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    1 OF 141

    Clinicopathological features and course of cutaneous protothecosis.
    J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2018 Jan 22. Epub 2018 Jan 22.
    Department of Dermatology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical Center, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.
    Background: Protothecosis is an uncommon infection caused by the achlorophyllic algae found more commonly in tropical areas. Only a limited number of cases have been reported.

    Objective: We aimed to evaluate the clinicopathological features and treatment outcomes of cutaneous protothecosis. Read More

    Calcitriol-mediated hypercalcemia secondary to granulomatous disease caused by soft-tissue filler injection: a case report.
    Clin Cases Miner Bone Metab 2017 Sep-Dec;14(3):340-346. Epub 2017 Dec 27.
    Department of Endocrine Neoplasia and Hormonal Disorders, The University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, USA.
    Soft-tissue filler (STF) injections have been used worldwide for cosmetic reasons. In most cases, they are not approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Regulatory boards in Latin American countries do not allow the medical use of STF injections; however, these injections are still widely used. Read More

    Granulomatous Pancreas: A Case Report of Pancreatic Sarcoid.
    Case Rep Gastrointest Med 2017 4;2017:1620392. Epub 2017 Dec 4.
    Brookdale University Hospital and Medical Center, 1 Brookdale Plaza, Brooklyn, NY 11212, USA.
    Sarcoidosis is a chronic, systemic, noncaseating granulomatous disease process of unknown etiology. Sarcoidosis most commonly manifests in the lungs; however, gastrointestinal manifestations can occur. If in the GI tract, it is almost always found in the liver. Read More

    Unexpected findings in the routine histopathological examinations of appendectomy specimens A retrospective analysis of 1,970 patients.
    Ann Ital Chir 2017 ;88:519-525
    Introduction: Diseases and tumors of the appendix vermiformis are very rare, except for acute appendicitis. This study aimed to examine rare findings in the histopathologic examinations of specimens of patients undergoing appendectomy due to the diagnosis of acute appendicitis.

    Methods: The files of 1,970 patients undergoing appendectomy due to the diagnosis of acute appendicitis between March 2012 and March 2016 were retrospectively investigated. Read More

    Primary oral tuberculosis on the tongue mimicking squamous cell carcinoma.
    Indian J Tuberc 2018 Jan 15;65(1):84-86. Epub 2016 Dec 15.
    Department of Dentistry, VSS Medical College, Burla, Odisha, India.
    Tuberculosis is chronic granulomatous disease with rare oral manifestations. But if so are overlooked by most of the health care professionals. Clinically, most of the times, a tuberculous ulcer may mimic an ulcer of malignant origin and may be misdiagnosed. Read More

    A false-carrier state for the c.579G>A mutation in the NCF1 gene in Ashkenazi Jews.
    J Med Genet 2018 Jan 13. Epub 2018 Jan 13.
    The Danek Gertner Institute of Human Genetics, Sheba Medical Center, Ramat Gan, Israel and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.
    Background: Mutations in the NCF1 gene that encodes p47phox, a subunit of the NADPH oxidase complex, cause chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). In Kavkazi Jews, a c.579G>A (p. Read More

    Potential immunotherapies for sarcoidosis.
    Expert Opin Biol Ther 2018 Jan 17:1-9. Epub 2018 Jan 17.
    a Department of Medicine , The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center , Columbus , OH , USA.
    Introduction: Sarcoidosis is a chronic granulomatous inflammatory disease that commonly causes lung disease, but can affect other vital organs and tissues. The cause of sarcoidosis is unknown, and current therapies are commonly limited by lack of efficacy, adverse side effects, and excessive cost. Areas covered: The manuscript will provide a review of current concepts relating to the pathogenesis of sarcoidosis, and how these disease mechanisms may be leveraged to develop more effective treatments for sarcoidosis. Read More

    Granulomatous Mastitis Concurrence with Breast Cancer.
    Eur J Breast Health 2018 Jan 1;14(1):58-60. Epub 2018 Jan 1.
    Department of Medical Patholohy, Ahi Evran University, Kırşehir, Turkey.
    Idiopathic Granulomatous Mastitis (IGM) is a rare, chronic, non-malignant and non-life-threatening breast disease. IGM may mimic carcinoma of the breast. This case report is about concurrence of chronic granulomatous mastitis with breast cancer. Read More

    X chromosome short arm involvement in autoimmune diseases: comment on the report by Sharma, et al.
    Arthritis Rheumatol 2018 Jan 5. Epub 2018 Jan 5.
    University of South Florida, Chemistry, Tampa, FL, USA.
    Sharma, et al. reported associations of X chromosome abnormalities with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and Sjogren's syndrome (SjS).1 They proposed that genes located on the X chromosome short arm (Xp) mediate the sex bias of SLE and/or SjS. Read More

    [Sarcoidosis - enigmatic disease still unresolved].
    Vnitr Lek 2018 ;63(11):807-814
    Sarcoidosis is a systemic disease of unknown etiology, characterized by the presence of granulomatous inflammation in affected tissues. In about 90 % it affects the lungs, but it may basically affect any organ, the most frequently the skin, lymph nodes and eyes. In the case of classic lung manifestation this disease is not difficult to diagnose. Read More

    Hypersensitive Pneumonitis: an Initial Presentation of Chronic Granulomatous Disease in a Child.
    J Clin Immunol 2018 Jan 4. Epub 2018 Jan 4.
    Beijing Children's Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University, National Center for Children's Health, No. 56 South Lishi Road, Beijing, 10045, China.
    Hypersensitive pneumonitis (HP) is a rare initial presentation of chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), especially in children. CGD presenting as HP may result from exposure to inhaled environmental antigens and be induced by excessive production of inflammatory cytokines due to loss of reactive oxygen species production. We herein describe a 2-year-old boy with CGD caused by a mutation in CYBB gene, who initially presented with HP. Read More

    Hematopoietic cell transplantation in primary immunodeficiency - conventional and emerging indications.
    Expert Rev Clin Immunol 2018 Jan 16:1-12. Epub 2018 Jan 16.
    a Institute of Cellular Medicine , Newcastle University , Newcastle Upon Tyne , UK.
    Introduction: Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is an established curative treatment for many primary immunodeficiencies. Advances in donor selection, graft manipulation, conditioning and treatment of complications, mean that survival for many conditions is now around 90%. Next generation sequencing is identifying new immunodeficiencies, many of which are treatable with HSCT. Read More

    Sarcoidosis: a review for the internist.
    Intern Emerg Med 2018 Jan 3. Epub 2018 Jan 3.
    Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, Abteilung für Pneumologie Carl-Neuberg-Straße 1, 30625, Hannover, Germany.
    Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous lung disease of unknown origin affecting people of any age, mainly young adults. The disease is extremely heterogeneous with an unpredictable clinical course. Different phenotypes have been identified: an acute syndrome can be distinguished from subacute and chronic variants. Read More

    Gene-edited pseudogene resurrection corrects p47phox-deficient chronic granulomatous disease.
    Blood Adv 2017 Jan 28;1(4):270-278. Epub 2016 Dec 28.
    Laboratory of Host Defenses, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD.
    Pseudogenes are duplicated genes with mutations rendering them nonfunctional. For single-gene disorders with homologous pseudogenes, the pseudogene might be a target for genetic correction. Autosomal-recessive p47phox-deficient chronic granulomatous disease (p47-CGD) is a life-threatening immune deficiency caused by mutations in NCF1, a gene with 2 pseudogenes, NCF1B and NCF1C. Read More

    Natural history of Mycobacterium fortuitum pulmonary infection presenting with migratory infiltrates: a case report with microbiological analysis.
    BMC Infect Dis 2018 Jan 2;18(1). Epub 2018 Jan 2.
    Center for Infectious Diseases and Infection Control, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku, Tokyo, 160-8582, Japan.
    Background: Presence of Mycobacterium fortuitum in respiratory tracts usually indicates mere colonization or transient infection, whereas true pulmonary infection occurs in patients with gastroesophageal disease. However, little is known about the diagnostic indications for true M. fortuitum pulmonary infection and the natural history of the disease. Read More

    Abdominal Angiostrongyliasis: A Presentation of Eosinophilic Granulomatous Colitis.
    Int J Surg Pathol 2017 Dec 1:1066896917749929. Epub 2017 Dec 1.
    1 University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA.
    We present a case of a 4-year-old girl with abdominal angiostrongyliasis who presented with persistent fevers, hepatosplenomegaly, acute abdominal pain, and eosinophilia. Computed tomography scan identified thickening of the ascending colon with a narrowed lumen. Endoscopic evaluation revealed ulcerations and erythema in the ascending colon. Read More

    The changing profile of hypercalcemia in a tertiary care setting in North India: an 18-month retrospective study.
    Clin Cases Miner Bone Metab 2017 May-Aug;14(2):131-135. Epub 2017 Oct 25.
    Division of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Medanta-The Medicity, Sector 38, Gurgaon, Haryana, India.
    This retrospective study was undertaken to determine the profile of hypercalcemia in all patients who presented to Medanta-The Medicity, a tertiary care hospital in North India. A total of 255,830 patients presented to the hospital during 1st January 2014 till 30th June 2015 (18 months). Among them calcium measurement was done in 26,297 (10. Read More

    Electrophysiological Study of Nerves in Type-II Reaction in Leprosy.
    Indian J Dermatol 2017 Nov-Dec;62(6):644-648
    Department of Medicine, BRD Medical College, Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh, India.
    Background: Leprosy is a chronic granulomatous infection primarily affecting the peripheral nervous system, skin and reticuloendothelial system. Cutaneous nerves are severely affected in lepra reaction and this leads to morbidity.

    Objective: To study electrophysiological pattern of different nerves involved in Type-II reactions in leprosy. Read More

    Inhibition of JAK-STAT Signaling Suppresses Pathogenic Immune Responses in Medium and Large Vessel Vasculitis.
    Circulation 2017 Dec 18. Epub 2017 Dec 18.
    Department of Medicine, Division of Immunology and Rheumatology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA
    Background -Giant cell arteritis (GCA), a chronic autoimmune disease of the aorta and its large branches, is complicated by aneurysm formation, dissection, and arterial occlusions. Arterial wall dendritic cells (DC) attract CD4+ T-cells and macrophages (Mo), to form prototypic granulomatous infiltrates. Vasculitic lesions contain a diverse array of effector T-cells that persist despite corticosteroid therapy and sustain chronic, smoldering vasculitis. Read More

    Differential Kinetics of Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus fumigatus Phagocytosis.
    J Innate Immun 2017 Dec 16. Epub 2017 Dec 16.
    Medical Research Council Centre for Medical Mycology at the University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen Fungal Group, Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK.
    Invasive aspergillosis mainly occurs in immunocompromised patients and is commonly caused by Aspergillus fumigatus, while A.nidulans is rarely the causative agent. However, in chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) patients, A. Read More

    Takayasu arteritis in paediatrics.
    Cardiol Young 2017 Dec 13:1-8. Epub 2017 Dec 13.
    Department of Cardiology,Hospital de Pediatría J.P. Garrahan,Buenos Aires,Argentina.
    Takayasu arteritis is an idiopathic chronic granulomatous panarteritis predominantly affecting the aorta and its main branches. Although idiopathic, genetic contribution to disease susceptibility is being increasingly recognised. Rare in children, Takayasu arteritis is a worldwide disease with significant morbidity and mortality. Read More

    A case of leprosy in central Florida.
    Cutis 2017 Nov;100(5):327-329
    Larkin Community Hospital, Miami, Florida, USA.
    Hansen disease, also known as leprosy, is a chronic granulomatous infectious disease that is caused by Mycobacterium leprae. We report an unusual case of a 65-year-old man who presented with multiple anesthetic, annular, erythematous, scaly plaques with a raised border without any known exposures to leprosy. Histologic examination revealed a perineural lymphohistiocytic infiltrate and rare bacilli demonstrated on Fite staining. Read More

    Chronic Granulomatous Disease in children: a single center experience.
    Clin Immunol 2017 Dec 7. Epub 2017 Dec 7.
    Stem Cell Laboratory, Section of Hematology and Blood Coagulation, Clinical Chemistry Laboratory, Diagnostics Department, ASST Spedali Civili of Brescia, Brescia, Italy. Electronic address:
    Chronic Granulomatous Disease (CGD) is caused by the failure of the phagocytes to kill pathogens. We carried out a retrospective analysis of cellular, molecular and clinical features of 14 young patients (mean age at the onset of symptoms and diagnosis: 10 and 25months, respectively), 7 with autosomal recessive and 7 X-linked form, referred to the Children's Hospital of Brescia between 1999 and 2016. Two new mutations were found, one localized in the CYBB and one in the NCF1 genes. Read More

    Transcriptional Survey of Alveolar Macrophages in a Murine Model of Chronic Granulomatous Inflammation Reveals Common Themes with Human Sarcoidosis.
    Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2017 Dec 6. Epub 2017 Dec 6.
    Medicine, University of Washington, United States.
    To advance our understanding of the pathobiology of sarcoidosis, we developed a multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-based murine model that shows marked histological and inflammatory signal similarities to this disease. In this study, we compared the alveolar macrophage transcriptional signatures of our animal model with human sarcoidosis to identify overlapping molecular programs. Whole-genome microarrays were used to assess gene expression of alveolar macrophages in 6 MWCNT-exposed and 6 control animals. Read More

    Approach to a Child with Primary Immunodeficiency Made Simple.
    Indian Dermatol Online J 2017 Nov-Dec;8(6):391-405
    Allergy Immunology Unit, Advanced Pediatrics Centre, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.
    Primary immunodeficiency disorders (PIDs) are a group of disorders affecting the capability to fight against infection. These include defects in T cells and B cells affecting cell-mediated and humoral immunity, respectively, combined humoral and cell-mediated immunodeficiency, defects in phagocytosis, complement defects, and defects in cytokine or cytokine signalling pathways which are detrimental for immune function. Depending upon the type and severity, age at onset of symptoms can vary from neonatal period to late childhood. Read More

    Solitary nodule of angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia of the back masquerading as pyogenic granuloma.
    Mol Clin Oncol 2017 Nov 19;7(5):874-876. Epub 2017 Sep 19.
    Department of Dermatology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510080, P.R. China.
    Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia (ALHE) is a rare chronic inflammatory disorder of unknown etiology that most commonly presents as painless lymphadenopathy or subcutaneous masses in the head and neck region. The pathogenesis of the disease is not yet clear. The differential diagnosis is determined using characteristic histological features, such as significant vascular proliferation, lymphocytes and eosinophil inflammation in the dermis. Read More

    Review for Disease of the Year: Clinic of Cytomegalovirus-Induced Anterior Uveitis.
    Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2017 Nov 27:1-9. Epub 2017 Nov 27.
    f DHU ViewRestore , University of Pierre and Marie Curie, Sorbonne Universités , Paris , France.
    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) anterior uveitis is the most common ocular manifestation of CMV disease in immunocompetent individuals. It is thought to be due to a local reactivation of latent CMV and is usually unilateral. The acute form presents as Posner-Schlossman Syndrome, a recurrent hypertensive anterior uveitis with few granulomatous keratic precipitates. Read More

    A Review of Chronic Granulomatous Disease.
    Adv Ther 2017 Dec 22;34(12):2543-2557. Epub 2017 Nov 22.
    Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Wood Center, Rm 3301, 3401 Civic Center Blvd, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA.
    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a primary immunodeficiency caused by defects in any of the five subunits of the NADPH oxidase complex responsible for the respiratory burst in phagocytic leukocytes. Patients with CGD are at increased risk of life-threatening infections with catalase-positive bacteria and fungi and inflammatory complications such as CGD colitis. The implementation of routine antimicrobial prophylaxis and the advent of azole antifungals has considerably improved overall survival. Read More

    Pathogenesis, Molecular Genetics, and Genomics of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, the Etiologic Agent of Johne's Disease.
    Front Vet Sci 2017 6;4:187. Epub 2017 Nov 6.
    School of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE, United States.
    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the etiologic agent of Johne's disease in ruminants causing chronic diarrhea, malnutrition, and muscular wasting. Neonates and young animals are infected primarily by the fecal-oral route. Read More

    Coexistence of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis and erythemanodosum: successful treatment with corticosteroids
    Turk J Med Sci 2017 11 13;47(5):1590-1592. Epub 2017 Nov 13.
    Background/aim: Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is a rare, chronic inflammatory disease of the breast. Erythema nodosum (EN) is a rare extramammary manifestation of IGM. The purpose of this study is to determine the clinical and demographic characteristics of 11 IGM and EN patients and to evaluate the efficacy of methylprednisolone treatment. Read More

    The Changing Paradigm of Management of Liver Abscesses in Chronic Granulomatous Disease.
    Clin Infect Dis 2017 11 14. Epub 2017 Nov 14.
    Thoracic and GI Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD.
    Background: Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a rare genetic disorder causing recurrent infections. Over one quarter of patients develop hepatic abscesses and liver dysfunction. Recent reports suggest disease-modifying treatment with corticosteroids is effective for these abscesses. Read More

    Clinical tool for disease phenotyping in granulomatous lung disease.
    PLoS One 2017 16;12(11):e0188119. Epub 2017 Nov 16.
    Colorado School of Public Health, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, Colorado, United States of America.
    Background: Exposure to beryllium may lead to granuloma formation and fibrosis in those who develop chronic beryllium disease (CBD). Although disease presentation varies from mild to severe, little is known about CBD phenotypes. This study characterized CBD disease phenotypes using longitudinal measures of lung function. Read More

    Hansen's Disease and Rheumatoid Arthritis Crossover of Clinical Symptoms: A Case Series of 18 Patients in the United States.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2017 Dec 19;97(6):1726-1730. Epub 2017 Oct 19.
    National Hansen's Disease Program, Baton Rouge, Louisiana.
    Hansen's Disease (HD) is a rare, chronic granulomatous infection of the skin and peripheral nerves caused by the noncultivable organism Mycobacterium leprae. Arthritis is the third most common symptom of HD. Subjects with both confirmed HD on skin biopsy and chronic arthritis were identified at the National Hansen's Disease Program (NHDP). Read More

    Broadleaf Mahonia attenuates granulomatous lobular mastitis‑associated inflammation by inhibiting CCL‑5 expression in macrophages.
    Int J Mol Med 2018 Jan 9;41(1):340-352. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Department of Mammary Disease, Guangdong Provincial Hospital of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510006, P.R. China.
    Granulomatous lobular mastitis (GLM) is a type of chronic mammary inflammation with unclear etiology. Currently systematic corticosteroids and methitrexate are considered as the main drugs for GLM treatment, but a high toxicity and risk of recurrence greatly limit their application. It is therefore an urgent requirement that safe and efficient natural drugs are found to improve the GLM prognosis. Read More

    Long-term observational studies of chronic granulomatous disease.
    Curr Opin Hematol 2018 Jan;25(1):7-12
    Department of Immunology-Histocompatibility, Specialized Center & Referral Center for Primary Immunodeficiencies, Paediatric Immunology, 'Aghia Sophia' Children's Hospital, Athens, Greece.
    Purpose Of Review: Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a primary immunodeficiency, with a defect of phagocytes in killing specific pathogens. CGD is characterized by severe recurrent bacterial and fungal infections and dysregulated inflammatory response. Since its first description as fatal disease about 60 years ago, a significant improvement in outcome has been achieved in the last 20 years. Read More

    Successful transcatheter arterial antimicrobial and steroid therapy for refractory liver abscess in chronic granulomatous disease: A case report and review of literature.
    J Infect Chemother 2017 Nov 10. Epub 2017 Nov 10.
    Nara Prefecture General Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, Nara, Japan.
    Hepatic abscess in chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is very refractory and frequently requires multiple surgeries with frequent morbidities. Although surgical interventions are often required, patients are often not able to have surgery for various reasons. We present the case of a 21-year-old man with recurrent hepatic abscess in CGD. Read More

    The three CYBA variants (rs4673, rs1049254 and rs1049255) are benign: new evidence from a patient with CGD.
    BMC Med Genet 2017 11 13;18(1):127. Epub 2017 Nov 13.
    Department of Clinical Immunology, Children's Hospital of Fudan University, 399 Wanyuan Road, Shanghai, 201102, China.
    Background: Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is an inherited immunodeficiency disease caused by the defect of NADPH oxidase. Mutations in CYBB or CYBA gene may result in membrane subunits, gp91phox or p22phox, expression failure respectively and NADPH oxidase deficiency. Previous study showed that three variants, c. Read More

    Janus-Faced Neutrophil Extracellular Traps in Periodontitis.
    Front Immunol 2017 26;8:1404. Epub 2017 Oct 26.
    Clinic of Operative Dentistry, Periodontology and Preventive Dentistry, Saarland University, Homburg, Germany.
    Periodontitis is characterized by PMN infiltration and formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). However, their functional role for periodontal health remains complex and partially understood. The main function of NETs appears to be evacuation of dental plaque pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Read More

    Stop Being So Sensitive: An Exceptionally Rare Report of Ustekinumab-Induced Sub-acute Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis.
    Turk J Anaesthesiol Reanim 2017 Oct 15;45(5):313-317. Epub 2017 Sep 15.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine, University of Florida College of Medicine, Florida, USA.
    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HSP) is a rare syndrome characterised by granulomatous inflammatory lung disease due to repeated sensitisation from a specific antigen. We present the case of a 61-year old male veteran with a history of nodular eczema who presented with 2 weeks of progressive dyspnoea on exertion and pleuritic chest pain. The patient was started on ustekinumab 5 weeks prior to presentation. Read More

    IL-37 and leprosy: A novel cytokine involved in the host response to Mycobacterium leprae infection.
    Cytokine 2017 Oct 27. Epub 2017 Oct 27.
    Tropical Medicine Center, Federal University of Pará, Belém, Pará, Brazil; Center of Health and Biological Sciences, State University of Pará, Belém, Pará, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Leprosy is a chronic infectious granulomatous disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, in which the clinical outcome depends on the pattern of the host immune response. Because it is a spectral disease, leprosy is a good model for studying the immunology of the pathogen-host relationship. Although previous studies have characterized the participation of cytokine profiles such as Th1, Th2, Th7, Treg, Th9, and Th22 responses in leprosy, the role of new cytokines such as IL-37 have not yet been described for the spectral model of the disease. Read More

    Evidence for M2 macrophages in granulomas from pulmonary sarcoidosis: A new aspect of macrophage heterogeneity.
    Hum Immunol 2018 Jan 31;79(1):63-69. Epub 2017 Oct 31.
    Airways Disease Section, National Heart & Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, UK; Priority Research Centre for Healthy Lungs, Hunter Medical Research Institute, The University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW, Australia. Electronic address:
    Background: Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous disease of unknown etiology. Macrophages play a key role in granuloma formation with the T cells, having a significant impact on macrophage polarization (M1 and M2) and the cellular composition of the granuloma. This study evaluates macrophage polarization in granulomas in pulmonary sarcoidosis. Read More

    Hot Tub Lung: A Diagnostic Challenge.
    Cureus 2017 Aug 27;9(8):e1617. Epub 2017 Aug 27.
    Internal Medicine, West Virginia University - Charleston Division.
    Hot tub lung (HTL) is a granulomatous lung disease thought to occur as a result of a hypersensitivity response to non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). Typical radiographic findings are diffuse micronodular and/or ground glass opacities. We report an interesting case of HTL that presented with unique radiographic features, making its diagnosis a predicament. Read More

    Spectrum of imaging findings of chronic granulomatous disease: a single center experience.
    Diagn Interv Radiol 2017 Nov-Dec;23(6):472-477
    Department of Radiology, Jeju National University Hospital, Jeju National University School of Medicine, Jeju, Republic of Korea.
    The purpose of this pictorial essay is to present and summarize findings of various images of chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). CGD represents a heterogeneous group of disorders caused by defective generation of respiratory bursts in human phagocytes. This defect results in abnormal phagocytic functions and defective killing of bacteria by phagocytes. Read More

    Balamuthia mandrillaris Granulomatous Amebic Encephalitis With Renal Dissemination in a Previously Healthy Child: Case Report and Review of the Pediatric Literature.
    J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2017 Oct 31. Epub 2017 Oct 31.
    Departments of Pediatrics.
    Balamuthia mandrillaris is a recently described ameba known to cause a subacute to chronic central nervous system infection called granulomatous amebic encephalitis. Evidence suggests that apparently immunocompetent persons are at risk for disease and show a similar nonspecific presentation to that of immunodeficient persons. However, evidence of hematogenous dissemination, which has been found in immunodeficient patients, has been lacking in immunocompetent patients. Read More

    Subcutaneous Sarcoidosis Occurring in Both Chin and Toe.
    Arch Craniofac Surg 2017 Sep 26;18(3):207-210. Epub 2017 Sep 26.
    Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju, Korea.
    Sarcoidosis is a systemic inflammatory disease characterized by non-caseating granulomas of unknown origin. Of the fewer than 6% of sarcoidosis cases that occur in subcutaneous tissue, most occur on the face or forearm, but rarely in the toe. A 33-year-old man was admitted to our institute with a 2-cm mass on his chin and a 0. Read More

    [Pulmonary infection by Arthrographis kalrae in patient with chronic granulomatous disease].
    Arch Argent Pediatr 2017 Dec;115(6):e458-e461
    Hospital de Niños Ricardo Gutiérrez, Programa de Infectología Pediátrica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Facultad de Medicina, Ciudad de Buenos Aires.
    Background: Arthrographis kalrae is a hyaline fungus that grows forming arthroconidia. It is an opportunistic pathogen that causes infections in immunocompromised as in immunocompetent people and has been rarely isolated from human clinical samples.

    Case Report: We describe the case of a male child with primary immunodeficiency who initially presented unilateral pneumonia and progressed to bilateral involvement despite antibiotic, antifungal treatment. Read More

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