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    Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction procedures for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2017 Feb 23;2:CD012158. Epub 2017 Feb 23.
    School of Medicine, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia.
    Background: In the recent years, a variety of bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (BLVR) procedures have emerged that may provide a treatment option to participants suffering from moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

    Objectives: To assess the effects of BLVR on the short- and long-term health outcomes in participants with moderate to severe COPD and determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of each individual technique.

    Search Methods: Studies were identified from the Cochrane Airways Group Specialised Register (CAGR) and by handsearching of respiratory journals and meeting abstracts. Read More

    Assessment of the expectancy, seriousness and severity of adverse drug reactions reported for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease therapy.
    SAGE Open Med 2017 31;5:2050312117690404. Epub 2017 Jan 31.
    Department of Propaedeutic Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Medical University of Sofia, Sofia, Bulgaria.
    Introduction: Adverse drug reactions can cause increased morbidity and mortality, and therefore information needs to be studied systematically. Little is known about the adverse drug reactions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease therapy. The goal of this study is to assess the expectedness, seriousness and severity of adverse drug reactions during chronic obstructive pulmonary disease therapy based on their reporting in the national pharmacovigilance system. Read More

    Estimating the economic consequences of an increased medication adherence due to a potential improvement in the inhaler technique with Spiromax(®) compared with Turbuhaler(®) in patients with moderate-to-severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Spain.
    Clinicoecon Outcomes Res 2017 10;9:127-137. Epub 2017 Feb 10.
    Market Access and HEOR Department, TEVA Pharmaceutical, Madrid, Spain.
    Objective: The objective of this study was to estimate the economic impact of the introduction of DuoResp(®) Spiromax(®), budesonide/formoterol fixed-dose combination (FDC), focusing on an increase in medication adherence due to an enhancement of the inhalation technique for the treatment of COPD patients in Spain and 5 regions including Andalusia, Catalonia, Galicia, Madrid, and Valencia.

    Methods: A 4-year budget impact model was developed for the time period of 2015-2018. This study aimed at evaluating the budget impact associated with the introduction of DuoResp Spiromax in comparison with Symbicort(®) Turbuhaler(®) and Rilast(®) Turbuhaler. Read More

    J Virol 2017 Feb 22. Epub 2017 Feb 22.
    National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College of Science, Technology & Medicine, London W2 1PG, UK.
    Picornavirus replication is known to cause extensive remodelling of Golgi and endoplasmic reticulum membranes and a number of the host proteins involved in the viral replication complex have been identified, including oxysterol binding protein (OSBP) and phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase III beta (PI4KB). Since both OSBP and PI4KB are substrates for protein kinase D (PKD) and PKD is known to be involved in the control of Golgi vesicular and lipid transport, we hypothesised that PKD played a role in viral replication. We present multiple lines of evidence in support of that hypothesis. Read More

    Efficacy and safety of indacaterol/glycopyrronium fixed-dose combination in mild-to-moderate COPD patients symptomatic on tiotropium in Korea: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.
    Trials 2017 Feb 22;18(1):80. Epub 2017 Feb 22.
    Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University Medical School, 896 Pyeongan-dong, Dongan-gu, 431-070, Anyang-si, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea.
    Background: Long-acting bronchodilator monotherapy (long-acting β2-agonist [LABA] or long-acting muscarinic antagonist [LAMA]) is extensively used for treatment of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with mild-to-moderate airflow limitation. However, a substantial number of patients remain symptomatic despite treatment with a single bronchodilator, necessitating a change in therapy.

    Methods: This 12-week, randomized, multicenter, open-label, phase IV study aims to show that the once-daily indacaterol/glycopyrronium (IND/GLY) 110/50 μg fixed-dose LABA/LAMA combination results in an improved lung function in symptomatic patients with mild-to-moderate COPD who switch from once-daily tiotropium 18 μg. Read More

    Evaluation of lung ventilation distribution in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients using the global inhomogeneity index.
    Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2016 Aug;2016:5286-5289
    The global inhomogeneity (GI) index is a electrical impedance tomography (EIT) parameter that quantifies the tidal volume distribution within the lung. In this work the global inhomogeneity index was computed for twenty subjects in order to evaluate his potential use in the detection and follow up of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. EIT data of 17 subjects were acquired: 14 patients with the main diagnoses of COPD and 3 healthy subjects which served as a control group. Read More

    A mobile platform for automated screening of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
    Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2016 Aug;2016:5192-5195
    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and asthma each represent a large proportion of the global disease burden; COPD is the third leading cause of death worldwide and asthma is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases, afflicting over 300 million people. Much of this burden is concentrated in the developing world, where patients lack access to physicians trained in the diagnosis of pulmonary disease. As a result, these patients experience high rates of underdiagnosis and misdiagnosis. Read More

    Detection of crackle events using a multi-feature approach.
    Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2016 Aug;2016:3679-3683
    The automatic detection of adventitious lung sounds is a valuable tool to monitor respiratory diseases like chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Crackles are adventitious and explosive respiratory sounds that are usually associated with the inflammation or infection of the small bronchi, bronchioles and alveoli. In this study a multi-feature approach is proposed for the detection of events, in the frame space, that contain one or more crackles. Read More

    A clinical study of short-term sternal photoplethysmography: recordings from patients with obstructive airways diseases.
    Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2016 Aug;2016:2712-2716
    Traditionally, measurements of the oxygen saturation (SpO2) has been confound to the extremities. In this study, we therefore investigated the possibility for reliable estimation of clinically relevant SpO2 levels from photoplethysmography (PPG) obtained on the sternum of patients with obstructive airway diseases. We initiated the study with a calibration of a prototype sternal PPG sensor. Read More

    Texton and sparse representation based texture classification of lung parenchyma in CT images.
    Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2016 Aug;2016:1276-1279
    Automated texture analysis of lung computed tomography (CT) images is a critical tool in subtyping pulmonary emphysema and diagnosing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Texton-based methods encode lung textures with nearest-texton frequency histograms, and have achieved high performance for supervised classification of emphysema subtypes from annotated lung CT images. In this work, we first explore characterizing lung textures with sparse decomposition from texton dictionaries, using different regularization strategies, and then extend the sparsity-inducing constraint to the construction of the dictionaries. Read More

    Comparative effectiveness of long-acting beta2 -agonist combined with a long-acting muscarinic antagonist or inhaled corticosteroid in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
    Pharmacotherapy 2017 Feb 22. Epub 2017 Feb 22.
    Department of Pharmacy Systems, Outcomes and Policy, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL.
    Introduction: Several dual bronchodilator fixed dose inhaler medications were recently approved for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). These products combine a long-acting beta2 -agonist (LABA) and long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA). In clinical trials, the separate mechanisms of the bronchodilators resulted in improved lung function. Read More

    Educational Outreach to Opioid Prescribers: The Case for Academic Detailing.
    Pain Physician 2017 Feb;20(2S):S147-S151
    Division of Pharmacoeconomics, Dept of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA; Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.
    Nonmedical use of opioid medications constitutes a serious health threat as the rates of addiction, overdoses, and deaths have risen in recent years. Increasingly, inappropriate and excessively liberal prescribing of opioids by physicians is understood to be a central part of the crisis. Public health officials, hospital systems, and legislators are developing programs and regulations to address the problem in sustained and systematic ways that both insures effective treatment of pain and appropriate limits on the availability of opioids. Read More

    Impaired Pulmonary Function in Patients with Psoriasis.
    Dermatology 2017 Feb 23. Epub 2017 Feb 23.
    Department of Dermatology, Izmir Tepecik Training and Research Hospital, Izmir, Turkey.
    Background: Psoriasis is associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. There is no study on the spirometric pulmonary function testing in patients with psoriasis.

    Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the spirometric parameters in patients with psoriasis and controls. Read More

    Risk of Vertebral Fracture in Patients Diagnosed with a Depressive Disorder: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study.
    Clinics (Sao Paulo) 2017 Jan 1;72(1):44-50. Epub 2017 Jan 1.
    Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.
    Objective:: Previous studies have reported that depression may play a crucial role in the occurrence of vertebral fractures. However, a clear correlation between depressive disorders and osteoporotic fractures has not been established. We explored the association between depressive disorders and subsequent new-onset vertebral fractures. Read More

    Mechanical Efficiency in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.
    J Cardiopulm Rehabil Prev 2017 Mar;37(2):146-153
    Institute of Human Movement and Sports, Fontys University of Applied Sciences, Eindhoven, the Netherlands (Mr Gosens and Drs Oomen and Borghouts); Department of Human Movement Sciences, Maastricht University, Maastricht, the Netherlands (Mr Gosens and Dr Hesselink); Radboudumc, Department of Pulmonary Diseases, Nijmegen, the Netherlands (Dr van't Hul); and Revant, Rehabilitation Centre, Breda, the Netherlands (Dr van't Hul).
    Purpose: The primary aims of this study were (1) to evaluate whole-body mechanical efficiency (ME) in a large group of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients with a wide range of degrees of illness and (2) to examine how ME in COPD is related to absolute work rate and indices of disease severity during exercise testing.

    Methods: A total of 569 patients (301 male patients; GOLD stage I: 28, GOLD stage II: 166, GOLD stage III: 265, and GOLD stage IV: 110) with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were included in the data analysis. Individual maximal workload (watt), peak minute ventilation ((Equation is included in full-text article. Read More

    Comparative Postural Control in COPD Patients and Healthy Individuals During Dynamic and Static Activities.
    J Cardiopulm Rehabil Prev 2017 Mar;37(2):139-145
    Pulmonary Rehabilitation Center of Escola Paulista de Medicina (EPM), Federal University of São Paulo (Unifesp), Brazil (Drs Porto, Pradella, Rocco, Nascimento, and Jardim); Adventist University of São Paulo, Brazil (Dr Porto); Otoneurology Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery at EPM/Unifesp, São Paulo, Brazil (Mr Chueiro, Ms Maia, and Dr Ganança); and Physiotherapy, Federal University of Pampa, Bagé, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil (Dr Castro).
    Purpose: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have body balance deficits, with consequent fall risk. It is possible that body sway in patients with COPD affects their ability to perform daily activities. The purpose of this study was to determine whether body balance is similar in patients with COPD and healthy persons when performing static and dynamic activities. Read More

    Temporal trends in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease mortality in Mexico, 1999-2014.
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2017 Mar;21(3):357-362
    Departamento de Posgrado e Investigación, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Toluca, Mexico.
    Setting: Country of Mexico.

    Objective: To determine mortality trends due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Mexico between 1999 and 2014.

    Design: COPD mortality data for persons aged ≥40 years from 1999 to 2014 were obtained from the official website of the Mexican Ministry of Health. Read More

    Differences in outcomes in patients with stable coronary artery disease managed by cardiologists versus non-cardiologists: the international prospective CLARIFY registry.
    Pol Arch Med Wewn 2017 Jan 20. Epub 2017 Jan 20.
    INTRODUCTION    Clinical outcomes of patients with stable coronary artery disease (SCAD) may differ between those primarily managed by cardiologists versus non-cardiologists.  OBJECTIVES    Our main objective was to analyze the clinical outcomes of outpatients with SCAD in relation to the specialty of the managing physicians.  PATIENTS AND METHODS    We studied 32,468 outpatients with SCAD included in the CLARIFY registry, with up to 4 years follow-up data. Read More

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and long-term mortality in elderly subjects with chronic heart failure.
    Aging Clin Exp Res 2017 Feb 21. Epub 2017 Feb 21.
    Department of Translational Medical Sciences, University of Naples "Federico II", Naples, Italy.
    Background: Chronic heart failure (CHF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are associated with high rates of mortality in elderly subjects. Concurrent CHF and COPD frequently occur, especially in with advancing age. This study examines long-term mortality in community-dwelling elderly subjects affected by CHF alone, COPD alone, and coexistent CHF and COPD. Read More

    Decrease in Small Pulmonary Vessels on Chest Computed Tomography in Light Smokers Without COPD: An Early Change, but Correlated with Smoking Index.
    Lung 2017 Feb 21. Epub 2017 Feb 21.
    Department of Radiology, St. Marianna University School of Medicine, 2-16-1 Sugao, Miyamae-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa, 216-8511, Japan.
    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the amount of smoking and the cross-sectional area (CSA) of small pulmonary vessels in light smokers without a diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

    Methods: This retrospective study was approved by our institutional review board, which waived the need for informed consent from patients. The study included 34 current smokers without COPD, who were defined as light smokers based on their smoking history (≤25 pack years). Read More

    Impact of exacerbations on respiratory system impedance measured by a forced oscillation technique in COPD: a prospective observational study.
    Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 2017 3;12:509-516. Epub 2017 Feb 3.
    Department of Respiratory Medicine, Kobe City Medical Center West Hospital, Kobe, Japan.
    Background: Forced oscillation technique (FOT) has been reported to be useful in the evaluation and management of obstructive lung disease, including COPD. To date, no data are available concerning long-term changes in respiratory system impedance measured by FOT. Additionally, although exacerbations have been reported to be associated with excessive lung function decline in COPD, the impact of exacerbations on the results of FOT has not been demonstrated. Read More

    Longitudinal changes in lung hyperinflation in COPD.
    Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 2017 3;12:501-508. Epub 2017 Feb 3.
    Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam-Si, South Korea.
    Purpose: COPD is characterized by an accelerated and progressive decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and lung hyperinflation. Although lung hyperinflation is the hallmark of COPD, data on the longitudinal changes in lung hyperinflation and any association with the decline in FEV1 are lacking. The aim of this study was to evaluate the longitudinal changes in lung hyperinflation and to investigate its relationship with FEV1 decline. Read More

    Thirty-day and 90-day hospital readmission after outpatient upper extremity hemodialysis access creation.
    J Vasc Surg 2017 Feb 17. Epub 2017 Feb 17.
    Division of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Boston Medical Center, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Mass.
    Objective: Patients with end-stage renal disease have multiple comorbidities and are at increased risk for postoperative complications and resource utilization. Our goal was to determine the rate and causes of 30-day and 90-day hospital readmissions after the creation of outpatient hemodialysis access.

    Methods: We retrospectively reviewed all outpatient upper extremity hemodialysis access creations performed at our medical center from 2008 to 2015. Read More

    Pharmacotherapy in smoking cessation: Corticotropin Releasing Factor receptors as emerging intervention targets.
    Neuropeptides 2017 Feb 14. Epub 2017 Feb 14.
    Laboratory of Pharmacology, Medical School, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis 68100, Greece. Electronic address:
    Smoking represents perhaps the single most important health risk factor and a global contributor to mortality that can unquestionably be prevented. Smoking is responsible for many diseases, including various types of cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, coronary heart disease, peripheral vascular disease and peptic ulcer, while it adversely affects fetal formation and development. Since smoking habit duration is a critical factor for mortality, the goal of treatment should be its timely cessation and relapse prevention. Read More

    Pulmonary Perfusion Changes Following Single-Lung Transplantation.
    Clin Nucl Med 2017 Feb 17. Epub 2017 Feb 17.
    From the *Johns Hopkins University Krieger School of Arts and Sciences, and †The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD.
    Following single-lung transplantation (SLT), there is significant redistribution of flow preferentially to the transplanted lung. Altered lung perfusion leads to unusual results when performing pulmonary scintigraphy, which could result in interpretation errors. We present pulmonary scintigraphy images from a 67-year-old female patient with history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease that were obtained before SLT, 10 days after SLT, and 3 months after SLT. Read More

    Interventional pulmonology in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
    Curr Opin Pulm Med 2017 Feb 17. Epub 2017 Feb 17.
    aDepartment of Pneumology and Critical Care Medicine, Thoraxklinik at University of Heidelberg bCenter for Lung Research, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Purpose Of Review: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and emphysema are widespread diseases associated with progressive dyspnea because of airflow limitation and hyperinflation. Fundamental therapeutic strategies consist of pulmonary rehabilitation, pharmacotherapy, long-term oxygen therapy, noninvasive ventilation, and surgical therapeutic approaches.

    Recent Findings: In the last 14 years, endoscopic therapeutic modalities emerged as a substantial part of severe COPD and emphysema treatment. Read More

    Elevated expression of placental growth factor is associated with airway-wall vascular remodelling and thickening in smokers with asthma.
    Sci Rep 2017 Feb 21;7:43017. Epub 2017 Feb 21.
    Institute of Respiratory Diseases, Department of Respiratory, The Affiliated Hospital of Guangdong Medical University, Zhanjiang 524001, China.
    The increased expression of placental growth factor (PlGF) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and allergy-related asthma suggests its role in the pathogenesis of these diseases. In asthmatic smokers, airway remodelling is accompanied by an accelerated decline in lung function. However, whether PlGF contributes to the persistent airflow obstruction and vascular remodelling typically seen in asthmatic smokers is unknown. Read More

    Pharmacological Management of People Living with End-Stage Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.
    Drugs Aging 2017 Feb 21. Epub 2017 Feb 21.
    Allergy and Respiratory Research Group, Usher Institute of Population Health Sciences and Informatics, University of Edinburgh, Doorway 3, Medical School, Teviot Place, Edinburgh, EH8 9AG, UK.
    Supportive care and pharmacological treatment can improve the quality of life of people with end-stage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who cope on a daily basis with substantial physical, psychological, social and spiritual morbidity. Smoking cessation is the only intervention that reduces the rate of progression of COPD, but evidence-based drug treatments and non-pharmacological strategies can relieve symptoms and reduce the impact of exacerbations. People with severe COPD live with increasingly troublesome breathlessness and other symptoms such as fatigue, pain, sputum production and weight loss. Read More

    Homeobox, Wnt, and Fibroblast Growth Factor Signaling is Augmented During Alveogenesis in Mice Lacking Superoxide Dismutase 3, Extracellular.
    Lung 2017 Feb 20. Epub 2017 Feb 20.
    SRM Research Institute, SRM University, Chennai, 603203, India.
    Superoxide dismutase 3, extracellular (SOD3) polymorphisms have been implicated in reduced pulmonary function development and altered risk for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We previously reported that gene-targeted Sod3-/- mice have impaired lung function and human SOD3 variants are associated with reduced pulmonary function in children. Reduced lung SOD3 levels were reported in mice with lower lung function with the greatest difference occurring during alveogenesis phase [postnatal (P) days 14-28]. Read More

    Features of a Mobile Support App for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Literature Review and Current Applications.
    JMIR Mhealth Uhealth 2017 Feb 20;5(2):e17. Epub 2017 Feb 20.
    Pulmonary Clinic, George Papanikolaou General Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a serious long-term lung disease in which the airflow from the lungs is progressively reduced. By 2030, COPD will become the third cause of mortality and seventh cause of morbidity worldwide. With advances in technology and mobile communications, significant progress in the mobile health (mHealth) sector has been recently observed. Read More

    Digital health system for personalised COPD long-term management.
    BMC Med Inform Decis Mak 2017 Feb 20;17(1):19. Epub 2017 Feb 20.
    Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford, IBME, Oxford, UK.
    Background: Recent telehealth studies have demonstrated minor impact on patients affected by long-term conditions. The use of technology does not guarantee the compliance required for sustained collection of high-quality symptom and physiological data. Remote monitoring alone is not sufficient for successful disease management. Read More

    Characteristics and longitudinal progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in GOLD B patients.
    BMC Pulm Med 2017 Feb 20;17(1):42. Epub 2017 Feb 20.
    Centre for Respiratory Medicine and Allergy, Institute of Inflammation and Repair, Medicines Evaluation Unit, University Hospital of South Manchester Foundation Trust, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.
    Background: The characteristics and natural history of GOLD B COPD patients are not well described. The clinical characteristics and natural history of GOLD B patients over 1 year in a multicentre cohort of COPD patients in the COPDMAP study were assessed. We aimed to identify the subgroup of patients who progressed to GOLD D (unstable GOLD B patients) and identify characteristics associated with progression. Read More

    Clinical Case of the Month: Group G Streptococcal Bacteremia Secondary to a Burn Wound Infection.
    J La State Med Soc 2017 Jan-Feb;169(1):20-23. Epub 2017 Feb 15.
    Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center in New Orleans, LA.
    A 61-year-old man presented to the emergency department with second degree burns along his right arm and hand. He reported that his knees suddenly gave out while holding a pot of soup resulting in the scalding liquid spilling over his arm. His medical history is significant for alcohol abuse, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, atrial fibrillation, congestive heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, chronic knee instability, and degenerative joint disease of the spine. Read More

    α1-antitrypsin Deficiency: A Misfolded Secretory Protein Variant with Unique Effects on the Endoplasmic Reticulum.
    Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Dis 2016 Sep 19;3(1):63-72. Epub 2016 Sep 19.
    In the classical form of α1-antitrypsin deficiency (ATD) a point mutation leads to accumulation of a misfolded secretory glycoprotein in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of liver cells and so ATD has come to be considered a prototypical ER storage disease. It is associated with two major types of clinical disorders, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) by loss-of-function mechanisms and hepatic cirrhosis and carcinogenesis by gain-of-function mechanisms. The lung disease predominantly results from proteolytic damage to the pulmonary connective tissue matrix because of reduced levels of protease inhibitor activity of α1-anitrypsin (AT) in the circulating blood and body fluids. Read More

    A rare cause of misdiagnosis in chest X-ray.
    J Family Med Prim Care 2016 Jul-Sep;5(3):680-681
    Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Hospital General Tacuba, ISSSTE, National Autonomous University of Mexico, Mexico City, Mexico.
    Chest X-ray is a usual tool for family physicians; however, unexpected findings in chest X-ray are a frequent challenge. We present a rare case of pulmonary hilar nodule misdiagnosis in a chest X-ray. An 84-year-old woman was sent with a diagnosis of a right pulmonary hilum nodule. Read More

    A Plant Proteinase Inhibitor from Enterolobium contortisiliquum Attenuates Pulmonary Mechanics, Inflammation and Remodeling Induced by Elastase in Mice.
    Int J Mol Sci 2017 Feb 14;18(2). Epub 2017 Feb 14.
    Department of Clinical Medicine, School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, 01246-903 São Paulo, Brazil.
    Proteinase inhibitors have been associated with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities and may represent a potential therapeutic treatment for emphysema. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of a plant Kunitz proteinase inhibitor, Enterolobium contortisiliquum trypsin inhibitor (EcTI), on several aspects of experimental elastase-induced pulmonary inflammation in mice. C57/Bl6 mice were intratracheally administered elastase (ELA) or saline (SAL) and were treated intraperitoneally with EcTI (ELA-EcTI, SAL-EcTI) on days 1, 14 and 21. Read More

    Protective effect of HwangRyunHaeDok-Tang water extract against chronic obstructive pulmonary disease induced by cigarette smoke and lipopolysaccharide in a mouse model.
    J Ethnopharmacol 2017 Feb 16. Epub 2017 Feb 16.
    College of Veterinary Medicine (BK21 Plus Project Team), Chonnam National University, 77 Yongbong-ro, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-757, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:
    Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Hwangryunhaedok-tang is an oriental herbal formula treated to cure inflammation and gastric disorders in China, Japan, and Korea. We explored the protective effects of Hwangryunhaedok-tang water extract (HRWE) against airway pathophysiological changes caused by cigarette smoke (CS) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in a mouse.

    Materials And Methods: We performed quantitative analyses of five marker components, namely geniposide, baicalin, coptisine, plamatine, and berberine, using high-performance liquid chromatography. Read More

    Severity of nocturnal hypoxia and daytime hypercapnia predicts CPAP failure in patients with COPD and obstructive sleep apnea overlap syndrome.
    Sleep Med 2017 Feb 6;30:139-145. Epub 2016 May 6.
    Academic Sleep Center, CIRO Center of Expertise for Chronic Organ Failure, Horn, The Netherlands. Electronic address:
    Background: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are independent risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. In patients with OSA and concurrent COPD, continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy improves survival. Nevertheless, a significant proportion of such patients do not tolerate CPAP. Read More

    [Risk of pneumonia in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease treated with inhaled corticosteroids: evidence and uncertainties].
    Ig Sanita Pubbl 2016 Nov-Dec;72(6):583-588
    Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica e Sperimentale, Università di Parma, Italia.
    A large number of studies, evaluated by several meta-analyses, indicate that patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) treated with inhaled corticosteroids have a significantly increased risk of pneumonia which, however, is not associated with a corresponding increase in mortality. The increased risk seems to be exclusive of COPD, since meta-analyses involving patients with asthma treated with inhaled corticosteroids did not show a risk of pneumonia higher than that of the general population. Possible interventions to reduce this risk are to improve adherence to guidelines for prescribing inhaled corticosteroids in COPD (often used even in mild to moderate disease, for which they are not indicated), and using lower doses. Read More

    The Role of Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.
    Cells Tissues Organs 2017 20;203(2):99-104. Epub 2017 Feb 20.
    NHMRC Centre of Research Excellence for Chronic Respiratory Disease and Lung Aging, School of Medicine, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS, Australia.
    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of mortality worldwide, and there is currently no treatment that can halt the progression of the disease. Over the last decade there has been increasing interest in the idea that epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) may be active in COPD. Here we review the evidence for EMT in COPD as well as the current progress being made on understanding the drivers and mechanisms involved. Read More

    Detection of Pneumocystis jirovecii by nested PCR in HIV-negative patients with pulmonary disease.
    Rev Iberoam Micol 2017 Feb 14. Epub 2017 Feb 14.
    Laboratório de Pesquisa em AIDS, Hospital de Clínicas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Rua Tessália Vieira de Camargo, 126, Cidade Universitária Zeferino Vaz, 13083-887 Campinas, SP, Brazil.
    Background: Nested PCR can be used to determine the status of Pneumocystis jirovecii infection in other lung diseases.

    Aims: This study sought to detect a target DNA fragment (mitochondrial large subunit rRNA or mtL SUrRNA) of P. jirovecii in patients with lung disease who underwent bronchoscopy with collection of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Read More

    Up-regulation of Pim-3 in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) patients and its potential therapeutic role in COPD rat modeling.
    Pathol Res Pract 2017 Jan 29. Epub 2017 Jan 29.
    Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510515, China; Department of Respiratory Medicine, General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command of Chinese PLA, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510010, China. Electronic address:
    Background: Pim-3 belongs to the PIM kinase family and plays an important role in promoting inflammation, which is essential in the pathogenesis of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD).

    Methods: Immunohistochemistry (IHC), western blot, and RT-PCR analyses were performed to assess the expression of Pim-3 in both COPD and healthy lung tissue samples. SMA (Smooth Muscle Actin) and Cyclin D1 expression were detected by IHC. Read More

    Association of types of dyspnea including 'bendopnea' with cardiopulmonary disease in primary care.
    Rev Port Cardiol 2017 Feb 14. Epub 2017 Feb 14.
    Departamento de Patologia, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.
    Introduction: Dyspnea is the symptom most commonly reported by patients with heart failure (HF) and/or pulmonary disease, the obese and the elderly. Recently 'bendopnea' (shortness of breath when bending forward) has been described in patients with HF.

    Objective: To determine the association of exertional dyspnea, orthopnea, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea and bendopnea with chronic disease, especially heart failure, and their phenotypes in primary care. Read More

    Passive smoking and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease mortality: findings from the Japan collaborative cohort study.
    Int J Public Health 2017 Feb 17. Epub 2017 Feb 17.
    Public Health, Department of Social and Environmental Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan.
    Objectives: To elucidate the association between passive smoking at home and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) mortality via a large-scale nationwide cohort study in Japan.

    Methods: Never smokers (n = 34,604) aged 40-79 years at baseline (1988-1990; 4884 men, 29,720 women) were included in the analysis. Passive smoking at home was measured based on self-reported frequency of weekly exposure to passive smoking at home. Read More

    Effect of Chinese herbal medicine on stroke patients with type 2 diabetes.
    J Ethnopharmacol 2017 Feb 14. Epub 2017 Feb 14.
    School of Chinese Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan; Genetic Center, Department of Medical Research, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan. Electronic address:
    Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Complications of type 2 diabetes (T2D) include stroke, which is a cerebrovascular disturbance characterized by reduced blood flow in the brain, leading to death or physical disability. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been widely used in ancient China for the treatment of diabetes and stroke by supplementing Qi and activating blood circulation.

    Aim Of The Study: This study aimed to investigate the frequencies and patterns of CHM treatment for stroke patients with T2D and the outcomes of long-term use in Taiwan. Read More

    A Systematic Review of Health Economics Simulation Models of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.
    Value Health 2017 Jan 10;20(1):152-162. Epub 2016 Oct 10.
    Centre for Clinical Epidemiology and Evaluation, Vancouver Coastal Health Institute, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada; Institute for Heart and Lung Health, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada; Division of Respiratory Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
    Background: Many decision-analytic models with varying structures have been developed to inform resource allocation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

    Objectives: To review COPD models for their adherence to the best practice modeling recommendations and their assumptions regarding important aspects of the natural history of COPD.

    Methods: A systematic search of English articles reporting on the development or application of a decision-analytic model in COPD was performed in MEDLINE, Embase, and citations within reviewed articles. Read More

    Evaluation of COPD Treatments: A Multicriteria Decision Analysis of Aclidinium and Tiotropium in the United States.
    Value Health 2017 Jan 5;20(1):132-140. Epub 2016 Oct 5.
    Forest Research Institute (an affiliate of Actavis, Inc.), Jersey City, NJ, USA.
    Background: Comparisons of the use of aclidinium bromide and tiotropium bromide for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease often concentrate on key end points (exacerbations) at the expense of other benefits and risks. Multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) can help overcome this by using stakeholder preferences to combine multiple end points into an overall value estimate.

    Objectives: To evaluate the use of aclidinium bromide twice daily via Pressair™ (AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals LP, Wilmington, DE) and of tiotropium once daily via HandiHaler(®) (Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Read More

    Point-of-care ultrasonography for evaluation of acute dyspnea in the emergency department.
    Chest 2017 Feb 14. Epub 2017 Feb 14.
    Emergency Department, Careggi University Hospital, Florence, Italy.
    Background: Acute dyspnea is a common symptom in the emergency department (ED). Standard approach to dyspnea often relies on radiologic and laboratoristic results, causing excessive delay before adequate therapy is started; an integrated point-of-care ultrasonography (PoCUS) approach can shorten the time needed to formulate a diagnosis maintaining an acceptable safety profile.

    Methods: Consecutive adult patients presenting with dyspnea and admitted after ED evaluation were prospectively enrolled. Read More

    Efficacy and Tolerability of an Inhaled Selective Glucocorticoid Receptor modulator - AZD5423 - in COPD Patients: Phase II Study Results.
    Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 2017 Feb 17. Epub 2017 Feb 17.
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology, Laboratory Medicines Unit, Lund University, Sweden.
    AZD5423 is a novel, inhaled, selective glucocorticoid receptor modulator (SGRM), which in an allergen challenge model in asthmatics improved lung function and airway hyper-reactivity. In the current trial, AZD5423 was for the first time tested in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In this double-blind, randomised and parallel group study, we examined airway and systemic effects of two doses of AZD5423, inhaled via Turbuhaler for 12 weeks, in 353 symptomatic COPD patients (average pre-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) at screening was 50-52% of predicted normal). Read More

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