.T., E.B., J.S.-M.); Department of Biomedical Engineering, McCormick School of Engineering, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL (A.J.B., M.M.); and Department of Radiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL (M.M.).
Background: Aortic stenosis (AS) leads to variable stress for the left ventricle (LV) and consequently a broad range of LV remodeling. The aim of this study was to describe blood flow patterns in the ascending aorta of patients with AS and determine their association with remodeling.
Methods And Results: Thirty-seven patients with AS (14 mild, 8 moderate, 15 severe; age, 63±13 years) and 37 healthy controls (age, 60±10 years) underwent 4-dimensional-flow magnetic resonance imaging. Read More
Aims: Little is known about right ventricular (RV) function in survivors of childhood cancer, although both anthracyclines and radiotherapy represent potentially cardiotoxic treatment. We hypothesized that adult survivors of childhood malignant lymphoma or acute lymphoblastic leukaemia would have impaired RV function.
Methods And Results: We examined RV dimensions and function by echocardiography in 246 survivors, mean 21. Read More
Objectives: This study assessed the prevalence and associated risk factors for valvular dysfunction (VD) observed in adult lymphoma survivors (LS) after autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (auto-HCT), and to determine whether anthracycline-containing chemotherapy (ACCT) alone in these patients is associated with VD.
Background: The prevalence of and risk factors for VD in LS after auto-HCT is unknown. Anthracyclines may induce heart failure, but any association with VD is not well-defined. Read More
From the BHF Glasgow Cardiovascular Research Centre, Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences (D.C., N.A., I.M., S.R., N.S., P.W., A.R., K.G.O., C.B.) and Robertson Centre for Biostatistics (C.H., I.F.), University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom; Golden Jubilee National Hospital, Clydebank, United Kingdom (D.C., M.M., M.C.P., H.E., S.H., S.W., M.M.L., A.D., A.M., C.B.).
Background: The success of coronary reperfusion therapy in ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (MI) is commonly limited by failure to restore microvascular perfusion.
Methods And Results: We performed a prospective cohort study in patients with reperfused ST-segment-elevation MI who underwent cardiac magnetic resonance 2 days (n=286) and 6 months (n=228) post MI. A serial imaging time-course study was also performed (n=30 participants; 4 cardiac magnetic resonance scans): 4 to 12 hours, 2 days, 10 days, and 7 months post reperfusion. Read More
From the Department of Internal Medicine, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha (T.R.P., S.S., J.L., R.R.H., F.X.); Department of Engineering, Elon University, NC (C.A.); and Joint Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and North Carolina State University (P.A.D.).
Background: Liquid core nanodroplets containing condensed gaseous fluorocarbons can be vaporized at clinically relevant acoustic energies and have been hypothesized as an alternative ultrasound contrast agent instead of gas-core agents. The potential for targeted activation and imaging of these agents was tested with droplets formulated from liquid octafluoropropane (C3) and 1:1 mixtures of C3 with liquid decafluorobutane (C3C4).
Methods And Results: In 8 pigs with recent myocardial infarction and variable degrees of reperfusion, transthoracic acoustic activation was attempted using 1. Read More
Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of T1 mapping at rest and during adenosine stress as a novel method for ischemia detection without the use of gadolinium contrast.
Background: In chronic coronary artery disease (CAD), accurate detection of ischemia is important because targeted revascularization improves clinical outcomes. Myocardial blood volume (MBV) may be a more comprehensive marker of ischemia than myocardial blood flow. Read More
From the College of Engineering, University of Georgia, Athens (T.S.G., Z.T.H.T.); Departments of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Emory University Hospital, Atlanta, GA (J.O.); Departments of Radiology (E.J.S.) and Cardiology (R.Y.K., W.G.S.), Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA.
Background: To develop a technique to noninvasively estimate stroke volume in real time during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided procedures, based on induced magnetohydrodynamic voltages (VMHD) that occur in ECG recordings during MRI exams, leaving the MRI scanner free to perform other imaging tasks. Because of the relationship between blood flow (BF) and VMHD, we hypothesized that a method to obtain stroke volume could be derived from extracted VMHD vectors in the vectorcardiogram (VCG) frame of reference (VMHDVCG).
Methods And Results: To estimate a subject-specific BF-VMHD model, VMHDVCG was acquired during a 20-s breath-hold and calibrated versus aortic BF measured using phase-contrast magnetic resonance in 10 subjects (n=10) and 1 subject diagnosed with premature ventricular contractions. Read More
In recent years, several technical developments in the field of cardiac computed tomography (CT) have made possible the extraction of functional information from an anatomy-based examination. Several different lines have been explored and will be reviewed in the present paper, namely: 1) myocardial perfusion imaging; 2) transluminal attenuation gradients and corrected coronary opacification indexes; 3) fractional flow reserve computed from CT; and 4) extrapolation from atherosclerotic plaque characteristics. In view of these developments, cardiac CT has the potential to become in the near future a truly 2-in-1 noninvasive evaluation for coronary artery disease. Read More