2,326,120 results match your criteria Children and Youth Services Review [Journal]
Horm Res Paediatr 2018 Dec 6;90(4):1-7. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
Background: Despite the developments of recombinant growth hormone (rhGH) treatment and the benefits in long-term clinical health outcomes, evidence has shown that many children with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) still fail to achieve their target adult height. Suboptimal outcomes have been largely attributed to treatment non-adherence.
Methods: A search of 11 electronic databases was undertaken to identify relevant articles, published in English, between 1985 and 2018. Read More
Neonatology 2018 Dec 6;115(2):182-188. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
Liggins Institute, University of Auckland, Auckland, New
Background: Pre-clinical research, which encompasses studies in animals and in the laboratory, has made significant contributions to the improvement of neonatal outcomes.
Methods: Here, we describe examples of how pre-clinical research can be the starting point on the journey to the development of new interventions to improve neonatal care and outcomes and discuss recent progress in ensuring methodological and ethical rigour in pre-clinical research involving animal models.
Results: Studies in pregnant sheep led to the serendipitous discovery that preterm lambs born after exogenous corticosteroid exposure were able to aerate their lungs. Read More
Cell Physiol Biochem 2018 Dec 6;51(5):2019-2029. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol and Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Plant Resources, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou,
Background/aims: β-Elemene is a bioactive sesquiterpene compound that exhibits a potent anti-tumor effect and is used in various clinical applications. However, little is known about its effect on the male reproductive system. The objective of this study was to investigate the in vitro actions of β-elemene on human sperm function and elucidate the underlying mechanism. Read More
Early Hum Dev 2018 Dec 3;128:48-54. Epub 2018 Dec 3.
Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.
Objective: To evaluate the relationship of parent-reported child behaviors on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) to cognition, language, and motor skills on the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development - III (Bayley-III) in toddlers born extremely preterm.
Study Design: Toddlers born extremely preterm (gestational ages 22 0/7 to 26 6/7 weeks) were tested at 22-26 months corrected age with Bayley-III while parents completed the CBCL. Socio-demographic variables and medical history were recorded. Read More
Soc Sci Med 2018 Nov 23;220:379-386. Epub 2018 Nov 23.
Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Harvard T H Chan School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Ave, Boston, MA, 02115, USA; CUNY Graduate School of Public Health and Health Policy, 205 East 42nd Street, New York, NY, 10017, USA.
Less schooling is associated with increased biological risks for chronic disease, but whether increasing years of schooling through policy interventions reduces these risks remains unclear. We examine the effect of a major education reform introduced in 1959 that raised the minimum school leaving age from 14 to 16 years in France, offering a unique natural experiment. We assess the causal impact of increased schooling duration on 16 biomarkers of cardiovascular, metabolic, organ and immune function in a large cohort of men and women born around 1953. Read More
Epilepsy Behav 2018 Dec 3;90:99-106. Epub 2018 Dec 3.
Population, Policy and Practice Unit, UCL Great Ormond Street Institute of Child Health, London, United Kingdom.
Background: Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy (SUDEP) is a significant cause of death in childhood epilepsy, and causes considerable concern to patients and their families. Despite this, the condition remains poorly understood. This systematic review investigates the risk factors, pathophysiology, and circumstances associated with childhood SUDEP. Read More
Infant Behav Dev 2018 Dec 3;54:22-36. Epub 2018 Dec 3.
University of Tennessee, Department of Child and Family Studies, 1215 W. Cumberland Ave Knoxville, TN 37996, USA. Electronic address:
Parents' exposure to stressful ecosocial situations, like inadequate resources, is linked to parents' perceptions of infants' fussing and crying and less sensitive caregiving. However, studies supporting these findings predominantly come from Western contexts of parenting and infant care. Ecosocial situations may have different effects on parenting and infants in distinct cultural contexts. Read More
Nurse Educ Today 2018 Nov 29;73:65-70. Epub 2018 Nov 29.
Department of Child Health, School of Medicine, University of Missouri, 430 Sinclair School of Nursing, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, United States of America. Electronic address:
Introduction: Academic institutions are under pressure to maintain a nearly flawless retention rate, while graduating successful students. The use of standardized admission tests to provide data driven decisions regarding applicant selection is common. The varying reliability and validity of current standardized tests inspired a large Canadian academic institution to use a faculty developed admission test for admission to its practical nursing (PN) program. Read More
Midwifery 2018 Nov 19;69:163-171. Epub 2018 Nov 19.
Department of Nutrition, Harvard TH Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:
Objectives: Suboptimal breastfeeding contributes to morbidity and mortality in children. Studies in high-income countries (HICs) show that exclusive-breastfeeding (EBF) is associated with longer breastfeeding duration. The aim of this study was to determine whether maternal reports of EBF at six months are associated with longer duration of breastfeeding during the first two years of life in a low and middle-income country (LMIC) setting, and to identify determinants of breastfeeding duration. Read More
Gait Posture 2018 Nov 20;68:227-231. Epub 2018 Nov 20.
Monash University, School of Primary and Allied Health Care, Frankston, VIC, 3199, Australia; Peninsula Health, Allied Health, 4 Hastings Rd, Frankston, VIC, 3199, Australia.
Background: There remains a substantial lack of evidence to support the use of foot orthoses as a conservative treatment option for idiopathic toe walking (ITW). Encouraging heel contact during gait is one of the primary goals of most interventions in paediatric ITW.
Research Question: Does the combined treatment of high-top boots and orthoses increase the number of heel contacts during gait and change spatio-temporal gait parameters?
Methods: This within subject designed randomised controlled trial recruited fifteen children diagnosed with ITW (n = 10 males). Read More
Int J Infect Dis 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
Introduction: Anthrax is caused by the spore-forming, Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus anthracis. The aim of the study was to predict the potential distribution of B. anthracis in Tanzania and produce epidemiological evidence for management of anthrax outbreaks in the country. Read More
Gene 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.
Department of Traumatic Orthopedics, The Second Hospital Affiliated to Lanzhou University, Lanzhou City, Gansu Province 730000, China.
Osteosarcoma is the most common malignant bone tumor in children and adolescents. Aberrant expression of HOXA5 results in various diseases, including cancers. However, the specific function and molecular mechanism of HOXA5 in osteosarcoma is not fully understood. Read More
J Mol Cell Cardiol 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.
Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Cardiovascular Research Center, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistr. 52, 20246 Hamburg, Germany; DZHK (German Center for Cardiovascular Research), Partner Site Hamburg, Kiel, Lübeck, Germany; Institute of Pharmacy, University of Hamburg, Bundesstr. 45, 20146 Hamburg, Germany. Electronic address:
The sympathetic nervous system is the main stimulator of cardiac function. While acute activation of the β-adrenoceptors exerts positive inotropic and lusitropic effects by increasing cAMP and Ca, chronically enhanced sympathetic tone with changed β-adrenergic signaling leads to alterations of gene expression and remodeling. The CREB-regulated transcription coactivator 1 (CRTC1) is activated by cAMP and Ca. Read More
J Invest Dermatol 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.
Department of Paediatrics, Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong, SAR China.
Some previously described environmental associations for atopic eczema (AE) may be due to reverse causation. We explored the role of reverse causation by comparing individual- and school-level results for multiple AE risk factors. ISAAC Phase Three surveyed children within schools (the sampling unit) on AE symptoms and potential risk factors. Read More
Antiviral Res 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.
Institute for Antiviral Research, Utah State University, Logan, UT, United States; Department of Animal, Dairy and Veterinary Sciences, Utah State University, Logan, UT, United States; Utah Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, Logan, UT, United States. Electronic address:
Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) is a non-polio enterovirus that affects the respiratory system and can cause serious complications, especially in children and older people with weakened immune systems. As an emerging virus, there are no current antiviral therapies or vaccines available. Our goal was to develop a mouse model of human EV-D68 infection that mimicked the disease observed in humans and could be used for evaluation of experimental therapeutics. Read More
Acta Trop 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.
ICMR-National Institute of Malaria Research Field Unit Jablpur, Epidemiology, ICMR-NIRTH Campus, Nagpur Road, 482003, Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh, India. Electronic address:
The cost burden of malaria at the household level, resulting from complex social, economic, and epidemiological factors, is enormous. This study was carried out to estimate the economic burden of malaria at the household level in low and high malaria transmission areas of central India. We conducted surveys with households in which at least one member had suffered from malaria in the three months preceding the survey. Read More
Exp Parasitol 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.
Laboratory of Molecular and Evolutionary Parasitology, RAPID Group, School of Biosciences, University of Kent, Canterbury, Kent, UK; School of Biosciences, University of Kent, Canterbury, Kent, UK. Electronic address:
Cryptosporidium is a genus of single celled parasites capable of infecting a wide range of animals including humans. Cryptosporidium species are members of the phylum apicomplexa, which includes well-known genera such as Plasmodium and Toxoplasma. Cryptosporidium parasites cause a severe gastro-intestinal disease known as cryptosporidiosis. Read More
J Pediatr (Rio J) 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.
Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Departamento de Pediatria, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil; Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre (HCPA), Serviço de Neonatologia, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.
Objectives: There are several factors that influence the postnatal growth of preterm infants. It is crucial to define how to evaluate the growth rate of each preterm child and its individual trajectory, the type of growth curve, either with parameters of prescriptive curves for healthy preterm infants with no morbidities or, in the case of preterm infants and their "bundle of vulnerabilities", growth curves that may represent how they are actually growing, with the aim of directing appropriate nutritional care to each gestational age range.
Data Sources: The main studies with growth curves for growth monitoring and the appropriate nutritional adjustments that prioritized the individual trajectory of postnatal growth rate were reviewed. Read More
Public Health Rep 2018 Dec 6:33354918815183. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
2 Health Data Research, Analysis and Mapping Center at Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI, USA.
Objectives:: The incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in the United States has increased during the past several decades. The objective of this study was to use birth records and a combination of statistical and geographic information system (GIS) analyses to evaluate GDM rates among subgroups of pregnant women in Michigan.
Materials And Methods:: We obtained data on maternal demographic and health-related characteristics and regions of residence from 2013 Michigan birth records. Read More
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 Dec 5;12:CD006975. Epub 2018 Dec 5.
Department of Paediatrics, University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, PMB 1115, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria, 540261.
Background: Salmonella infections are a common bacterial cause of invasive disease in people with sickle cell disease especially children, and are associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Although available in some centres, people with sickle cell anaemia are not routinely immunized with salmonella vaccines. This is an update of a previously published Cochrane Review. Read More
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 Dec 3;12:CD006922. Epub 2018 Dec 3.
Population Health Research Institute, St George's, University of London, Cranmer Terrace, London, UK, SW17 0RE.
Background: Epidemiological evidence has suggested a link between use of beta₂-agonists and increased asthma mortality. Much debate has surrounded possible causal links for this association, and whether regular (daily) long-acting beta₂-agonists (LABAs) are safe, particularly when used in combination with inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs). This is an update of a Cochrane Review that now includes data from two large trials including 11,679 adults and 6208 children; both were mandated by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Read More
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2018 Dec;59(15):5785-5794
Department of Ophthalmology, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Berlin, Germany.
Purpose: Posterior capsule opacification (PCO) is a complication after cataract surgery, particularly in children. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of lens epithelial cells, mediated by transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ), contributes to PCO. However, its pathogenesis in children is poorly understood. Read More
Lang Speech Hear Serv Sch 2018 Dec 6:1-12. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, University of Cincinnati, Ohio.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine if a standardized assessment developed for Spanish-English dual language learners (SEDLLs) differentiates SEDLLs with language impairment (LI) from children with typical language better than the translated/adapted Spanish and/or English version of a standardized assessment and to determine if adding informal measure/s to the standardized assessment increases the classification accuracy.
Method: Standardized and informal language assessment measures were administered to 30 Mexican American 4- to 5-year-old SEDLLs to determine the predictive value of each measure and the group of measures that best identified children with LI and typical language. Discriminant analyses were performed on the data set. Read More
J Speech Lang Hear Res 2018 Dec 6:1-13. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
Center for Research and Training, Framingham, MA.
Purpose: This article examines whether syntactic and vocabulary abilities in American Sign Language (ASL) facilitate 6 categories of language-based analogical reasoning.
Method: Data for this study were collected from 267 deaf participants, aged 7;6 (years;months) to 18;5. The data were collected from an ongoing study initially funded by the U. Read More
Am J Speech Lang Pathol 2018 Dec 6:1-14. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
Schiefelbusch Institute for Life Span Studies, The University of Kansas, Lawrence.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to measure changes in communication of preschoolers with autism using the Communication Complexity Scale (CCS; Brady et al., 2012) and to examine the utility of the CCS in measuring pretreatment and posttreatment changes within peer and adult assessment contexts.
Method: The CCS was used to code preassessment and postassessment for 23 children with autism randomly assigned to a treatment that incorporated a peer-mediated approach and a speech-generating device and 22 assigned to a business-as-usual condition with untrained peers. Read More
PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0208916. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
Federal University of Sergipe, Aracaju, Brazil.
The aim of this study was to identify the levels of physical activity and sedentary behaviour of children and adolescents with sickle cell disease (SCA) compared to healthy individuals. A cross-sectional study with a quantitative approach was performed at a reference center for the treatment of patients with hemoglobinopathies in northeastern Brazil. Patients were recruited between October 2015 and January 2017. Read More
PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0208571. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
Haaglanden Medical Center, The Hague, the Netherlands.
Aim: Increasing evidence exists with respect to the relation between stressful life events and functional constipation (FC). We aimed to investigate the prevalence of FC in Palestinian refugee preschool children and to determine if stress and trauma exposure are risk factors of FC in these children.
Methods: From November 2013 until May 2014, a cross-sectional survey was conducted in West Bank, Gaza and Jordan. Read More
PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0208531. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
Department of Strategic Information and Research, Institute of Human Virology Nigeria, Abuja, Nigeria.
Objective: In low resource settings, visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) by allied health workers, has been suggested as an alternative for cervical cancer screening. However, there are concerns about the objectivity and time to diagnostic concordance with specialists. We evaluated the secular trend in interobserver agreement between nurse providers and a gynecologist/colposcopist over a five-year period. Read More
PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0208412. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology, School for Mental Health and Neuroscience, Maastricht University, Maastricht, the Netherlands.
The α7 acetylcholine receptor (AChR) has been linked with the onset of psychotic symptoms and we hypothesized therefore that it might also be an autoimmune target. Here, we describe a new radioimmunoassay (RIA) using iodine 125-labelled α-bungarotoxin and membrane extract from transfected HEK293 cells expressing human α7 AChR. This RIA was used to analyze sera pertaining to a cohort of 711 subjects, comprising 368 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, 140 with bipolar disorder, 58 individuals diagnosed of other mental disorders, and 118 healthy comparison subjects. Read More
PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0208437. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
Department of Pediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.
Background: Despite the increasing number of studies evaluating patient reported outcome measures (PROs), there is no clearness regarding which restorative treatment offers major benefits based on the pediatric patient perspective.
Aim: To compare different restorative techniques in pediatric dentistry regarding patient-reported outcomes.
Design: Literature searching was carried out on prospective studies indexed in PubMed, Scopus and OpenGrey. Read More
PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0208299. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
Division of Women & Child Health, Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan.
Pakistani women suffer the highest rate of maternal mortality in South Asia. A lack of comprehensive knowledge about maternal and newborn health (MNH) services costs impedes policy decisions to maximize the benefit from existing, as well as emerging, MNH interventions in Pakistan. We compared MNH service costs at different levels of care. Read More
PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0207406. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
Tropical and Infectious Diseases Department, Centre Hospitalier Andrée Rosemon, Cayenne, French Guiana.
Background: French Guiana (FG) was the first country in South America to declare chikungunya virus infection (CHIKV). The outbreak affected about 16,000 persons between February 2014 and October 2015, with several atypical cases, but only two fatal cases. We aimed to describe the clinical presentation of patients hospitalized for CHIKV infection, to estimate and identify risk factors of unusual and severe forms in adult patients. Read More
PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0208171. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
Unit of Human Microbiome, Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital, IRCCS, Rome, Italy.
Background: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a disorder affecting the respiratory, digestive, reproductive systems and sweat glands. This lethal hereditary disease has known or suspected links to the dysbiosis gut microbiota. High-throughput meta-omics-based approaches may assist in unveiling this complex network of symbiosis modifications. Read More
PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 Dec 6;12(12):e0006888. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
Department of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India.
Background: Despite the overall decrease in visceral leishmaniasis (VL) incidence on the Indian subcontinent, there remain spatiotemporal clusters or 'hotspots' of new cases. The characteristics of these hotspots, underlying transmission dynamics, and their importance for shaping control strategies are not yet fully understood and are investigated in this study for a VL endemic area of ~100,000 inhabitants in Bihar, India between 2007-2015.
Methodology/principal Findings: VL incidence (cases/10,000/year) dropped from 12. Read More
PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 Dec 6;12(12):e0006803. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
Zeeman Institute, University of Warwick, Coventry, United Kingdom.
Background: Age patterns in asymptomatic and symptomatic infection with Leishmania donovani, the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the Indian subcontinent (ISC), are currently poorly understood. Age-stratified serology and infection incidence have been used to assess transmission levels of other diseases, which suggests that they may also be of use for monitoring and targeting control programmes to achieve elimination of VL and should be included in VL transmission dynamic models. We therefore analysed available age-stratified data on both disease incidence and prevalence of immune markers with the aim of collating the currently available data, estimating rates of infection, and informing modelling and future data collection. Read More
PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0202257. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
Department of Clinical Infection, Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Infection and Global Health, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom.
Objective: To determine whether a tailored multifaceted implementation strategy improves the initial management of patients with suspected encephalitis.
Design: Pragmatic two arm cluster randomised controlled trial.
Setting: Hospitals within the United Kingdom. Read More
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2018 Dec 7;67(48):1342-1346. Epub 2018 Dec 7.
Exposure to secondhand smoke from burning tobacco products can cause sudden infant death syndrome, respiratory infections, ear infections, and asthma attacks in infants and children, and coronary heart disease, stroke, and lung cancer in adult nonsmokers (1). There is no risk-free level of secondhand smoke exposure (2). CDC analyzed questionnaire and laboratory data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to assess patterns of secondhand smoke exposure among U. Read More
Med J Aust 2018 Dec;209(11):505-508
University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW.
Objective: To win a Christmas hamper. We also devised a study of our most festive seasonal poisoning, to demonstrate how hard we are working while everyone else is partying.
Design: Retrospective analysis of the New South Wales Poisons Information Centre database, which we searched for exposures to the substance code "Cyalume light sticks/glow toys" from 1 July 2013 to 30 June 2017. Read More
Expert Opin Pharmacother 2018 Dec 6:1-4. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
a Biomedical Department of Internal Medicine and Medical Specialties , University of Palermo , Palermo , Italy.
Biomarkers 2018 Dec 6:1-15. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
a Children's Medical Center , Taichung Veterans General Hospital , Taichung , Taiwan.
Purpose: Hypercatecholaminemia-related heart failure has been proposed as the main cause of enterovirus A71-related (EV-A71) early mortality. The purpose of this study was to measure urine catecholamine concentrations in severe EV-A71-infected children.
Methods: A total of 35 children, aged 2. Read More
Environ Sci Technol 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
This study presents the first investigation of concentrations and congener group patterns of short- and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs and MCCPs) in 159 dust samples from plastic sports courts and synthetic turf in Beijing, China. The geometric mean concentration of SCCPs and MCCPs in dusts from plastic tracks (5429 and 15157 μg g-1) and basketball courts (5139 and 11878 μg g-1) were significantly higher than those from plastic tennis courts, badminton courts, and synthetic turf, meanwhile they were 1-3 orders of magnitude higher than those in dusts from other indoor environments. The friction between sneaker soles and plastic track materials may lead to the wear and decomposition of rubber, which may be an important source of chlorinated paraffins (CPs) in the dust from plastic tracks. Read More