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    228 results match your criteria Christian Bioethics [Journal]

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    Resisting the therapeutic reduction: on the significance of sin.
    Christ Bioeth 2007 Jan-Apr;13(1):105-27
    International Studies in Philosophy and Medicine. Freigericht. Germany.
    Sin-talk, though politically incorrect, is indispensable. Placing human life under the "hermeneutic of sin" means acknowledging that one ought to aim flawlessly at God, and that one can fail in this endeavor. None of this can be appreciated within the contemporary post-Christian, mindset, which has attempted to reduce religion to morality and culture. Read More

    Illness, Disease, and Sin: the Connection between Genetics and Spirituality - A Response.
    Christ Bioeth 2007 Jan-Apr;13(1):91-104
    School of Technology, Philosophy, and History, St. Mary's University College. London. UK.
    In responding to Mathias Beck's thought-provoking article, it seems helpful to begin with an outline and comments on Beck's case as I understand it. For me, this overview throws up three problematic areas that I explore further under the headings of 1. examining the New Testament evidence, 2. Read More

    Illness, disease and sin: the connection between genetics and spirituality.
    Christ Bioeth 2007 Jan-Apr;13(1):67-89
    Institute for Ethics and Law in Medicine, University of Vienna. Vienna. Austria.
    The New Testament, while rejecting any superficial connection between illness and sin, does not reject a possible connection between illness and a person's relationship with God. An example can be seen in the story of the young blind man who was healed (St. John 9:3). Read More

    How philosophy and theology have undermined bioethics.
    Christ Bioeth 2007 Jan-Apr;13(1):53-66
    Loyola University. New Orleans, Louisiana. USA.
    This essay begins by distinguishing among the viewpoints of philosophy, theology, and religion; it then explores how each deals with "sin" in the bioethical context. The conclusions are that the philosophical and theological viewpoints are intellectually defective in that they cripple our ability to deal with normative issues, and are in the end unable to integrate Christian concepts like "sin" successfully into bioethics. Sin is predicated only of beings with free will, though only in Western Christianity must all sins be committed with knowledge and voluntarily. Read More

    Why ecumenism fails: taking theological differences seriously.
    Christ Bioeth 2007 Jan-Apr;13(1):25-51
    Rice University. Houston, Texas. USA.
    Contemporary Christians are separated by foundationally disparate understandings of Christianity itself. Christians do not share one theology, much less a common understanding of the significance of sin, suffering, disease, and death. These foundational disagreements not only stand as impediments to an intellectually defensible ecumenism, but they also form the underpinnings of major disputes in the culture wars, particularly as these are expressed in healthcare. Read More

    The original risk: overtheologizing ethics and undertheologizing sin.
    Christ Bioeth 2007 Jan-Apr;13(1):7-23
    Faculty of Protestant Theology, University of Lausanne. Lausanne. Switzerland.
    The project of articulating a theological ethics on the basis of liturgical anthropology is bound to fail if the necessary consequence is that one has to quit the forum of critical modern rationality. The risk of Engelhardt's approach is to limit rationality to a narrow vision of reason. Sin is not to be understood as the negation of human holiness, but as the negation of divine holiness. Read More

    A blessing in disguise? Empowering Catholic health care institutions in the current health care environment.
    Christ Bioeth 2000 ;6(3):281-94
    Department of Religious Studies and Center for Applied and Professional Ethics, California State University--Chico, Chico, CA 95929-0730, USA.
    Health care institutions, including Roman Catholic institutions, are in a time of crisis. This crisis may provide an important opportunity to reinvigorate Roman Catholic health care. The current health care crisis offers Roman Catholic health care institutions a special opportunity to rethink their fundamental commitments and to plan for the future. Read More

    James Drane's More Humane Medicine: a new foundation for twenty-first century bioethics?
    Christ Bioeth 2006 Dec;12(3):301-11
    Bethel Seminary, St. Paul, Minnesota, USA.
    James Drane's More Humane Medicine: A Liberal Catholic Bioethics is an outstanding contribution to the study of bioethics in our day. Catholics and others who are interested in the issues discussed here will benefit from this masterful treatment. The author opens with a set of definitions, starting with what he means by a "more humane medicine. Read More

    Separation of conjoined twins and the principle of double effect.
    Christ Bioeth 2006 Dec;12(3):291-300
    Hastings Center for Bioethics, Garrison, New York, USA.
    This article examines the relationship between the principle of double effect and justification for separation surgeries for conjoined twins. First, the principle of double effect is examined in light of its historical context. It is argued that it can only operate under an absolutist view of good and evil that is compatible with the Bible. Read More

    On the impermissibility of euthanasia in Catholic healthcare organizations.
    Christ Bioeth 2006 Dec;12(3):281-90
    Saint Louis University, St. Louis, Missouri, USA.
    Roman Catholic healthcare institutions in the United States face a number of threats to the integrity of their missions, including the increasing religious and moral pluralism of society and the financial crisis many organizations face. These organizations in the United States often have fought fervently to avoid being obligated to provide interventions they deem intrinsically immoral, such as abortion. Such institutions no doubt have made numerous accommodations and changes in how they operate in response to the growing pluralism of our society, but they have resisted crossing certain lines and providing particular interventions deemed objectively wrong. Read More

    Pluralism and ethical dialogue in Christian healthcare institutions: the view of Caritas Catholica Flanders.
    Christ Bioeth 2006 Dec;12(3):265-80
    Centre for Biomedical Ethics and Law, Catholic University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
    In this article, the place and the nature of an ethical dialogue that develops within Christian healthcare institutions in Flanders, Belgium is examined. More specifically, the question is asked how Christian healthcare institutions should position themselves ethically in a context of a pluralistic society. The profile developed by Caritas Catholica Flanders must take seriously not only the external pluralistic context of our society and the internal pluralistic worldviews by personnel/employees and patients, but also the inherent inspiration of a Christian healthcare institution. Read More

    Fission, fusion, and the simple view.
    Christ Bioeth 2006 Dec;12(3):255-63
    Department of Philosophy, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina, USA.
    In this essay, I defend three Simple Views concerning human beings. First, that the human embryo is, from the one-cell stage onwards, a single unitary organism. Second, that when an embryo twins, it ceases to exist and two new embryos come into existence. Read More

    Fission and confusion.
    Christ Bioeth 2006 Dec;12(3):237-54
    State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York, USA.
    Catholic opponents of abortion and embryonic stem cell research usually base their position on a hylomorphic account of ensoulment at fertilization. They maintain that we each started out as one-cell ensouled organisms. Critics of this position argue that it is plagued by a number of intractable problems due to fission (twinning) and fusion. Read More

    Why patients should give thanks for their disease: traditional Christianity on the joy of suffering.
    Christ Bioeth 2006 Aug;12(2):213-28
    International Studies in Philosophy and Medicine, Freigericht, Germany.
    Patristic teaching about sin and disease allows supplementing well-acknowledged conditions for a Christian medicine with further personal challenges, widely disregarded in Western Christianities. A proper appreciation of man's vocation toward (not just achieving forgiveness but) deification reveals the need to cooperate with the Holy Spirit's offer of grace toward restoring man's pre-fallen nature. Ascetical exercises designed at re-establishing the spirit's mastery over the soul distance persons from (even supposedly harmless) passion. Read More

    Sin, sickness, and salvation.
    Christ Bioeth 2006 Aug;12(2):199-211
    St. Herman Theological Seminary, Kodiak, Alaska, USA.
    This article seeks to provide commentary and rationale for Orthodox Christian rites and prayers for the sick as found in the Euchologion, or Book of Needs. The reader needs to understand that the prayers of the Orthodox Church prayed at times of sickness and suffering will often strike the non-Orthodox as harsh and even unjust. References to God willing suffering do not sit well with most Western Christians. Read More

    Sin and suffering in a Catholic understanding of medical ethics.
    Christ Bioeth 2006 Aug;12(2):165-86
    Department of Philosophy, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts, USA.
    Drawing chiefly on recent sources, in Part One I sketch an untraditional way of articulating what I claim to be central elements of traditional Catholic morality, treating it as based in virtues, focused on the recipients ("patients") of our attention and concern, and centered in certain person-to-person role-relationships. I show the limited and derivative places of "natural law," and therefore of sin, within that framework. I also sketch out some possible implications for medical ethics of this approach to moral theory, and briefly contrast these with the influential alternative offered by the "principlism" of Beauchamp and Childress. Read More

    Disease, suffering, and sin: one Anglican's perspective.
    Christ Bioeth 2006 Aug;12(2):157-63
    Church of England Policy Advisor, Science, Medicine, Technology, Environmental Issues, St. Paul's Cathedral, London, United Kingdom.
    This article explores some of the implications of understanding sin as failure of perception. The theological underpinning of the argument is the choice made in the Garden of Eden to eat the fruit of the tree of knowledge rather than the fruit of the tree of life, or wisdom. This has led to distorted perception, in which all things are seen as having separate, independent existences rather than joined together by their common divine source and their deep interrelatedness in the covenant made with God. Read More

    On the connection between sickness and sin: a commentary.
    Christ Bioeth 2006 Aug;12(2):151-6
    Talbot School of Theology, Biola University, La Mirada, California, USA.
    In response to the articles by Eibach and Groenhut in this issue, I argue that there is a general connection between sickness and the entrance of sin into the world. There are times when there is a causal link between more specific sin and sickness, though often the patient is the one who has been sinned against. Illness can also expose sin in a patient's life. Read More

    Not without hope: a Reformed analysis of sickness and sin.
    Christ Bioeth 2006 Aug;12(2):133-50
    Department of Philosophy, Calvin College, Grand Rapids, Michigan, USA.
    A Reformed understanding of sickness requires that connections be drawn between the structural effects of sin and the ways that sickness is experienced in people's lives. Such an understanding can be an important resource for the bioethicist, both the bioethicist who speaks from the Reformed tradition and the bioethicist who speaks to patients and caregivers who may assume that sin and sickness are connected, but may understand that linkage in overly simplistic ways. Read More

    Life history, sin, and disease.
    Christ Bioeth 2006 Aug;12(2):117-31
    Faculty of Protestant Theology, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.
    On the basis of experiences in pastoral hospital care, the relationship between disease, sin, and guilt in the life of patients is explored. Against the disregard of this subject in medicine, and even in most of pastoral care, it is argued that patients' interest requires that their hidden or manifest questions be addressed, rather than their being exposed to efforts at "helping" through mere attempts at "debt clearance." Only by openly confronting sin and guilt can the patient be taken seriously in his role as subject of his disease. Read More

    The burdens-benefits ratio consideration for medical administration of nutrition and hydration to persons in the persistent vegetative state.
    Christ Bioeth 2006 Apr;12(1):99-106
    Center for Clinical Bioethics, Georgetown University, Box 571409, Washington, DC 20057, USA.
    In this article, Harvey notes the initial confusion about the statement made by the pope concerning artificial nutrition and hydration on patients suffering persistent vegetative states (PVS) due to misunderstanding through the translation of the pope's words. He clarifies and assesses what was meant by the statement. He also discusses the problems of terminology concerned with the subject of PVS. Read More

    Reflections on the papal allocution concerning care for persistent vegetative state patients.
    Christ Bioeth 2006 Apr;12(1):83-97
    Neiswanger Institute of Bioethics and Health Policy, Strich School of Medicine, Loyola University of Chicago, 2160 S. First Avenue, Bldg. 20, Rm. 280, Maywood, IL 60153, USA.
    This article critically examines the recent papal allocution on patients in a persistent vegetative state with regard to the appropriate conditions for considering "reformable statements." In the first part of the article, the purpose and meaning of the allocution are assessed. O'Rourke concludes that give consideration of the individual patient's best interest, prolonging artificial nutrition and hydration is not, in every case, the best option. Read More

    The impact of Roman Catholic moral theology on end-of-life care under the Texas Advance Directives Act.
    Christ Bioeth 2006 Apr;12(1):65-82
    Austin Heart Hospital, 3801 N. Lamar, Suite 300, Austin, TX 78756, USA.
    This essay reviews the Roman Catholic moral tradition surrounding treatments at the end of life together with the challenges presented to that tradition by the Texas Advance Directives Act. The impact on Catholic health care facilities and physicians, and the way in which the moral tradition should be applied under this statute, particularly with reference to the provision dealing with conflicts over end-of-life treatments, will be critically assessed. I will argue, based on the traditional treatment of end-of-life issues, that Catholic physicians and institutions should appeal to the conflict resolution process of the Advance Directives Act only under a limited number of circumstances. Read More

    Tube feedings and persistent vegetative state patients: ordinary or extraordinary means?
    Christ Bioeth 2006 Apr;12(1):43-64
    Department of Theology, Saint Joseph's University, 5600 City Avenue, Philadelphia, PA 19135-1395, USA.
    This article looks at the late John Paul II's allocution on artificial nutrition and hydration (ANH) and the implications his statement will have on the ordinary-extraordinary care distinction. The purpose of this article is threefold: first, to examine the medical condition of a persistent vegetative state (PVS); second, to examine and analyze the Catholic Church's tradition on the ordinary-extraordinary means distinction; and third, to analyze the ethics behind the pope's recent allocution in regards to PVS patients as a matter of conscience. Rather than providing clarification, I argue that the papal allocution has raised many difficult questions. Read More

    Nutrition and hydration: an analysis of the recent papal statement in the light of the Roman Catholic bioethical tradition.
    Christ Bioeth 2006 Apr;12(1):29-41
    Department of Humanities & Arts, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, 100 Institute Road, Worcester, MA 01609, USA.
    This article discusses the unexpectedly firm stance professed by John Paul II on the provision of artificial nutrition and hydration to patients who are in a persistent vegetative state, and it implications on previously held standards of judging medical treatments. The traditional ordinary/extraordinary care distinction is assessed in light of complexities of the recent allocution as well as its impact on Catholic individuals and in Catholic health care facilities. Shannon concludes that the papal allocution infers that the average Catholic patient is incapable of making proper judgments about their own care. Read More

    Christian bioethics, secular bioethics, and the claim to cultural authority.
    Christ Bioeth 2005 Dec;11(3):349-59
    University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN, USA.
    Though the papers in this volume for the most part address the question, "What is Christian about Christian Bioethics", this paper addresses instead a closely related question, "How would a Christian approach to bioethics differ from the kind of secular academic bioethics that has emerged as such an important field in the contemporary university?" While it is generally assumed that a secular bioethics rooted in moral philosophy will be more culturally authoritative than an approach to bioethics grounded in the contingent particularities of a religious tradition, I will give reasons for rejecting this assumption. By examining the history of the recent revival of academic bioethics as well as the state of the contemporary moral philosophy on which it is based I will suggest that secular bioethics suffers from many of the same liabilities as a carefully articulated Christian bioethics. At the end of the paper I will turn briefly to examine the question of how, in light of this discussion, a Christian bioethics might best be pursued. Read More

    Christian bioethics and the Church's political worship.
    Christ Bioeth 2005 Dec;11(3):333-48
    Department of Theology and Religion, University of Durham, Durham, UK.
    Christian bioethics springs from the worship that is the response of the Church to the Gospel of Jesus Christ. Such worship is distinctively political in nature, in that it acknowledges Christ as Lord. Because it is a political worship, it can recognize no other lords and no other prior claims on its allegiance: these include the claims of an allegedly universal ethics and politics determined from outside the Church. Read More

    Bioethics, Christian charity and the view from no place.
    Christ Bioeth 2005 Dec;11(3):317-31
    Center for Health Care Ethics, St. Louis University, St. Louis, Missouri, USA.
    This essay contrasts the notions of charity employed by Traditional Christianity and by liberal cosmopolitan bioethics, arguing that: (1) bioethics attempts to reconstruct the notion of charity in a manner that is caustic to the Traditional Christian moral vision, (2) Christians are, on the whole, more charitable than proponents of bioethics' reconstructed view (even given the standards of the latter), and (3) the theistically oriented conception of charity employed by Traditional Christianity cannot be expressed in bioethics' purportedly neutral public vocabulary. The upshot is that, in the name of neutrality and pluralism, liberal cosmopolitan bioethicists seek to impose an impoverished moral vocabulary that reflects liberal cosmopolitan ideology while excluding input from Traditional Christianity and other non-liberal-humanistic moral visions. Read More

    What is Christian about Christian bioethics?
    Christ Bioeth 2005 Dec;11(3):281-95
    The Jerre L. and Mary Joy Stead Center for Ethics and Values and Department of Christian Social Ethics, Garrett-Evangelical Theological Seminary, Evanston, Illinois, USA.
    What is Christian about Christian bioethics? The short answer to this question is that the Incarnation should shape the form and content of Christian bioethics. In explicating this answer it is argued that contemporary medicine is unwittingly embracing and implementing the transhumanist dream of transforming humans into posthumans. Contemporary medicine does not admit that there are any limits in principle to the extent to which it should intervene to improve the quality of human life. Read More

    On the Christian in Christian bioethics.
    Christ Bioeth 2005 Dec;11(3):269-79
    Philosophy Department, Pomona College, Claremont, California, USA.
    What is Christian about Christian bioethics? And is an authentically Christian bioethics a practical possibility in the world in which we find ourselves? In my essay I argue that personhood and the personal are so fundamental to the Christian understanding of our humanity that body, soul, and spirit are probably best understood as the components of a triune (as opposed to dual) aspect theory of personhood. To confess to a Christian bioethics is to admit that Christians cannot pretend fully to understand either cures or their meaning. However effective and "knowledge-based" contemporary medical interventions are, a Christian must humbly and honestly confess a lack of complete knowledge on both levels. Read More

    Sin and bioethics: why a liturgical anthropology is foundational.
    Christ Bioeth 2005 Aug;11(2):221-39
    Rice University, Houston, TX, USA.
    The project of articulating a coherent, canonical, content-full, secular morality-cum-bioethics fails, because it does not acknowledge sin, which is to say, it does not acknowledge the centrality of holiness, which is essential to a non-distorted understanding of human existence and of morality. Secular morality cannot establish a particular moral content, the harmony of the good and the right, or the necessary precedence of morality over prudence, because such is possible only in terms of an ultimate point of reference: God. The necessity of a rightly ordered appreciation of God places centrally the focus on holiness and the avoidance of sin. Read More

    "... As we forgive those who trespass against us...": theological reflections on sin and guilt in the hospital environment.
    Christ Bioeth 2005 Aug;11(2):201-19
    Center for Medical Ethics, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.
    In general parlance the term sin has lost its existential meaning. Originally a Jewish-Christian term within a purely religious context, referring to a wrongdoing with regard to God, sin has slowly become reduced to guilt in the course of the secularization process. Guilt refers to a wrongdoing, especially with regard to fellow human beings. Read More

    The significance of the concept of sin for bioethics.
    Christ Bioeth 2005 Aug;11(2):189-99
    Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Mainz, Germany.
    After a period during which the theological categories of sin and forgiveness were ignored or trivialized, presently these notions are being rediscovered. What could their impact be on bioethics, either in the narrow sense of medical ethics, or in the more encompassing sense of the ethics of the life sciences? This essay begins with describing the processes of transcending and ethitization, which gave rise to the biblical notion of sin. It portrays the theological foundation of sin in terms of a twofold refusal of proper relations to God and other humans. Read More

    Notes on "bioethics and sin" by Jean-Francois Collange.
    Christ Bioeth 2005 Aug;11(2):183-8
    Saint Anthony the Great Orthodox Mission, San Antonio, TX, USA.
    Placing the notion of sin in the context of a meontic account of evil, and emphasizing the effect of sin on the sinner himself, this commentary exposes the insufficiency of restricting oneself to human efforts at atonement, and of thus underemphasizing the role of Christ. Collange's claim that the teaching of "predestination" is rooted in Paul and that the doctrine of merits and indulgences is rooted in Augustine is criticized, and Luther's "forensic" understanding is linked with Augustine, rather than with Paul. Collange's reduction of the concern for holiness to respect and trust is contrasted with holiness's essential context of loving unification with God. Read More

    Bioethics and sin.
    Christ Bioeth 2005 Aug;11(2):175-82
    Department of Theology, Université Marc Bloch, Strasbourg, France.
    On the basis of a historical reconstruction of the stages through which the Christian notion of sin took shape in Protestantism, the significance of this term for modern bioethics is derived from its opposition to a holiness of God and his creatures, which in turn translates into the secular moral concept of dignity. This dignity imposes obligations to respect and to relationships that are sustained by faithfulness and trust. In being based on the gratuitousness of God's grace, such relationships preclude attempts at instrumentalization, denial of singularity, and subjection to market forces. Read More

    Freedom in responsibility: a response.
    Christ Bioeth 2005 Aug;11(2):167-73
    Garrett-Evangelical Theological Seminary, Evanston, Illinois, USA.
    This paper is a critical response to Elisabeth Gräb-Schmidt's article "Freedom in responsibility: On the relevance of 'sin' as hermeneutic guiding principle in bioethical decision making." Gräb-Schmidt's chief contention is that ethics begins with anthropology, and that moral responsibility is thereby grounded within a set of given limits. Freedom is distorted into sin when these limits are transgressed. Read More

    Freedom in responsibility: on the relevance of "sin" as a hermeneutic guiding principle in bioethical decision making.
    Christ Bioeth 2005 Aug;11(2):147-65
    Justus-Liebig-Universität, Giesen, Germany.
    This essay deals with questions of responsibility concerning technology, in particular, gene technology and the special problem of research on embryos. I raise issues concerning the extent of humans' authority to act and the limits of human freedom. In what way is that freedom given, and what kind of responsibility results from it? By discussing various concepts of human freedom in the tradition of European philosophy, as juxtaposed to the Protestant understanding of freedom, this essay discusses the restricting limits, and the obligation to take responsibility. Read More

    Sin and bioethics.
    Christ Bioeth 2005 Aug;11(2):133-45
    Hungarian Orthodox Diocese (Moskow Patriarchate) and Department of Religious Studies, Szeged University of Sciences, Hungary.
    The essay starts out with defining the biblical concept of sin in the Old and the New Testaments. The literal knowledge of divine truth is distinguished from its truthful and spiritual interpretation. A further distinction should be made between the Creator of life (God) and the medium or "intermediary creator" (man) of life. Read More

    Between morality and repentance: recapturing "sin" for bioethics.
    Christ Bioeth 2005 Aug;11(2):93-132
    International Studies in Philosophy and Medicine, Freigericht, Germany.
    Distinguishing within "sin" the dimensions of anomia, hamartia, and asthenia makes it possible to analyze in greater detail the contrary manners in which traditional and post-traditional Christianities in this issue of Christian Bioethics endeavor to recapture what was lost when secular bioethics reconstructed the specifically spiritual-context-oriented normative commitments of Christianity in one-dimensionally moral terms. Various post-traditional attempts at securing moral orientation and resources for forgiveness, both of which secular bioethics finds increasingly difficult to provide, are critically reviewed. Their engagement of secular moral concepts and concerns, and even their adoption of an academically philosophical posture and language, is presented as responsible for their failure to adequately preserve what in traditional Christianity would count as prohibited vs. Read More

    Widows, women, and the bioethics of care.
    Christ Bioeth 2005 Apr;11(1):77-92
    Center for the Study of Culture, Ethics, and the Environment, 60930 Bridge Creek Road, Homer, AK 99603, USA.
    Widows, women, and the bioethics of care must be understood within an authentic Christian ontology of gender. Men are men and women are women, and their being is ontologically marked in difference. There is an ontology of gender with important implications for the role of women in the family and the Church. Read More

    Contemporary ethics from an ambiguous past.
    Christ Bioeth 2005 Apr;11(1):69-76
    Wesley Theological Seminary, 4500 Massachusetts Ave. NW, Washington, DC 20016, USA.
    Kaveny recommends models drawn from the Gospel of John and the practices of the early church for modern Christians in their response to older women and their health needs. She draws upon a historical reconstruction of the early Christian Order of Widows to propose a normative standard of care for elderly women, one that attends seriously to their bodily needs but also to their needs for inclusion and engagement in the social and vocational world both as givers and recipients of care. This is also to serve as an overarching model for a bioethics that prizes the embodied existence of all women and rejects judgments of appropriate treatment based on their social utility. Read More

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