1,950 results match your criteria Childhood HIV Disease


Invasive Salmonella infections among children in Bintulu, Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo: a 6-year retrospective review.

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Apr 18;19(1):330. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Institute of Health and Community Medicine, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, Kota Samarahan, Sarawak, Malaysia.

Background: Invasive Salmonella infections result in significant morbidity and mortality in developing countries. In Asia, typhoid and paratyphoid fever are reported to be the major invasive Salmonella infections, while invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella (iNTS) infections are believed to be uncommon. Data from Sarawak, in Malaysian Borneo, are limited. Read More

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https://bmcinfectdis.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s128
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-3963-xDOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read
2.613 Impact Factor

Direct detection of bacteremia by exploiting host-pathogen interactions of lipoteichoic acid and lipopolysaccharide.

Sci Rep 2019 Apr 17;9(1):6203. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Physical Chemistry and Applied Spectroscopy, Chemistry Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, United States.

Bacteremia is a leading cause of death in sub-Saharan Africa where childhood mortality rates are the highest in the world. The early diagnosis of bacteremia and initiation of treatment saves lives, especially in high-disease burden areas. However, diagnosing bacteremia is challenging for clinicians, especially in children presenting with co-infections such as malaria and HIV. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-42502-5DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

The Burden of Acute Diarrheal Disease in Young Hospitalized Urban South African Children Five Years After Rotavirus Vaccine Introduction: A Retrospective Descriptive Study.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2019 Apr 10. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

From the Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences.

Background: Diarrheal disease is a leading cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide. Multiple interventions, including rotavirus vaccination to infants since 2009, have reduced the incidence of diarrheal disease in South African children. Our study aimed to determine the burden of diarrheal disease 5 years after rotavirus vaccine introduction at a tertiary-level hospital. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/INF.0000000000002304DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Hepatitis B virus infection in children and adolescents.

Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol 2019 Apr 10. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Global Hepatitis Programme and HIV Department, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major cause of acute and chronic liver disease and associated morbidity and mortality worldwide. Vertical (mother-to-child) and horizontal early childhood transmission are the main routes of HBV transmission and are responsible for most chronic infections, including among adults who bear the greatest burden of morbidity and mortality. Universal hepatitis B immunisation at birth and in infancy is the key strategy for global elimination of HBV infection, and has been highly effective in reducing new vertical infections. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S24681253193004
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2468-1253(19)30042-1DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Hepatitis C virus infection in children and adolescents.

Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol 2019 Apr 10. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Global Hepatitis Programme and HIV Department, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of chronic liver disease and associated morbidity and mortality worldwide. Short-course, oral, curative, direct-acting antiviral regimens have transformed treatment for HCV infection. Since the 2016 launch of the first global strategy towards elimination of viral hepatitis as a public health threat by 2030, the predominant focus of the global response has been on the treatment of adults, who bear the greatest burden of morbidity and mortality of HCV-related chronic liver disease. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S24681253193004
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2468-1253(19)30046-9DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Diagnostic accuracy of stool Xpert MTB/RIF for the detection of pulmonary tuberculosis in children: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Clin Microbiol 2019 Apr 3. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics, and Occupational Health, McGill University, Montreal, Canada

Invasive collection methods are often required to obtain samples for the microbiologic evaluation of children with presumptive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). Nucleic-acid amplification testing of easier to collect stool samples could be a non-invasive method of diagnosing PTB. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of testing stool with the Xpert MTB/RIF assay ('stool Xpert') for childhood PTB. Read More

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http://jcm.asm.org/lookup/doi/10.1128/JCM.02057-18
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.02057-18DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads
3.993 Impact Factor

Effect of Hepatitis C Virus Coinfection on the Progression of Vertically Acquired Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection During Childhood and Adolescence.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2019 Mar 31. Epub 2019 Mar 31.

Departments of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, University Hospital Gregorio Marañón and Gregorio Marañón Research Institute (IiSGM), Madrid.

Data for a total of 57 patients vertically coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/hepatitis C virus (HCV) and 365 HIV-monoinfected patients were compared until their transition to adult care. No differences regarding the dynamics of CD4 and/or CD8 T-cell counts during childhood were found. The coexistence of HCV does not increase the risk of disease progression in vertically HIV-infected patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piz008DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Lower Respiratory Tract Infections in Children in a Well-vaccinated South African Birth Cohort: Spectrum of Disease and Risk Factors.

Clin Infect Dis 2019 Mar 29. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital and Medical Research Council Unit on Child and Adolescent Health, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.

Background: Childhood lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) cause substantial morbidity and under-5 child mortality. The epidemiology of LRTI is changing in low- and middle-income countries with expanding access to conjugate vaccines, yet there are few data on the incidence and risk factors for LRTI in these settings.

Methods: A prospective birth cohort enrolled mother-infant pairs in 2 communities near Cape Town, South Africa. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/cid/advance-article/doi/10.1093/cid
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciz017DOI Listing
March 2019
5 Reads

Sexual Risk Behaviors Among Black and Puerto Rican Women in Their Late Thirties: A Brief Report.

J Immigr Minor Health 2019 Mar 28. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Department of Psychiatry, New York University School of Medicine, 215 Lexington Avenue, 15th floor, New York, NY, 10016, USA.

In New York City, over 90% of women newly diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are Black and Latina; a quarter of these infections occur among 30-39 year-olds. A survey was administered to 343 Black and Puerto Rican women (2014-2016) to examine two HIV infection risk factors: relationship exclusivity and having experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA). A majority of male partners (69. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10903-019-00877-7DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Pneumococcal vaccines.

Indian J Med Microbiol 2018 Oct-Dec;36(4):465-474

Department of Clinical Microbiology, Christian Medical College and Hospital, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India.

Streptococcus pneumoniae continues to take a heavy toll on childhood mortality and morbidity across the developing world. An estimated 10.6 million invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPDs) occur every year, with nearly 1 million deaths in children under 5 years of age. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijmm.IJMM_18_442DOI Listing

Association of childhood pulmonary tuberculosis with exposure to indoor air pollution: a case control study.

BMC Public Health 2019 Mar 7;19(1):275. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

Discipline of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Nursing and Public Health, University of KwaZulu-Natal, 321 George Campbell Building, Howard College Campus, Durban, 4041, South Africa.

Background: Crude measures of exposure to indicate indoor air pollution have been associated with the increased risk for acquiring tuberculosis. Our study aimed to determine an association between childhood pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and exposure to indoor air pollution (IAP), based on crude exposure predictors and directly sampled and modelled pollutant concentrations.

Methods: In this case control study, children diagnosed with PTB were compared to children without PTB. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-019-6604-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6407209PMC
March 2019
2 Reads

Mortality Predictive Scores for Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Children.

Curr Infect Dis Rep 2019 Mar 5;21(3):10. Epub 2019 Mar 5.

Institute of Tropical Medicine, Asunción, Paraguay.

Purpose Of Review: The use of severity score for the staging of pneumonias has emerged as a necessity for the physician caring for this disease. Although there are several established prognostic scoring systems for community-acquired pneumonia in adults, the availability for children are scarce.

Recent Findings: Recently, scoring system for risk stratification of children with pneumonia were developed in low- and middle-income countries. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11908-019-0666-9DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Progress Toward Hepatitis B Control and Elimination of Mother-to-Child Transmission of Hepatitis B Virus - Western Pacific Region, 2005-2017.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2019 Mar 1;68(8):195-200. Epub 2019 Mar 1.

Hepatitis B vaccine (HepB), which has been available since 1982, provides lifelong protection against hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and the associated 20%-30% increased lifetime risk for developing cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma among >95% of vaccine recipients (1). Before HepB introduction into national childhood immunization schedules, the estimated hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) prevalence in the World Health Organization (WHO) Western Pacific Region (WPR)* was >8% in 1990 (2). In 2005, the WPR was the first WHO region to establish a hepatitis B control goal, with an initial target of reducing HBsAg prevalence to <2% among children aged 5 years by 2012. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6808a2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6394384PMC
March 2019
5 Reads

Growth trajectories of breastfed HIV-exposed uninfected and HIV-unexposed children under conditions of universal maternal antiretroviral therapy: a prospective study.

Lancet Child Adolesc Health 2019 Apr 15;3(4):234-244. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; Centre for Infectious Disease Epidemiology and Research (CIDER), School of Public Health & Family Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.

Background: Over 1 million HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) children are born in sub-Saharan Africa annually. Little data exist on the risk of impaired growth in this population under current policies of universal maternal antiretroviral therapy (ART) with breastfeeding. We aimed to study the growth of breastfed HEU children born to women who initiated ART during pregnancy and compare their growth with that of breastfed HIV-unexposed (HU) children drawn from the same community. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-4642(19)30007-0DOI Listing
April 2019
8 Reads

Chronic medical conditions in U.S. adults with incarceration history.

Authors:
Tomoko Udo

Health Psychol 2019 Mar;38(3):217-225

University at Albany, State University of New York.

Objectives: To examine the associations between incarceration history and chronic medical conditions in a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults and whether risk for chronic medical conditions differ by sex and race among those with incarceration history. Read More

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http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/hea0000720
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/hea0000720DOI Listing
March 2019
15 Reads

An Overview on Epidemiology of Tuberculosis.

Mymensingh Med J 2019 Jan;28(1):259-266

Dr Mohammad Kamruzzaman Khan, Lecturer, Department of Community Medicine, Mymensingh Medical College (MMC), Mymensingh, Bangladesh; E-mail: kamruz

Tuberculosis (TB) is a progressive granulomatous infectious disease caused by the gram positive, acid fast bacilli classified under the genus Mycobacterium. Tuberculosis in human is mostly by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and primarily affects lungs causing pulmonary tuberculosis. It can also affect intestine, meninges, bones, joints, lymph nodes, skin and other tissues of the body causing extra-pulmonary tuberculosis. Read More

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January 2019
3 Reads

Childhood Violence Is Associated with Forced Sexual Initiation Among Girls and Young Women in Malawi: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

J Pediatr 2019 Feb 6. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Division of Violence Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA; Office of the Global AIDS Coordinator, Washington, DC.

Objective: To describe associations between childhood violence and forced sexual initiation in young Malawian females.

Study Design: We analyzed data from 595 women and girls who were 13-24 years old who ever had sex and participated in Malawi's 2013 Violence Against Children Survey, a nationally representative household survey. We estimated the overall prevalence of forced sexual initiation and identified subgroups with highest prevalences. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2018.12.066DOI Listing
February 2019
3 Reads

Recurrent group A tonsillitis is an immunosusceptibility disease involving antibody deficiency and aberrant T cells.

Sci Transl Med 2019 Feb;11(478)

Division of Vaccine Discovery, La Jolla Institute for Immunology (LJI), La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.

"Strep throat" is highly prevalent among children, yet it is unknown why only some children develop recurrent tonsillitis (RT), a common indication for tonsillectomy. To gain insights into this classic childhood disease, we performed phenotypic, genotypic, and functional studies on pediatric group A (GAS) RT and non-RT tonsils from two independent cohorts. GAS RT tonsils had smaller germinal centers, with an underrepresentation of GAS-specific CD4 germinal center T follicular helper (GC-T) cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.aau3776DOI Listing
February 2019
6 Reads

Intravenous fluid contaminated with Klebsiella oxytoca as a source of sepsis in a preterm newborn: Case report.

Am J Infect Control 2019 Feb 2. Epub 2019 Feb 2.

Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Maternal, Newborn, Child Health and Childhood HIV, TB and Malaria, Geneva, Switzerland.

Advances in neonatal care have led to the increasing survival of smaller and sicker infants, but nosocomial infections continue to be a serious problem, associated with increased mortality rates, immediate and long-term morbidity, prolonged hospital stay, and increased cost of care. We report a case of hospital-acquired sepsis in a preterm baby secondary to Klebsiella oxytoca, resulting from contaminated intravenous fluid. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajic.2018.12.025DOI Listing
February 2019
14 Reads
2.206 Impact Factor

The role of sexual risk behaviors on PrEP awareness and interest among men who have sex with men in Latin America.

Int J STD AIDS 2019 Feb 5:956462419825944. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

1 Department of Behavioral and Social Health Sciences, Brown University School of Public Health, Providence, RI, USA.

In Latin America, men who have sex with men (MSM) remain disproportionately impacted by HIV. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is an effective HIV prevention tool and has been FDA approved in the United States since 2012, but no Latin American state, with the recent exception of Brazil, has implemented PrEP guidelines. We carried out a multinational online survey of MSM in Latin America (n = 22698) in 2012 to assess whether MSM at highest risk of HIV acquisition (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956462419825944DOI Listing
February 2019
9 Reads
1.037 Impact Factor

Drivers of HIV Infection Among Cisgender and Transgender Female Sex Worker Populations in Baltimore City: Results From the SAPPHIRE Study.

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2019 Apr;80(5):513-521

Department of Health, Behavior and Society, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD.

Objective: To determine and compare risk factors for HIV infection among cisgender female sex workers (CFSWs) and transgender female sex workers (TFSWs).

Design: Baseline data from a cohort study (SAPPHIRE) of street-based CFSW and TFSW in Baltimore, MD.

Methods: Women were queried about individual (eg, drug use), interpersonal (eg, sexual abuse), and structural (eg, housing) risk factors and questioned on their sex work risk environment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAI.0000000000001959DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Lipodystrophies, dyslipidaemias and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.

Pathology 2019 Feb 27;51(2):202-212. Epub 2018 Dec 27.

Division of Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Center for Human Nutrition, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA. Electronic address:

Lipodystrophies are rare, heterogeneous, genetic or acquired, disorders characterised by varying degrees of body fat loss and associated metabolic complications, including insulin resistance, dyslipidaemias, hepatic steatosis and predisposition to atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). The four main types of lipodystrophy, excluding antiretroviral therapy-induced lipodystrophy in HIV-infected patients, are congenital generalised lipodystrophy (CGL), familial partial lipodystrophy (FPLD), acquired generalised lipodystrophy (AGL) and acquired partial lipodystrophy (APL). This paper reviews the literature related to the prevalence of dyslipidaemias and ASCVD in patients with lipodystrophies. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00313025183052
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pathol.2018.11.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6402807PMC
February 2019
11 Reads

Design and application of a novel two-amplicon approach for defining eukaryotic microbiota.

Microbiome 2018 12 20;6(1):228. Epub 2018 Dec 20.

Program in Molecular Medicine, The Hospital for Sick Children, Peter Gilgan Centre for Research and Learning, 686 Bay Street, Toronto, ON, M5G 0A4, Canada.

Background: Due to a lack of systematic diagnostics, our understanding of the diversity and role of eukaryotic microbiota in human health is limited. While studies have shown fungal communities to be significant modulators of human health, information on the prevalence of taxa such as protozoa and helminths has been limited to a small number of species for which targeted molecular diagnostics are available. To probe the diversity of eukaryotic microbes and their relationships with other members of the microbiota, we applied in silico and experimental approaches to design a novel two-amplicon surveillance tool, based on sequencing regions of ribosomal RNA genes and their internal transcribed spacers. Read More

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https://microbiomejournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40168-018-0612-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6302507PMC
December 2018
9 Reads

Causes of death and predictors of childhood mortality in Rwanda: a matched case-control study using verbal social autopsy.

BMC Public Health 2018 Dec 17;18(1):1378. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Partners In Health/Inshuti Mu Buzima, Rwinkwavu, Rwanda.

Background: Rwanda has dramatically reduced child mortality, but the causes and sociodemographic drivers for mortality are poorly understood.

Methods: We conducted a matched case-control study of all children who died before 5 years of age in eastern Rwanda between 1st March 2013 and 28th February 2014 to identify causes and risk factors for death. We identified deaths at the facility level and via a community health worker reporting system. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-018-6282-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6296058PMC
December 2018
8 Reads

Early Childhood Development in Children Born to HIV-Infected Mothers: Perspectives From Kenyan Clinical Providers and Caregivers.

Glob Pediatr Health 2018 14;5:2333794X18811795. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Indiana University, Indianapolis, IN, USA.

. To understand the perspectives of clinical providers and caregivers regarding early childhood development (ECD) in children born to HIV-infected mothers in Kenya. . Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2333794X18811795DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6236581PMC
November 2018
2 Reads

Metagenomic Discovery of 83 New Human Papillomavirus Types in Patients with Immunodeficiency.

mSphere 2018 12 12;3(6). Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Laboratory of Cellular Oncology, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

Several immunodeficiencies are associated with high susceptibility to persistent and progressive human papillomavirus (HPV) infection leading to a wide range of cutaneous and mucosal lesions. However, the HPV types most commonly associated with such clinical manifestations in these patients have not been systematically defined. Here, we used virion enrichment, rolling circle amplification, and deep sequencing to identify circular DNA viruses present in skin swabs and/or wart biopsy samples from 48 patients with rare genetic immunodeficiencies, including patients with warts, hypogammaglobulinemia, infections, myelokathexis (WHIM) syndrome, or epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV). Read More

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http://msphere.asm.org/lookup/doi/10.1128/mSphereDirect.0064
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mSphereDirect.00645-18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6291628PMC
December 2018
25 Reads

Past and future trends of Cryptosporidium in vitro research.

Exp Parasitol 2019 Jan 3;196:28-37. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Laboratory of Molecular and Evolutionary Parasitology, RAPID Group, School of Biosciences, University of Kent, Canterbury, Kent, UK; School of Biosciences, University of Kent, Canterbury, Kent, UK. Electronic address:

Cryptosporidium is a genus of single celled parasites capable of infecting a wide range of animals including humans. Cryptosporidium species are members of the phylum apicomplexa, which includes well-known genera such as Plasmodium and Toxoplasma. Cryptosporidium parasites cause a severe gastro-intestinal disease known as cryptosporidiosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exppara.2018.12.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6333944PMC
January 2019
5 Reads

Clinical management of community-acquired pneumonia in young children.

Expert Opin Pharmacother 2019 03 3;20(4):435-442. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

b Department of Pediatrics , Federal University of Bahia School of Medicine , Salvador , Brazil.

Introduction: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is the leading cause of mortality among children under 5 years worldwide. However, the choices of chemical therapy for the empirical treatment of CAP are frequently debated.

Areas Covered: The authors provide an update on the chemical management recommendations for childhood CAP. Read More

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https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/14656566.2018.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14656566.2018.1552257DOI Listing
March 2019
28 Reads

A Clinico-epidemiological Study of Childhood Herpes Zoster.

Indian Dermatol Online J 2018 Nov-Dec;9(6):383-388

Department of Dermatology, Military Hospital, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Herpes zoster (HZ) is a viral infection believed to be caused by the re activation of varicella zoster virus (VZV) or human herpes virus type 3 (HHV 3) that persists in the posterior nerve root ganglion. HZ is rarely reported in the pediatric age group with an intact immunity. Past infection with VZV and immunization with chickenpox vaccine are key markers in the onset of varicella zoster in children. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/idoj.IDOJ_107_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6232977PMC
December 2018
6 Reads

Porphyria cutanea tarda and hepatoerythropoietic porphyria: Identification of 19 novel uroporphyrinogen III decarboxylase mutations.

Mol Genet Metab 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Genetics and Genomic Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address:

Porphyria Cutanea Tarda (PCT) is a cutaneous porphyria that results from the hepatic inhibition of the heme biosynthetic enzyme uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase (UROD), and can occur either in the absence or presence of an inherited heterozygous UROD mutation (PCT subtypes 1 and 2, respectively). A heterozygous UROD mutation causes half-normal levels of UROD activity systemically, which is a susceptibility factor but is not sufficient alone to cause type 2 PCT. In both Types 1 and 2 PCT, the cutaneous manifestations are precipitated by additional factors that lead to generation of an inhibitor that more profoundly reduces hepatic UROD activity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymgme.2018.11.013DOI Listing
November 2018
6 Reads

A qualitative study on the voluntariness of counselling and testing for HIV amongst antenatal clinic attendees: do women have a choice?

BMC Med Ethics 2018 11 21;19(1):92. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, P.O. Box 65001, Dar es salaam, Tanzania.

Background: Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of the Human Immunodeficiency -Virus (HIV) is a serious public health problem, contributing up to 90% of childhood HIV infections. In Tanzania, the prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission (PMTCT) feature of the HIV programme was rolled out in 2000. The components of PMTCT include counselling and HIV testing directed at antenatal clinic attendees. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12910-018-0329-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6249978PMC
November 2018
12 Reads

Metabolic risk factors in young adults infected with HIV since childhood compared with the general population.

PLoS One 2018 8;13(11):e0206745. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Inserm, Center for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health, Paris, France.

Aim: Metabolic risk factors are poorly documented for the first generation of young adults who have lived with HIV since childhood. We compared their metabolic profile with that of adults of same age from the general population.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of data from two populations: (1) COVERTE (ANRS-CO19), a French national cohort of 18 to 30-year-old patients HIV-infected since childhood, and (2) ENNS, a national cross-sectional population-based household survey on nutrition. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0206745PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6226109PMC
April 2019
4 Reads

Childhood sexual abuse among Black men who have sex with men: A cornerstone of a syndemic?

Authors:
Elwin Wu

PLoS One 2018 1;13(11):e0206746. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

Social Intervention Group, Columbia University School of Social Work, New York, NY, United States of America.

Background: The sequelae of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) includes HIV infection, engagement in HIV risk behaviors, substance misuse, and intimate partner violence (IPV). Although Black men who have sex with men (MSM) are disproportionately infected with HIV in the U.S. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0206746PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6211721PMC
April 2019
1 Read

Hepatitis B vaccination using a dissolvable microneedle patch is immunogenic in mice and rhesus macaques.

Bioeng Transl Med 2018 Sep 27;3(3):186-196. Epub 2018 Aug 27.

School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Georgia Institute of Technology Atlanta GA 30332.

Chronic Hepatitis B virus infection remains a major global public health problem, accounting for about 887,000 deaths in 2015. Perinatal and early childhood infections are strongly associated with developing chronic hepatitis B. Adding a birth dose of the hepatitis B vaccine (HepB BD) to routine childhood vaccination can prevent over 85% of these infections. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/btm2.10098
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/btm2.10098DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6195907PMC
September 2018
6 Reads

Individual and Network Factors Associated With Racial Disparities in HIV Among Young Men Who Have Sex With Men: Results From the RADAR Cohort Study.

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2019 Jan;80(1):24-30

Department of Medical Social Sciences, Institute for Sexual and Gender Minority Health and Wellbeing, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL.

Background: Individual sexual risk behaviors have failed to explain the observed racial disparity in HIV acquisition. To increase understanding of potential drivers in disparities, we assessed differences across individual, network, and social determinants.

Methods: Data come from RADAR (N = 1015), a longitudinal cohort study of multilevel HIV-risk factors among young men who have sex with men (YMSM) aged 16-29 years in Chicago, IL. Read More

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http://Insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00126334-900000000-9654
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAI.0000000000001886DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6289601PMC
January 2019
3 Reads

Evidence for persistence of the SHIV reservoir early after MHC haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

Nat Commun 2018 10 25;9(1):4438. Epub 2018 Oct 25.

Ben Towne Center for Childhood Cancer Research, Seattle Children's Research Institute, 1100 Olive Way, Suite 100, Seattle, WA, 98101, USA.

Allogeneic transplantation (allo-HCT) has led to the cure of HIV in one individual, raising the question of whether transplantation can eradicate the HIV reservoir. To test this, we here present a model of allo-HCT in SHIV-infected, cART-suppressed nonhuman primates. We infect rhesus macaques with SHIV-1157ipd3N4, suppress them with cART, then transplant them using MHC-haploidentical allogeneic donors during continuous cART. Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-018-06736-7
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-06736-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6202377PMC
October 2018
9 Reads

Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms and Emerging Adult Sexual Minority Men: Implications for Assessment and Treatment of Childhood Sexual Abuse.

J Trauma Stress 2018 Oct 19;31(5):665-675. Epub 2018 Oct 19.

The Fenway Institute at Fenway Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Emerging adulthood (EA) is a developmental period marked by unique challenges that affect health including burgeoning occupational, relational, and financial stability; and increased risk taking in terms of sexual behavior(s) and substance use. Data were collected from 296 HIV-uninfected sexual minority men with childhood sexual abuse (CSA) histories. We analyzed baseline assessment data from a multisite randomized controlled trial that tested the efficaciousness of an experimental psychosocial treatment and examined vulnerabilities known to be linked with CSA. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jts.22335DOI Listing
October 2018
2 Reads

Perceptions and decision-making with regard to pregnancy among HIV positive women in rural Maputo Province, Mozambique - a qualitative study.

BMC Womens Health 2018 10 11;18(1):166. Epub 2018 Oct 11.

Department of Philosophy and Ethics, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (Brussels University), RHEA, Centre for Research in Gender, Diversity and Intersectionality, Brussels, Belgium.

Background: In preventing the transfer of HIV to their children, the Ministry of Health in Mozambique recommends all couples follow medical advice prior to a pregnancy. However, little is known about how such women experience pregnancy, nor the values they adhere to when making childbearing decisions. This qualitative study explores perceptions and decision-making processes regarding pregnancy among HIV positive women in rural Maputo Province. Read More

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https://bmcwomenshealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12905-018-0644-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6180632PMC
October 2018
1 Read

Disease- and Treatment-related Morbidity in Adolescents With Perinatal HIV Infection in Asia.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2019 Mar;38(3):287-292

From the The Kirby Institute, UNSW, Sydney, Australia.

Background: Perinatally HIV-infected adolescents (PHIVA) are exposed to a chronic systemic infection and long-term antiretroviral therapy (ART), leaving them susceptible to morbidities associated with inflammation, immunodeficiency and drug toxicity.

Methods: Data collected 2001 to 2016 from PHIVA 10-19 years of age within a regional Asian cohort were analyzed using competing risk time-to-event and Poisson regression analyses to describe the nature and incidence of morbidity events and hospitalizations and identify factors associated with disease-related, treatment-related and overall morbidity. Morbidity was defined according to World Health Organization clinical staging criteria and U. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/INF.0000000000002208DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6375771PMC
March 2019
7 Reads

Potential effect of household contact management on childhood tuberculosis: a mathematical modelling study.

Lancet Glob Health 2018 12 25;6(12):e1329-e1338. Epub 2018 Sep 25.

Centre for International Child Health, Department of Paediatrics, Imperial College London, London, UK; Desmond Tutu TB Centre, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa.

Background: Tuberculosis is recognised as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children, with most cases in children going undiagnosed and resulting in poor outcomes. Household contact management, which aims to identify children with active tuberculosis and to provide preventive therapy for those with HIV or those younger than 5 years, has long been recommended but has very poor coverage globally. New guidelines include widespread provision of preventive therapy to children with a positive tuberculin skin test (TST) who are older than 5 years. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(18)30401-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6227381PMC
December 2018
1 Read

Quality of care in childhood tuberculosis diagnosis at primary care clinics in Kampala, Uganda.

Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2018 Oct;22(10):1196-1202

Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine and Center for Vulnerable Populations, Zuckerberg San Francisco General Hospital, and Curry International Tuberculosis Center, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA.

Objective: To assess the quality of routine childhood tuberculosis (TB) evaluation in Kampala, Uganda.

Setting And Design: This was a cross-sectional study of children aged <15 years attending six government-run clinics from November 2015 to December 2016. Clinicians completed a standardized patient record form for all child visits. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5588/ijtld.18.0043DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6339686PMC
October 2018
1 Read

KSHV viral load and Interleukin-6 in HIV-associated pediatric Kaposi sarcoma-Exploring the role of lytic activation in driving the unique clinical features seen in endemic regions.

Int J Cancer 2019 01 31;144(1):110-116. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, UNC, Chapel Hill, NC.

Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is among the most common childhood malignancies in central, eastern, and southern Africa. Although its unique clinical features have been established, biological mechanisms related to the causative agent, KS-associated herpes-virus (KSHV), have yet to be explored in children. We performed a prospective observational pilot study to explore associations between KSHV viral load (VL), human interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-10 levels, and clinical characteristics of 25 children with KS in Lilongwe, Malawi from June 2013-August 2015. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/ijc.31863
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.31863DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6261676PMC
January 2019
9 Reads
1 Citation
5.085 Impact Factor

Epidemiology of human astroviruses among children younger than 5 years: Prospective hospital-based sentinel surveillance in South Africa, 2009-2014.

J Med Virol 2019 Feb 9;91(2):225-234. Epub 2018 Oct 9.

Centre for Enteric Diseases, Virology Division, National Institute for Communicable Disease, Sandringham, South Africa.

Background: The epidemiology of human astroviruses (HAstVs) in hospitalised patients less than 5 years of age from selected sites in South Africa was investigated. Diarrheagenic stool specimens collected from April 2009 to May 2014 were screened retrospectively for selected viruses, bacteria and parasites.

Method: Patient data were analysed to identify epidemiologic factors most frequently detected with HAstV infections. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25308DOI Listing
February 2019
6 Reads

Morbidity benefit conferred by childhood immunisation in relation to maternal HIV status: a meta-analysis of demographic and health surveys.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2018 13;14(10):2414-2426. Epub 2018 Sep 13.

a Cochrane South Africa , South African Medical Research Council , Cape Town , South Africa.

The study determined the prevalence of acute respiratory infections and diarrhoea among sub-Saharan African children. It also examined if there was any significant morbidity benefit conferred by three doses of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis containing vaccines (DTP3) with respect to maternal HIV status. Data were obtained from the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) program, United Nations Development Programs, World Bank and Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2018.1515453DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6284503PMC
September 2018
7 Reads
2.131 Impact Factor

Non-specific effects of childhood vaccines on acute childhood morbidity among HIV-exposed children in sub-Saharan Africa: a multilevel analysis.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2018 27;14(10):2382-2390. Epub 2018 Sep 27.

a Cochrane South Africa, South African Medical Research Council , Cape Town , South Africa.

We examined the roles of determining factors responsible for acute respiratory infections and diarrhoea among immunised human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-exposed children in sub-Saharan Africa. This study used demographic and health surveys obtained from 27 sub-Saharan African countries. The outcome variable is defined as symptoms of acute respiratory infections or episode of diarrhoea in the child of an HIV-infected mother who is vaccinated with the third dose of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis containing vaccines. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2018.1516490DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6284489PMC
September 2018
6 Reads
2.131 Impact Factor

Prevalence and correlates of HIV testing and HIV-positive status in the US: Results from the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions III (NESARC-III).

J Psychiatr Res 2018 Oct 3;105:1-8. Epub 2018 Aug 3.

National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, USA.

We used the 2012-2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions III (NESARC-III), a nationally representative sample of US adults (n = 34,653), to estimate the prevalence and correlates of HIV testing and HIV status. The diagnostic interview used was the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-DSM-5 Version. We found that in 2012-2013, the prevalence of a history of HIV testing was 53. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2018.08.007DOI Listing
October 2018
46 Reads