1,257,466 results match your criteria Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Emphysema
Immunology 2019 Jan;156(1):1-2
Department of Medicine, Hammersmith Hospital, London, UK.
Respiratory immunology poses the dual questions of how to grapple with lung infection as one of the greatest unmet global health needs of our time, while also dealing with the growing challenge posed by chronic diseases of excessive or inappropriate lung inflammation and immunity, such as chronic obstructive lung disease and asthma. These separate branches of pulmonary research are linked by the clear observation that, in a tissue as fragile as the lung, protection from microbial attack may come at the cost of chronic inflammatory damage. A number of recent studies have considered specific aspects of this double-edged sword, including the diversity of responses to fungal exposure, sources and consequences of interleukin-17 immunity, and the role of tertiary lymphoid follicles in the lung. Read More
Semin Neurol 2018 Dec 6;38(6):640-643. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
Department of Neurology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts.
Myofascial pain syndromes arise from acute and chronic musculoskeletal pain and often have a referred neuropathic component. It affects more than three quarters of the world's population and is one of the most important and overlooked causes of disability. The origins of pain are thought to reside anywhere between the motor end plate and the fibrous outer covering of the muscle, with involvement of microvasculature and neurotransmitters at the cellular level. Read More
Semin Neurol 2018 Dec 6;38(6):634-639. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
Department of Neurology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston University Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts.
Back pain is a top primary and urgent care complaint; radicular pain can be caused by herniation of the nucleus pulposus (intervertebral disc), spinal stenosis, or degenerative changes to the vertebrae. The focus of this clinical review will be the clinical approach and treatment of lumbar radicular pain, cervical radicular pain, and spinal stenosis. Usually localized through neurological history, exam, and imaging, specific signs and symptoms for lumbar radicular, spinal stenosis, and cervical radicular pain can help determine etiology. Read More
Semin Neurol 2018 Dec 6;38(6):608-618. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
Department of Neurology, Boston Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts.
Migraine and tension-type headache (TTH) are common primary disorders that carry significant morbidity and socioeconomic effect. In this article, we will review the epidemiology, presentation, and diagnosis of these disorders. First-line acute treatment for migraine consists of analgesics, triptans, and antiemetics, while nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are the mainstay treatment for TTH. Read More
Blood Purif 2018 Dec 6:1-8. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
Renal Research Institute, New York, New York,
Background: Central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2) is correlated with cardiac output. In most patients, ScvO2 declines during hemodialysis (HD) due to factors such as reduced preload, myocardial stunning, and intermittent arrhythmias. Previous research has shown that low ScvO2 is associated with higher mortality in chronic HD patients. Read More
Am Heart J 2018 Oct 25;208:11-20. Epub 2018 Oct 25.
Department of Cardiology, Flinders Medical Centre, Adelaide, Australia; College of Medicine and Public Health, Flinders University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia. Electronic address:
Background: Elevated troponin level findings among patients presenting with suspected acute coronary syndrome (ACS) or another intercurrent illness undeniably identifies patients at increased risk of mortality. Whilst enhancing our capacity to discriminate risk, the use of high-sensitivity troponin assays frequently identifies patients with myocardial injury (i.e. Read More
Soc Sci Med 2018 Nov 23;220:379-386. Epub 2018 Nov 23.
Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Harvard T H Chan School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Ave, Boston, MA, 02115, USA; CUNY Graduate School of Public Health and Health Policy, 205 East 42nd Street, New York, NY, 10017, USA.
Less schooling is associated with increased biological risks for chronic disease, but whether increasing years of schooling through policy interventions reduces these risks remains unclear. We examine the effect of a major education reform introduced in 1959 that raised the minimum school leaving age from 14 to 16 years in France, offering a unique natural experiment. We assess the causal impact of increased schooling duration on 16 biomarkers of cardiovascular, metabolic, organ and immune function in a large cohort of men and women born around 1953. Read More
Domest Anim Endocrinol 2018 Nov 3;67:1-10. Epub 2018 Nov 3.
Department of Morphology and Function, CIISA- Centre for Interdisciplinary Research in Animal Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal.
Prostaglandin E (PGE) has contradictory effects in many organs. It may have proinflammatory, anti-inflammatory, or anti-fibrotic roles, depending on the type of receptors to which it binds. By signaling through its receptors EP2 and EP4, PGE mediates anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic actions. Read More
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.
Infectious Diseases, Infection Control and Employee Health, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas.
Introduction: Pulmonary impairment predicts increased mortality in many settings, and respiratory viral infection (RVI) causes considerable morbidity and mortality in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant recipients (allo-HCT). We hypothesized that pulmonary impairment following respiratory viral infection, defined as a decline of forced expiratory volume in 1 second values by ≥10%, may identify allo-HCT recipients at high risk for mortality.
Methods: We studied all allo-HCT recipients at our institution who had RVI with respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza virus, or influenza from 2004-2013 and had pre-RVI and post-RVI pulmonary function tests. Read More
Int Immunopharmacol 2018 Dec 3;66:336-346. Epub 2018 Dec 3.
Key Laboratory of Prevention and Management of Chronic Kidney Disease of Zhanjiang City, Affiliated Hospital of Guangdong Medical University, Zhanjiang, Guangdong, 524001, China. Electronic address:
Acute lung injury (ALI), which is mainly triggered by infection, pneumonia, vasculitis, and sepsis, has no specific and effective therapy except for primary supportive treatment or bedside care. Excessive inflammation caused by innate immune cells is the major characteristic of ALI. Forsythoside B, a phenylethanoside compound, possesses good antioxidant and anti-bacterial properties in vivo and in vitro. Read More
Int Immunopharmacol 2018 Dec 3;66:330-335. Epub 2018 Dec 3.
Traditional and Complementary Medicine Research Center (TCMRC), Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran; Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran. Electronic address:
Evidence from various studies suggests that narcotics abuse may exert adverse immunomodulatory effects on immune responses. The aim of this research was to understand the effects of detoxification with methadone on the percentage of dendritic cells (DCs) and expression of its markers in heroin addicts. In this study, myeloid DCs (CD11c) and plasmacytoid DCs (CD123) were examined in two groups. Read More
Neurosci Lett 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.
Department of Anesthesiology, Tianjin First Central Hospital, Tianjin 300192, China. Electronic address:
Background: Iron is pivotal for life, but it is toxic if in excess. Iron overload mediated by divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) in the central nervous system has participated in various neuroinflammatory diseases. Chemokine-induced neuroinflammation involves the development of pathological pain. Read More
Behav Brain Res 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.
Biotrial Pharmacology, 7-9 rue Jean-Louis Bertrand, 35042, Rennes, France.
This study aims to investigate the contribution of nigral dopaminergic (DA) cell loss, repeated exposure to DA medication and the combination of both to the development of neuropsychiatric symptoms observed in Parkinson's disease (PD). A bilateral 6-OHDA lesion of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) was performed in rats. A set of animals was repeatedly administered with L-dopa (20 mg/kg/day) and benserazide (5 mg/kg/day) over 10 days starting from day 11 post-lesion. Read More
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Res 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.
Department of Biology, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Cell Microenvironment and Disease Research, Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Cell Microenvironment and SUSTech-HKU Joint Laboratories for Matrix Biology and Diseases, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen 518055, China. Electronic address:
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a long-term consequence of chronic inflammatory liver injury. Hepatic injury is associated with a defective intestinal barrier and increased hepatic exposure to bacterial products including lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which promotes hepatocarcinogenesis. Despite its clinical significance, the molecular mediator linking chronic inflammation with HCC development remains to be clarified. Read More
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Res 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.
Institute of Medical Biochemistry, Center for Molecular Biology of Inflammation, University of Muenster, Von-Esmarch-Str. 56, D-48149 Muenster, Germany; Cluster of Excellence "Cells in Motion", University of Muenster, D-48149 Muenster, Germany. Electronic address:
The innate immune system is the first line of defense against pathogenic threats. For the early pathogen recognition and activation of cell protective mechanisms, germline-encoded pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) detect characteristic and evolutionary conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). PRRs are therefore key elements in the innate immune response; in addition, they sense danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) that are released by host cell molecules under pathophysiological conditions. Read More
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.
Department of Internal Medicine I, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Goethe University Hospital, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.
The arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase (ALOX5) pathway has been implicated in chronic inflammatory disease which may be influenced by vitamin D due to vitamin D response elements (VDRE). We investigated an ALOX5 polymorphism (rs4987105) in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and the in vitro effects of calcitriol (1,25(OH)D) on ALOX5 metabolism in monocytes of T2D patients and healthy controls (HC). 533 T2D and 473 HC were genotyped for the rs4987105 polymorphism. Read More
Neurobiol Dis 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.
Laboratory of Functional Neurochemistry, IRCCS Mondino Foundation, Pavia, Italy. Electronic address:
GBA1 gene encode for the lysosomal membrane protein glucocerebrosidase (GCase). GBA1 heterozygous mutations profoundly impair GCase activity and are currently recognized as an important risk factor for the development of Parkinson's disease (PD). Deficits in lysosomal degradation pathways may contribute to pathological α-synuclein accumulation, thereby favoring dopaminergic neuron degeneration and associated microglial activation. Read More
J Am Acad Dermatol 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.
Loyola University Medical Center Dermatology, 321 N La Grange Rd, La Grange Park, IL. Electronic address:
•Hematologic malignancies have been reported sporadically in patients with pemphigus.•In the current study, significant associations were observed between pemphigus and chronic leukemia, multiple myeloma, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.•Further research is needed to confirm these findings in other cohorts. Read More
Neurotoxicology 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.
Department of Biology, Neuroscience Program, University of Puget Sound, Tacoma, Washington, USA. Electronic address:
Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons in the brain are the main controllers of reproduction and reproductive behavior in most vertebrates, and are susceptible to endocrine disruption by different bisphenols. While the endocrine disrupting properties of bisphenol A have been well documented, commonly used analogues such as bisphenol F (BPF) are not as well studied. In this study we examined the effects of early, low-dose, chronic BPF exposure on the development of the GnRH neural system in the zebrafish embryo. Read More
Neuropharmacology 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.
Program of Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology, ICBM, Faculty of Medicine, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile.
A number of pre-clinical studies have shown that brain-generated acetaldehyde, the first metabolite of ethanol, exerts reinforcing effects that promote the acquisition of ethanol intake, while chronic intake maintenance appears to be mediated by alcohol-induced brain neuroinflammation/oxidative stress. Recently, it was described that N-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-ylmethyl)-2,6-dichlorobenzamide (ALDA-1) activates aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2), enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of ethanol-derived acetaldehyde to acetate. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of ALDA-1 on both the acquisition and the maintenance of alcohol intake in alcohol-preferring UChB rats. Read More
Surv Ophthalmol 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.
Associate Professor, Departments of Clinical Neurosciences and Surgery, University of Calgary.
A 45-year-old Caucasian woman presented with chronic bilateral, painless, progressive, peripheral vision loss. She was found to have bilateral optic atrophy and non-enhancing multifocal white matter lesions on magnetic resonance imaging of the brain. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed elevated myelin basic protein. Read More
Am J Med 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.
Department of Epidemiology, Center for Public Health, Medical University of Vienna, Kinderspitalgasse 15/1, 1090 Vienna, Austria; Department of Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention Research, Alberta Health Services, Holy Cross Centre, 2210-2nd Street SW, Box ACB, Calgary, AB, T2S 3C3, Canada; Preventive Oncology & Community Health Sciences, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Electronic address:
Objective: Healthcare providers are encouraged to prescribe lifestyle modifications for preventing and managing obesity and associated chronic conditions. However, the pattern of lifestyle advice provision is unknown. We investigate the prevalence of advised lifestyle modification according to weight status and chronic conditions in a US nationally representative sample. Read More
Am J Med 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.
Center for Bioethics and Social Science in Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI; Frankel Cardiovascular Center, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI. Electronic address:
Background: Peri-procedural antithrombotic medication management is a complex, often confusing process for patients and their providers. Communication difficulties often lead to suboptimal medication management resulting in delayed or cancelled procedures.
Methods: We conducted telephone surveys with patients taking chronic antithrombotic medications who had recently undergone an endoscopy procedure. Read More
Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc 2018 11 30;56(4):379-386. Epub 2018 Nov 30.
Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Hospital de Ginecología y Obstetricia No. 3 “Dr. Víctor Manuel Espinoza de los Reyes Sánchez”, Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos. Ciudad de México, México
Background: In severe preeclampsia (SP), pregnancy interruption is the first recommendation. However, some patients receive expectant treatment.
Objetive: To determine maternal and perinatal results of expectant treatment of SP in the intensive care unit (ICU) of a high-specialty hospital. Read More
Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc 2018 11 30;56(4):371-378. Epub 2018 Nov 30.
Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Unidad de Investigación Epidemiológica y en Servicios de Salud. Querétaro, Querétaro, México
Background: The chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a preventable entity, when it develops the patient suffers severe complications, with a high economic impact for the patient and for health services.
Objetive: To determine the cost of medical care in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
Methods: Using a cost design, the files of patients with COPD who attended the pulmonology clinic were analyzed. Read More
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 Dec 3;12:CD012620. Epub 2018 Dec 3.
Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA.
Background: Long-acting bronchodilators such as long-acting β-agonist (LABA), long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA), and LABA/inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) combinations have been used in people with moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) to control symptoms such as dyspnoea and cough, and prevent exacerbations. A number of LABA/LAMA combinations are now available for clinical use in COPD. However, it is not clear which group of above mentioned inhalers is most effective or if any specific formulation works better than the others within the same group or class. Read More
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 Dec 3;12:CD011644. Epub 2018 Dec 3.
Sheila Sherlock Liver Centre, Royal Free Hospital and the UCL Institute of Liver and Digestive Health, London, UK.
Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a single-stranded RNA (ribonucleic acid) virus that has the potential to cause inflammation of the liver. The traditional definition of acute HCV infection is the first six months following infection with the virus. Another commonly used definition of acute HCV infection is the absence of HCV antibody and subsequent seroconversion (presence of HCV antibody in a person who was previously negative for HCV antibody). Read More
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 Dec 3;12:CD006922. Epub 2018 Dec 3.
Population Health Research Institute, St George's, University of London, Cranmer Terrace, London, UK, SW17 0RE.
Background: Epidemiological evidence has suggested a link between use of beta₂-agonists and increased asthma mortality. Much debate has surrounded possible causal links for this association, and whether regular (daily) long-acting beta₂-agonists (LABAs) are safe, particularly when used in combination with inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs). This is an update of a Cochrane Review that now includes data from two large trials including 11,679 adults and 6208 children; both were mandated by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Read More
PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0208546. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Republic of Korea.
Background: Low-dose persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have recently been linked to immunosenescence, a key mechanism in carcinogenesis, as well as many aging-related chronic diseases. Since feces are the main excretion route of POPs, the large intestine is a potential target organ for these pollutants. We performed a case-control study to evaluate whether exposure to low-dose POPs is related to the risk of colorectal polyps and cancer. Read More
PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0208398. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
Department of Neuroepidemiology, Beijing Neurosurgical Institute, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.
Stroke is a serious threat to human health that often leads to severe complications, and currently ranks first as leading cause of death in China. However, reliable data on stroke burden in China in the 21st century are lacking. We used the data from NESS-China (National Epidemiological Survey of Stroke in China) for assessing the adverse health effects of stroke in Chinese population. Read More
PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0208127. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
Queen Margaret University, Centre of Health, Activity and Rehabilitation Research, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.
Background: Stage 5 chronic kidney disease patients on haemodialysis (HD) often present with dizziness and pre-syncopal events as a result of the combined effect of HD therapy and cardiovascular disease. The dysregulation of blood pressure (BP) during orthostasis may be implicated in the aetiology of falls in these patients. Therefore, we explored the relationship between baroreflex function, the haemodynamic responses to a passive orthostatic challenge, and falls in HD patients. Read More
PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0207843. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Hallym University Dongtan Sacred Heart Hospital, Hwaseong, Korea.
Aims: To investigate associations of glomerular hyperfiltration with other metabolic factors in a nationally representative dataset.
Methods: We analyzed cross-sectional data from 15,918 subjects with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) >60 ml/min/1.73 m2 and urine albumin creation ratio (ACR) <30 mg/g, who participated in the 5th and 6th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Read More
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2018 Dec 7;67(48):1333-1338. Epub 2018 Dec 7.
Division of Cancer Prevention and Control, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, CDC.
Uterine cancer is one of the few cancers with increasing incidence and mortality in the United States, reflecting, in part, increases in the prevalence of overweight and obesity since the 1980s (1). It is the fourth most common cancer diagnosed and the seventh most common cause of cancer death among U.S. Read More
Rom J Intern Med 2018 Dec;56(4):233-242
Laboratory of Allergology and Clinical Immunology, "Nicolae Testemitanu" State University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova.
Pancreas divisum (PD) is the most common developmental anatomic variant of pancreatic duct. The attention towards the PD has grown significantly since there are reports that this condition may cause acute relapsing pancreatitis, chronic pancreatitis and chronic abdominal pain syndrome. Furthermore, over the years, there have been multiple reports of PD associated with different types of tumors. Read More
Acta Med Port 2018 Nov 30;31(11):624-632. Epub 2018 Nov 30.
Unidade da Dor. Serviço de Anestesiologia. Hospital de Santo António. Centro Hospitalar do Porto. Porto. Portugal.
Introduction: Chronic postoperative pain is the most frequent late complication of inguinal hernia repair surgery. The aim of this study is to evaluate the incidence of chronic post-hernioplasty pain in outpatient care at Centro Hospitalar do Porto, describe it, analyse its relation with other variables defined in the literature and study its functional interference.
Material And Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study between February and May 2016, using a structured telephone interview composed of questions from the authors and sections of published questionnaires, two of which are validated for the Portuguese language and culture. Read More
Med J Aust 2018 Dec;209(11):495-500
Oxford University, Oxford, United Kingdom.
Objectives: To describe the patterns of alcohol use in James Bond movies over six decades.
Design: Film content analysis.
Setting: Wide range of international locations in 24 James Bond movies (Eon Productions series, 1962-2015). Read More