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    Chromoblastomycosis and sporotrichosis, two endemic but neglected fungal infections in Madagascar.
    J Mycol Med 2017 Sep 25;27(3):312-324. Epub 2017 Aug 25.
    Laboratoire de parasitologie-mycologie, CHU de Grenoble-Alpes, CS 10217, 38043 Grenoble cedex 9, France; Laboratoire TIMC-IMAG TheREx, université de Grenoble-Alpes, domaine de la Merci, 38706 La Tronche cedex, France. Electronic address:
    Chromoblastomycosis and sporotrichosis are endemic fungal infections of tropical and subtropical regions, including Madagascar. The causal fungi develop in the soil or on plants and infect humans through wounds, either directly (wounding by the plant, through thorns, for example), or through the contact of an existing wound with contaminated soil. For this reason, the lesions predominantly occur on the limbs, and these fungi principally infect people working outside with bare hands and/or feet. Read More

    Neglected endemic mycoses.
    Lancet Infect Dis 2017 Jul 31. Epub 2017 Jul 31.
    Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, Brazil; Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, Brazil.
    Fungi often infect mammalian hosts via the respiratory route, but traumatic transcutaneous implantation is also an important source of infections. Environmental exposure to spores of pathogenic fungi can result in subclinical and unrecognised syndromes, allergic manifestations, and even overt disease. After traumatic cutaneous inoculation, several fungi can cause neglected mycoses such as sporotrichosis, chromoblastomycosis, mycetoma, entomophthoramycosis, and lacaziosis. Read More

    Chromoblastomycosis in India: Review of 169 cases.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Aug 3;11(8):e0005534. Epub 2017 Aug 3.
    Department of Microbiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi, India.
    Chromoblastomycosis (CBM) is a chronic, progressive, cutaneous and subcutaneous fungal infection following the traumatic implantation of certain dematiaceous fungi. The disease has worldwide prevalence with predominant cases reported from humid tropical and subtropical regions of America, Asia, and Africa. Diagnosis is often delayed or misdirected either due to poor degree of clinical suspicions or clinical simulation of dermatological conditions. Read More

    Study on the organization of cellular elements in the granulomatous lesion caused by chromoblastomycosis.
    J Cutan Pathol 2017 Jul 28. Epub 2017 Jul 28.
    Graduate Program in Medicine: Department of Medical Sciences, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil.
    Background: Chromoblastomycosis is a deep fungal infection characterized by a complex cellular granuloma. The aim of this study was to analyze the arrangement of cells responsible for the granuloma configuration of this disease by semiquantification of the cellular components of chromoblastomycosis skin biopsies.

    Methods: The cells of cutaneous biopsies slides from 100 patients with untreated chromoblastomycosis were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and the granuloma cells were evaluated by microscopic examination of the elements of each granuloma and semiquantified the number of cells through its expressivity in crosses and the histopathological variables. Read More

    Subcutaneous mycoses in Peru: a systematic review and meta-analysis for the burden of disease.
    Int J Dermatol 2017 Oct 3;56(10):1037-1045. Epub 2017 Jul 3.
    Medicine School, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru.
    Background: There is a worrying lack of epidemiological data on the geographical distribution and burden of subcutaneous mycoses in Peru, hindering the implementation of surveillance and control programs.

    Objectives: This study aimed to estimate the disease burden of subcutaneous mycoses in Peru and identify which fungal species were commonly associated with these mycoses.

    Methods: We performed a meta-analysis after a systematic review of the published literature in PubMed, LILACS, and SciELO to estimate the burden of subcutaneous mycoses in 25 regions in Peru. Read More

    Respiratory Tract Infection Caused by Fonsecaea monophora After Kidney Transplantation.
    Mycopathologia 2017 Jun 28. Epub 2017 Jun 28.
    Clínica de Doenças Infecciosas e Parasitárias, Hospital Universitário Clementino Fraga Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rua Justiniano da Rocha 201/302, Vila Isabel, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, CEP 20551-010, Brazil.
    Fonsecaea spp. are melanized fungi which cause most cases of chromoblastomycosis. The taxonomy of this genus has been revised, now encompassing four species, with different pathogenic potential: F. Read More

    HIV Aspartic Peptidase Inhibitors Modulate Surface Molecules and Enzyme Activities Involved with Physiopathological Events in Fonsecaea pedrosoi.
    Front Microbiol 2017 19;8:918. Epub 2017 May 19.
    Laboratório de Taxonomia, Bioquímica e Bioprospecção de Fungos, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fundação Oswaldo CruzRio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Fonsecaea pedrosoi is the main etiological agent of chromoblastomycosis, a recalcitrant disease that is extremely difficult to treat. Therefore, new chemotherapeutics to combat this fungal infection are urgently needed. Although aspartic peptidase inhibitors (PIs) currently used in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have shown anti-F. Read More

    High-resolution melting analysis assay for identification of Fonsecaea species.
    J Clin Lab Anal 2017 May 22. Epub 2017 May 22.
    Department of Dermatology and Venerology, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Malignant Tumor Epigenetics and Gene Regulation, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.
    Background: Chromoblastomycosis (CBM) is a chronic fungal disease. In China, the principle etiologic agent was a group of dematiaceous fungi, including Fonsecaea monophora, Fonsecaea nubica, and Cladophialophora carrionii. Although the Fonsecaea species have similar morphology, their pathogenicity is quite different. Read More

    Phaeohyphomycosis due to Exophiala infections in solid organ transplant recipients: Case report and literature review.
    Transpl Infect Dis 2017 Aug 26;19(4). Epub 2017 Jun 26.
    Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Jackson Health System/University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA.
    This case report and literature review underscores the cutaneous presentations of phaeohyphomycosis in the solid organ transplant population. Increased cognizance with prompt identification is critical. The therapy and clinical outcomes of phaeohyphomycosis, caused by the Exophiala genus, in the solid organ transplant population, is analyzed to examine optimal care. Read More

    Chromoblastomycosis caused by Rhinocladiella similis: Case report.
    Med Mycol Case Rep 2017 Jun 7;16:25-27. Epub 2017 Apr 7.
    Graduate Program in Medicine: Medical Sciences, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul. Rua Ramiro Barcelos, 2400 - 2nd floor, Porto Alegre CEP: 90035-003, Brazil.
    We report a case of chromoblastomycosis in lesions on the chest and foot. Itraconazole was chosen as the initial treatment for this patient, who was followed up for 8 months before becoming noncompliant. The pathogenic fungal species was identified as Rhinocladiella similis by ITS region sequencing. Read More

    Unique case report of a chromomycosis and Listeria in soft tissue and cerebellar abscesses after kidney transplantation.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Apr 20;17(1):288. Epub 2017 Apr 20.
    Département d'Urologie, Néphrologie et Transplantation, AP-HP, Groupe Hospitalier Pitié-Salpêtrière Charles Foix. 47-83, Bd de l'Hôpital, 75013, Paris, France.
    Background: Chromomycosis is a rare mycotic infection encountered in tropical and subtropical regions. The disease presents as a slowly-evolving nodule that can become infected with bacteria. Here, we describe a unique association of abscesses caused by a chromomycosis and Listeria monocytogenes in a kidney transplant recipient, and didactically expose how the appropriate diagnosis was reached. Read More

    [Chromomycosis acquired in a non-tropical area: A case report].
    Ann Dermatol Venereol 2017 Jun - Jul;144(6-7):438-442. Epub 2017 Apr 7.
    Service de dermatologie, hôpital Saint-Louis, AP-HP, 1, avenue Claude-Vellefaux, 75010 Paris, France. Electronic address:
    Background: Chromomycosis, or chromoblastomycosis, is caused by cutaneous inoculation of dematiaceous fungi of telluric or plant origin. It is generally seen in tropical or subtropical zones. Treatment of the condition is known to be complex. Read More

    Modulation of the immune response by Fonsecaea pedrosoi morphotypes in the course of experimental chromoblastomycosis and their role on inflammatory response chronicity.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Mar 29;11(3):e0005461. Epub 2017 Mar 29.
    Department of Cell Biology, Institute of Biological Sciences; University of Brasília, Brasília, Brazil.
    A common theme across multiple fungal pathogens is their ability to impair the establishment of a protective immune response. Although early inflammation is beneficial in containing the infection, an uncontrolled inflammatory response is detrimental and may eventually oppose disease eradication. Chromoblastomycosis (CBM), a cutaneous and subcutaneous mycosis, caused by dematiaceous fungi, is capable of inducing a chronic inflammatory response. Read More

    Exploring the genomic diversity of black yeasts and relatives (Chaetothyriales, Ascomycota).
    Stud Mycol 2017 Mar 27;86:1-28. Epub 2017 Jan 27.
    Westerdijk Fungal Biodiversity Institute, Utrecht, The Netherlands; Department of Basic Pathology, Federal University of Paraná State, Curitiba, PR, Brazi1; Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Biological Sciences Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
    The order Chaetothyriales (Pezizomycotina, Ascomycetes) harbours obligatorily melanised fungi and includes numerous etiologic agents of chromoblastomycosis, phaeohyphomycosis and other diseases of vertebrate hosts. Diseases range from mild cutaneous to fatal cerebral or disseminated infections and affect humans and cold-blooded animals globally. In addition, Chaetothyriales comprise species with aquatic, rock-inhabiting, ant-associated, and mycoparasitic life-styles, as well as species that tolerate toxic compounds, suggesting a high degree of versatile extremotolerance. Read More

    Mycetoma-like chromoblastomycosis: a diagnostic dilemma.
    Int J Dermatol 2017 May 23;56(5):563-566. Epub 2017 Feb 23.
    Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Government Medical College, Kottayam, Kerala, India.
    Objectives: Mycetoma and chromoblastomycosis are subcutaneous fungal infections caused by pigmented fungi, common in the tropics and subtropics. Here we report a pregnant woman who presented with a swelling around the ankle joint which was clinically diagnosed as a case of mycetoma; however, further investigations revealed it to be a case of chromoblastomycosis.

    Methods: 24 year old primigravida presented with an indurated swelling around the ankle joint with multiple nodules and sinuses draining serosanguinous discharge. Read More

    1,10-Phenanthroline-5,6-Dione-Based Compounds Are Effective in Disturbing Crucial Physiological Events of Phialophora verrucosa.
    Front Microbiol 2017 30;8:76. Epub 2017 Jan 30.
    Laboratório de Taxonomia, Bioquímica e Bioprospecção de Fungos, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Phialophora verrucosa is a dematiaceous fungus able to cause chromoblastomycosis, phaeohyphomycosis and mycetoma. All these fungal diseases are extremely difficult to treat and often refractory to the current therapeutic approaches. Therefore, there is an urgent necessity to develop new antifungal agents to combat these mycoses. Read More

    [Cancer and mycoses and literature review].
    Bull Soc Pathol Exot 2017 Feb 11;110(1):80-84. Epub 2017 Feb 11.
    Service de parasitologie-mycologie, Hôpital Saint Antoine, 184 rue du Faubourg Saint Antoine, 75012, Paris, France.
    Various infectious agents are classical risk factors for cancer including bacteria, viruses and parasites. There is less evidence concerning the implication of fungal infection in carcinogenesis. The role of chronic Candida infection in the development of squamous cell carcinoma has been suspected for years. Read More

    Phylogenomic analyses reveal the diversity of laccase-coding genes in Fonsecaea genomes.
    PLoS One 2017 10;12(2):e0171291. Epub 2017 Feb 10.
    CBS-KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    The genus Fonsecaea comprises black yeast-like fungi of clinical relevance, including etiologic agents of chromoblastomycosis and cerebral phaeohyphomycosis. Presence of melanin and assimilation of monoaromatic hydrocarbons and alkylbenzenes have been proposed as virulence factors. Multicopper oxidase (MCO) is a family of enzymes including laccases, ferroxidases and ascorbate oxidases which are able to catalyze the oxidation of various aromatic organic compounds with the reduction of molecular oxygen to water. Read More

    Severe Chromoblastomycosis-Like Cutaneous Infection Caused by Chrysosporium keratinophilum.
    Front Microbiol 2017 25;8:83. Epub 2017 Jan 25.
    Department of Dermatology, Shanghai Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical UniversityShanghai, China; Key Laboratory of Molecular Medical Mycology, Shanghai Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical UniversityShanghai, China; Department of Dermatology, First Hospital of Xinjiang Medical UniversityUrumqi, China.
    Chrysosporium species are saprophytic filamentous fungi commonly found in the soil, dung, and animal fur. Subcutaneous infection caused by this organism is rare in humans. We report a case of subcutaneous fungal infection caused by Chrysosporium keratinophilum in a 38-year-old woman. Read More

    Melanized fungal infections in kidney transplant recipients: contributions to optimize clinical management.
    Clin Microbiol Infect 2017 May 3;23(5):333.e9-333.e14. Epub 2017 Jan 3.
    Special Mycology Laboratory-LEMI, Division of Infectious Diseases, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil; Division of Infectious Diseases, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Objectives: This is a retrospective and observational study addressing clinical and therapeutic aspects of melanized fungal infections in kidney transplant recipients.

    Methods: We retrospectively reviewed medical records of all patients admitted between January 1996 and December 2013 in a single institution who developed infections by melanized fungi.

    Results: We reported on 56 patients aged between 30 and 74 years with phaeohyphomycosis or chromoblastomycosis (0. Read More

    Molecular identification of chromoblastomycosis clinical isolates in Guangdong.
    Med Mycol 2017 Jan 3. Epub 2017 Jan 3.
    Department of Dermatology, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.
    Chromoblastomycosis is a chronic fungal infection of the skin and subcutaneous tissue. The most common etiologic agent encountered in Southern China is from the genus Fonsecaea. Fonsecaea species are often misidentified due to indistinct morphology features; furthermore, recent taxonomy revision was done on the fungi genus. Read More

    Wide Morphologic Variability of Chromoblastomycosis in the Western Hemisphere.
    Skinmed 2016 1;14(6):423-427. Epub 2016 Dec 1.
    Department of Dermatology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX.
    Chromomycosis is an uncommon fungal disease seen in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The disorder is most likely the result of traumatic percutaneous inoculation of one of several etiologic dematiaceous fungi. Causative organisms have been associated with dead wood, soil, and plants. Read More

    Galectin-3 Expression in Benign and Malignant Skin Diseases With Epidermal Hyperplasia.
    Am J Dermatopathol 2017 Oct;39(10):738-741
    Department of Dermatology, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.
    Galectin-3 has been suggested relative to tumor genesis, progression, and metastasis in basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma that are the most common skin cancers characterized by malignant epidermal proliferation. In this study, we evaluated galectin-3 expression in seborrheic keratosis, keratoacanthoma, and infectious diseases including verruca vulgaris, condyloma acuminatum, and chromoblastomycosis that are pathologically featured by benign epidermal proliferation. Galectin-3 expression was shown by immunohistochemical staining and quantified using the Image Pro Plus V6. Read More

    Verrucous Onychomycosis Caused by Curvularia in a Patient with Congenital Pterygium.
    Indian J Dermatol 2016 Nov-Dec;61(6):701
    Department of Pathology, Government Medical College, Kottayam, Kerala, India.
    A 57 year healthy farmer with congenital nail pterygium presented with a verrucous growth on nail bed since 8 months. He was not diabetic and HIV rapid card test negative. Our clinical diagnosis was chromoblastomycosis but culture showed growth of curvularia species on two occasions and histopathology showed hyphal and yeast forms of the pigmented fungus. Read More

    Two Cases of Chromomycosis Identified by Molecular Phylogenetic Analysis.
    Med Mycol J 2016 ;57(4):J133-J139
    Department of Dermatology, Kyorin University School of Medicine.
    Chromomycosis is an infection caused by dematiaceous fungi. These fungi belong to several genera with varied clinical presentations and parasitic forms. The disease is roughly classified into three types: chromoblastomycosis, black-grain mycetoma, and phaeohyphomycosis. Read More

    Molecular Epidemiology of Agents of Human Chromoblastomycosis in Brazil with the Description of Two Novel Species.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2016 Nov 28;10(11):e0005102. Epub 2016 Nov 28.
    Microbiology, Parasitology and Pathology Post-graduation Program, Department of Basic Pathology, Federal University of Paraná, Curitiba, PR, Brazil.
    The human mutilating disease chromoblastomycosis is caused by melanized members of the order Chaetothyriales. To assess population diversity among 123 clinical strains of agents of the disease in Brazil we applied sequencing of the rDNA internal transcribed spacer region, and partial cell division cycle and β-tubulin genes. Strains studied were limited to three clusters divided over the single family Herpotrichiellaceae known to comprise agents of the disease. Read More

    Chromoblastomycosis.
    Clin Microbiol Rev 2017 Jan;30(1):233-276
    Departments of Medicine, Pediatrics, and Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Cornell Medicine of Cornell University, New York, New York, USA.
    Chromoblastomycosis (CBM), also known as chromomycosis, is one of the most prevalent implantation fungal infections, being the most common of the gamut of mycoses caused by melanized or brown-pigmented fungi. CBM is mainly a tropical or subtropical disease that may affect individuals with certain risk factors around the world. The following characteristics are associated with this disease: (i) traumatic inoculation by implantation from an environmental source, leading to an initial cutaneous lesion at the inoculation site; (ii) chronic and progressive cutaneous and subcutaneous tissular involvement associated with fibrotic and granulomatous reactions associated with microabscesses and often with tissue proliferation; (iii) a nonprotective T helper type 2 (Th2) immune response with ineffective humoral involvement; and (iv) the presence of muriform (sclerotic) cells embedded in the affected tissue. Read More

    Response of chromoblastomycosis to voriconazole.
    An Bras Dermatol 2016 Sep-Oct;91(5):679-681
    Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS) - Campo Grande (MS), Brazil.
    Chromoblastomycosis is a chronic fungal infection of the epidermis, dermis and subcutaneous tissue, in which the most common etiologic agent in Brazil is Fonsecaea pedrosoi. In more advanced cases we found many difficulties in their treatment, and therefore, we report a case of extensive and severe chromoblastomycosis, with therapeutical failure of first choice treatments, but good response to voriconazole. Read More

    First case of chromoblastomycosis due to Phoma insulana.
    Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin 2016 Oct 7. Epub 2016 Oct 7.
    Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Autónoma «Benito Juárez», Oaxaca, Mexico.
    Chromoblastomycosis is a chronic infection, caused by pigmented fungi affecting skin and subcutaneous tissues characterized by verrucous nodules or plaques. Fonsecaea pedrosoi and Cladophialophora carrionii are the prevalent agents in the endemic areas. Phoma is an uncommon agent of human infection and involved mainly with phaeohyphomycosis cases. Read More

    Phaeohyphomycosis Caused by Rhytidhysteron rufulum and Review of Literature.
    Mycopathologia 2017 Apr 15;182(3-4):403-407. Epub 2016 Sep 15.
    Department of Medical Mycology, Vallabhbhai Patel Chest Institute, University of Delhi, Delhi, India.
    Phaeohyphomycosis is caused by a heterogeneous group of mycelial dematiaceous (phaeoid) fungi, which produce melanin pigment. This condition is often confused with chromoblastomycosis. Rhytidhysteron is a dematiaceous fungus, which has been recently found to be causing human infections. Read More

    Fonsecaea pedrosoi as a rare cause of acute conjunctival ulceration.
    Arq Bras Oftalmol 2016 Jul-Aug;79(4):261-3
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Harran University School of Medicine, Sanliurfa, Turkey.
    Conjunctival ulceration accompanied with secretion and pain was observed in a 30-year-old male, 3 days after a perforating corneal trauma. Cultures of conjunctival ulcer samples grew Fonsecaea pedrosoi, a major causative agent of chromoblastomycosis that is typically transmitted during trauma. The conjunctival ulcer was successfully treated with amphotericin B, itraconazole, and fluconazole. Read More

    The Effectiveness of a Multifocal Training to Improve the Treatment of Chromoblastomycosis in Rural Madagascar.
    J Health Care Poor Underserved 2016 ;27(3):993-1010
    Madagascar has the highest number of cases of chromoblastomycosis in the world, but the areas of highest incidence have limited affordable access and knowledge of first line medications to treat this long-term fungal infection of the skin and subcutaneous tissue. The impact of a multifocal training targeting medical doctors who live in the area of the country with the highest prevalence of this disease has not been clearly reported. The purpose of this project was to determine the effect of a multifocal training on chromoblastomycosis for Malagasy medical doctors in the SAVA (Sambava, Andapa, Vohemar, and Antalaha) province of Madagascar (in the country's northeast) about diagnosis, staging, patient education poster, and treatment options of chromoblastomycosis versus common treatment practices to increase participant's knowledge and utilization of current treatment recommendations for chromoblastomycosis. Read More

    The role of melanin pathways in extremotolerance and virulence of Fonsecaea revealed by de novo assembly transcriptomics using illumina paired-end sequencing.
    Stud Mycol 2016 28;83:1-18. Epub 2016 Feb 28.
    CBS-KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre, Utrecht, The Netherlands; Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Basic Pathology Department, Federal University of Paraná State, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil; Biological Sciences Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; Department of Dermatology, First Hospital of Peking University, Beijing, China.
    Melanisation has been considered to be an important virulence factor of Fonsecaea monophora. However, the biosynthetic mechanisms of melanisation remain unknown. We therefore used next generation sequencing technology to investigate the transcriptome and digital gene expression data, which are valuable resources to better understand the molecular and biological mechanisms regulating melanisation in F. Read More

    Draft Genome Sequence of Fonsecaea nubica Strain CBS 269.64, Causative Agent of Human Chromoblastomycosis.
    Genome Announc 2016 Aug 4;4(4). Epub 2016 Aug 4.
    Engineering Bioprocess and Biotechnology Post-Graduation Program, Department of Bioprocess Engineering and Biotechnology, Federal University of Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil Microbiology, Parasitology and Pathology Post-Graduation Program, Department of Pathology, Federal University of Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil
    On the basis of multilocus phylogenetic data, Fonsecaea nubica was described in 2010 as a molecular sibling of F. monophora, an established agent of the human skin disease chomoblastomycosis in tropical zones. Genome analysis of these pathogens is mandatory to identify genes involved in the interaction with host and virulence. Read More

    Draft Genome Sequence of Fonsecaea monophora Strain CBS 269.37, an Agent of Human Chromoblastomycosis.
    Genome Announc 2016 Jul 28;4(4). Epub 2016 Jul 28.
    Microbiology, Parasitology and Pathology Post-Graduation Program, Department of Pathology, Federal University of Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil Engineering Bioprocess and Biotechnology Post-Graduation Program, Department of Bioprocess Engineering and Biotechnology, Federal University of Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil.
    The black yeast Fonsecaea monophora is one of the main etiologic agents of chromoblastomycosis in humans. Its pathogenicity profile is more invasive than that of related Fonsecaea species, causing brain infection in addition to (sub)cutaneous infections. Read More

    Subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by Exophiala spinifera in a European patient with lymphoma: a rare occurrence case report and literature review.
    Mycoses 2016 Nov;59(11):691-696
    Department of Dermatology, Avicenne Hospital, Assistance Publique des Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP), Bobigny, France.
    Exophiala spinifera is a dematiaceous fungus responsible for rare skin infections presenting as phaeohyphomycosis or chromoblastomycosis which has been primarily reported in tropical and subtropical areas (Asia, South and North America). We report the first case of E. spinifera phaeohyphomycosis in a European patient. Read More

    Ten-Year Experience of Cutaneous and/or Subcutaneous Infections Due to Coelomycetes in France.
    Open Forum Infect Dis 2016 Apr 25;3(2):ofw106. Epub 2016 Jun 25.
    Institut Pasteur, Unité de Mycologie Moléculaire, Centre National de Référence Mycoses Invasives et Antifongiques; Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique Unité de Recherche Associée 3012, Paris, France; Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Centre d'Infectiologie Necker Pasteur, Hôpital Necker-Enfants Malades; Université René Descartes-Paris, France.
    Background.  Coelomycetes are rarely but increasingly reported in association with human infections involving mostly skin and subcutaneous tissues, both in immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. Coelomycetes constitute a heterogeneous group of filamentous fungi with distinct morphological characteristics in culture, namely an ability to produce asexual spores within fruit bodies. Read More

    Immune response in human chromoblastomycosis and eumycetoma - focusing on human interleukin-17A, interferon-gamma, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1 beta and human beta-defensin-2.
    Mycoses 2016 Jul 12. Epub 2016 Jul 12.
    Department of Dermatology, Graduate School of Medicine, Teikyo University, Tokyo, Japan.
    Knowledge regarding host immune response to chromoblastomycosis and eumycetoma is limited, particularly concerning cytokines and antimicrobial peptides production. This was a retrospective study of 12 paraffin-embedded tissue samples from patients diagnosed with chromoblastomycosis or eumycetoma from histological findings and tissue culture. DNA extraction and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from tissues were done to evaluate human interleukin-17A (IL-17A), interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and human beta-defensin-2 (HBD-2) expressions. Read More

    Cutaneous Involvement in the Deep Mycoses: A Literature Review. Part I-Subcutaneous Mycoses.
    Actas Dermosifiliogr 2016 Dec 30;107(10):806-815. Epub 2016 Jun 30.
    Departamento de Dermatología, Escuela de Medicina, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile.
    The deep mycoses are uncommon in our setting. These fungal infections occur mainly in immunosuppressed patients or in tropical climates, and include subcutaneous infections and systemic infections. The skin is always involved in the former. Read More

    Chromoblastomycosis due to Fonsecaea monophora misdiagnosed as sporotrichosis and cutaneous tuberculosis in a pulmonary tuberculosis patient.
    Med Mycol Case Rep 2016 Mar 10;11:57-60. Epub 2016 May 10.
    Department of Mycology, Institute of Dermatology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Nanjing, Jiangsu, PR China.
    Chromoblastomycosis is caused by dematiaceous fungi. It develops after inoculation of the organism into the skin. We report a case of chromoblastomycosis in a pulmonary tuberculosis patient without known history of trauma. Read More

    A case of chromoblastomycosis by Fonsecaea nubica indicating a possible insect route of transmission.
    Mycoses 2016 Oct 22;59(10):662-7. Epub 2016 Jun 22.
    Department of Dermatology, Third Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.
    A first auricular case of chromoblastomycosis due to Fonsecaea nubica is reported in a 42-year-old Chinese male. He presented a slightly verrucous, erythematous plaque on his right auricle which had gradually extended over a 10-year period, and the patient reported a history of dog flea sting before onset of the lesions. Diagnosis was based on histopathological and mycological examination of clinical samples, which revealed muriform cells. Read More

    Chromoblastomycosis Associated with Bone and Central Nervous Involvement System in an Immunocompetent Child Caused by Exophiala Spinifera.
    Indian J Dermatol 2016 May-Jun;61(3):324-8
    Department of Pediatrics, Indira Gandhi Institute of Child Health, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.
    Chromoblastomycosis is a chronic granulomatous infection of the skin and subcutaneous tissue caused by specific group of dematiaceous fungi. The infection results from traumatic injury and is seen more commonly on feet and lower legs. It is rarely seen in children and metastatic spread to other systems is exceptionally rare. Read More

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