29,095 results match your criteria Cholera


[A cholera wave in the Suez Canal].

Rev Prat 2021 Mar;71(3):344-346

"École pratique des hautes études, Paris, France".

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Association between cholera treatment outcome and nutritional status in children aged 2-4 years in Nigeria.

Public Health Action 2021 Jun;11(2):80-84

Operational Centre Brussels, Médecins sans Frontières, Brussels, Belgium.

Setting: Cholera can aggravate or precipitate malnutrition, and children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) have a higher incidence and longer duration of diarrhoea.

Objective: To describe 1) characteristics of and treatment outcomes in children aged 2-4 years with cholera, 2) the case fatality rate (CFR) in all children treated, and 3) the associations between nutritional status, hydration status, treatment administered and hospital outcomes.

Design: An observational cohort study of children admitted to one cholera treatment centre in Maiduguri, Nigeria, with a focus on children aged 2-4 years. Read More

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The impact of improved water supply on cholera and diarrhoeal diseases in Uvira, Democratic Republic of the Congo: a protocol for a pragmatic stepped-wedge cluster randomised trial and economic evaluation.

Trials 2021 Jun 21;22(1):408. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Department of Disease Control, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.

Introduction: Diarrhoeal disease remains a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Cholera alone is estimated to cause 95,000 deaths per year, most of which occur in endemic settings with inadequate water access. Whilst a global strategy to eliminate cholera by 2030 calls for investment in improved drinking water services, there is limited rigorous evidence for the impact of improved water supply on endemic cholera transmission in low-income urban settings. Read More

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Vibrio cholerae's mysterious Seventh Pandemic island (VSP-II) encodes novel Zur-regulated zinc starvation genes involved in chemotaxis and cell congregation.

PLoS Genet 2021 Jun 21;17(6):e1009624. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Weill Institute for Cell and Molecular Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, United States of America.

Vibrio cholerae is the causative agent of cholera, a notorious diarrheal disease that is typically transmitted via contaminated drinking water. The current pandemic agent, the El Tor biotype, has undergone several genetic changes that include horizontal acquisition of two genomic islands (VSP-I and VSP-II). VSP presence strongly correlates with pandemicity; however, the contribution of these islands to V. Read More

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Characterization of V. cholerae O1 biotype El Tor serotype Ogawa possessing the ctxB gene of the classical biotype isolated from well water associated with the cholera outbreak in Kerala, South India.

J Water Health 2021 Jun;19(3):478-487

Microbiology Fermentation and Biotechnology Division, ICAR-Central Institute of Fisheries Technology, Kochi, India.

We investigated 22 water samples (17 well water and five pipe water - both chlorinated) and six soil samples from the surroundings of wells of the households of suspected patients from Palakkad district, Kerala (India), from where a cholera outbreak was reported during June-July 2016. A total of 25 Vibrio cholerae isolates were collected from three well water samples during a recent cholera outbreak. Biochemical and serological studies revealed that all of the isolates belonged to serogroup O1, biotype El Tor, serotype Ogawa. Read More

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growth-inhibitory effects of L. formulation on intestinal pathogens.

Access Microbiol 2021 Mar 24;3(3):000208. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Department of Microbiology, School of Pharmacy, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, Tokyo, Japan.

Introduction: Empirical evidence suggests that L. treats enteric infections, including dysentery, cholera, and acute infectious gastroenteritis.

Aim: The aim of this study is to clarify the growth-inhibitory effects of L. Read More

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Moving forward with an imperfect vaccine.

Lancet Infect Dis 2021 Jun 16. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, USA; Médecins Sans Frontières, Geneva, Switzerland.

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Effectiveness of a killed whole-cell oral cholera vaccine in Bangladesh: further follow-up of a cluster-randomised trial.

Lancet Infect Dis 2021 Jun 16. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

International Centre for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh; UCLA Fielding School of Public Health, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Background: Killed whole-cell oral cholera vaccines (OCVs) are widely used for prevention of cholera in developing countries. However, few studies have evaluated the protection conferred by internationally recommended OCVs for durations beyond 2 years of follow-up.

Methods: In this study, we followed up the participants of a cluster-randomised controlled trial for 2 years after the end of the original trial. Read More

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Inhibition of cow's milk allergy development in mice by oral delivery of β-lactoglobulin derived peptides loaded PLGA nanoparticles is associated with systemic whey-specific immune silencing.

Clin Exp Allergy 2021 Jun 17. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands.

Background: 2-4% Of infants are affected by cow's milk allergy (CMA), which persists in 20% of cases. Intervention approaches using early oral exposure to cow's milk protein or hydrolyzed cow's milk formula are being studied for CMA prevention. Yet, concerns regarding safety and/or efficacy remain to be tackled in particular for high-risk non-exclusively breastfed infants. Read More

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Regional sequencing collaboration reveals persistence of the T12 O1 lineage in West Africa.

Elife 2021 Jun 18;10. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, United States.

Background: Despite recent insights into cholera transmission patterns in Africa, regional and local dynamics in West Africa-where cholera outbreaks occur every few years-are still poorly understood. Coordinated genomic surveillance of in the areas most affected may reveal transmission patterns important for cholera control.

Methods: During a regional sequencing workshop in Nigeria, we sequenced 46 recent isolates from Cameroon, Niger, and Nigeria (37 from 2018 to 2019) to better understand the relationship between the bacterium circulating in these three countries. Read More

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Monitoring the incidence and causes of diseases potentially transmitted by food in Australia: Annual report of the OzFoodNet network, 2013-2015.

Authors:

Commun Dis Intell (2018) 2021 Jun 15;45. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Australian Government Department of Health.

Abstract: This report summarises the incidence of diseases potentially transmitted by food in Australia, and details outbreaks associated with food that occurred during 2013-2015. OzFoodNet sites reported an increasing number of notifications of 12 diseases or conditions vthat may be transmitted by food (botulism; campylobacteriosis; cholera; hepatitis A; hepatitis E; haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS); listeriosis; Salmonella Paratyphi (paratyphoid fever) infection; salmonellosis; shigellosis; Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infection; and Salmonella Typhi (typhoid fever) infection), with a total of 28,676 notifications received in 2013; 37,958 in 2014; and 41,226 in 2015. The most commonly-notified conditions were campylobacteriosis (a mean of 19,061 notifications per year over 2013-2015) and salmonellosis (a mean of 15,336 notifications per year over 2013-2015). Read More

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Genetic characterization and phylogenetic variations of human adenovirus-F strains circulating in eastern India during 2017-2020.

J Med Virol 2021 Jun 17. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Division of Virology, National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases, P-33, C.I.T. Road Scheme- XM, Beliaghata, Kolkata, 700010, India.

Human Adenovirus-F (genotype 40/41) is the second-most leading cause of paediatric gastroenteritis after rotavirus, worldwide, accounting for 2.8-11.8% of infantile diarrhoeal cases. Read More

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Passive Immunity to O1 Afforded by a Human Monoclonal IgA1 Antibody Expressed in Milk.

Pathog Immun 2020 8;5(1):89-116. Epub 2020 May 8.

Department of Biomedical Sciences; University at Albany; Albany, New York.

Background: In cholera epidemics, the spread of disease can easily outpace vaccine control measures. The advent of technologies enabling the expression of recombinant proteins, including antibodies, in the milk of transgenic animals raises the prospect of developing a self-administered and cost-effective monoclonal antibody (MAb)-based prophylactic to reduce the incidence of infection.

Methods: We generated a transgenic mouse line in which the heavy and light chain variable regions (Fv) specific for a conserved epitope in the core/lipid A of O1 lipopolysaccharide were expressed as a full-length human dimeric IgA1 (ZAC-3) and secreted into the milk of lactating dams. Read More

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Designing of Potential Polyvalent Vaccine Model for Respiratory Syncytial Virus by System Level Immunoinformatics Approaches.

Biomed Res Int 2021 28;2021:9940010. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, China.

Background: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is a public health epidemic, leading to around 3 million hospitalization and about 66,000 deaths each year. It is a life-threatening condition exclusive to children with no effective treatment.

Methods: In this study, we used system-level and vaccinomics approaches to design a polyvalent vaccine for RSV, which could stimulate the immune components of the host to manage this infection. Read More

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Ceramide structure dictates glycosphingolipid nanodomain assembly and function.

Nat Commun 2021 06 16;12(1):3675. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Institut Curie, PSL Research University, U1143 INSERM, UMR3666 CNRS, Cellular and Chemical Biology unit, Paris, Cedex, France.

Gangliosides in the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane of eukaryotic cells are essential for many cellular functions and pathogenic interactions. How gangliosides are dynamically organized and how they respond to ligand binding is poorly understood. Using fluorescence anisotropy imaging of synthetic, fluorescently labeled GM1 gangliosides incorporated into the plasma membrane of living cells, we found that GM1 with a fully saturated C16:0 acyl chain, but not with unsaturated C16:1 acyl chain, is actively clustered into nanodomains, which depends on membrane cholesterol, phosphatidylserine and actin. Read More

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Laboratory evaluation of the rapid diagnostic tests for the detection of Vibrio cholerae O1 using diarrheal samples.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 Jun 15;15(6):e0009521. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Division of Bacteriology, ICMR-National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases, Kolkata, India.

Background: Cholera, an acute diarrheal disease is a major public health problem in many developing countries. Several rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) are available for the detection of cholera, but their efficacies are not compared in an endemic setting. In this study, we have compared the specificity and sensitivity of three RDT kits for the detection of Vibrio cholerae O1 and compared their efficiency with culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. Read More

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Genomic contextualisation of ancient DNA molecular data from an Argentinian fifth pandemic infection.

Microb Genom 2021 Jun;7(6)

Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Infecciosas, INEI-ANLIS "Dr. Carlos G. Malbrán", Buenos Aires, Argentina.

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The bane of coastal marine environment: A fatal case of Vibrio vulnificus associated cellulitis and septicaemia.

Indian J Med Microbiol 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Cholera and Biofilm Research Laboratory, Rajiv Gandhi Center for Biotechnology, Trivandrum, 695014, Kerala, India. Electronic address:

Vibrio vulnificus is a Gram negative motile bacterium known to cause fatal septicaemia and wound infection. It is commonly associated with the consumption of under-cooked seafood or exposure to marine environment. We report a case of a 55 year old male patient, who was presented with right lower limb cellulitis and septicaemia due to V. Read More

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Three transmission events of Vibrio cholerae O1 into Lusaka, Zambia.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Jun 14;21(1):570. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Background: Cholera has been present and recurring in Zambia since 1977. However, there is a paucity of data on genetic relatedness and diversity of the Vibrio cholerae isolates responsible for these outbreaks. Understanding whether the outbreaks are seeded from existing local isolates or if the outbreaks represent separate transmission events can inform public health decisions. Read More

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Epidemic and PCR-based identification of vibrio cholera through OmpW gene from diarrhoeal patients admitted at different hospitals of Baluchistan.

J Pak Med Assoc 2021 Apr;71(4):1189-1192

Department of Biochemistry, Bolan University of Medical and Health Sciences, Quetta, Pakistan.

Objective: To study the different epidemiological and polymerase chain reaction-based identification of vibrio cholera.

Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted at the Center for Advanced Studies in Vaccinology and Biotechnology, University of Balochistan, Quetta, Pakistan, from January 5 to December 6, 2019, and comprised faecal / rectal swab samples from patients with a history of untreated severe diarrhoea of <12-hour duration. The samples were collected from suspected cholera patients at different hospitals of the province. Read More

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Bovine Serum Albumin-Dependent Charge-Transfer Kinetics Controls the Electrochemical Immunosensitive Detection: as a Model Bioanalyte.

Electrocatalysis (N Y) 2021 Jun 9:1-10. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Molecular Sciences Institute, School of Chemistry, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, 2050 South Africa.

This work investigates how bovine serum albumin (BSA), a commonly used protein in the fabrication of electrochemical immunosensors, can impact on the sensitivity of detection when integrated with antibody (Ab) pre-encapsulated with (i) insulating polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibre (i.e., GCE-PAN-Ab-BSA immunosensor) or (ii) conducting PAN-grafted iron (II) phthalocyanine (FePc) (i. Read More

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Chitosan and alginate salt as biomaterials are potential natural adjuvants for killed cholera vaccine.

J Biomed Mater Res A 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, Egypt.

Chitosan and alginate salts are natural biopolymers that have gained recent attention in the biomedical sectors. Their properties allow them to become potential candidates as safe, cheap, and effective vaccine adjuvants. The present study aimed to enhance the immunogenic response of a current injectable killed cholera vaccine (KCV) using chitosan and alginate salt as natural adjuvants against alum. Read More

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Political stigma of communicable diseases in complex emergencies.

J Infect Dev Ctries 2021 05 31;15(5):747-748. Epub 2021 May 31.

Division of Water Resources Engineering, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.

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Recent Vibrio cholerae O1 Epidemic Strains Are Unable To Replicate CTXΦ Prophage Genome.

mSphere 2021 Jun 9:e0033721. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Frontier Bioscience, Hosei University, Koganei, Tokyo, Japan.

Cholera, an acute diarrheal disease, is caused by pathogenic strains of Vibrio cholerae generated by the lysogenization of the filamentous cholera toxin phage CTXΦ. Although CTXΦ phage in the classical biotype are usually integrated solitarily or with a truncated copy, those in El Tor biotypes are generally found in tandem and/or with related genetic elements. Due to this structural difference in the CTXΦ prophage array, the prophage in the classical biotype strains does not yield extrachromosomal CTXΦ DNA and does not produce virions, whereas the El Tor biotype strains can replicate the CTXΦ genome and secrete infectious CTXΦ phage particles. Read More

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First Report of Diaporthe longicolla Causing Leaf Spot on Kalanchoe pinnata in China.

Plant Dis 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

National Pesticide Engineering Research Center, Nankai University, Tianjin, Tianjin, Tianjin, China, 300071;

Kalanchoe pinnata (Lam.) Pers. [syn. Read More

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Failure of the "Gold Standard": The Role of a Mixed Methods Research Toolkit and Human-Centered Design in Transformative WASH.

Environ Health Insights 2021 24;15:11786302211018391. Epub 2021 May 24.

Wish for WASH Thinks Inc, Atlanta, GA, USA.

From preventing cholera and diarrhea by reducing exposure to human waste, to reducing transmission of COVID-19 through handwashing, water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) can save lives. Numerous global health initiatives have been created to combat the spread of infectious diseases. However, according to the Sanitation and Hygiene Fund, "decades of under investment in sanitation and hygiene have made this sector the weakest link in our efforts to achieve the [Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)]. Read More

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and genes are not uniformly distributed amongst diverse .

Microb Genom 2021 Jun;7(6)

Wellcome Sanger Institute, Wellcome Genome Campus, Hinxton, CB10 1SA, UK.

Members of the bacterial genus utilize chitin both as a metabolic substrate and a signal to activate natural competence. is a bacterial enteric pathogen, sub-lineages of which can cause pandemic cholera. However, the chitin metabolic pathway in has been dissected using only a limited number of laboratory strains of this species. Read More

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Decades of Cholera in Odisha, India (1993-2015): Lessons learned and the ways forward.

Epidemiol Infect 2021 Jun 7:1-24. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

ICMR-Regional Medical Research Centre, Chandrasekharpur, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India.

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Evaluation of Low-Cost Phage-Based Microbial Source Tracking Tools for Elucidating Human Fecal Contamination Pathways in Kolkata, India.

Front Microbiol 2021 20;12:673604. Epub 2021 May 20.

Center for Global Safe Water, Sanitation and Hygiene, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, United States.

Phages, such as those infecting spp., have been proven to be reliable indicators of human fecal contamination in microbial source tracking (MST) studies, and the efficacy of these MST markers found to vary geographically. This study reports the application and evaluation of candidate MST methods (phages infecting previously isolated strain GB-124, newly isolated strains (K10, K29, and K33) and recently isolated strain ASH-08), along with non-source specific somatic coliphages (SOMCPH infecting strain WG-5) and indicator bacteria () for identifying fecal contamination pathways in Kolkata, India. Read More

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STRUGGLE AGAINST CHOLERA EPIDEMICS IN IMPERIAL TIME KHARKIV AS A SIGNIFICANT FACTOR OF PUBLIC HEALTH: HISTORICAL EXPERIENCE.

Wiad Lek 2021 ;74(5):1241-1244

KHARKIV NATIONAL MEDICAL UNIVERSITY, KHARKIV, UKRAINE.

Objective: The aim: The aim of the research is to determine and systematize administrative and medical measures aimed at curbing cholera in the city of Kharkiv in the time of the Russian Empire, to assess the relevance of the experience in fighting the disease, to determine the impact of epidemics and anti-epidemic measures on Kharkiv residents' public health.

Patients And Methods: Materials and methods: General scientific and specific historical methods were used, and methods of related sciences were applied as well. The main methods of historical research included, in particular, historical analytical, chronological and comparative historical; methods of medical statistics, etc. Read More

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