2,382 results match your criteria Childhood HIV Disease


Leveraging a national biorepository in Zambia to assess measles and rubella immunity gaps across age and space.

Sci Rep 2022 Jun 17;12(1):10217. Epub 2022 Jun 17.

International Vaccine Access Center, Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 415 N Washington Street, 5th floor, Baltimore, MD, 21231, USA.

High-quality, representative serological surveys allow direct estimates of immunity profiles to inform vaccination strategies but can be costly and logistically challenging. Leveraging residual serum samples is one way to increase their feasibility. We subsampled 9854 residual sera from a 2016 national HIV survey in Zambia and tested these specimens for anti-measles and anti-rubella virus IgG antibodies using indirect enzyme immunoassays. Read More

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[Updated recommendations on the treatment of infectious diseases in refugees in childhood and adolescence in Germany (situation as of 30 March 2022), registered as S1 guidelines (AWMF-Register Nr. 048-017)].

Monatsschr Kinderheilkd 2022 May 25:1-15. Epub 2022 May 25.

Abteilung Pädiatrische Infektiologie und Rheumatologie, Klinik für Allgemeine Pädiatrie und Jugendmedizin, Zentrum für Kinder- und Jugendmedizin, Universitätsklinikum Freiburg, Mathildenstr. 1, 79106 Freiburg, Deutschland.

Background: Based on 190,000 applications for asylum, Germany remains a top destination for refugees and asylum seekers in Europe. The updated recommendations are considered evidence-based and targeted guidelines for the diagnosis and prevention of infectious diseases in underage refugees and asylum seekers.

Objective: The objective of these recommendations is to guide medical staff in the care of minor refugees, in particular to:1. Read More

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Role of Early Life Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte and Natural Killer Cell Immunity in Paediatric HIV Cure/Remission in the Anti-Retroviral Therapy Era.

Front Immunol 2022 11;13:886562. Epub 2022 May 11.

Peter Medawar Building for Pathogen Research, Department of Paediatrics, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Only three well-characterised cases of functional cure have been described in paediatric HIV infection over the past decade. This underlines the fact that early initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), whilst minimising the size of the viral reservoir, is insufficient to achieve cure, unless other factors contribute. In this review, we consider these additional factors that may facilitate functional cure in paediatric infection. Read More

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Invasive Salmonella Infections Among Children in Shenzhen, China: A Five-year Retrospective Review.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2022 May 23. Epub 2022 May 23.

Department of Infectious Diseases.

Background: Invasive Salmonella infections are highly prevalent worldwide. Clinical data of childhood invasive Salmonella infections from China are limited.

Methods: Data of hospitalized children aged <18 years with invasive Salmonella infections from 2016 to 2020 in Shenzhen Children's Hospital in Shenzhen were retrospectively collected. Read More

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HIV co-infection augments EBV-induced tumorigenesis .

Front Virol 2022 11;2. Epub 2022 Mar 11.

International Center for the Advancement of Translational Science, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, United States.

In most individuals, EBV maintains a life-long asymptomatic latent infection. However, EBV can induce the formation of B cell lymphomas in immune suppressed individuals including people living with HIV (PLWH). Most individuals who acquire HIV are already infected with EBV as EBV infection is primarily acquired during childhood and adolescence. Read More

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Oral swabs tested with Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in children: a diagnostic accuracy study.

Clin Infect Dis 2022 May 17. Epub 2022 May 17.

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health and South African Medical Research Council Unit on Child and Adolescent Health, University of Cape Town and Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa.

Background: Microbiological diagnosis of childhood tuberculosis may be difficult. Oral swabs are a potential non-invasive alternative to sputum for diagnosis.

Methods: A prospective diagnostic accuracy study of oral swabs (buccal and tongue) for pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) diagnosis in children (aged ≤15 years) in two South African hospital sites. Read More

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Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B, C and D in Vietnam: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Lancet Reg Health West Pac 2022 Jul 4;24:100468. Epub 2022 May 4.

Imperial College London, UK.

Background: Vietnam has one of the greatest disease burdens from chronic viral hepatitis. Comprehensive prevalence data are essential to support its elimination as a public health threat.

Methods: We searched Medline and Embase from 1990 to 2021 for seroprevalence data relating to Hepatitis B (HBV), C (HCV) and D (HDV) in Vietnam. Read More

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Management of childhood MDR-TB in Europe and Central Asia: report of a Regional WHO meeting.

Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2022 05;26(5):433-440

Department of Biomedical Informatics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.

As the WHO European Region has the highest proportion of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) among total incident TB cases, many children and adolescents are at risk of MDR-TB infection and disease. We performed an electronic survey of clinicians and TB programme personnel who attended the 2020 Regional Consultation on child and adolescent TB organised by the WHO Regional Office. We characterised access to diagnostics and drugs, and practices in the prevention and management of child and adolescent MDR-TB. Read More

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Interventions Promoting Child Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights in LMICs: A Systematic Review.

Pediatrics 2022 05;149(Suppl 5)

School of International Development and Global Studies, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

Objective: Middle childhood is a critical period for physical, social, behavioral, and cognitive changes. A positive and healthy sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) foundation can minimize SRHR risks, leading to better outcomes. Our objective is to identify effective educational interventions promoting or supporting the SRHR of school-age children in low and middle-income countries. Read More

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Exemplars in vaccine delivery protocol: a case-study-based identification and evaluation of critical factors in achieving high and sustained childhood immunisation coverage in selected low-income and lower-middle-income countries.

BMJ Open 2022 04 29;12(4):e058321. Epub 2022 Apr 29.

Gangarosa Department of Environmental Health, Emory University Rollins School of Public Health, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Introduction: Increases in global childhood vaccine delivery have led to decreases in morbidity from vaccine-preventable diseases. However, these improvements in vaccination have been heterogeneous, with some countries demonstrating greater levels of change and sustainability. Understanding what these high-performing countries have done differently and how their decision-making processes will support targeted improvements in childhood vaccine delivery. Read More

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Systematic review of health and disease in Ukrainian children highlights poor child health and challenges for those treating refugees.

Acta Paediatr 2022 Jul 27;111(7):1341-1353. Epub 2022 Apr 27.

Department of Paediatrics, Academic and Research Medical Institute, Sumy State University, Sumy, Ukraine.

Aim: Millions of Ukrainian children have been internally displaced or fled to other countries because of the Russian war. This systematic review focused on their health needs and future challenges for clinicians.

Methods: A systematic literature search of the Medline, Embase and MedRxiv databases from 1 January 2010 to 31 March 2022 identified 1628 papers on the health of Ukrainian children and 112 were relevant to this review. Read More

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Hepatitis B Virus Genotypes and Antiviral Resistance Mutations in Romanian HIV-HBV Co-Infected Patients.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2022 Apr 11;58(4). Epub 2022 Apr 11.

Faculty of Medicine, Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 050474 Bucharest, Romania.

: Romania has one of the highest prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients, mostly in those parenterally infected during childhood; nevertheless, there are scarce data on the virological profile of co-infection. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of HBV genotypes and antiviral resistance-associated mutations (RAMs) in these co-infected patients, in order to monitor the viral factors associated with the evolution of liver disease. : HBV genotypes and RAMs were detected using nested PCR and line probe assays (INNO-LiPA HBV genotyping assay, and INNO-LiPA HBV DR v2, Innogenetics). Read More

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Preservation of lymphocyte functional fitness in perinatally-infected and treated HIV+ pediatric patients displaying sub-optimal viral control.

Commun Med (Lond) 2022 4;2. Epub 2022 Mar 4.

Department of Pathology, Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60611, USA.

Background: Host-pathogen dynamics associated with HIV infection are quite distinct in children versus adults. We interrogated the functional fitness of the lymphocyte responses in two cohorts of perinatally infected HIV+ pediatric subjects with early anti-retroviral therapy (ART) initiation but divergent patterns of virologic control. We hypothesized that sub-optimal viral control would compromise immune functional fitness. Read More

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Prevalence and associated factors of treatment failure among children on ART in Ethiopia: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

PLoS One 2022 14;17(4):e0261611. Epub 2022 Apr 14.

Department of Pediatric and Child Health Nursing, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Debre Tabor University, Debre Tabor, Ethiopia.

Background: As the use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) increases, the issue of treatment failure is still a global challenge, particularly in a resource limited settings including Ethiopia. The results of former studies in Ethiopia were highly variable and inconsistent across studies. Thus, this systematic review and meta-analysis intended to provide the pooled estimation of treatment failure and associated factors among children on antiretroviral therapy. Read More

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A Neurometabolic Pattern of Elevated Myo-Inositol in Children Who Are HIV-Exposed and Uninfected: A South African Birth Cohort Study.

Front Immunol 2022 28;13:800273. Epub 2022 Mar 28.

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.

Introduction: Exposure to maternal HIV in pregnancy may be a risk factor for impaired child neurodevelopment during the first years of life. Altered neurometabolites have been associated with HIV exposure in older children and may help explain the mechanisms underlying this risk. For the first time, we explored neurometabolic profiles of children who are HIV-exposed and uninfected (CHEU) compared to children who are HIV-unexposed (CHU) at 2-3 years of age. Read More

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Dynamics of the infant gut microbiota in the first 18 months of life: the impact of maternal HIV infection and breastfeeding.

Microbiome 2022 04 12;10(1):61. Epub 2022 Apr 12.

Institute of Human Virology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Background: Access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) during pregnancy and breastfeeding for mothers with HIV has resulted in fewer children acquiring HIV peri- and postnatally, resulting in an increase in the number of children who are exposed to the virus but are not infected (HEU). HEU infants have an increased likelihood of childhood infections and adverse growth outcomes, as well as increased mortality compared to their HIV-unexposed (HUU) peers. We explored potential differences in the gut microbiota in a cohort of 272 Nigerian infants born to HIV-positive and negative mothers in this study during the first 18 months of life. Read More

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New diagnosis of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in 8 Latin-American countries during 2018.

BMC Infect Dis 2022 Apr 7;22(1):347. Epub 2022 Apr 7.

Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Gregorio Marañón, Madrid, Spain.

Background: Important prevention efforts have led to a reduction in mother-to-child transmission of HIV (MTCT) globally. However, new cases of paediatric HIV infections still occur. Early diagnosis of new HIV infections is essential to start an appropriate antiretroviral treatment to avoid childhood morbidity and mortality related to infection. Read More

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Disclosure and help-seeking behaviors related to sexual and physical violence in childhood and adolescence: Results from the Namibia Violence Against Children and Youth Survey.

Child Abuse Negl 2022 Jun 2;128:105624. Epub 2022 Apr 2.

University of Washington, Department of Global Health, Seattle, WA, USA; International Training and Education Center for Health (I-TECH), University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

Background: Violence disclosure and help-seeking can mitigate adverse health effects associated with childhood violence, but little is known about facilitators and barriers of disclosure and help-seeking behaviors in sub-Saharan Africa.

Objective: To understand factors associated with disclosure and help-seeking to inform care.

Participants And Setting: Participants aged 13-24 years old in the 2019 Namibia Violence Against Children and Youth Survey (VACS). Read More

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Defining the risk of SARS-CoV-2 variants on immune protection.

Nature 2022 05 31;605(7911):640-652. Epub 2022 Mar 31.

Center for Childhood Infections and Vaccines of Children's Healthcare of Atlanta, Department of Pediatrics, Emory Vaccine Center, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA.

The global emergence of many severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants jeopardizes the protective antiviral immunity induced after infection or vaccination. To address the public health threat caused by the increasing SARS-CoV-2 genomic diversity, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases within the National Institutes of Health established the SARS-CoV-2 Assessment of Viral Evolution (SAVE) programme. This effort was designed to provide a real-time risk assessment of SARS-CoV-2 variants that could potentially affect the transmission, virulence, and resistance to infection- and vaccine-induced immunity. Read More

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Parental decision-making in infant and child male circumcision: a case study in two townships in Gauteng, South Africa.

Afr J AIDS Res 2022 Mar;21(1):32-40

Centre for Health Systems Research & Development, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa.

Parental decision-making in infant and child male circumcision is influenced by complex, interrelated factors on many levels. Several studies have highlighted reasons for the acceptance and non-acceptance of child male circumcision. This study investigates the factors that influence parental decision-making in this matter and proposes a parental decision-making framework. Read More

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Childhood lung function following perinatal HIV infection and early antiretroviral therapy initiation: a cross-sectional study.

ERJ Open Res 2022 Jan 21;8(1). Epub 2022 Mar 21.

Dept of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Tygerberg Hospital, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa.

Despite the introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART), HIV-associated pulmonary complications remain prevalent in children following perinatal HIV infection. In the post-ART era the incidence of opportunistic infections has decreased; however, non-infectious complications including diminished lung function are common. It is unclear whether early initiation of ART influences lung function later in life. Read More

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January 2022

Developmental Disorder Probability Scores at 6-18 Years Old in Relation to In-Utero/Peripartum Antiretroviral Drug Exposure among Ugandan Children.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2022 03 21;19(6). Epub 2022 Mar 21.

Department of Psychiatry, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA.

(1) We examined the hypothesis that in utero/peripartum antiretroviral (IPA) exposure may affect the likelihood of developmental disorders-i.e., attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and functional impairment (FI). Read More

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Factors Associated With Experiences of Fear, Anxiety, Depression, and Changes in Sleep Pattern During the COVID-19 Pandemic Among Adults in Nigeria: A Cross-Sectional Study.

Front Public Health 2022 2;10:779498. Epub 2022 Mar 2.

Mental Health and Wellness Study Group, Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

Background: Multiple facets of the pandemic can be a source of fear, depression, anxiety and can cause changes in sleep patterns. The aim of this study was to identify health profiles and the COVID-19 pandemic related factors associated with fear, depression, anxiety and changes in sleep pattern in adults in Nigeria.

Methods: The data for this analysis was extracted from a cross-sectional online survey that collected information about mental health and well-ness from a convenience sample of adults 18 years and above resident in Nigeria from July to December 2020. Read More

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Altered Response Pattern following AZD5582 Treatment of SIV-Infected, ART-Suppressed Rhesus Macaque Infants.

J Virol 2022 04 16;96(7):e0169921. Epub 2022 Mar 16.

Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicinegrid.471395.d, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

The "shock and kill" strategy for HIV-1 cure incorporates latency-reversing agents (LRA) in combination with interventions that aid the host immune system in clearing virally reactivated cells. LRAs have not yet been investigated in pediatric clinical or preclinical studies. Here, we evaluated an inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) inhibitor (IAPi), AZD5582, that activates the noncanonical NF-κB (ncNF-κB) signaling pathway to reverse latency. Read More

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Neurodevelopment of HIV-exposed uninfected children compared with HIV-unexposed uninfected children during early childhood.

Dev Psychol 2022 Mar;58(3):551-559

Department of Psychology, The Hospital for Sick Children.

HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) children during the preschool and early school ages may be at-risk for neurodevelopmental challenges due to in utero and perinatal exposure to HIV and/or antiretroviral (ARV) medications. HEU children and HIV-unexposed uninfected (HUU) children from the community were recruited and tested at 3 to 4 and 5 to 6 years of age. Demographic information, HIV/ARV exposure and measures of intelligence, visuomotor skills, and adaptive functioning were obtained. Read More

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The influence of smoking and HIV infection on pulmonary function.

South Afr J HIV Med 2022 21;23(1):1329. Epub 2022 Feb 21.

Julius Global Health, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands.

Background: Prevalence of HIV, smoking, and pulmonary infections in South Africa are high.

Objectives: We investigated the role of smoking and HIV status on lung function.

Methods: This is a secondary analysis of a cross-sectional study conducted in South Africa. Read More

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February 2022

A prevalence study in Guadalajara, Mexico, comparing tuberculin skin test and QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube.

PLoS One 2022 10;17(3):e0264982. Epub 2022 Mar 10.

University Center for Health Sciences (Centro Universitario de Ciencias de la Salud), University of Guadalajara, Guadalajara, México.

Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is a prevalent disease throughout the world. The extent of TB illness in childhood is not clear; recent data shows that 10-20% of the cases are found in children under 15 years old. In 2017, 1 million children developed the disease, of which 9% were co-infected with HIV. Read More

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Growth and CD4 patterns of adolescents living with perinatally acquired HIV worldwide, a CIPHER cohort collaboration analysis.

J Int AIDS Soc 2022 03;25(3):e25871

Baylor College of Medicine Children's Foundation, Lilongwe, Botswana.

Introduction: Adolescents living with HIV are subject to multiple co-morbidities, including growth retardation and immunodeficiency. We describe growth and CD4 evolution during adolescence using data from the Collaborative Initiative for Paediatric HIV Education and Research (CIPHER) global project.

Methods: Data were collected between 1994 and 2015 from 11 CIPHER networks worldwide. Read More

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Pathogenic Infections during Pregnancy and the Consequences for Fetal Brain Development.

Pathogens 2022 Jan 31;11(2). Epub 2022 Jan 31.

Department of Pediatrics, Women and Infants Hospital-Warren Alpert Medical School, Brown University, Providence, RI 02905, USA.

Pathogens comprised of viruses, bacteria, gut microbiome, and parasites are a leading cause of ever-emerging diseases in humans. Studying pathogens for their ability to cause diseases is a topic of critical discussion among scientists and pharmaceutical centers for effective drug development that diagnose, treat, and prevent infection-associated disorders. Pathogens impact health either directly by invading the host or by eliciting an acute inflammatory immune response. Read More

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January 2022