2,229 results match your criteria Childhood HIV Disease

Circulating Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 precipitates HIV-nephropathy in mice.

Dis Model Mech 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Child Health Research Center, Department of Pediatrics, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, VA, USA.

Over 80% of all children living with HIV reside in Africa and are at risk of developing HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN). Once HIVAN is established in children, it is difficult to revert its progression to chronic kidney failure even using antiretroviral drugs. Therefore, new therapeutic strategies are needed. Read More

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The challenge of differentiating fibromyalgia from small-fiber neuropathy in clinical practice.

Florian Bailly

Joint Bone Spine 2021 May 31:105232. Epub 2021 May 31.

MD, Hôpital Pitié Salpêtrière - Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris, Rheumatology department, Pain unit ; 47-83 boulevard de l'hôpital, 75013 Paris, France. Electronic address:

Fibromyalgia and small fibre neuropathy are two diseases leading to chronic widespread pain, and it is difficult to differentiate them in order to provide appropriate care. In this review, we will describe the pathophysiological and clinical differences between fibromyalgia and small fibre neuropathy. In fibromyalgia, pain is increased by dysregulation of central pain processing while small fibre neuropathy pain is related to loss or dysfunction of intraepidermal small nerve fibres. Read More

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Postmortem Study of Cause of Death Among Children Hospitalized With Respiratory Illness in Kenya.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

From the Influenza Program, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Nairobi, Kenya Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Infectious Diseases Pathology Branch, Atlanta, Georgia Obstetric and Perinatal Pathology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts Department of Pathology, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya Pathology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington Department of Pathology, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya Influenza Program, Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI), Nairobi, Kenya Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Respiratory Diseases Branch, Atlanta, Georgia Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Division of Global Health Protection, Atlanta, Georgia Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Influenza Division, Atlanta, Georgia Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium.

Background: In resource-limited settings, acute respiratory infections continue to be the leading cause of death in young children. We conducted postmortem investigations in children <5 years hospitalized with a clinical diagnosis of respiratory disease at Kenya's largest referral hospital.

Methods: We collected respiratory and other tissues postmortem to examine pathologic processes using histology, molecular and immunohistochemistry assays. Read More

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Rapid progression is associated with lymphoid follicle dysfunction in SIV-infected infant rhesus macaques.

PLoS Pathog 2021 May 7;17(5):e1009575. Epub 2021 May 7.

Center for Global Infectious Disease Research, Seattle Children's Research Institute, Seattle, Washington, United States of America.

HIV-infected infants are at an increased risk of progressing rapidly to AIDS in the first weeks of life. Here, we evaluated immunological and virological parameters in 25 SIV-infected infant rhesus macaques to understand the factors influencing a rapid disease outcome. Infant macaques were infected with SIVmac251 and monitored for 10 to 17 weeks post-infection. Read More

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Paediatric to adult healthcare transition in resource-limited settings: a narrative review.

BMJ Paediatr Open 2021 19;5(1):e001059. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Division of Medical Critical Care, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Background: Ageing into adulthood is challenging at baseline, and doing so with a chronic disease can add increased stress and vulnerability. Worldwide, a substantial care gap exists as children transition from care in a paediatric to adult setting. There is no current consensus on safe and equitable healthcare transition (HCT) for patients with chronic disease in resource-denied settings. Read More

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A 17 year experience of attrition from care among HIV infected children in Nnewi South-East Nigeria.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 May 3;21(1):409. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Paediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria.

Background: A large number of HIV-infected children continue to die despite reported scale-up of paediatric HIV services.

Aim: The trend in attrition among children enrolled in an anti-retroviral therapy (ART) programme was evaluated.

Methods: This was a retrospective review of children enrolled into NAUTH ART programme between 2003 and 2019. Read More

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Diagnosis of childhood tuberculosis in Pakistan: Are national guidelines used by private healthcare providers?

Int J Infect Dis 2021 Apr 22;107:291-297. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Provincial TB Control Program, Quetta, Pakistan.

Background: The National Tuberculosis Control Program (NTP) in Pakistan developed, with the Pakistan Paediatric Association, a pediatric scoring chart to aid diagnosis of childhood tuberculosis (TB). Our study compared the diagnostic practice of private healthcare providers in Pakistan with the NTP guidelines.

Methods: A cross-sectional study comparing diagnosis of TB in children <15 years by Non-NTP private providers with the NTP's pediatric scoring chart. Read More

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Upper Respiratory Tract Co-detection of Human Endemic Coronaviruses and High-density Pneumococcus Associated With Increased Severity Among HIV-Uninfected Children Under 5 Years Old in the PERCH Study.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2021 06;40(6):503-512

Department of Pediatrics, Center for Vaccine Development and Global Health, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.

Background: Severity of viral respiratory illnesses can be increased with bacterial coinfection and can vary by sex, but influence of coinfection and sex on human endemic coronavirus (CoV) species, which generally cause mild to moderate respiratory illness, is unknown. We evaluated CoV and pneumococcal co-detection by sex in childhood pneumonia.

Methods: In the 2011-2014 Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health study, nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal (NP/OP) swabs and other samples were collected from 3981 children <5 years hospitalized with severe or very severe pneumonia in 7 countries. Read More

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Fatal SARS-CoV-2 and coinfection in an infant: insights from Botswana.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Apr 21;14(4). Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Pathology, University of Botswana, Gaborone, South-East District, Botswana.

We report a fatal case of SARS-CoV-2 and coinfection in an infant, Botswana's first paediatric COVID-19-associated fatality. The patient, a 3-month-old HIV-unexposed boy, presented with fever and respiratory distress in the setting of failure to thrive. Both the patient and his mother tested positive for rifampin-sensitive (Xpert MTB/Rif) and SARS-CoV-2 (real time-PCR). Read More

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The Science of Scale for Violence Prevention: A New Agenda for Family Strengthening in Low- and Middle-Income Countries.

Front Public Health 2021 19;9:581440. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Catholic Relief Services DRC, Gombe, Democratic Republic of Congo.

Ending all violence against children by 2030 is a core part of Sustainable Development Goals 5 and 16. A number of promising violence reduction strategies have been identified in research studies. However, we lack an understanding of the implementation and impact of these programs in respect to their delivery at a large scale or within existing service systems, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Read More

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Integrated early childhood development services improve mothers' experiences with prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) programs in Malawi: a qualitative study.

BMC Health Serv Res 2021 Apr 15;21(1):348. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Division of Infectious Diseases, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Background: HIV-positive mothers who face the dual burden of HIV-positive status and motherhood, may benefit from holistic services that include early childhood development (ECD). We evaluated the acceptability and impact of integrated ECD-PMTCT interventions for mothers and their children.

Methods: We implemented an integrated ECD-PMTCT intervention in 4 health facilities in Malawi for HIV-positive mothers and their infants. Read More

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Factors Predicting Uptake of Sexually Transmitted Infections Testing among Men Who Have Sex with Men Who Are "Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Tourists"-An Observational Prospective Cohort Study.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 03 30;18(7). Epub 2021 Mar 30.

JC School of Public Health and Primary Care, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.

The term "Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) tourists" refers to individuals who obtain PrEP in other countries and use it in their home countries. A prospective observational cohort study was conducted among a group of men who have sex with men (MSM) who obtained PrEP in private clinics in Thailand and used it in Hong Kong. Participants completed two web-based self-administered surveys when obtaining PrEP in Thailand and three months afterwards. Read More

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Continuous HIV-1 Escape from Autologous Neutralization and Development of Cross-Reactive Antibody Responses Characterizes Slow Disease Progression of Children.

Vaccines (Basel) 2021 Mar 14;9(3). Epub 2021 Mar 14.

Viral Evolution and Transmission Unit, Division of Immunology, Transplantation and Infectious Diseases, IRCCS Ospedale San Raffaele, 20132 Milan, Italy.

The antibodies with different effector functions evoked by Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmitted from mother to child, and their role in the pathogenesis of infected children remain unresolved. So, too, the kinetics and breadth of these responses remain to be clearly defined, compared to those developing in adults. Here, we studied the kinetics of the autologous and heterologous neutralizing antibody (Nab) responses, in addition to antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), in HIV-1 infected children with different disease progression rates followed from close after birth and five years on. Read More

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Sexual risk behaviors, mental health outcomes and attitudes supportive of wife-beating associated with childhood transactional sex among adolescent girls and young women: Findings from the Uganda Violence Against Children Survey.

PLoS One 2021 25;16(3):e0249064. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Center for Global Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, United States of America.

Compared to young men, Ugandan young women are disproportionately impacted by HIV. Childhood transactional sex may contribute to this disparity. Using data from the 2015 Uganda Violence Against Children Survey, we used logistic regression models to assess the association between childhood transactional sex and negative outcomes. Read More

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Unmapped exome reads implicate a role for Anelloviridae in childhood HIV-1 long-term non-progression.

NPJ Genom Med 2021 Mar 19;6(1):24. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA.

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection remains a significant public health burden globally. The role of viral co-infection in the rate of progression of HIV infection has been suggested but not empirically tested, particularly among children. We extracted and classified 42 viral species from whole-exome sequencing (WES) data of 813 HIV-infected children in Botswana and Uganda categorised as either long-term non-progressors (LTNPs) or rapid progressors (RPs). Read More

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Exploring the mechanism through which a child-friendly storybook addresses barriers to child-participation during HIV care in primary healthcare settings in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

BMC Public Health 2021 03 16;21(1):508. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

The Discipline of Public Health Medicine, School of Nursing and Public Health, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa.

Background: Healthcare workers (HCWs) in South Africa widely use job-aids as practical tools to enhance the provision of HIV services, thereby improving patient-provider interactions during the care process. Job-aids are visual support materials that provide appropriate information using graphics and words in a simple and yet effective manner. We explored the mechanism through the KidzAlive Talk tool storybook (Talk tool), a child-centred job-aid for HCWs that facilitates child-participation during HIV consultations in primary healthcare (PHC) clinics implementing the KidzAlive model. Read More

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Paediatric tuberculosis - new advances to close persistent gaps.

Int J Infect Dis 2021 Mar 11. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

The Indus Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan.

Young children are most vulnerable to develop severe forms of tuberculosis (TB) and are over-represented among TB deaths. Almost all children estimated to have died from TB were never diagnosed or offered TB treatment. Improved access to TB preventive treatment (TPT) requires major upscaling of household contact investigation with allocation of adequate resources. Read More

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Community intervention for child tuberculosis active contact investigation and management: study protocol for a parallel cluster randomized controlled trial.

Trials 2021 Mar 2;22(1):180. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

French National Research Institute for Sustainable Development (IRD UMI 233 TransVIHMI- UM-INSERM U1175), Montpellier, France.

Background: There are major gaps in the management of pediatric tuberculosis (TB) contact investigation for rapid identification of active tuberculosis and initiation of preventive therapy. This study aims to evaluate the impact of a community-based intervention as compared to facility-based model for the management of children in contact with bacteriologically confirmed pulmonary TB adults in low-resource high-burden settings.

Methods/design: This multicenter parallel open-label cluster randomized controlled trial is composed of three phases: I, baseline phase in which retrospective data are collected, quality of data recording in facility registers is checked, and expected acceptability and feasibility of the intervention is assessed; II, intervention phase with enrolment of index cases and contact cases in either facility- or community-based models; and III, explanatory phase including endpoint data analysis, cost-effectiveness analysis, and post-intervention acceptability assessment by healthcare providers and beneficiaries. Read More

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CD8 lymphocyte depletion enhances the latency reversal activity of the SMAC mimetic AZD5582 in ART-suppressed SIV-infected rhesus macaques.

J Virol 2021 Feb 10. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America

Inducing latency reversal to reveal infected cells to the host immune system represents a potential strategy to cure HIV infection. In separate studies, we have previously shown that CD8 T cells may contribute to the maintenance of viral latency and identified a novel SMAC mimetic/IAP inhibitor (AZD5582) capable of reversing HIV/SIV latency by activating the non-canonical (nc) NF-κB pathway. Here, we use AZD5582 in combination with antibody-mediated depletion of CD8α cells to further evaluate the role of CD8 T cells in viral latency maintenance. Read More

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February 2021

COVID-19 and Pediatric Lung Disease: A South African Tertiary Center Experience.

Front Pediatr 2020 20;8:614076. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.

The COVID-19 pandemic led to rapid global spread with far-reaching impacts on health-care systems. Whilst pediatric data consistently shown a milder disease course, chronic lung disease has been identified as a risk factor for hospitalization and severe disease. In Africa, comprised predominantly of low middle-income countries (LMIC), the additional burden of HIV, tuberculosis, malnutrition and overcrowding is high and further impacts health risk. Read More

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January 2021

Tuberculosis (TB) in the refugee camps in Ethiopia: trends of case notification, profile, and treatment outcomes, 2014 to 2017.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Feb 3;21(1):139. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Inter-Governmental Authority on Development (IGAD), Djibouti, Djibouti.

Background: Severity of TB increases in refugee populations. Monitoring TB case notification and treatment outcomes are essential to improve the effectiveness of TB programs. This study aimed to investigate trends in TB case notification and treatment outcomes and explore factors associated with unsuccessful treatment outcome in refugee camps in Ethiopia. Read More

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February 2021

Role of antenatal plasma cytomegalovirus DNA levels on pregnancy outcome and HIV-1 vertical transmission among mothers in the University of Zimbabwe birth cohort study (UZBCS).

Virol J 2021 01 29;18(1):30. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Introduction: Despite being a leading infectious cause of childhood disability globally, testing for cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections in pregnancy is generally not done in Sub-Sahara Africa (SSA), where breastfeeding practice is almost universal. Whilst CMV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are both endemic in SSA, the relationship between antenatal plasma CMV-DNA, HIV-1-RNA levels and HIV-1-mother to child transmission (MTCT) including pregnancy outcomes remains poorly described.

Methods: Pregnant women at least 20 weeks' gestational age at enrolment were recruited from relatively poor high-density suburbs in Harare, Zimbabwe. Read More

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January 2021

Hepatitis A vaccine immunogenicity 25 years after vaccination in Alaska.

J Med Virol 2021 06 25;93(6):3991-3994. Epub 2020 Aug 25.

Liver Disease and Hepatitis Program, Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium, Anchorage, Alaska.

The hepatitis A vaccine is recommended for all children greater than or equal to 1 year of age, however, the duration of vaccine protection is unknown and protection through adulthood is crucial to prevent symptomatic hepatitis later in life. We report on 25 years of follow-up of a cohort of Alaska Native individuals who were vaccinated in early childhood. We assessed the duration of vaccine protection by calculating the geometric mean concentration and proportion of participants with protective levels of IgG antibody to hepatitis A virus (anti-HAV) (≥20 mIU/mL) every 2 to 3 years. Read More

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Routes to diagnosis of symptomatic cancer in sub-Saharan Africa: systematic review.

BMJ Open 2020 11 19;10(11):e038605. Epub 2020 Nov 19.

College of Medicine and Health, University of Exeter, Exeter, UK.

Background: Most cancers in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are diagnosed at advanced stages, with limited treatment options and poor outcomes. Part of this may be linked to various events occurring in patients' journey to diagnosis. Using the model of pathways to treatment, we examined the evidence regarding the routes to cancer diagnosis in SSA. Read More

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November 2020

Mortality during and following hospital admission among school-aged children: a cohort study.

Wellcome Open Res 2020 4;5:234. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

KEMRI/Wellcome Trust Research Programme, P.O Box 230 - 80108, Kilifi, Kenya.

Far less is known about the reasons for hospitalization or mortality during and after hospitalization among school-aged children than among under-fives in low- and middle-income countries. This study aimed to describe common types of illness causing hospitalisation; inpatient mortality and post-discharge mortality among school-age children at Kilifi County Hospital (KCH), Kenya. A retrospective cohort study of children 5-12 years old admitted at KCH, 2007 to 2016, and resident within the Kilifi Health Demographic Surveillance System (KHDSS). Read More

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January 2021

Latency Reversal 2.0: Giving the Immune System a Seat at the Table.

Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 2021 Apr 12;18(2):117-127. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Purpose Of Review: For most people living with HIV (PLWH), treatment with effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) results in suppression of viremia below the limit of detection of clinical assays, immune reconstitution, reduced immune activation, avoidance of opportunistic infections, and progression to AIDS. However, ART alone is not curative, and HIV persists in a non-replicating, latent form. In this review, we provide a historical perspective on non-specific latency reversal approaches (LRA 1. Read More

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Sports- and Physical Activity-Related Concussion and Risk for Youth Violence.

Am J Prev Med 2021 03 7;60(3):352-359. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Division of Violence Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

Introduction: Sports and physical activities are an important cause of traumatic brain injury among adolescents. Childhood traumatic brain injury has been associated with cognitive impairment, emotional problems, and impaired behavior control, and these neuropsychological changes may place these youth at increased risk for engagement in violence-related behaviors.

Methods: Data from the 2017 National Youth Risk Behavior Survey (N=14,765), a nationally representative survey of U. Read More

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Acceptability and feasibility of survivorship care plans and an accompanying mobile health intervention for adolescent and young adult survivors of childhood cancer.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2021 Mar 8;68(3):e28884. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Division of Oncology, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Background: Self-management interventions for adolescent and young adult (AYA) survivors of childhood cancer are needed. The present study reports on the acceptability and feasibility of delivering survivorship care plans (SCPs) and an accompanying app to AYA.

Procedure: AYA (n = 224) ages 15-29 who completed treatment for cancer were randomized and received a digital SCP only or an SCP plus a mobile app intended to enhance self-management. Read More

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Childhood Sexual Abuse and Adult Sexual Risk Behavior: A Review and Critique.

J Child Sex Abus 2021 Apr 6;30(3):298-331. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

McGill University, Québec, Canada.

Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is a global problem with serious repercussions for survivors in various domains of adult interpersonal functioning, including sexual risk behavior. This review aimed to summarize findings from the recent literature on the connections between CSA and later adult sexual risk behaviors (e.g. Read More

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Size at birth and cognitive function among rural adolescents: a life course epidemiology study protocol of the Kisalaya cohort in Mysuru, South India.

BMJ Paediatr Open 2020 16;4(1):e000789. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Public Health Research Institute of India, Mysuru, Karnataka, India.

Introduction: It is proven that adverse intrauterine environment results in 'early life programming,' alterations in metabolism and physiological development of the fetus, often termed as 'Developmental Origins of Health and Disease' (DOHaD) resulting in a smaller size at birth, greater non-communicable diseases (NCD) risk factors during childhood and adolescence, and cardiometabolic disorders in adulthood. Nevertheless, very few studies have examined the relationship between DOHaD programming and cognition. This study aims to examine if impaired prenatal growth indicated by birth weight is associated with cognition among adolescents in the Kisalaya cohort, a rural birth cohort in South India, thus providing newer insights into DOHaD programming for adolescent mental health in a low-income and middle-income country setting. Read More

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December 2020