19,426 results match your criteria Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Emphysema

Endoscopic lung volume reduction coils for patients with severe emphysema-a single-centre retrospective analysis.

Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Pneumology, Allergology and Critical Care Medicine, ECLS Center Saar, Saarland University Hospital, Homburg/Saar,Germany.

Objectives: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung emphysema may benefit from surgical or endoscopic lung volume reduction (ELVR). Previously reported outcomes of nitinol coil-based ELVR techniques have been ambiguous. The analysis was done to analyse outcomes of ELVR with nitinol coils in patients with severe pulmonary emphysema. Read More

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Intrapulmonary distal airway stem cell transplantation repairs lung injury in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Cell Prolif 2021 May 7:e13046. Epub 2021 May 7.

East Hospital, School of Medicine, Tongji University, Shanghai, China.

Objectives: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by irreversible lung tissue damage including chronic bronchitis and emphysema, which could further develop into respiratory failure. Many studies have revealed a potential regenerative function of the distal airway stem/progenitor cells (DASCs) after lung injury.

Materials And Methods: Mouse and human DASCs were expanded, analysed, and engrafted into injured mouse lungs. Read More

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F-Box Protein FBXW17-Mediated Proteasomal Degradation of Protein Methyltransferase PRMT6 Exaggerates CSE-Induced Lung Epithelial Inflammation and Apoptosis.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 20;9:599020. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, China.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic debilitating lung disease, characterized by progressive airway inflammation and lung structural cell death. Cigarette smoke is considered the most common risk factor of COPD pathogenesis. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of persistent inflammation and epithelial apoptosis induced by cigarette smoke would be extremely beneficial for improving the treatment and prevention of COPD. Read More

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The Relation Between Clinical Phenotypes, GOLD Groups/Stages and Mortality in COPD Patients - A Prospective Multicenter Study.

Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 2021 28;16:1171-1182. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Pulmonary Department, University Hospital Hradec Kralove, Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic.

Introduction: The concept of phenotyping emerged, reflecting specific clinical, pulmonary and extrapulmonary features of each particular chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) case. Our aim was to analyze prognostic utility of: "Czech" COPD phenotypes and their most frequent combinations, "Spanish" phenotypes and Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stages + groups in relation to long-term mortality risk.

Methods: Data were extracted from the Czech Multicenter Research Database (CMRD) of COPD. Read More

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Characteristics of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients with robust progression of emphysematous change.

Sci Rep 2021 May 5;11(1):9548. Epub 2021 May 5.

Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 160-8582, Japan.

Emphysema is a major pathological change in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the annual changes in the progression of emphysematous have not been investigated. We aimed to determine possible baseline predicting factors of the change in emphysematous progression in a subgroup of COPD patients who demonstrated rapid progression. Read More

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p55PIK Deficiency and its N-terminal Derivative inhibit Inflammation and Emphysema in COPD mouse model.

Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, China.

Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is comprised of chronic inflammation and emphysema. Recent studies show that Class IA phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3Ks) play an important role in the regulation of inflammation and emphysema. However, there are few studies on their regulatory subunits. Read More

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Economic Considerations of Lung Volume Reduction Surgery and Bronchoscopic Valves.

Thorac Surg Clin 2021 May;31(2):211-219

Department of Clinical Medicine Education, University of Tennessee Health Sciences Center, Ascension Saint Thomas Health, Nashville, TN, USA.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a challenging disease to treat, and at advanced stages of the disease, procedural interventions become some of the only effective methods for improving quality of life. However, these procedures are often very costly. This article reviews the medical literature on cost-effectiveness of lung volume reduction surgery and bronchoscopic valve placement for lung volume reduction. Read More

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Alpha-antitrypsin Disease, Treatment and Role for Lung Volume Reduction Surgery.

Thorac Surg Clin 2021 May;31(2):139-160

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, 801 North Rutledge Street, Room 1269, Springfield, IL 62702, USA.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary usually is subcategorized into 2 groups: chronic bronchitis and emphysema. The main cause of chronic bronchitis and emphysema is smoking; however, alpha1-antitrypsin also has been seen to cause emphysema in patients who are deficient. As symptoms and lung function decline, treatment modalities, such as lung volume reduction surgery, have been used in individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and upper lobe predominant emphysema. Read More

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Effect of Indoor Air Pollution on Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Deaths in Southern Asia-A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Toxics 2021 Apr 16;9(4). Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Jagadguru Sri Shivarathreeshwara Medical College, Jagadguru Sri Shivarathreeshwara Academy of Higher Education and Research, Mysore 570015, India.

Background: About half of the population in developing countries are exposed to indoor pollution such as combustion fuels at present. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the leading causes of mortality globally and the primary cause of COPD in women is indoor air pollution exposure, while tobacco smoking is the leading cause in men. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to evaluate the correlation between the indoor air pollution and deaths related to COPD and COPD prevalence in South Asia. Read More

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Electrospun Nanofiber Mats for Filtering Applications-Technology, Structure and Materials.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Apr 22;13(9). Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Junior Research Group "Nanomaterials", Faculty of Engineering and Mathematics, Bielefeld University of Applied Sciences, 33619 Bielefeld, Germany.

Air pollution is one of the biggest health and environmental problems in the world and a huge threat to human health on a global scale. Due to the great impact of respiratory viral infections, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer, asthma, bronchitis, emphysema, lung disease, and heart disease, respiratory allergies are increasing significantly every year. Because of the special properties of electrospun nanofiber mats, e. Read More

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Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Screening in a Selected Cohort of Patients Affected by Chronic Pulmonary Diseases in Naples, Italy.

J Clin Med 2021 Apr 7;10(8). Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Unit of Respiratory Physiopathology, Department of Critic Area, Monaldi Hospital, 80131 Naples, Italy.

Introduction: Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) is a genetic condition associated with several respiratory diseases in patients with severe protein deficiency. AATD is often late diagnosed or underdiagnosed. Diagnosis frequently occurs in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema characterized by frequent exacerbations and over ten years' duration. Read More

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Astragalin Inhibits Cigarette Smoke-Induced Pulmonary Thrombosis and Alveolar Inflammation and Disrupts PAR Activation and Oxidative Stress-Responsive MAPK-Signaling.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 1;22(7). Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Food and Nutrition and Korean Institute of Nutrition, Hallym University, Chuncheon 24252, Korea.

Epidemiological evidence shows that smoking causes a thrombophilic milieu that may play a role in the pathophysiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) as well as pulmonary thromboembolism. The increased nicotine level induces a prothrombotic status and abnormal blood coagulation in smokers. Since several anticoagulants increase bleeding risk, alternative therapies need to be identified to protect against thrombosis without affecting hemostasis. Read More

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Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and the Cardiovascular System: Vascular Repair and Regeneration as a Therapeutic Target.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2021 12;8:649512. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Julius-Maximilians-University Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and encompasses chronic bronchitis and emphysema. It has been shown that vascular wall remodeling and pulmonary hypertension (PH) can occur not only in patients with COPD but also in smokers with normal lung function, suggesting a causal role for vascular alterations in the development of emphysema. Mechanistically, abnormalities in the vasculature, such as inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, imbalances in cellular apoptosis/proliferation, and increased oxidative/nitrosative stress promote development of PH, cor pulmonale, and most probably pulmonary emphysema. Read More

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Testosterone deficiency promotes the development of pulmonary emphysema in orchiectomized mice exposed to elastase.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 Apr 24;558:94-101. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Department of Pharmaceutical Care and Health Sciences, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Fukuoka University, 8-19-1 Nanakuma, Jonan-ku, Fukuoka, 814-0180, Japan. Electronic address:

Testosterone deficiency is commonly observed in male patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which is characterized by chronic inflammation of the airways and pulmonary emphysema. Although clinical trials have indicated that testosterone replacement therapy can improve respiratory function in patients with COPD, the role of testosterone in the pathogenesis of COPD remains unclear. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of testosterone deficiency on the development of pulmonary emphysema in orchiectomized (ORX) mice exposed to porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE). Read More

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Dynamic evolution of emphysema and airway remodeling in two mouse models of COPD.

BMC Pulm Med 2021 Apr 26;21(1):134. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Wuxi People's Hospital Affiliated With Nanjing Medical University, Wuxi, 214023, Jiangsu, People's Republic of China.

Background: Establishment of a mouse model is important for investigating the mechanism of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In this study, we observed and compared the evolution of the pathology in two mouse models of COPD induced by cigarette smoke (CS) exposure alone or in combination with lipopolysaccharide (LPS).

Methods: One hundred eight wild-type C57BL/6 mice were equally divided into three groups: the (1) control group, (2) CS-exposed group (CS group), and (3) CS + LPS-exposed group (CS + LPS group). Read More

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Fibroblast growth factor 23 is an independent marker of COPD and is associated with impairment of pulmonary function and diffusing capacity.

Respir Med 2021 Apr 17;182:106404. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine Unit, Department of Translational Medicine, Lund University, 205 02, Malmö, Sweden.

Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a phosphaturic hormone that in recent years has been reported to have significant effects on numerous tissues. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with hypophosphatemia but the evidence for elevated plasma levels of FGF23 in COPD subjects is ambiguous. Recently, FGF23 has even been shown to be involved in the inflammatory pathways activated in COPD, so FGF23 could be a novel biomarker for COPD and impairment of pulmonary function. Read More

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Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation fundamentals: Diagnosis, treatment, prevention and disease impact.

Respirology 2021 Apr 24. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Department of Translational Medicine, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy.

In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), exacerbations (ECOPD), characterized by an acute deterioration in respiratory symptoms, are fundamental events impacting negatively upon disease progression, comorbidities, wellbeing and mortality. ECOPD also represent the largest component of the socioeconomic burden of COPD. ECOPDs are currently defined as acute worsening of respiratory symptoms that require additional therapy. Read More

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Expiratory central airway collapse and symptoms in smokers.

Respir Investig 2021 Apr 18. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Kyoto University, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan.

Background: The prevalence and clinical impacts of expiratory central airway collapse (ECAC) in smokers remain controversial. Although studies have shown associations of ECAC with airflow limitation and symptoms, others have shown that higher tracheal collapsibility is associated with lower expiratory-to-inspiratory ratio of lung volume (E/I-LV), but not airflow limitation. This study tested whether ECAC of the trachea and main bronchi could occur exclusively in smokers with lower E/I-LV and affect their symptoms independent of emphysema and intrapulmonary airway disease. Read More

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Impaired Differentiation of COPD Bronchial Epithelial Cells Grown on Bronchial Scaffolds.

Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

AstraZeneca, Gothenburg, Sweden;

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by airway inflammation, small airway remodeling and emphysema. Airway remodeling in COPD patients involves both the airway epithelium and the subepithelial extracellular matrix (ECM). However, it is currently unknown how epithelial remodeling in COPD airways depends on the relative influence from inherent defects in the epithelial cells and alterations in the ECM. Read More

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Most patient conditions do not a priori debilitate the sensitivity of thoracic ultrasound in thoracic surgery-a prospective comparative study.

J Cardiothorac Surg 2021 Apr 13;16(1):75. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Lungclinic, Thoracic Surgery, University Witten/Herdecke, Medical Centre Cologne-Merheim, Ostmerheimer Str. 200, 51109, Cologne, Germany.

Background: The few existing studies on the accuracy of lung ultrasound in the detection of a postoperative pneumothorax after thoracic surgery differ in the sonographic technique and the inclusion criteria. Several conditions are considered unfavourable in the sonographic examination of the lung. We aim to test these conditions for their impact on the diagnostic accuracy of lung ultrasound. Read More

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Computed tomography-based visual assessment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: comparison with pulmonary function test and quantitative computed tomography.

J Thorac Dis 2021 Mar;13(3):1495-1506

Department of Internal Medicine and Environmental Health Center, School of Medicine, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Republic of Korea.

Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has variable subtypes involving mixture of large airway inflammation, small airway disease, and emphysema. This study evaluated the relationship between visually assessed computed tomography (CT) subtypes and clinical/imaging characteristics.

Methods: In total, 452 participants were enrolled in this study between 2012 and 2017. Read More

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A novel macrolide derivative ameliorates smoke-induced inflammation and emphysema by inhibiting NF-κB activation.

Am J Transl Res 2021 15;13(3):1209-1220. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, China-Japan Friendship Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University Beijing, P. R. China.

Although inflammation and emphysema in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) can be ameliorated by antibiotics such as erythromycin, the impact of drug resistance is still controversial. We aimed to evaluate the role of F528, a new macrolide derivative without antibacterial effect, in cigarette smoke (CS)-induced pulmonary inflammation and emphysema in a mouse model, as well as in a macrophage cell line. The inflammatory cell number and cell type in the BALF were counted, and the levels of cytokines in the BALF and cultured cell medium were measured by ELISA. Read More

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Association of triglyceride-glucose index and lung health: a population-based study.

Chest 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Section of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX.

Background: Metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance are associated with worsened outcomes of chronic lung disease. The triglyceride-glucose index (TyG), a measure of metabolic dysfunction, is associated with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance, but its relationship to lung health is unknown.

Research Question: What is the relationship of TyG to respiratory symptoms, chronic lung disease, and lung function?

Study Design: and Methods: We analyzed the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 1999-2012. Read More

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Therapeutic Inhibition of Cathepsin S Reduces Inflammation and Mucus Plugging in Adult ENaC-Tg Mice.

Mediators Inflamm 2021 19;2021:6682657. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Airway Innate Immunity Research (AiiR) Group, Wellcome-Wolfson Institute for Experimental Medicine, School of Medicine, Dentistry and Biomedical Sciences, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, UK.

Background: Elevated levels of the cysteine protease cathepsin S (CatS) are associated with chronic mucoobstructive lung diseases such as cystic fibrosis (CF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We have previously demonstrated that prophylactic treatment with a CatS inhibitor from birth reduces inflammation, mucus plugging, and lung tissue damage in juvenile -epithelial Na+ channel-overexpressing transgenic (ENaC-Tg) mice with chronic inflammatory mucoobstructive lung disease. In this study, we build upon this work to examine the effects of therapeutic intervention with a CatS inhibitor in adult ENaC-Tg mice with established disease. Read More

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Small airway determinants of airflow limitation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Thorax 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee, USA.

Background: Although a variety of pathological changes have been described in small airways of patients with COPD, the critical anatomic features determining airflow limitation remain incompletely characterised.

Methods: We examined lung tissue specimens from 18 non-smokers without chronic lung disease and 55 former smokers with COPD for pathological features of small airways that could contribute to airflow limitation. Morphometric evaluation was performed for epithelial and subepithelial tissue thickness, collagen and elastin content, luminal mucus and radial alveolar attachments. Read More

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Clinical relevance of emphysema in patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia: Clinical features and prognosis.

Clin Respir J 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Korea.

Introduction: Few studies have investigated the influence of emphysema on clinical features of patients presenting with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP).

Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the clinical and microbiological features of patients with both CAP and emphysema.

Methods: This retrospective study included patients with CAP who underwent computed tomography (CT) scan at the time of presentation. Read More

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NOX4-Derived ROS Promotes Collagen I Deposition in Bronchial Smooth Muscle Cells by Activating Noncanonical p38MAPK/Akt-Mediated TGF- Signaling.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 19;2021:6668971. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan, Ningxia 750004, China.

Background: Airway smooth muscle (ASM) remodeling is a hallmark in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). NADPH oxidase 4- (NOX4-) mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production plays a crucial role in cell differentiation and extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis in ASM remodeling. However, the precise mechanisms underpinning its pathogenic roles remain elusive. Read More

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Single cell RNA sequencing identifies IGFBP5 and QKI as ciliated epithelial cell genes associated with severe COPD.

Respir Res 2021 Apr 6;22(1):100. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, NW628 UPMC Montefiore, 3459 Fifth Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA, 15213, USA.

Background: Whole lung tissue transcriptomic profiling studies in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have led to the identification of several genes associated with the severity of airflow limitation and/or the presence of emphysema, however, the cell types driving these gene expression signatures remain unidentified.

Methods: To determine cell specific transcriptomic changes in severe COPD, we conducted single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA seq) on n = 29,961 cells from the peripheral lung parenchymal tissue of nonsmoking subjects without underlying lung disease (n = 3) and patients with severe COPD (n = 3). The cell type composition and cell specific gene expression signature was assessed. Read More

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Differences between cigarette smoking and biomass smoke exposure: An in silico comparative assessment of particulate deposition in the lungs.

Environ Res 2021 Apr 3;197:111116. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, USA; Center for Global Non-Communicable Disease Research and Training, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, USA; Program in Global Disease Epidemiology and Control, Department of International Health, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, USA.

Cigarette smoking and biomass smoke are the two main environmental risk factors of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) worldwide. However, it remains unclear why these exposures result in two different disease phenotypes. In this study, we assessed the lung deposition from biomass and cigarette smoke exposures and examined whether differences due to inherently different particle size distributions and inhalation conditions may contribute to the differences between biomass- and tobacco-related COPD phenotypes. Read More

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Loading of Beclomethasone in Liposomes and Hyalurosomes Improved with Mucin as Effective Approach to Counteract the Oxidative Stress Generated by Cigarette Smoke Extract.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 Mar 26;11(4). Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Cagliari, Via Ospedale 72, 09124 Cagliari, Italy.

In this work beclomethasone dipropionate was loaded into liposomes and hyalurosomes modified with mucin to improve the ability of the payload to counteract the oxidative stress and involved damages caused by cigarette smoke in the airway. The vesicles were prepared by dispersing all components in the appropriate vehicle and sonicating them, thus avoiding the use of organic solvents. Unilamellar and bilamellar vesicles small in size (~117 nm), homogeneously dispersed (polydispersity index lower than 0. Read More

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