15,996 results match your criteria Chronic Bronchitis


Rates of Chronic Medical Conditions in 1991 Gulf War Veterans Compared to the General Population.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2019 Mar 16;16(6). Epub 2019 Mar 16.

Department of Environmental Health, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02118, USA.

Prevalence of nine chronic medical conditions in the population-based Ft. Devens Cohort (FDC) of GW veterans were compared with the population-based 2013⁻2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) cohort. Excess prevalence was calculated as the difference in prevalence estimates from the Ft. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16060949DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Applications of CRISPR systems in respiratory health: Entering a new 'red pen' era in genome editing.

Respirology 2019 Mar 18. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Faculty of Science, School of Human Sciences and School of Agriculture and Environment, The University of Western Australia, Perth, WA, Australia.

Respiratory diseases, such as influenza infection, acute tracheal bronchitis, pneumonia, tuberculosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, lung cancer and nasopharyngeal carcinoma, continue to significantly impact human health. Diseases of the lung and respiratory tract are influenced by environmental conditions and socio-economic factors; however, many of these serious respiratory disorders are also rooted in genetic or epigenetic causes. Clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins, isolated from the immune system of prokaryotes, provide a tool to manipulate gene sequences and gene expression with significant implications for respiratory research. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/resp.13527DOI Listing

Clinical phenotypes of COPD and health-related quality of life: a cross-sectional study.

Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 2019 1;14:565-573. Epub 2019 Mar 1.

Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia,

Introduction: The Spanish COPD guideline (GesEPOC) classifies COPD into four clinical phenotypes based on the exacerbation frequency and dominant clinical manifestations. In this study, we compared the disease-specific health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of patients with different clinical phenotypes.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of patients with COPD attending the respiratory medicine clinic of University of Malaya Medical Centre from 1 June 2017 to 31 May 2018. Read More

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https://www.dovepress.com/clinical-phenotypes-of-copd-and-he
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/COPD.S196109DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6402617PMC
March 2019
2 Reads

Update on the clinical development of gefapixant, a P2X3 receptor antagonist for the treatment of refractory chronic cough.

Pulm Pharmacol Ther 2019 Mar 14. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Merck & Co., Inc., 2000 Galloping Hill Road, Kenilworth, NJ, 07033, USA. Electronic address:

Chronic cough, or cough lasting >8 weeks, is often associated with underlying medical conditions (ie, asthma, gastroesophageal reflux disease, nonasthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis, and upper-airway cough syndrome). In some patients with chronic cough, treatment of these underlying conditions does not resolve the cough (refractory chronic cough [RCC]), or none of these conditions are present (unexplained chronic cough [UCC]). Despite appropriate medical evaluation, patients with RCC or UCC frequently experience cough persisting for many years, as there are currently no targeted pharmacological approaches approved for the treatment of these conditions. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S10945539183026
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pupt.2019.03.006DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Effect of marijuana smoking on pulmonary disease in HIV-infected and uninfected men: a longitudinal cohort study.

EClinicalMedicine 2019 Jan 24;7:55-64. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

Department of Cancer Immunology and Virology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Lung disease is a common comorbidity in people with HIV/AIDS, independent of smoking status. The effects of marijuana smoking on risk of lung disease in HIV-infected individuals are unclear.

Methods: In this prospective cohort study, we quantified lung disease risk among men enrolled in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS), a long-term observational cohort of HIV-infected and uninfected men who have sex with men. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eclinm.2019.01.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6402353PMC
January 2019
1 Read

Why chronic cough in children is different.

Pulm Pharmacol Ther 2019 Mar 6. Epub 2019 Mar 6.

Paediatric Asthma and Cough Centre, University and Research Hospitals, Gruppo Ospedaliero San Donato, Bergamo, Italy.

Recently, there have been robust changes in our knowledge of the neurophysiology of cough and novel clinical etiologies. Specifically, cough hypersensitivity in adults and protracted bacterial bronchitis (PBB) in children have been increasingly investigated, and differences between chronic cough in children and adults have been widely reported. In young children, postinfectious cough, bronchiectasis, airway malacia, PBB, and asthma appear to be the main causes of cough; however, by adolescence, the causes of cough are more likely to become those common in adults, namely, gastroesophageal reflux, asthma, and upper airway syndrome. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pupt.2019.03.001DOI Listing
March 2019
5 Reads

Gene signatures common to allograft rejection are associated with lymphocytic bronchitis.

Clin Transplant 2019 Mar 8:e13515. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

Medical Service, Veterans Affairs Health Care System, San Francisco, CA, 94121.

Lymphocytic bronchitis (LB) precedes chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD). The relationships of LB (classified here as Endobronchial or E-grade rejection) to small airway (A- and B-grade) pathologies are unclear. We hypothesized that gene signatures common to allograft rejection would be present in LB. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ctr.13515DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Quantitative Assessment of Mucociliary Clearance in Smokers with Mild-to-Moderate Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Chronic Bronchitis from Planar Radionuclide Imaging Using the Change in Penetration Index.

J Aerosol Med Pulm Drug Deliv 2019 Mar 8. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

7 Clinical Studies Sweden, Forum South, Skane University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.

Background: Mucociliary clearance (MCC) rate from the lung has been shown to be reduced in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study compared the use of change in penetration index (PI) with conventional whole lung clearance in assessing MCC in mild-to-moderate disease.

Methods: Measurement of lung MCC using planar gamma camera imaging was performed in three groups: (1) healthy nonsmoking controls (n = 9), (2) smoking controls who were current smokers with normal lung function (n = 10), and (3) current smokers with mild-to-moderate COPD and bronchitis (n = 15). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jamp.2017.1441DOI Listing
March 2019
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Effects of exercise and airway clearance (PEP) on mucus clearance in cystic fibrosis: a randomised cross-over trial.

Eur Respir J 2019 Mar 7. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

Discipline of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.

Exercise improves mucus clearance in people without lung disease and those with chronic bronchitis. No study has investigated exercise alone for mucus clearance in cystic fibrosis (CF). The aim was to compare treadmill exercise to resting breathing and airway clearance with Positive Expiratory Pressure (PEP) therapy, on mucus clearance in adults with CF. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1183/13993003.01793-2018DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Ovalbumin-sensitized mice have altered airway inflammation to agriculture organic dust.

Respir Res 2019 Mar 7;20(1):51. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

Pulmonary, Critical Care, Sleep & Allergy Division, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Nebraska Medical Center, 985900 Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, 68198-5910, USA.

Agriculture exposures are associated with reducing the risk of allergy and asthma in early life; yet, repeated exposures later in life are associated with chronic bronchitis and obstructive pulmonary diseases. The objective of this study was to investigate the airway inflammatory response to organic dust extract (ODE) in mice with established ovalbumin (OVA)-induced experimental asthma. C57BL/6 mice were either OVA sensitized/aerosol-exposed or saline (Sal) sensitized/aerosol-challenged. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12931-019-1015-0DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Role and Impact of Chronic Cough in Individuals With Asthma From the General Population.

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2019 Mar 2. Epub 2019 Mar 2.

The Copenhagen General Population Study, Herlev and Gentofte Hospital, Copenhagen University Hospital, Herlev, Denmark; Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Zealand University Hospital, Køge, Denmark. Electronic address:

Background: Cough is a well-recognized symptom in asthma, but the role and impact of chronic cough in individuals with asthma has not been described in the general population.

Objective: We hypothesized that among individuals with asthma, those with chronic cough versus those without have a more severe disease phenotype.

Methods: We identified individuals with asthma and chronic cough among 14,740 adults from the Copenhagen General Population Study, and investigated respiratory symptoms, healthcare utilizations, lung function, and biomarkers in blood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaip.2019.02.021DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Hedgehog signaling in the airway epithelium of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Sci Rep 2019 Mar 4;9(1):3353. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

Center for Heart Lung Innovation, St. Paul's Hospital, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Genome-wide association studies have linked gene variants of the receptor patched homolog 1 (PTCH1) with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, its biological role in the disease is unclear. Our objective was to determine the expression pattern and biological role of PTCH1 in the lungs of patients with COPD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-40045-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6399332PMC
March 2019
1 Read

Longitudinal Effects of Medical Comorbidities on Functional Outcome and Life Satisfaction After Traumatic Brain Injury: An Individual Growth Curve Analysis of NIDILRR Traumatic Brain Injury Model System Data.

J Head Trauma Rehabil 2019 Feb 27. Epub 2019 Feb 27.

Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis (Drs Malec and Hammond); Craig Hospital, Englewood, Colorado (Drs Ketchum and Whiteneck); The Ohio State University, Columbus (Drs Corrigan and Bogner); Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York (Dr Dams-O'Connor); Moss Rehabilitation Research Institute, Elkins Park, Pennsylvania (Dr Hart); The University of Alabama at Birmingham (Dr Novack); and Baylor Scott & White Medical Center-Plano, Texas (Dr Dahdah).

Objective: To explore associations of specific physical and neuropsychiatric medical conditions to motor and cognitive functioning and life satisfaction over the first 10 years following traumatic brain injury (TBI).

Setting: Telephone follow-up through 6 TBI Model System centers.

Participants: In total, 404 individuals or proxies with TBI enrolled in the TBI Model System longitudinal study participating in 10-year follow-up. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HTR.0000000000000459DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Predictors of New Airway Obstruction - An 11 Year's Population-Based Follow-Up Study.

COPD 2019 Mar 1:1-6. Epub 2019 Mar 1.

a University of Turku, Division of Medicine, Department of Pulmonary Diseases and Clinical Allergology , Turku University Hospital and University of Turku , Turku , Finland.

In the present study we aimed to investigate the incidence and predictors of spirometry based airway obstruction in a representative population-based sample. Altogether 3,863 subjects, 1,651 males and 2,212 females aged ≥30 years had normal spirometry in year 2000. Fifty-three percent of them were never and 23% current smokers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15412555.2019.1576163DOI Listing
March 2019
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Dynamic changes in lung responses after single and repeated exposures to cigarette smoke in mice.

PLoS One 2019 28;14(2):e0212866. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Marsico Lung Institute, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, United States of America.

Cigarette smoke is well recognized to cause injury to the airways and the alveolar walls over time. This injury usually requires many years of exposure, suggesting that the lungs may rapidly develop responses that initially protect it from this repetitive injury. Our studies tested the hypotheses that smoke induces an inflammatory response and changes in mRNA profiles that are dependent on sex and the health status of the lung, and that the response of the lungs to smoke differs after 1 day compared to 5 days of exposure. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0212866PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6395068PMC
February 2019
2 Reads

Assessment of knowledge, attitude, and behavior about the disease process and physiotherapy management in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A qualitative study.

J Educ Health Promot 2019 29;8:15. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

Physiotherapists, Anand, Gujarat, India.

Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a group of progressive lung diseases; the most common are emphysema and chronic bronchitis. It is considered to be the major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and is considered to be one of the leading causes of deaths in India, the main reason being misconception/misinterpretation of the disease and unawareness about the risk factors which hinder early diagnosis and its treatment effectively. Therefore, the present study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude and behavior about the disease process and physiotherapy management in patients diagnosed with COPD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jehp.jehp_209_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6378829PMC
January 2019
1 Read

Duration of antibiotic treatment for common infections in English primary care: cross sectional analysis and comparison with guidelines.

BMJ 2019 Feb 27;364:l440. Epub 2019 Feb 27.

Modelling and Economics Unit, National Infection Service, Public Health England, London NW9 5EQ, UK.

Objective: To evaluate the duration of prescriptions for antibiotic treatment for common infections in English primary care and to compare this with guideline recommendations.

Design: Cross sectional study.

Setting: General practices contributing to The Health Improvement Network database, 2013-15. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.l440DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

SMALLa AIRWAY DISEASE IN COPD ASSOCIATED TO BIOMASS EXPOSURE.

Rev Invest Clin 2019 ;71(1):70-78

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Fundación Médica Sur, Mexico City, Mexico.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a complex and heterogeneous entity that may result from different causative agents and risk factors and may follow diverse clinical courses, including COPD secondary to biomass smoke exposure. At present, this phenotype is becoming more important for two reasons: first, because at least almost half of the world's population is exposed to biomass smoke, and second, because the possibility of it being diagnosed is increasing. Biomass smoke exposure COPD affects primarily women and is related with insults to the airways occurred during early life. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.24875/RIC.18002652DOI Listing
January 2019
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[Place of biomarkers in the management of pulmonary infections].

Rev Mal Respir 2019 Feb 22. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Service de réanimation médicale et des maladies infectieuses, hôpital Bichat-Claude-Bernard, HUPNVS, AP-HP, 75018 Paris, France; UMR 1137, IAME Team 5, DeSCID: decision sciences in infectious diseases, control and care, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Inserm/Paris Diderot University, 75018 Paris, France. Electronic address:

Introduction: The management of acute lower respiratory tract infections and, in particular, the decision whether or not to commence antibiotic therapy, still remains difficult in the absence of reliable clinical or radiological criteria allowing confident distinction between bacterial and viral infections. Numerous biomarkers have been developed to help the clinician in his/her diagnostic and therapeutic approach, but the role and significance of each has not been clearly defined.

Background: Though procalcitonin (PCT) or C-reactive protein (CRP) seem equal in helping the clinician to decide whether to commence antibiotic therapy or not during the course of an exacerbation of asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), PCT is currently the most useful biomarker to distinguish sepsis from other causes of inflammation and to determine the bacterial or viral origin of a pneumonia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rmr.2018.09.003DOI Listing
February 2019

Pathophysiology, causes and genetics of paediatric and adult bronchiectasis.

Respirology 2019 Feb 25. Epub 2019 Feb 25.

Department of Respiratory Biology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

Bronchiectasis has historically been considered to be irreversible dilatation of the airways, but with modern imaging techniques it has been proposed that 'irreversible' be dropped from the definition. The upper limit of normal for the ratio of airway to arterial development increases with age, and a developmental perspective is essential. Bronchiectasis (and persistent bacterial bronchitis, PBB) is a descriptive term and not a diagnosis, and should be the start not the end of the patient's diagnostic journey. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/resp.13509DOI Listing
February 2019
4 Reads

Incidence and Longitudinal Changes in Prevalence of Chronic Bronchitis in Farm and Non-Farm Rural Residents of Saskatchewan.

J Occup Environ Med 2019 Feb 12. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Department of Community Health and Epidemiology, University of Saskatchewan, 104 Clinic Place, Saskatoon, SK, Canada, S7N 2Z4 (Pahwa); Canadian Centre for Health and Safety in Agriculture, University of Saskatchewan, 104 Clinic Place, PO Box 23, Saskatoon, SK, Canada, S7N 2Z4 (Pahwa, Rana, Amin, Chu, Karunanayake, Dosman).

Objective: To assess the predictors associated with incidence and longitudinal changes in the prevalence of CB among farm and non-farm resident of rural Saskatchewan, Canada METHODS:: The Saskatchewan Rural Health Study was a prospective study of the lung health of rural dwellers. We obtained information on 4624 households, 8261 individuals (2797 households, 4867 individuals) at baseline (follow-up).

Results: Incidence of CB was 4. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0000000000001560DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Occupational exposure and airflow obstruction and self-reported COPD among ever-employed US adults using a COPD-job exposure matrix.

Am J Ind Med 2019 Feb 18. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Division of Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Hyattsville, Maryland.

Introduction: This study examined the association of spirometry-defined airflow obstruction and self-reported COPD defined as self-reported doctor diagnosed chronic bronchitis or emphysema, with occupational exposure among ever-employed US adults.

Methods: Data were obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2008 to 2011-2012, a nationally representative study of the non-institutionalized civilian US population. Reported current and/or longest held job were used to create prevalence estimates and prevalence odds ratios (PORs) (adjusted for age, gender, race, and smoking status) for airflow obstruction and self-reported COPD by occupational exposure, determined using both NHANES participants' self-reported exposures and eight categories of COPD job exposure matrix (JEM) assigned exposures. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajim.22958DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Non-malignant respiratory disease among workers in the rubber manufacturing industry: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Am J Ind Med 2019 Feb 18. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Respiratory Health Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Morgantown, West Virginia.

Background: Non-malignant respiratory disease (NMRD) cases have occurred among rubber manufacturing workers. We examined exposure to rubber manufacturing emissions as a risk factor for NMRD.

Methods: From a systematic literature review, we identified case reports and assessed cross-sectional and mortality studies for strength of evidence of positive association (strong, intermediate, non-significant positive association, none) between exposure to rubber manufacturing emissions and NMRD-related morbidity and mortality, and conducted two meta-analyses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajim.22959DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Effects of Roflumilast on Rehospitalization and Mortality in Patients.

Chronic Obstr Pulm Dis 2018 Dec 20;6(1):74-85. Epub 2018 Dec 20.

Department of Thoracic Medicine and Surgery, Lewis Katz School of Medicine, Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Hospitalization for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbation portends the greatest risk of rehospitalization and mortality. Treatments that prevent hospitalizations could significantly lessen COPD morbidity and mortality. We performed a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of roflumilast 500 ug daily versus placebo in patients hospitalized for acute COPD exacerbation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.15326/jcopdf.6.1.2018.0139DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6373589PMC
December 2018
3 Reads

Second-hand smoke exposure in adulthood and lower respiratory health during 20 year follow up in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey.

Respir Res 2019 Feb 14;20(1):33. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Institute of Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum München - German Research Center for Environmental Health, Ingolstädter Landstraße 1, 85764, Neuherberg, Germany.

Background: Early life exposure to tobacco smoke has been extensively studied but the role of second-hand smoke (SHS) for new-onset respiratory symptoms and lung function decline in adulthood has not been widely investigated in longitudinal studies. Our aim is to investigate the associations of exposure to SHS in adults with respiratory symptoms, respiratory conditions and lung function over 20 years.

Methods: We used information from 3011 adults from 26 centres in 12 countries who participated in the European Community Respiratory Health Surveys I-III and were never or former smokers at all three surveys. Read More

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https://respiratory-research.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12931-019-0996-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6376659PMC
February 2019
7 Reads

The Effect of Chronic Exposure to Flour Dust on Pulmonary Functions.

Int J Occup Saf Ergon 2019 Feb 14:1-19. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

e Vice-chancellery of Health , Lorestan University of Medical Sciences , Lorestan , Iran.

Purpose: This study aimed to examine the effect of chronic exposure to flour dust on the pulmonary symptoms and pulmonary indices of mill workers.

Materials And Methods: This cohort study was conducted on 67 mill workers and 53 controls from 2014 to 2016. Demographic information was collected through interviews, and pulmonary indices; and flour dust exposure was measured by spirometry, and NIOSH 0500 and NIOSH 0600 methods. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10803548.2019.1582853DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Phosphodiesterases as therapeutic targets for respiratory diseases.

Pharmacol Ther 2019 Feb 10. Epub 2019 Feb 10.

Department of Molecular Pharmacology, University of Groningen, the Netherlands; Groningen Research Institute for Asthma and COPD, GRIAC, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands.

Chronic respiratory diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma, affect millions of people all over the world. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) which is one of the most important second messengers, plays a vital role in relaxing airway smooth muscles and suppressing inflammation. Given its vast role in regulating intracellular responses, cAMP provides an attractive pharmaceutical target in the treatment of chronic respiratory diseases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pharmthera.2019.02.002DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Bringing Light to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Pathogenesis and Resilience.

Authors:
Rubin M Tuder

Ann Am Thorac Soc 2018 Dec;15(Supplement_4):S227-S233

Program in Translational Lung Research and Division of Pulmonary Sciences and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado.

The pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease remains elusive; investigators in the field have struggled to decipher the cellular and molecular processes underlying chronic bronchitis and emphysema. Studies in the past 20 years have underscored that the tissue destruction, notably in emphysema, involves a multitude of injurious stresses, with progressive engagement of endogenous destructive processes triggered by decades of exposure to cigarette smoke and/or pollutants. These lead to an aged lung, with evidence of macromolecular damage that is unlikely to repair. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1513/AnnalsATS.201808-583MGDOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

Functional Studies of Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms Suggest Heterogeneity in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease due to Susceptibility of Different Cell Types.

Ann Am Thorac Soc 2018 Dec;15(Supplement_4):S285

2 Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston Massachusetts.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a syndrome that comprises several lung pathologies, but subphenotyping the various disease subtypes has not been successful. We found that a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) within the proline-rich domain of transformation-related protein 53 (TP53) that modifies Pro72 to Arg is associated with twofold increased risk for chronic bronchitis in the Lovelace Smokers and COPDGene cohorts. This association is pronounced for those who report either wood smoke, dust, or fumes exposure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1513/AnnalsATS.201806-437MGDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6322001PMC
December 2018
2 Reads

Generation of Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Knockout and PI*ZZ Ferrets Using Crispr/Cas9. A Genetic Model of Emphysema.

Ann Am Thorac Soc 2018 Dec;15(Supplement_4):S292-S293

1 Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology and.

Rationale: The most prevalent genetic cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is alpha-1 antitrypsin (A1AT) deficiency, a disorder that has yet to be widely modeled in animals because of species-specific differences between rodents and humans.

Objectives: To address these challenges, we engineered two A1AT ferret models using zygote gene editing to test the hypothesis that unopposed protease activity within the lung leads to emphysema and bronchitis.

Methods: Guide RNAs targeting exon 2 (for knockout) and exon 5 (for Z-allele mutation, Pi*Z) of the ferret A1AT gene were injected into ferret zygotes with Cas9 mRNA. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1513/AnnalsATS.201806-429MGDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6321996PMC
December 2018
2 Reads

Risk of COPD due to indoor air pollution from biomass cooking fuel: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Int J Environ Health Res 2019 Feb 13:1-14. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

b Department of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine , Safdarjang Hospital and VMMC College, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University , New Delhi , India.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the leading causes of mortality in developing nations. In this meta-analysis, we aimed to determine the association between indoor air pollution and risk of COPD. Database searches were conducted using indoor air pollution, biomass and COPD related terms to identify relevant articles. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09603123.2019.1575951DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Health-related quality of life varies in different respiratory disorders: a multi-case control population based study.

BMC Pulm Med 2019 Feb 7;19(1):32. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Unit of Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, Department of Diagnostics and Public Health, University of Verona, c/o Istituti Biologici II, Strada Le Grazie 8, 37134, Verona, Italy.

Background And Objective: Health-related quality of life (HRQL) in respiratory diseases has been generally investigated in clinical settings, focusing on a single disorder. In this study on a general population sample, we assessed the relationship between HRQL and several respiratory diseases studied simultaneously (COPD, current (CA) and past (PA) asthma, allergic (AR) and non-allergic (NAR) rhinitis and chronic bronchitis (CB).

Methods: Controls (n = 328) and cases of NAR (n = 95), AR (n = 163), CB (n = 48), CA (n = 224), PA (n = 126) and COPD (n = 28) were recruited in the centre of Verona in the frame of the Italian multi-case control GEIRD (Gene Environment Interactions in Respiratory Diseases) study; HRQL was measured through the SF-36 questionnaire. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12890-019-0796-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6367788PMC
February 2019
1 Read

Srolo Bzhtang, a traditional Tibetan medicine formula, inhibits cigarette smoke induced airway inflammation and muc5ac hypersecretion via suppressing IL-13/STAT6 signaling pathway in rats.

J Ethnopharmacol 2019 May 5;235:424-434. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Research Center for High Altitude Medicine, Qinghai University, Xining 810001, China; Key Laboratory of Application and Foundation for High Altitude Medicine Research in Qinghai Province, Xining 810001, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Srolo Bzhtang (SBT), a traditional Tibetan medicine formula, was composed of three herbs, Solms-Laubachia eurycarpa, Bergenia purpurascens, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, and one lac, and was first documented in the ancient Tibetan medical work Four Medical Tantras (rGyud-bzhi) in the eighth century AD. It has been widely used to treat lung "phlegm-heat" syndromes such as chronic bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential influences of aqueous extract of SBT on airway inflammation and mucus secretion and to reveal the underlying mechanism in a rat model of cigarette smoke (CS)-induced chronic bronchitis (CB). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2019.02.006DOI Listing
May 2019
1 Read

Prospective observational study in patients with obstructive lung disease: NOVELTY design.

ERJ Open Res 2019 Feb 1;5(1). Epub 2019 Feb 1.

School of Biological Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.

Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have overlapping clinical features and share pathobiological mechanisms but are often considered distinct disorders. Prospective, observational studies across asthma, COPD and asthma-COPD overlap are limited. NOVELTY is a global, prospective observational 3-year study enrolling ∼12 000 patients ≥12 years of age from primary and specialist clinical practices in 19 countries (ClinicalTrials. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1183/23120541.00036-2018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6355976PMC
February 2019
3 Reads

Idiopathic chronic productive cough and response to open-label macrolide therapy: An observational study.

Respirology 2019 Feb 5. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

The Asthma Centre, Nottingham NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, University of Nottingham, Nottingham City Hospital, Nottingham, UK.

Background And Objective: Adult patients with chronic productive cough of unknown cause are commonly seen in respiratory clinics. We have previously described a subgroup of these patients who have a short-lived response to standard antibiotic treatment but a prolonged response to 3 months of low-dose azithromycin therapy.

Methods: This observational study describes the physiological, radiological and pathological features of this patient cohort along with their response to a 12-week open-label trial of 250 mg azithromycin thrice weekly. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/resp.13483DOI Listing
February 2019
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Mucus Hydration in Subjects with Stable Chronic Bronchitis: A Comparison of Spontaneous and Induced Sputum.

COPD 2019 Feb 4:1-9. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

c Marsico Lung Institute/Cystic Fibrosis Research Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill , Chapel Hill , North Carolina , USA.

Mucus hydration is important in mucus clearance and lung health. This study sought to test the relative utility of spontaneous sputum (SS) versus the reasonably noninvasive induced sputum (IS) samples for measurement of mucus hydration. SS and IS samples were collected over a 2-day study interval. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15412555.2019.1566892DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Overdiagnosis of COPD in Subjects With Unobstructed Spirometry: A BOLD Analysis.

Chest 2019 Jan 31. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Respiratory Epidemiology and Public Health Group, Imperial College, London, London, United Kingdom.

Background: There are several reports on underdiagnosis of COPD, while little is known about COPD overdiagnosis and overtreatment. We describe the overdiagnosis and the prevalence of spirometrically defined false positive COPD, as well as their relationship with overtreatment across 23 population samples in 20 countries participating in the BOLD Study between 2003 and 2012.

Methods: A false positive diagnosis of COPD was considered when participants reported a doctor's diagnosis of COPD, but postbronchodilator spirometry was unobstructed (FEV/FVC > LLN). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chest.2019.01.015DOI Listing
January 2019
4 Reads

Current views on metabolic syndrome.

Vnitr Lek 2019 ;64(12):1156-1159

The theory of metabolic syndrome originated 30 years ago. Several definitions try to explain the frequent common incidence of the risk factors for atherosclerosis. At first the syndrome of insulin resistance was involved. Read More

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January 2019
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Neutrophil elastase inhibitory effects of pentacyclic triterpenoids from Eriobotrya japonica (loquat leaves).

J Ethnopharmacol 2019 Jan 28. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

School of Pharmacy, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 201203, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Eriobotrya japonica, a traditional herbal medicine in China and Japan, has long been used to treat chronic bronchitis and coughs.

Aim Of The Study: Pentacyclic triterpenoids (PTs), especially ursolic acid (UA), have been found as reversibly and competitively human neutrophil elastase (HNE) inhibitors. However, the limited solubility and poor bioavailability of PTs hinder their clinical use. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2019.01.037DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Occupational exposures and incidence of chronic bronchitis and related symptoms over two decades: the European Community Respiratory Health Survey.

Occup Environ Med 2019 Apr 30;76(4):222-229. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

Barcelona Institute of Global Health (ISGlobal), Barcelona, Spain.

Objectives: Chronic bronchitis (CB) is an important chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)-related phenotype, with distinct clinical features and prognostic implications. Occupational exposures have been previously associated with increased risk of CB but few studies have examined this association prospectively using objective exposure assessment. We examined the effect of occupational exposures on CB incidence in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/oemed-2018-105274DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Among All Miners, Coal Miners Demonstrate A Disproportionately High Prevalence of Obstructive Spirometric Abnormality and Chronic Bronchitis.

J Occup Environ Med 2019 Jan 17. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

University of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque, NM, USA (AS, XS, OM, NA, LSC); and Miners' Col Raton, NM, USA (AS, CP).

Objective: To compare the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) between miners extracting coal versus other minerals.

Methods: The study population was based on New Mexico miners, mostly Hispanic and American Indian, attending a rural community-based mobile screening clinic program between 1989 and 2014. We compared self-reported symptoms, lung diseases, and spirometric patterns between 1,353 coal miners and 4,140 non-coal miners. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0000000000001547DOI Listing
January 2019
4 Reads

Systemic Markers of Inflammation in Smokers With Symptoms Despite Preserved Spirometry in SPIROMICS.

Chest 2019 Jan 23. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, AllergySleep Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA.

Background: Chronic respiratory symptoms and exacerbation-like events are common among ever-smokers without airflow limitation on spirometry. The pathobiology of respiratory disease in this subgroup remains poorly defined, but may be due to underlying inflammation that overlaps with COPD or asthma. We hypothesized that symptoms, exacerbations, and functional measures of disease severity among smokers with preserved spirometry would be associated with markers of systemic inflammation, similar to what is reported in bone fide COPD, rather than elevated type 2 inflammation, which is often present in asthma. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00123692193003
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chest.2018.12.022DOI Listing
January 2019
4 Reads

The relationship between ventilator-associated pneumonia and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: what is the current evidence?

Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2019 Apr 24;38(4):637-647. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

Vall d'Hebron Institute of Research (VHIR) & CIBERES, Instituto Salud Carlos III, Barcelona, Spain.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) affects approximately 65 million people from which > 25% will require intensive care unit (ICU) admission. Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is the commonest ICU infection and results in increased morbidity/mortality and costs. The literature on the interaction between COPD and VAP is scarce and controversial. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10096-019-03486-2DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

Factors associated with exacerbations among adults with asthma according to electronic health record data.

Asthma Res Pract 2019 18;5. Epub 2019 Jan 18.

1Department of Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Informatics, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA.

Background: Asthma is a chronic inflammatory lung disease that affects 18.7 million U.S. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40733-019-0048-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6339400PMC
January 2019
3 Reads

Prescriptive adherence to GINA guidelines and asthma control: An Italian cross sectional study in general practice.

Respir Med 2019 Jan 16;146:10-17. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Pulmonary Environmental Epidemiology Unit, CNR Institute of Clinical Physiology, Via Trieste no. 41, 56126, Pisa, Italy; CNR Institute of Biomedicine and Molecular Immunology "A. Monroy", Via U. La Malfa no. 153, 90146, Palermo, Italy.

Background: Although general practitioners (GPs) are frequently the first healthcare professionals whom asthma patients refer to for their symptoms, few studies have explored the extent of adherence to guidelines for asthma management based on data provided directly by GPs. Aims of the present study were to assess drug prescriptions for asthma by GPs and to evaluate prescriptive adherence to GINA guidelines (GL) and its relationship with disease control in real life.

Methods: 995 asthmatic patients (45% males, mean age 43. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rmed.2018.11.001DOI Listing
January 2019
4 Reads

Lycopene mitigates pulmonary emphysema induced by cigarette smoke in a murine model.

J Nutr Biochem 2019 Mar 21;65:93-100. Epub 2018 Dec 21.

Department of Biological Sciences, Laboratory of Experimental Pathophysiology, Federal University of Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Electronic address:

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an inflammatory lung disease characterized by a non-fully reversible airflow limitation comprising chronic bronchitis and pulmonary emphysema both being induced by cigarette smoke (CS) exposure. Lycopene has shown antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties that can prevent acute lung inflammation and emphysema. We hypothesized that administration with lycopene would repair lung damage in emphysema caused by CS exposure. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S09552863183015
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jnutbio.2018.12.008DOI Listing
March 2019
5 Reads

Multiple Respiratory Microbiota Profiles Are Associated With Lower Airway Inflammation in Children With Protracted Bacterial Bronchitis.

Chest 2019 Jan 17. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

Child Health Division, Menzies School of Health Research, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Australia; Department of Respiratory and Sleep Medicine, Queensland Children's Hospital and the Centre for Children's Health Research, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia.

Background: Effective management of protracted bacterial bronchitis (PBB) is needed to prevent chronic disease (eg, bronchiectasis). Understanding the contributions of ongoing airway infection and inflammation is important to achieving optimal PBB treatments. The aim of this study was to compare BAL microbiota, bacterial biomass, and inflammatory markers in children with PBB and age-matched control patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chest.2019.01.002DOI Listing
January 2019
5 Reads

Rhinoviruses and Their Receptors.

Chest 2019 Jan 17. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI.

Human rhinoviruses (RVs) are picornaviruses that can cause a variety of upper and lower respiratory tract illnesses, including the common cold, bronchitis, pneumonia, and exacerbations of chronic respiratory diseases such as asthma. There are currently > 160 known types of RVs classified into three species (A, B, and C) that use three different cellular membrane glycoproteins expressed in the respiratory epithelium to enter the host cell. These viral receptors are intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (used by the majority of RV-A and all RV-B types), low-density lipoprotein receptor family members (used by 12 RV-A types), and cadherin-related family member 3 (CDHR3; used by RV-C). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chest.2018.12.012DOI Listing
January 2019
10 Reads

Research Progress of Glycyrrhizic Acid on Antiviral Activity.

Mini Rev Med Chem 2019 Jan 18. Epub 2019 Jan 18.

State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, No.163 Xianlin Road, Nanjing 210023. China.

Glycyrrhizic acid (GA), a triterpene isolated from the roots and rhizomes of licorice, named Glycyrrhiza glabra, is the principal bioactive ingredient of anti-viral, anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective effects. GA has been used in the clinical treatment of hepatitis, bronchitis, gastric ulcer, AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome), certain cancers and skin diseases. It has a direct effect on anti-HBV (hepatitis B virus) via affecting the HBsAg (hepatitis B surface antigen) to extracellular secretion, improving liver dysfunction in patients with chronic hepatitis B, and ultimately improving the immune status of HBV. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1389557519666190119111125DOI Listing
January 2019
24 Reads