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    Premature Valvular Heart Disease in Homozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia.
    Cholesterol 2017 6;2017:3685265. Epub 2017 Jul 6.
    Departments of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut, Lebanon.
    Valvular heart disease frequently occurs as a consequence of premature atherosclerosis in individuals with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). Studies have primarily focused on aortic valve calcification in heterozygous FH, but there is paucity of data on the incidence of valvular disease in homozygous FH. We performed echocardiographic studies in 33 relatively young patients (mean age: 26 years) with homozygous FH (mean LDL of 447 mg/dL, 73% on LDL apheresis) to look for subclinical valvulopathy. Read More

    Identification of Quantitative Trait Loci That Determine Plasma Total-Cholesterol and Triglyceride Concentrations in DDD/Sgn and C57BL/6J Inbred Mice.
    Cholesterol 2017 31;2017:3178204. Epub 2017 May 31.
    Institute of Livestock and Grassland Science, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NARO), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0901, Japan.
    DDD/Sgn mice have significantly higher plasma lipid concentrations than C57BL/6J mice. In the present study, we performed quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping for plasma total-cholesterol (CHO) and triglyceride (TG) concentrations in reciprocal Fmale intercross populations between the two strains. By single-QTL scans, we identified four significant QTL on chromosomes (Chrs) 1, 5, 17, and 19 for CHO and two significant QTL on Chrs 1 and 12 for TG. Read More

    Cholesterol Levels in Genetically Determined Familial Hypercholesterolaemia in Russian Karelia.
    Cholesterol 2017 28;2017:9375818. Epub 2017 Mar 28.
    Department of Molecular Genetics, Institute of Experimental Medicine, 12 Pavlov Street, St. Petersburg 197376, Russia.
    Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is a rare disease that tends to be diagnosed lately. In Russia, the genetic and phenotypic characteristics of the disease are not well defined. We investigated 102 patients with definite FH. Read More

    The Interpretation of Cholesterol Balance Derived Synthesis Data and Surrogate Noncholesterol Plasma Markers for Cholesterol Synthesis under Lipid Lowering Therapies.
    Cholesterol 2017 22;2017:5046294. Epub 2017 Feb 22.
    Institute for Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Pharmacology, University Clinics of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.
    The cholesterol balance procedure allows the calculation of cholesterol synthesis based on the assumption that loss of endogenous cholesterol via fecal excretion and bile acid synthesis is compensated bysynthesis. Under ezetimibe therapy hepatic cholesterol is diminished which can be compensated by hepaticsynthesis and hepatic extraction of plasma cholesterol. The plasma lathosterol concentration corrected for total cholesterol concentration (R_Lath) as a marker ofcholesterol synthesis is increased during ezetimibe treatment but unchanged under treatment with ezetimibe and simvastatin. Read More

    Banana Blossom (Colla) Incorporated Experimental Diets Modulate Serum Cholesterol and Serum Glucose Level in Wistar Rats Fed with Cholesterol.
    Cholesterol 2016 30;2016:9747412. Epub 2016 Nov 30.
    Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka.
    Hypocholesterolaemic and hypoglycaemic effect of banana blossom were studied in high-cholesterol fed rats. Experimental groups were fed for 4 weeks, with casein as the basal diet (CN), in comparison with two diets containing 0.5% cholesterol (CD) and 0. Read More

    Antihypercholesterolemic Potential ofLeaf Extract.
    Cholesterol 2016 13;2016:2048341. Epub 2016 Oct 13.
    Department of Studies in Food Science and Nutrition, University of Mysore, Manasagangothri, Mysore, India.
    The present investigation aims to evaluate antihypercholesterolemic potential ofleaf aqueous extract (MAE) in diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rat model. In the study, Wistar albino rats (170-220 g) were segregated into 5 groups; all the groups except normal control group were given high fat diet to induce hypercholesterolemia. After induction of cholesterolemia, normal control and positive control groups were treated with saline, statin group was treated with atorvastatin, and remaining two groups received MAE in two doses (250 and 500 mg kgBW) for a treatment period of one month. Read More

    Trends of Prevalence of Uncontrolled Risk Factors for Cerebrocardiovascular Disease: Southern Italy from 1988/9 to 2008/9.
    Cholesterol 2016 24;2016:6087981. Epub 2016 Apr 24.
    Cardiology Department, "S. Andrea" Hospital, 19124 La Spezia, Italy.
    The aim of this study was to determine the trends of cardiovascular risk factor prevalence between 1988/9 and 2008/9 in the 25-74-year-old population in an area of Southern Italy. We compared three cross-sectional studies conducted in random population samples, in 1988/9, 1998/9, and 2008/9 in Salerno, Italy. The methodology of data collection (lipid profile, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, glycaemia, and smoking) and conducting tests which the population underwent during the three phases was standardized and comparable. Read More

    Evaluation of Antidiabetic and Antihyperlipidemic Effects of Peganum harmala Seeds in Diabetic Rats.
    Cholesterol 2016 14;2016:7389864. Epub 2016 Apr 14.
    Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan 98167-43181, Iran.
    The present study was carried out to investigate the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic properties of hydroalcoholic extract of Peganum harmala in streptozotocin-induced diabetic male rats. In an experimental study, 64 normal Wistar albino male rats (200-230 g) were randomly divided into 8 groups. Control and diabetic rats were treated with normal saline and three different doses (30, 60, and 120 mg/kg) of hydroalcoholic extract of Peganum harmala seeds for 4 weeks orally. Read More

    Cholesterol Lowering Effect of Plant Stanol Ester Yoghurt Drinks with Added Camelina Oil.
    Cholesterol 2016 21;2016:5349389. Epub 2016 Feb 21.
    Raisio Nutrition Ltd., P.O. Box 101, 21201 Raisio, Finland.
    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of yoghurt minidrinks containing two doses of plant stanol ester either with or without added camelina oil on the serum cholesterol levels in moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects. In this randomised, double-blind, parallel group study, 143 subjects consumed a 65 mL minidrink together with a meal daily for four weeks. The minidrink contained 1. Read More

    Lipid Lowering Effects of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Anethum graveolens L. and Dill Tablet in High Cholesterol Fed Hamsters.
    Cholesterol 2015 28;2015:958560. Epub 2015 Dec 28.
    Department of Clinical Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan 6517838736, Iran; Research Center for Molecular Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan 6517838736, Iran.
    Objective. This study was aimed to determine the effect of Anethum graveolens extract and Anethum graveolens (dill) tablet on lipid profile, liver enzymes, and gene expression and enzymatic activity of HMG-CoA reductase in high cholesterol fed hamsters. Materials and Methods. Read More

    Cholesterol Transporters ABCA1 and ABCG1 Gene Expression in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome.
    Cholesterol 2015 15;2015:682904. Epub 2015 Dec 15.
    Research Center for Molecular Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan 65178 38736, Iran.
    ABCA1 and ABCG1 genes encode the cholesterol transporter proteins that play a key role in cholesterol and phospholipids homeostasis. This study was aimed at evaluating and comparing ABCA1 and ABCG1 genes expression in metabolic syndrome patients and healthy individuals. This case-control study was performed on 36 patients with metabolic syndrome and the same number of healthy individuals in Hamadan (west of Iran) during 2013-2014. Read More

    Dysfunctional High-Density Lipoprotein: An Innovative Target for Proteomics and Lipidomics.
    Cholesterol 2015 8;2015:296417. Epub 2015 Nov 8.
    Endocrine-Metabolic Research Center, "Dr. Félix Gómez," Faculty of Medicine, University of Zulia, Zulia State, Maracaibo 4004, Venezuela.
    High-Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol (HDL-C) is regarded as an important protective factor against cardiovascular disease, with abundant evidence of an inverse relationship between its serum levels and risk of cardiovascular disease, as well as various antiatherogenic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. Nevertheless, observations of hereditary syndromes featuring scant HDL-C concentration in absence of premature atherosclerotic disease suggest HDL-C levels may not be the best predictor of cardiovascular disease. Indeed, the beneficial effects of HDL may not depend solely on their concentration, but also on their quality. Read More

    The Effect of Elevated Triglycerides on the Onset and Progression of Coronary Artery Disease: A Retrospective Chart Review.
    Cholesterol 2015 4;2015:292935. Epub 2015 Nov 4.
    United Memorial Medical Center, 127 North Street, Batavia, NY 14020, USA.
    Background. The American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association did not indicate a correlation between treating hypertriglyceridemia and reducing cardiovascular events. Objective. Read More

    Optimal Use of Plant Stanol Ester in the Management of Hypercholesterolemia.
    Cholesterol 2015 12;2015:706970. Epub 2015 Oct 12.
    University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Internal Medicine, P.O. Box 700, 00029 Helsinki, Finland.
    Plant stanol ester is a natural compound which is used as a cholesterol-lowering ingredient in functional foods and food supplements. The safety and efficacy of plant stanol ester have been confirmed in more than 70 published clinical studies and the ingredient is a well-established and widely recommended dietary measure to reduce serum cholesterol. Daily intake of 2 g plant stanols as plant stanol ester lowers LDL-cholesterol by 10%, on average. Read More

    Serum cholesterol reduction efficacy of biscuits with added plant stanol ester.
    Cholesterol 2015 10;2015:353164. Epub 2015 Mar 10.
    Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400, Thailand.
    This study's aim was to test the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol- (LDL-c-) lowering efficacy of biscuits containing 2 g of plant stanols, which corresponded to 3.4 g of plant stanol esters. The biscuit is a new food format that can be consumed as a snack. Read More

    Nonselective mevalonate kinase inhibitor as a novel class of antibacterial agents.
    Cholesterol 2015 26;2015:147601. Epub 2015 Jan 26.
    Booali Medical Research Center, Qom 37157, Iran.
    Introduction. There are a few evidences about targeting isoprenoids biosynthesis pathway in bacteria for finding new antibiotics. This study was conducted to assess antibacterial effects of vanadyl sulfate (VS), one of the mevalonate kinase inhibitors to find a new target for killing bacteria. Read More

    Severe/Extreme Hypertriglyceridemia and LDL Apheretic Treatment: Review of the Literature, Original Findings.
    Cholesterol 2014 16;2014:109263. Epub 2014 Dec 16.
    Cardiology Department, Onassis Cardiac Surgery Center, 356 Sygrou Avenue, 176 74 Athens, Greece.
    Hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) is a feature of numerous metabolic disorders including dyslipidemias, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes mellitus type 2 and can increase the risk of premature coronary artery disease. HTG may also be due to genetic factors (called primary HTG) and particularly the severe/extreme HTG (SEHTG), which is a usually rare genetic disorder. Even rarer are secondary cases of SEHTG caused by autoimmune disease. Read More

    Effects of Atorvastatin on Resting and Peak Exercise Blood Pressure among Normotensive Men and Women.
    Cholesterol 2014 18;2014:720507. Epub 2014 Nov 18.
    Henry Low Heart Center, Hartford Hospital, Hartford, CT 06102, USA.
    Statins are the most widely prescribed and effective medication for reducing low density lipoprotein cholesterol. Statins may also lower resting blood pressure (BP); however, results are inconsistent. We sought to determine if the maximum dose of atorvastatin reduces resting BP and the peak systolic BP (SBP) achieved on a graded exercise stress test (GEST) among a large sample of 419 healthy men (48%) and women (52%). Read More

    Association of the total cholesterol content of erythrocyte membranes with the severity of disease in stable coronary artery disease.
    Cholesterol 2014 20;2014:821686. Epub 2014 Oct 20.
    Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Centre, Cardiovascular Research Institute, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan 8187698191, Iran.
    Increasing evidence suggests that erythrocytes may participate in atherogenesis. We sought to investigate whether the total cholesterol content of erythrocyte membranes (CEM) is significantly different in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) compared to patients with nonsignificant coronary stenosis and determine the correlation between CEM and the severity of coronary stenosis. Methods. Read More

    A Comprehensive In Silico Analysis of the Functional and Structural Impact of Nonsynonymous SNPs in the ABCA1 Transporter Gene.
    Cholesterol 2014 19;2014:639751. Epub 2014 Aug 19.
    IMDEA Food Institute, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid, Spain ; Nutritional Genomics of the Cardiovascular Disease and Obesity, IMDEA Food Institute, Carretera Cantoblanco 8, 28049 Madrid, Spain.
    Disease phenotypes and defects in function can be traced to nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs), which are important indicators of action sites and effective potential therapeutic approaches. Identification of deleterious nsSNPs is crucial to characterize the genetic basis of diseases, assess individual susceptibility to disease, determinate molecular and therapeutic targets, and predict clinical phenotypes. In this study using PolyPhen2 and MutPred in silico algorithms, we analyzed the genetic variations that can alter the expression and function of the ABCA1 gene that causes the allelic disorders familial hypoalphalipoproteinemia and Tangier disease. Read More

    Effects of Securigera securidaca Extract on Lipolysis and Adipogenesis in Diabetic Rats.
    Cholesterol 2014 3;2014:582106. Epub 2014 Aug 3.
    Neurocognitive Research Center and Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad 9177948564, Iran.
    Diabetes mellitus is associated with dysregulation of adipose tissue metabolism and increased level of serum lipids. In our previous work we found that Securigera securidaca decreases cholesterol level in blood of diabetic rats. The present study was carried out to further investigate the effects of this plant on lipid metabolism, lipolysis, and adipogenesis, in diabetic rats. Read More

    The Influence of an Obesogenic Diet on Oxysterol Metabolism in C57BL/6J Mice.
    Cholesterol 2014 5;2014:843468. Epub 2014 Feb 5.
    Division of Atherosclerosis and Vascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA.
    Our current understanding of oxysterol metabolism during different disease states such as obesity and dyslipidemia is limited. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of diet-induced obesity on the tissue distribution of various oxysterols and the mRNA expression of key enzymes involved in oxysterol metabolism. To induce obesity, male C57BL/6J mice were fed a high fat-cholesterol diet for 24 weeks. Read More

    Validation of the friedewald formula in patients with metabolic syndrome.
    Cholesterol 2014 6;2014:261878. Epub 2014 Feb 6.
    Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná, Rua Imaculada Conceição, Prado Velho, 1155 Curitiba, PR, Brazil.
    Currently, the Friedewald formula (FF) is the main method for evaluating low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c). Recently, many limitations have emerged regarding its use, including patients with triglyceride levels ≥400 mg/dL, diabetes mellitus, and kidney or hepatic chronic diseases. We analyzed the use of the FF in patients with metabolic syndrome. Read More

    Short-term effect of pitavastatin treatment on glucose and lipid metabolism and oxidative stress in fasting and postprandial state using a test meal in Japanese men.
    Cholesterol 2013 10;2013:314170. Epub 2013 Dec 10.
    Kanazawa Medical University, 1-1 Daigaku Uchinada, Kahoku, Ishikawa Prefecture 920-0293, Japan.
    Introduction. The objective of this study was to clarify how pitavastatin affects glucose and lipid metabolism, renal function, and oxidative stress. Methods. Read More

    APOA2 Polymorphism in Relation to Obesity and Lipid Metabolism.
    Cholesterol 2013 9;2013:289481. Epub 2013 Dec 9.
    Human Genetics and Genome Research Division, Medical Molecular Genetics Department, National Research Centre, Cairo 12622, Egypt.
    Objectives. This study aims to analysis the relationship between c.-492T>C polymorphism in APOA2 gene and the risk for obesity in a sample of Egyptian adolescents and investigates its effect on body fat distribution and lipid metabolism. Read More

    Functionally defective high-density lipoprotein and paraoxonase: a couple for endothelial dysfunction in atherosclerosis.
    Cholesterol 2013 7;2013:792090. Epub 2013 Oct 7.
    Laboratory of Atatürk Hospital, 07040 Antalya, Turkey.
    The endothelium is the primary target for biochemical or mechanical injuries caused by the putative risk factors of atherosclerosis. Endothelial dysfunction represents the ultimate link between atherosclerotic risk factors that promote atherosclerosis. HDL-C is thought to exert at least some parts of its antiatherogenic facilities via stimulating endothelial NO production, nearby inhibiting oxidative stress and inflammation. Read More

    Low-Fat Nondairy Minidrink Containing Plant Stanol Ester Effectively Reduces LDL Cholesterol in Subjects with Mild to Moderate Hypercholesterolemia as Part of a Western Diet.
    Cholesterol 2013 16;2013:192325. Epub 2013 Sep 16.
    Department of Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, 70211 Kuopio, Finland.
    The cholesterol-lowering efficacy of plant stanol ester (STAEST) added to fat- or milk-based products is well documented. However, their efficacy when added to nondairy liquid drinks is less certain. Therefore, we have investigated the cholesterol-lowering efficacy of STAEST added to a soymilk-based minidrink in the hypercholesterolemic subjects. Read More

    Quality assessment of the genetic test for familial hypercholesterolemia in the Netherlands.
    Cholesterol 2013 8;2013:531658. Epub 2013 Jul 8.
    Foundation for the Identification of Persons with Inherited Hypercholesterolemia (StOEH), Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Introduction. Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an inherited disorder associated with a severely increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Although DNA test results in FH are associated with important medical and ethical consequences, data on accuracy of genetic tests is scarce. Read More

    HDL, Atherosclerosis, and Emerging Therapies.
    Cholesterol 2013 28;2013:891403. Epub 2013 May 28.
    McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada H3A 1A1.
    This review aims to provide an overview on the properties of high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) and their cardioprotective effects. Emergent HDL therapies will be presented in the context of the current understanding of HDL function, metabolism, and protective antiatherosclerotic properties. The epidemiological association between levels of HDL-C or its major apolipoprotein (apoA-I) is strong, graded, and coherent across populations. Read More

    Cholesterol metabolism and weight reduction in subjects with mild obstructive sleep apnoea: a randomised, controlled study.
    Cholesterol 2013 16;2013:769457. Epub 2013 May 16.
    Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, Department of Clinical Nutrition, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. BOX 1627, 70211 Kuopio, Finland.
    To evaluate whether parameters of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) associate with cholesterol metabolism before and after weight reduction, 42 middle-aged overweight subjects with mild OSA were randomised to intensive lifestyle intervention (N = 23) or to control group (N = 18) with routine lifestyle counselling only. Cholesterol metabolism was evaluated with serum noncholesterol sterol ratios to cholesterol, surrogate markers of cholesterol absorption (cholestanol and plant sterols) and synthesis (cholestenol, desmosterol, and lathosterol) at baseline and after 1-year intervention. At baseline, arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2 ) was associated with serum campesterol (P < 0. Read More

    Leishmania major Self-Limited Infection Increases Blood Cholesterol and Promotes Atherosclerosis Development.
    Cholesterol 2013 28;2013:754580. Epub 2013 Apr 28.
    Departamento de Bioquímica e Imunologia, Universidade Federal Minas Gerais, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.
    Leishmania major infection of resistant mice causes a self-limited lesion characterized by macrophage activation and a Th1 proinflammatory response. Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease involving hypercholesterolemia and macrophage activation. In this study, we evaluated the influence of L. Read More

    Discordance of Non-HDL and Directly Measured LDL Cholesterol: Which Lipid Measure is Preferred When Calculated LDL Is Inaccurate?
    Cholesterol 2013 23;2013:502948. Epub 2013 Apr 23.
    James J. Peters VA Medical Center, Bronx, NY 10468, USA ; Mt. Sinai School of Medicine, NY, USA.
    Objective. To determine if non-HDL cholesterol (N-HDL) and directly measured LDL cholesterol (D-LDL) are clinically equivalent measurements. Patients and Methods. Read More

    Current views on genetics and epigenetics of cholesterol gallstone disease.
    Cholesterol 2013 14;2013:298421. Epub 2013 Apr 14.
    Division of Internal Medicine Hospital of Bisceglie, 76011 Bisceglie, Italy.
    Cholesterol gallstone disease, one of the commonest digestive diseases in western countries, is induced by an imbalance in cholesterol metabolism, which involves intestinal absorption, hepatic biosynthesis, and biliary output of cholesterol, and its conversion to bile acids. Several components of the metabolic syndrome (e.g. Read More

    Predictors of metabolic syndrome in the Iranian population: waist circumference, body mass index, or waist to hip ratio?
    Cholesterol 2013 24;2013:198384. Epub 2013 Mar 24.
    Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Centre, Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Institute, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.
    This study aimed to investigate whether body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), or waist to hip ratio (WHR) could be a better predictor of metabolic syndrome and, if so, what would be the cutoff points for these surrogates to appropriately differentiate metabolic syndrome in different age and sex subgroups. Methods. The present cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of Isfahan Cohort Study (ICS). Read More

    Effects of Diet, Aerobic Exercise, or Both on Non-HDL-C in Adults: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.
    Cholesterol 2012 8;2012:840935. Epub 2012 Nov 8.
    Meta-Analytic Research Group, Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Robert C. Byrd Health Sciences Center, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506-9190, USA.
    Purpose. To use the meta-analytic approach to examine the effects of diet (D), aerobic exercise (E), or both (DE) on non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) in adults. Methods. Read More

    Relationship of Lifestyle Medical Advice and Non-HDL Cholesterol Control of a Nationally Representative US Sample with Hypercholesterolemia by Race/Ethnicity.
    Cholesterol 2012 15;2012:916816. Epub 2012 Oct 15.
    Department of Dietetics and Nutrition, MMC AHC 1-450, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199, USA.
    Objective. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the associations of lifestyle medical advice and non-HDL cholesterol control of a nationally representative US sample of adults with hypercholesterolemia by race/ethnicity. Methods. Read More

    Cholesterol: its regulation and role in central nervous system disorders.
    Cholesterol 2012 17;2012:292598. Epub 2012 Oct 17.
    Institut für Laboratoriumsmedizin, Vinzenz von Paul Kliniken gGmbH, Adlerstra β e 7, Postfach 103163, 70199 Stuttgart, Germany.
    Cholesterol is a major constituent of the human brain, and the brain is the most cholesterol-rich organ. Numerous lipoprotein receptors and apolipoproteins are expressed in the brain. Cholesterol is tightly regulated between the major brain cells and is essential for normal brain development. Read More

    Improving Total-Cholesterol/HDL-Cholesterol Ratio Results in an Endothelial Dysfunction Recovery in Peripheral Artery Disease Patients.
    Cholesterol 2012 25;2012:895326. Epub 2012 Sep 25.
    Vascular Surgery and Angiology Department, Hospital Universitario Getafe, Ctra Toledo Km 12,500, 28905 Madrid, Spain.
    Aims. To evaluate the effects of variations of total-cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol ratio and the effects of the atorvastatin on endothelial function in peripheral artery disease (PAD). Material and Methods. Read More

    Lipoprotein(a): Cellular Effects and Molecular Mechanisms.
    Cholesterol 2012 6;2012:923289. Epub 2012 Sep 6.
    Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Leeds Institute of Genetics, Health and Therapeutics (LIGHT) and Multidisciplinary Cardiovascular Research Centre (MCRC), University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK.
    Lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) is an independent risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Indeed, individuals with plasma concentrations >20 mg/dL carry a 2-fold increased risk of developing CVD, accounting for ~25% of the population. Circulating levels of Lp(a) are remarkably resistant to common lipid lowering therapies, and there are currently no robust treatments available for reduction of Lp(a) apart from plasma apheresis, which is costly and labour intensive. Read More

    The effects of unripe grape juice on lipid profile improvement.
    Cholesterol 2012 29;2012:890262. Epub 2012 Aug 29.
    Department of Cardiology, Cardiovascular Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.
    Introduction. Consumption of unripe grape juice (verjuice) has been portrayed by the traditional belief, as a means of combating dyslipidemia. We aimed to evaluate the effects of unripe grape juice consumption on lipid profile in healthy human volunteers. Read More

    Immune response to lipoproteins in atherosclerosis.
    Cholesterol 2012 23;2012:571846. Epub 2012 Aug 23.
    Department of Molecular Immunology, Thrombosis Research Institute, Narayana Hrudayalaya Hospital, 258/A, Bommasandra Industrial Area, Bangalore 560099, India.
    Atherosclerosis, the underlying cause of cardiovascular disease, is characterized by chronic inflammation and altered immune response. Cholesterol is a well-known risk factor associated with the development of cardiovascular diseases. Elevated serum cholesterol is unique because it can lead to development of atherosclerosis in animals and humans even in the absence of other risk factors. Read More

    MicroRNA Regulation of Cholesterol Metabolism.
    Cholesterol 2012 5;2012:847849. Epub 2012 Aug 5.
    Marc and Ruti Bell Vascular Biology and Disease Program, Leon H. Charney Division of Cardiology, Departments of Medicine and Cell Biology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA.
    Disruption of cellular cholesterol balance results in pathologic processes including atherosclerosis, metabolic syndrome, type II diabetes and Alzheimer's disease. Maintenance of cholesterol homeostasis requires constant metabolic adjustment, achieved partly through the fine regulation of the classical transcription factors (e.g. Read More

    Use of Lipid-Lowering Medications and the Likelihood of Achieving Optimal LDL-Cholesterol Goals in Coronary Artery Disease Patients.
    Cholesterol 2012 25;2012:861924. Epub 2012 Jul 25.
    Cardiology Consultants of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA.
    Background. In clinical practice, most coronary artery disease patients are not achieving their recommend LDL-cholesterol goal of <70 mg/dL. Methods. Read More

    Modulation of Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels in Plasmodium berghei Malarial Infection by Crude Aqueous Extract of Ganoderma lucidum.
    Cholesterol 2012 25;2012:536396. Epub 2012 Jul 25.
    Department of Biochemistry, College of Natural Science, Joseph Ayo Babalola University, Ikeji-Arakeji, Osun, Nigeria.
    In this study, attempt is made to establish changes in serum and liver lipoprotein cholesterols accompanying Plasmodium berghei malarial infection in mice treated with aqueous extract of Ganoderma lucidum at 100, 250, and 500 mg/kg body weight in comparison with 15 mg/kg chloroquine (CQ). Significant increases in all the lipoprotein fractions were observed in infected untreated mice compared with normal control mice. Treatment with 100 and 250 mg/kg G. Read More

    The prevalence of dyslipidemia in patients with spinal cord lesion in Thailand.
    Cholesterol 2012 10;2012:847462. Epub 2012 Jul 10.
    Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Amphur Muang, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand.
    Objective. To assess the prevalence of dyslipidemia in 90 patients with spinal cord lesion (SCL) of duration greater than 2 years. The study was carried out from November 2007 to September 2008. Read More

    Determinants of childhood obesity in representative sample of children in north East of iran.
    Cholesterol 2012 15;2012:875163. Epub 2012 Jul 15.
    Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 1411413137, Iran.
    Childhood obesity has become, a global public health problem, and epidemiological studies are important to identify its determinants in different populations. This study aimed to investigate factors associated with obesity in a representative sample of children in Neishabour, Iran. This study was conducted among 1500 randomly selected 6-12-year-old students from urban areas of Neishabour, northeast of Iran. Read More

    Assessment of metformin as an additional treatment to therapeutic lifestyle changes in pediatric patients with metabolic syndrome.
    Cholesterol 2012 4;2012:961410. Epub 2012 Jul 4.
    College of Medicine, University of Arizona, 1501 N. Campbell Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85724, USA.
    Objective. To assess the effectiveness of metformin and therapeutic lifestyle changes (TLCs) in a clinical setting, compared to TLC alone in adolescents with metabolic syndrome (MS). Methodology. Read More

    Trends of Components of the Metabolic Syndrome in German First Graders Throughout 10 Years: The PEP Family Heart Study.
    Cholesterol 2012 5;2012:231962. Epub 2012 Jul 5.
    Arteriosklerose-Präventions-Institut, 81477 München, Germany.
    Although childhood overweight and obesity are increasing worldwide, some countries report trends for stabilization. However, the trend for the potentially atherogenic components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in children and adolescents is not well understood. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze the trend of the five components of over 10 years in 2228 first graders aged 6 years. Read More

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