Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2017 Sep 21. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Clinical Research Division, Seattle, Washington, United States.
Rationale: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are interrelated diseases with substantial mortality; the pathogenesis of both involves aberrant immune functioning.
Objective: To profile the immune cell composition and function in patients with NSCLC and describe the effect of COPD on lung and tumor microenvironments.
Methods: We profiled resected lung and tumor tissue using flow cytometry and T-cell receptor sequencing in patients with and without COPD from a prospective cohort of patients undergoing resection of NSCLC. Read More
Universiry of Groningen; University Medical Center Groningen, Pulmonology, Groningen, Netherlands ;
The epithelial lining of the airway forms the first barrier against environmental insults such as inhaled cigarette smoke, which is the primary risk factor for the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The barrier is formed by airway epithelial junctions, which are interconnected structures that restrict permeability to inhaled pathogens and environmental stressors. Destruction of the epithelial barrier not only exposes subepithelial layers to hazardous agents in the inspired air, but also alters the normal function of epithelial cells, which may eventually contribute to the development of COPD. Read More
Int J Environ Res Public Health 2017 Jul 26;14(8). Epub 2017 Jul 26.
Federal State Institution National Research Center for Preventive Medicine, Moscow 101990, Russia.
The aim of the study is to investigate the epidemiological situation regarding chronic respiratory diseases in populations that inhabit different climatic-geographical regions of Russia, and to develop targeted programs for prevention of these diseases.
Methods: (1) a comparative analysis of the standardized mortality data in Russia and other selected regions of the Russian North using the European standard for respiratory diseases, in a population aged 25-64; and (2) data from a randomized cross-sectional epidemiological study, with subjects from three different climatic-geographical regions of Russia.
Results: (1) the respiratory disease-related mortality rates in the majority of Russian Northern regions were much higher compared to the national average. Read More
J Aerosol Med Pulm Drug Deliv 2017 Sep 21. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
1 Division of Pulmonary Diseases and Critical Care Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill , Chapel Hill, North Carolina.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the third leading cause of death in the United States with a significant economic burden related to hospital admissions for exacerbations. One of the primary treatment modalities for COPD is medications delivered through breath-actuated dry powdered inhalers (DPIs). For users to successfully receive inhaled medication, they must inhale with enough flow to overcome the internal resistance of the device, leading to deaggregation of the medication powder. Read More
Hospices Civils de Lyon, Hôpital Edouard Herriot, Service de Réanimation Médicale, F-69437, Lyon, France.
Background: Repeated pupillary examination is a key element of neurologic surveillance in intensive care units (ICU). However, in non-selected critically ill patients, the clinical interest of monitoring pupillary diameter and light reflex is poorly documented. We aimed to determine the prevalence and the etiologies of pupillary abnormalities (PAs) in this ICU patient population. Read More
Department of Respiratory Disease, Chongqing Xinqiao Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 40037, China.
Background: Previous animal studies and clinical trials report inconsistent findings regarding the role of statins in pulmonary hypertension (PH). Systematic reviews have shown no use of statins on pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). This is the first meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) determining the clinical impacts of statin therapy on patients with PH secondary to lung diseases. Read More
Background: Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major catechins in Chinese green tea, has been studied for its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties in cell and animal models. In this study, we aimed to analyze the effects of EGCG on cigarette smoke (CS)-induced airway inflammation and mucus secretion in the CS-exposed rat model. Read More
Nottingham Respiratory Research Unit, NIHR Nottingham Biomedical Research Centre.
Our aim was to evaluate the use and impact of the practice walk test on enrolment, completion, and clinical functional response to pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) using the 2015 UK National Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Pulmonary Rehabilitation audit data. Patients were assessed according to whether a baseline practice walk test was performed or not. Study outcomes included use of the practice walk test, baseline and change in incremental shuttle walk test distance (ISWD) or 6-minute walk test distance (6MWD), and enrolment to and completion of PR program. Read More
Kyushu Rosai Hospital Research Center for the Promotion of Health and Employment Support, Japan.
[Purpose] Current studies report that patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) may also have arteriosclerosis. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between respiratory function and arterial stiffness in healthy workers using the brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV). [Subjects and Methods] This study included 104 male Japanese workers without COPD. Read More
Department of Physical Therapy for Internal Medicine, Faculty of Physical Therapy, Beni-Suef University: Benisuef Elgadata, Street no.18, Benisuef governorate, Egypt.
[Purpose] Counteracting the systemic cytokine release and its inflammatory effects by improving respiratory muscle strength and controlling lung inflammation may be important for improving immune system in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, So the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of low level laser therapy and inspiratory muscle training on interleukin-6 (IL-6) as a marker of inflammation and CD4+/CD8+ ratio as a marker for T Lymphocytes in these patients. [Subjects and Methods] Forty male patients with stable COPD participated in the study, their ages ranged between 55-65 years. They were randomly divided into group (A) who received inspiratory muscle training and group (B) who received low level laser (LLL) acupuncture stimulation for about 8 week. Read More
Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS) carries important social and economic implications. Once the suspicion of OSAS has arisen, Polysomnography (PSG) represents the diagnostic gold standard. However, about 45% of people who have undergone PSG are free from OSAS. Read More
Centre for International Health, Dept of Global Public Health and Primary Care, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
We aimed to examine associations between chronic airflow obstruction (CAO) and unemployment across the world.Cross-sectional data from 26 sites in the Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease (BOLD) study were used to analyse effects of CAO on unemployment. Odds ratios for unemployment in subjects aged 40-65 years were estimated using a multilevel mixed-effects generalised linear model with study site as random effect. Read More
Division of Respirology, Dept of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.
Inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) use is associated with an increased risk of pneumonia. This study was performed to determine if ICS use is associated with an increased risk of nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease (NTM-PD) or tuberculosis (TB).We conducted a population-based nested case-control study using linked laboratory and health administrative databases in Ontario, Canada, including adults aged ≥66 years with treated obstructive lung disease (i. Read More
Objectives To derive and validate a risk prediction equation to estimate the short term risk of death, and to develop a classification method for frailty based on risk of death and risk of unplanned hospital admission.Design Prospective open cohort study.Participants Routinely collected data from 1436 general practices contributing data to QResearch in England between 2012 and 2016. Read More
Background: The aim of this study was to measure the association of exposure to dust at workplace with COPD using objective methods of exposure and outcome classification.
Methods: Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 ) to forced vital capacity (FVC) <70%; FVC below LLN, and FEV1 below LLN from the annual screening of Minsk Tractor Plant workers (N = 458) were tested for predictors in an adjusted logistic regression model.
Results: In a regression model, adjusted for pack-years of smoking, age, sex, and work duration, work in highly exposed workplaces was associated with FEV1 /FVC<70% (odds ratio (OR) 2. Read More
Scand J Public Health 2016 Dec 22;44(8):784-790. Epub 2016 Oct 22.
2 Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
Aims: To follow-up hospitalization for physical diseases among homeless men and women compared with a control group from the general population. The study also investigated the changes in the difference between the homeless men and women and the general population over time by comparing two cohorts of homeless people (2000-2002 and 1996).
Methods: A total of 3887 people (24% women) who were homeless during the period 2000-2002 were compared with 11,661 people from the general population with respect to hospitalization for physical diseases and injuries (2000-2010). Read More
b Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine , University of Miami School of Medicine , Miami , FL , USA.
Objective: Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) is an underrecognized genetic disorder that can cause chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and liver cirrhosis, two clinical conditions commonly seen by primary care physicians. AATD is estimated to affect 1/4000-1/5000 people in the United States and 1-2% of all COPD cases.
Methods: PubMed was searched for relevant articles using AAT/AATD-related terms. Read More
Background: Convincing evidences have demonstrated the associations between HHIP and FAM13a polymorphisms and COPD in non-Asian populations. Here genetic variants in HHIP and FAM13a were investigated in Southern Han Chinese COPD.
Methods: A case-control study was conducted, including 989 cases and 999 controls. Read More
Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Mount Sinai Medical Center.
Background Disease of the cervical spine is widely prevalent, most commonly secondary to degenerative disc changes and spondylosis. Objective The goal of the paper was to identify a possible discrepancy regarding the length of stay (LOS) between the anterior and posterior approaches to elective cervical spine surgery and identify contributing factors. Methods A retrospective study was performed on 587 patients (341 anterior, 246 posterior) that underwent elective cervical spinal surgery between October 2001 and March 2014. Read More
BMJ Open 2017 Sep 18;7(9):e016985. Epub 2017 Sep 18.
Centre for Medicine Use and Safety, Monash University, Parkville, Victoria, Australia.
Introduction: Up to half of all smokers develop clinically significant chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Gaps exist in the implementation and uptake of evidence-based guidelines for managing COPD in primary care. We describe the methodology of a cluster randomised controlled trial (cRCT) evaluating the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of an interdisciplinary model of care aimed at reducing the burden of smoking and COPD in Australian primary care settings. Read More
Division Heart and Lungs, Department of Respiratory Medicine, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands.
Background: If eHealth interventions are not used (properly), their potential benefits cannot be fulfilled. User perceptions of eHealth are an important determinant of its successful implementation. This study examined how patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and their physiotherapists (PHTs) value an eHealth self-management intervention following a period of use. Read More
Comprehensive Laboratory, the Third Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Changzhou Key Lab of Individualized Diagnosis and Treatment Associated with High Technology Research, Changzhou 213003, Jiangsu, China. Electronic address:
Background: It has been reported increased serum apoM levels seen in the patients suffered from obstructive sleep apnoea and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases. In the present, we further examine the prevalence of apoM gene SNPs in COPD patients. And a new method base-quenched probe technique is established. Read More
Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; Institute of Public Health and School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan. Electronic address:
Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic inflammatory disease which causes a considerable disease burden. Patients with COPD are at a higher risk for influenza infection and influenza vaccination are recommended at this high risk patient group. In the current study, we aimed to evaluate the association between influenza vaccination and the risk of respiratory failure (RF) in COPD patients. Read More
Mutat Res 2017 Jul 18;773:14-25. Epub 2017 Mar 18.
Department of Biotechnology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India. Electronic address:
Alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) is an acute phase secretory glycoprotein that inhibits neutrophil proteases like elastase and is considered as the archetype of a family of structurally related serine-protease inhibitors termed serpins. Serum AAT predominantly originates from liver and increases three to five fold during host response to tissue injury and inflammation. The AAT deficiency is unique among the protein-misfolding diseases in that it causes target organ injury by both loss-of-function and gain-of-toxic function mechanisms. Read More
Associate Professor of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine; Director, Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine Fellowship Program, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD
Acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a clinical diagnosis that is based on changes in dyspnea, cough, and/or sputum production in a COPD patient; however, patients presenting with an acute exacerbation may be undiagnosed or have a variety of comorbid conditions that can complicate diagnosis. This issue presents strategies and algorithms for the early use of evidence-based interventions, including appropriate use of antibiotics, bronchodilators, and corticosteroids, along with noninvasive ventilation with capnography, to minimize morbidity and mortality associated with this disease. Read More
Background: Pulmonary conditions such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are common conditions that warrant special consideration in the perioperative period. When these patients undergo surgical interventions, they have risk of complications such as bronchospasm, hypoxia, and even postoperative respiratory failure that warrants unplanned intensive care unit admission. Thus, clinicians must be familiar with pulmonary medication regimens that are critical for maintaining stable homeostasis of these chronic conditions. Read More
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2017 Aug;21(16):3680-3689
Respiratory Diseases Unit, Azienda Policlinico Umberto I, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.
Objective: A retrospective cohort study was performed, using administrative database of the Local Health Unit Roma-A (LHU RM-A). The included subjects were residing in one of the four districts and were hospitalized for COPD exacerbation in healthcare facilities of the LHU during years 2010-2012.
Patients And Methods: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the impact of comorbidities, length and costs of hospital stay in patients with COPD exacerbations. Read More
Department of Emergency Medicine, Union Hospital of Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.
Introduction: Physical exercise effectively improves health-related quality of life in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, application of this medical intervention is problematic, due to poor adherence to the exercise program or unawareness of the significance of this intervention.
Objective: To determine whether COPD patients who adopted personal-preferred exercise modalities (PPEMs) for daily training would demonstrate sustained benefits due to improved adherence. Read More
Self-management is recognised as an essential criteria for the provision of high quality care for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The management of COPD is usually delivered by a wide range of healthcare practitioners. This study aimed to understand the factors affecting self-management of COPD from the perspectives of the different multidisciplinary healthcare teams involved in COPD care. Read More
Center for Pulmonary Diseases, National Hospital Organization Tokyo National Hospital, Japan.
Objective In 2011, the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) classification categorized chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients into 4 groups. A report demonstrated that the mortality in Group B was higher than that in Group C. Ischemic heart disease and cancer were suggested to be the cause. Read More
Background: Cancer patients are often thought to have worse surgical outcomes. There is a growing view that risk models do not adequately predict these outcomes. This study aims to compare the use of common risk models for benign versus malignant gastrointestinal disease. Read More
Respir Res 2017 Sep 18;18(1):173. Epub 2017 Sep 18.
Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA.
Background: Dysfunction in cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) can be elicited by cigarette smoke and is observed in patients with chronic bronchitis. We have previously demonstrated in human airway epithelial cell monolayers that roflumilast, a clinically approved phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor that reduces the risk of exacerbations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients with chronic bronchitis and a history of exacerbations, activates CFTR-dependent chloride secretion via a cAMP-mediated pathway, partially restores the detrimental effects of cigarette smoke on CFTR-mediated ion transport, and increases CFTR-dependent gastrointestinal fluid secretion in isolated murine intestine segments. Based on these findings, we hypothesized that roflumilast could improve CFTR-mediated chloride transport and induce secretory diarrhea in mice exhibiting cigarette smoke-induced CFTR dysfunction. Read More
Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with cough, sputum production or dyspnoea and a reduction in lung function, quality of life and life expectancy. Apart from smoking cessation, there are no other treatments that slow lung function decline. Roflumilast and cilomilast are oral phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitors proposed to reduce the airway inflammation and bronchoconstriction seen in COPD. Read More
Department of Oncology, University of Oxford, Old Road Campus Research Building, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford, OX3 7DQ, United Kingdom.
Purpose: To develop and optimize a rapid dynamic hyperpolarized (129) Xe ventilation (DXeV) MRI protocol and investigate the feasibility of capturing pulmonary signal-time curves in human lungs.
Theory And Methods: Spiral k-space trajectories were designed with the number of interleaves Nint = 1, 2, 4, and 8 corresponding to voxel sizes of 8 mm, 5 mm, 4 mm, and 2.5 mm, respectively, for field of view = 15 cm. Read More
Department of Respiratory Medicine, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.
Background: Cycle ergometer training (CET) has been shown to improve exercise performance of the quadriceps muscles in patients with COPD, and inspiratory muscle training (IMT) may improve the pressure-generating capacity of the inspiratory muscles. However, the effects of combined CET and IMT remain unclear and there is a lack of comprehensive assessment.
Materials And Methods: Eighty-one patients with COPD were randomly allocated to three groups: 28 received 8 weeks of CET + IMT (combined training group), 27 received 8 weeks of CET alone (CET group), and 26 only received 8 weeks of free walking (control group). Read More
Background: Bronchiectasis-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) overlap presents a possible clinical phenotype of COPD, but it is unclear why it develops in a subset of patients. We hypothesized that sensitization to Aspergillus fumigatus (A fum) is associated with bronchiectasis in COPD and occurs more frequently in vitamin D-deficient patients.
Methods: This observational study investigated sensitization to A fum in an outpatient clinical cohort of 300 COPD patients and 50 (ex-) smoking controls. Read More
Background: Lung volume reduction (LVR) improves breathing mechanics by reducing hyperinflation. Lobar selection usually focuses on choosing the most destroyed emphysematous lobes as seen on an inspiratory CT scan. However, it has never been shown to what extent these densitometric CT parameters predict the least deflation of an individual lobe during expiration. Read More
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide, with high and growing prevalence. Its underdiagnosis and hence under-treatment is a general feature across all countries. This is particularly true for the mild or early stages of the disease, when symptoms do not yet interfere with daily living activities and both patients and doctors are likely to underestimate the presence of the disease. Read More
Clinical Research Institute of Southern Oregon, Inc., Medford, OR, USA.
Background: The use of long-acting bronchodilators is an essential component of the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The GOLDEN 5 Phase III, randomized, active-controlled, open-label study was conducted to evaluate the long-term safety and tolerability of a nebulized glycopyrrolate formulation (SUN-101) delivered via the investigational eFlow(®) Closed System (eFlow(®) CS) nebulizer in subjects with moderate-to-very-severe COPD.
Methods: Subjects were randomized in a 4:3 ratio to nebulized glycopyrrolate 50 μg twice daily (BID) or tiotropium 18 μg once daily (OD) and treated for 48 weeks. Read More
Background: Monitoring levels and trends in premature mortality is crucial to understanding how societies can address prominent sources of early death. The Global Burden of Disease 2016 Study (GBD 2016) provides a comprehensive assessment of cause-specific mortality for 264 causes in 195 locations from 1980 to 2016. This assessment includes evaluation of the expected epidemiological transition with changes in development and where local patterns deviate from these trends. Read More
Yale University Prevention Research Center, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA; Sickness Prevention Achieved through Regional Collaboration (SPARC, Inc.), Newton, MA, USA. Electronic address:
Multiple (≥2) chronic conditions (MCCs) are responsible for a large fraction of healthcare costs. Our aim was to examine possible associations between MCCs and composite measures of behavioral risk factors (RFs). Data were publicly available 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and included 483,865 non-institutionalized US adults ages ≥18years. Read More
Systemic osteoporosis and increased fracture rates have been described in chronic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, spondyloarthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, inflammatory bowel diseases, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Most of these patients receive glucocorticoids, which have their own deleterious effects on bone. However, the other main determinant of bone fragility is the inflammation itself, as shown by the interactions between the inflammatory mediators, the actors of the immune system, and the bone remodelling. Read More
Active smoking in stable COPD subjects significantly increased eosinophil accumulation in the distal airspaces, but not in sputum or peripheral blood. Our findings support the need to investigate this cell-type as a potential driver of COPD symptomatology and progression. Read More
Accelerated elastin degradation is an important pathogenic mechanism in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) leading to irreversible lung function loss and cardiovascular comorbidities. The rate of elastin breakdown is a predictor of mortality in patients with COPD. Decelerating elastinolysis might be an attractive therapeutic target in this debilitating condition. Read More
Obstructive airways inflammatory diseases sometimes show overlapping symptoms that hinder their early and correct diagnosis. Current clinical tests are tedious and are of inadequate specificity in special population such as the elderly and children. Therefore, we are developing tandem mass spectrometric (MS/MS) methods for targeted analysis of urine biomarkers. Read More
Long-term cigarette smoke induces lung inflammatory injury and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), associated with skeletal muscle inflammation. This study aimed at investigating how cigarette smoke promotes skeletal muscle inflammation and its molecular pathogenesis. Mice were exposed to air or cigarette smoke for 12 or 24 weeks, and C2C12 cells were stimulated with cigarette smoke extract (CSE). Read More
The paper considers current approaches to mucoregulatory therapy for various inflammatory diseases of the respiratory system. It gives the advantages and disadvantages of common drugs used in their treatment. Emphasis is laid on the use of inhaled hypertonic saline of NaCl in combination with hyaluronic acid (Hyaneb). Read More
Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Physiology, Carlos Chagas Filho Institute of Biophysics, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Avenida Carlos Chagas Filho, s/n, Bloco G, Ilha do Fundão, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 21941-902, Brazil.
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), hundreds of millions of people of all ages and in all countries suffer from chronic respiratory diseases, with particular negative consequences such as poor health-related quality of life, impaired work productivity, and limitations in the activities of daily living. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, occupational lung diseases (such as silicosis), cystic fibrosis, and pulmonary arterial hypertension are the most common of these diseases, and none of them are curable with current therapies. The advent of nanotechnology holds great therapeutic promise for respiratory conditions, because non-viral vectors are able to overcome the mucus and lung remodeling barriers, increasing pharmacologic and therapeutic potency. Read More