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    1697 results match your criteria Childhood HIV Disease

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    Mental health challenges among adolescents living with HIV.
    J Int AIDS Soc 2017 May;20(Suppl 3):100-109
    National Institutes of Health, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Maternal and Pediatric Infectious Disease Branch, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.
    Introduction: Mental health is a critical and neglected global health challenge for adolescents infected with HIV. The prevalence of mental and behavioural health issues among HIV-infected adolescents may not be well understood or addressed as the world scales up HIV prevention and treatment for adolescents. The objective of this narrative review is to assess the current literature related to mental health challenges faced by adolescents living with HIV, including access to mental health services, the role of mental health challenges during transition from paediatric to adult care services and responsibilities, and the impact of mental health interventions. Read More

    Dysplasia of Granulocytes in a Patient with HPV Disease, Recurrent Infections, and B Lymphopenia: A Novel Variant of WHIM Syndrome?
    Front Pediatr 2017 2;5:95. Epub 2017 May 2.
    Department of Medicine of Systems, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy.
    WHIM syndrome is a condition in which affected persons have chronic peripheral neutropenia, lymphopenia, abnormal susceptibility to human papilloma virus infection, and myelokathexis. Myelokathexis refers to the retention of mature neutrophils in the bone marrow (BM), which accounts for degenerative changes and hypersegmentation. Most patients present heterozygous autosomal dominant mutations of the gene encoding CXCR4. Read More

    With me or against me: Tumor suppressor and drug resistance activities of SAMHD1.
    Exp Hematol 2017 May 11. Epub 2017 May 11.
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Virology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany. Electronic address:
    Sterile alpha motif and histidine/aspartic acid domain-containing protein 1 (SAMHD1) is a (deoxy)guanosine triphosphate (dGTP/GTP)-activated deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) triphosphohydrolase involved in cellular dNTP homoeostasis. Mutations in SAMHD1 have been associated with the hyperinflammatory disease Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS). SAMHD1 also limits the permissiveness of cells to infection with diverse viruses, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1), and controls endogenous retroviruses. Read More

    Diagnosis and treatment of paediatric tuberculosis: An insight review.
    Crit Rev Microbiol 2017 Aug 17;43(4):466-480. Epub 2017 Feb 17.
    d Regional Medical Research Centre (ICMR) , Bhubaneswar , India.
    Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health problem, invading all age groups world-wide. It is an opportunistic infection affecting the individuals alone or with co-infections. Childhood TB is a neglected aspect and a significant health problem in epidemic areas. Read More

    Imputing direct and indirect vaccine effectiveness of childhood pneumococcal conjugate vaccine against invasive disease by surveying temporal changes in nasopharyngeal pneumococcal colonization.
    Am J Epidemiol 2017 May 6. Epub 2017 May 6.
    The limited capabilities in most low-middle income countries to study the bebfit of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) against invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), calls for alternate strategies to assess this. We used a mathematical model, to predict the direct and indirect effectiveness of PCV by analyzing serotype specific colonization prevalence and IPD incidence prior to and following childhood PCV immunization in South Africa. We analyzed IPD incidence from 2005-2012 and colonization studies undertaken in HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected child-mother dyads from 2007-2009 (pre-PCV era), in 2010 (7-valent PCV era) and 2012 (13-valent PCV era). Read More

    Coccidian intestinal parasites among immunocompetent children presenting with diarrhea: Are we missing them?
    Trop Parasitol 2017 Jan-Jun;7(1):37-40
    Division of Clinical Microbiology and Molecular Medicine, Department of Laboratory Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.
    Background: Diarrhoea is an important cause of both morbidity and mortality among children in India. Coccidian parasitic infections are an important cause of diarrhea in immunocompromised patients, but their investigations are rarely sought by the treating physicians in seemingly immunocompetent children. This study was aimed to find the incidence rate of coccidian parasites in all children presented with diarrhoea, irrespective of their immune status. Read More

    Clinical Findings of Pediatric HIV Infection in a Tertiary Center in Turkey.
    Balkan Med J 2017 May 6;34(3):239-245. Epub 2017 Apr 6.
    Department of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, İstanbul University İstanbul School of Medicine, İstanbul, Turkey.
    Background: Paediatric HIV infection is different from the adult type of disease in many ways, including transmission routes, clinical findings and treatment strategies.

    Aims: To evaluate clinical data of paediatric patients with HIV disease.

    Study Design: Retrospective cross-sectional study. Read More

    HSV-1/HSV-2 Infection-Related Cancers in Bantu Populations Driving HIV-1 Prevalence in Africa: Tracking the Origin of AIDS at the Onset of the 20th Century.
    Case Rep Oncol 2016 Sep-Dec;9(3):815-825. Epub 2016 Nov 29.
    Jacques Monod Institute, CNRS, University of Paris VII, Paris, France.
    Introduction: At the onset of the 20th century, ancient clinical observations of cancer epidemics in Bantu populations of Sub-Saharan Africa were discovered. They were reported from 1914 to 1960, but remained unexplained. In 1983, in San Francisco, Calif. Read More

    T-Cell Lymphoma in a Patient with Neurofibromatosis Type 1 and AIDS.
    Case Rep Oncol 2017 Jan-Apr;10(1):161-168. Epub 2017 Feb 15.
    Universidade Federal do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UNIRIO), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and AIDS are risk factors for the development of malignant neoplasms, including hematological malignancies, such as non-Hodgkin lymphoma. NF1 is an autosomal dominant disease that primarily manifests as café-au-lait spots, dermal neurofibromas, axillary and/or inguinal ephelides or freckles, plexiform neurofibromas, Lisch nodules, and bone deformities. In this report, we present a 38-year-old female patient with NF1 from childhood and AIDS who developed peripheral T-cell lymphoma with good response to chemotherapeutic treatment. Read More

    Viral exanthems: An update on laboratory testing of the adult patient.
    J Am Acad Dermatol 2017 Mar 26;76(3):538-550. Epub 2016 Oct 26.
    Division of Dermatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbus, Ohio. Electronic address:
    Although classic viral exanthems of childhood are well described, they are rarely differentiated in adults. Laboratory techniques for viral identification have advanced without substantial literature to suggest how a dermatologist ought to conduct a cost-effective and diagnostic viral panel. Certain clinical features such as petechiae, vesicles, and dusky macular or morbilliform exanthems point strongly toward a viral exanthem. Read More

    Does task shifting yield cost savings and improve efficiency for health systems? A systematic review of evidence from low-income and middle-income countries.
    Hum Resour Health 2017 Apr 13;15(1):29. Epub 2017 Apr 13.
    Department of Global Health and Population, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA, 02115, United States of America.
    Background: Task shifting has become an increasingly popular way to increase access to health services, especially in low-resource settings. Research has demonstrated that task shifting, including the use of community health workers (CHWs) to deliver care, can improve population health. This systematic review investigates whether task shifting in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) results in efficiency improvements by achieving cost savings. Read More

    Pain in amaXhosa women living with HIV/AIDS: a cross-sectional study of ambulant outpatients.
    BMC Womens Health 2017 Apr 13;17(1):31. Epub 2017 Apr 13.
    Department of Psychiatry & Mental Health, MRC Unit on Anxiety & Stress Disorders, Groote Schuur Hospital, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Background: Pain is one of the most commonly reported symptoms in people living with HIV/AIDS, whether or not they are receiving anti-retroviral therapy. A recent systematic review identified a paucity of studies exploring pain in women in low and middle income countries. The prevalence and characteristics of pain in women living with HIV/AIDS may differ from that of men as many chronic pain conditions are more prevalent in women. Read More

    Prevention of HIV in Adolescent Girls and Young Women: Key to an AIDS-Free Generation.
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2017 May;75 Suppl 1:S17-S26
    *Centre for the AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa (CAPRISA), Durban, South Africa; †Department of Public Health, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa; ‡Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY; and §Office of the US Global AIDS Coordinator, US Department of State, Washington, DC.
    The Global Plan towards the elimination of new HIV infections among children by 2015 and keeping their mothers alive (Global Plan) has ensured that more infants in high-HIV burden countries survive childhood HIV-free. Although equal numbers of boy and girl children have survived to age 10, a gender divergence starts to emerge as they enter adolescence. Up to 3 times as many young women aged 15-24 years in eastern and southern Africa are living with HIV compared with their male peers. Read More

    Long-term effects of severe acute malnutrition on lung function in Malawian children: a cohort study.
    Eur Respir J 2017 Apr 5;49(4). Epub 2017 Apr 5.
    Respiratory, Critical Care and Anaesthesia section in III, UCL Great Ormond Street, Institute of Child Health, University College London, London, UK.
    Early nutritional insults may increase risk of adult lung disease. We aimed to quantify the impact of severe acute malnutrition (SAM) on spirometric outcomes 7 years post-treatment and explore predictors of impaired lung function.Spirometry and pulse oximetry were assessed in 237 Malawian children (median age: 9. Read More

    Early versus late BCG vaccination in HIV-1-exposed infants in Uganda: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.
    Trials 2017 Mar 31;18(1):152. Epub 2017 Mar 31.
    Centre for Intervention Science in Maternal and Child Health, Centre for International Health, University of Bergen.
    Background: Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination may have nonspecific effects, i.e., effects on childhood morbidity and mortality that go beyond its effect on the risk of childhood tuberculosis (TB). Read More

    Paediatric Virology: A rapidly increasing educational challenge.
    Exp Ther Med 2017 Feb 23;13(2):364-377. Epub 2016 Dec 23.
    Department of Clinical Virology, School of Medicine, University of Crete, Heraklion 71003, Greece.
    The '2nd Workshop on Paediatric Virology', which took place on Saturday the 8th of October 2016 in Athens, Greece, provided an overview on recent views and advances on Paediatric Virology. Emphasis was given to HIV-1 management in Greece, a country under continuous financial crisis, hepatitis B vaccination in Africa, treatment options for hepatitis C virus in childhood, Zika virus in pregnancy and infancy, the burden of influenza on childhood, hand-foot-mouth disease and myocarditis associated with Coxsackie viruses. Other general topics covered included a critical evaluation of Paediatric Accident and Emergency viral infections, multimodality imaging of viral infections in children, surgical approaches of otolaryngologists to complex viral infections, new advances in the diagnosis and treatment of viral conjunctivitis and novel molecular diagnostic methods for HPV in childhood. Read More

    Adverse Childhood Experiences and Health and Wellness Outcomes among Black Men Who Have Sex with Men.
    J Urban Health 2017 Mar 20. Epub 2017 Mar 20.
    University at Albany-SUNY, Albany, NY, USA.
    Black men who have sex with men (BMSM) are a population at the intersection of two minority statuses-racial minority and sexual minority. Membership in either group, compared to white or heterosexual group membership, may increase one's risk of negative childhood and adult experiences. Baseline data from an HIV intervention efficacy trial (the Black Men Evolving Study) were used to explore the prevalence of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) among 536 BMSM and associations between ACEs and adult mental and physical health outcomes. Read More

    Pneumococcal Vaccine Response After Exposure to Parasites in Utero, in Infancy, or Mid-Childhood.
    Pediatrics 2017 Apr 16;139(4). Epub 2017 Mar 16.
    Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Stanford School of Medicine, Palo Alto, California.
    Background And Objective: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of mortality before age 5, but few studies examine details of childhood response to pneumococcal vaccine in less-developed settings. Although malnutrition, HIV, and concurrent infections can impair response, evidence suggests that chronic parasitic infections can also contribute to poor vaccination results. The objective of this study was to determine whether response to pneumococcal vaccine varied among children either exposed to parasitic infections in utero, previously infected in infancy, or infected at the time of immunization. Read More

    Prevalence of tuberculosis among children in North Sudan: Are we only seeing the tip of the iceberg?
    J Nat Sci Biol Med 2017 Jan-Jun;8(1):114-118
    Department of Medicine, Melton Keynes University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Melton Keynes, Buckinghamshire, UK.
    Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality among children. The vague symptoms, the uncertain diagnostic tests and lack of adequate awareness among families all contributed in masking the actual prevalence of the disease. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiology of childhood TB in River Nile State (RNS), North Sudan. Read More

    Adenovirus-associated pneumonia in South African children: Presentation, clinical course and outcome.
    S Afr Med J 2017 Jan 30;107(2):123-126. Epub 2017 Jan 30.
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital and Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, South Africa.
    Background: Viruses have emerged as important aetiological agents of childhood pneumonia.

    Objective: To investigate the clinical presentation, severity and outcome of adenovirus-associated pneumonia (AVP) in children.

    Methods: A retrospective analysis of AVP cases over 12 months was performed, including demographic, clinical course and outcome (death, persistent lung disease (PLD)) data. Read More

    Is maternal education a social vaccine for childhood malaria infection? A cross-sectional study from war-torn Democratic Republic of Congo.
    Pathog Glob Health 2017 Mar 21;111(2):98-106. Epub 2017 Feb 21.
    a Department of Pediatrics , University of Alberta , Edmonton , Canada.
    In zones of violent conflict in the tropics, social disruption leads to elevated child mortality, of which malaria is the leading cause. Understanding the social determinants of malaria transmission may be helpful to optimize malaria control efforts. We conducted a cross-sectional study of healthy children aged 2 months to 5 years attending well-child and/or immunization visits in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Read More

    Why being an expert - despite xpert -remains crucial for children in high TB burden settings.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Feb 6;17(1):123. Epub 2017 Feb 6.
    The Global Tuberculosis Program, Texas Children's Hospital, Global and Immigrant Health, Department of Pediatrics Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, 77030, USA.
    Background: As access to Xpert expands in high TB-burden settings, its performance against clinically diagnosed TB as a reference standard provides important insight as the majority of childhood TB is bacteriologically unconfirmed. We aim to describe the characteristics and outcomes of children with presumptive TB and TB disease, and assess performance of Xpert under programmatic conditions against a clinical diagnosis of TB as a reference standard.

    Methods: Retrospective review of children evaluated for presumptive TB in Mbeya, Tanzania. Read More

    The clinical spectrum of severe acute malnutrition in children in Cameroon: a hospital-based study in Yaounde, Cameroon.
    Transl Pediatr 2017 Jan;6(1):32-39
    Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaounde I, Yaounde, Cameroon;; Gynaeco-Obstetric and Pediatric Hospital Yaounde, Yaounde, Cameroon.
    Background: Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is a major health problem, and the cause of more than half of childhood deaths in children less than 5 years in developing countries. Globally, 20 million children under 5 years of age are severely malnourished according to the World Health Organization (WHO). In Cameroon, the prevalence of SAM remains high and estimated at 1. Read More

    A photo voice perspective on factors contributing to the resilience of HIV positive Yoruba adolescent girls in Nigeria.
    J Adolesc 2017 Apr 19;56:1-10. Epub 2017 Jan 19.
    Department of Early Childhood Education, Faculty of Education, Groenkloof Campus, University of Pretoria, Corner of George Storrar and Leyds Streets, Pretoria 0001, South Africa. Electronic address:
    There is a growing discourse worldwide on the impact of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) on "at risk youths". In response, five HIV-positive Nigerian adolescent girls were qualitatively investigated in collaboration with a non-governmental organisation (NGO) in Ibadan, an urban settlement in Nigeria in 2013. Using a secondary data analysis from a photo voice component of the research, combined with narratives, we show that participants possess the capacity to overcome their adversities from the effects of HIV infection and remain resilient. Read More

    The indications and role of paediatric bronchoscopy in a developing country, with high prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis and HIV.
    Expert Rev Respir Med 2017 Feb 20;11(2):159-165. Epub 2017 Jan 20.
    b Department of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences , Stellenbosch University and Tygerberg Children's Hospital , Cape Town , South Africa.
    Background: Bronchoscopy, an important investigation for the diagnosis and management of respiratory diseases, is widely used in high income countries. There is limited information on value of paediatric bronchoscopy in low and middle income countries (LMIC).

    Aims And Objectives: Aim was to describe the indications, findings and complications of bronchoscopy in a middle income country with a high prevalence of tuberculosis and HIV. Read More

    A Prospective Cohort Study of Common Childhood Infections in South African HIV-exposed Uninfected and HIV-unexposed Infants.
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 2017 Feb;36(2):e38-e44
    From the *Department of Paediatrics & Child Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa; †School of Population & Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada; ‡Department of Pathology, Division of Medical Microbiology Immunology Unit, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa; §Division of Paediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Paediatrics & Child Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa; ¶Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, BC Children's Hospital and University of British Columbia, and ‖Faculty of Medicine, School of Population & Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
    Background: Much evidence of HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infant infectious morbidity predates availability of maternal combination antiretroviral therapy and does not control for universal risk factors (preterm birth, low birth weight, suboptimal breastfeeding and poverty).

    Methods: This prospective cohort study identified HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected mothers and their newborns from South African community midwife unit. The primary outcome, infectious cause hospitalization or death before 6 months of age, was compared between HEU and HIV-unexposed (HU) infants and classified for type and severity using validated study-specific case definitions. Read More

    Vaccination with 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in infants according to HIV status.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2017 Jan;96(2):e5881
    aMedical Research Council: Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit bDepartment of Science and Technology/National Research Foundation: Vaccine Preventable Diseases, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa cNational Institute for Communicable Diseases: a Division of the National Health Laboratory Service, Johannesburg, South Africa dGSK, Wavre, Belgium.
    Background: Phase III, open-label, single-center, controlled study in South Africa ( NCT00829010) to evaluate immunogenicity, reactogenicity, and safety of the 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected (HIV+), HIV-exposed-uninfected (HEU), and HIV-unexposed-uninfected (HUU) children.

    Methods: Children stratified by HIV status received PHiD-CV primary vaccination (age 6/10/14 weeks; coadministered with routine childhood vaccines) and booster dose (age 9-10 months). Read More

    Excess respiratory viral infections and low antibody responses among HIV-exposed, uninfected infants.
    AIDS 2017 Mar;31(5):669-679
    aAnschutz Medical Center, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, Colorado, USA bDepartment of Pediatrics, Ribeirão Preto School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil cWestat, Rockville, Maryland, USA dDepartamento de Medicina da Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Sao Carlos, Sao Paulo eEscola de Medicina da Universidade de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais fHFSE - Hospital Federal dos Servidores do Estado, Rio de Janeiro gEscola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil hEunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, Maryland iUniversity of California, San Francisco, California, USA.
    Objective: HIV-exposed uninfected (HEUs) infants have frequent severe infection, hospitalization, and death. We performed a serologic investigation to determine the role of common childhood respiratory pathogens in the excess incidence of infections in HEUs.

    Design: Prospective cohort study of mother-infant pairs. Read More

    Benefits and challenges of molecular diagnostics for childhood tuberculosis.
    Int J Mycobacteriol 2016 Dec 20;5 Suppl 1:S4-S5. Epub 2016 Sep 20.
    Molecular Diagnostics for Childhood Tuberculosis, Avenida Hispanidad 85-5E 36203 Vigo, Spain. Electronic address:
    Expanding tuberculosis (TB)-diagnostic services, including access to rapid tests, is a World Health Organization (WHO) strategy to accelerate progress toward ending TB. Faster and more sensitive molecular tests capable of diagnosing TB and drug-resistant TB have the technical capacity to address limitations associated with smears and cultures by increasing accuracy and shortening turnaround times as compared with those of these conventional laboratory methods. Nucleic acid amplification assays used to detect and analyze Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB)-complex nucleic acids can be used directly on specimens from patients suspected of having TB. Read More

    Global Burden of Childhood Tuberculosis.
    Pneumonia (Nathan) 2016 24;8. Epub 2016 Nov 24.
    Department of Biostatistics, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, MA, 02118, USA.
    In 2015, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared tuberculosis (TB) to be responsible for more deaths than any other single infectious disease. The burden of TB among children has frequently been dismissed as relatively low with resulting deaths contributing very little to global under-five all-cause mortality, although without rigorous estimates of these statistics, the burden of childhood TB was, in reality, unknown. Recent work in the area has resulted in a WHO estimate of 1 million new cases of childhood TB in 2014 resulting in 136,000 deaths. Read More

    Malaria in HIV-Infected Children Receiving HIV Protease-Inhibitor- Compared with Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor-Based Antiretroviral Therapy, IMPAACT P1068s, Substudy to P1060.
    PLoS One 2016 9;11(12):e0165140. Epub 2016 Dec 9.
    Department of Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Disease and Immunology, New York University School of Medicine, NY, United States of America.
    Background: HIV and malaria geographically overlap. HIV protease inhibitors kill malaria parasites in vitro and in vivo, but further evaluation in clinical studies is needed.

    Methods: Thirty-one children from Malawi aged 4-62 months were followed every 3 months and at intercurrent illness visits for ≤47 months (September 2009-December 2011). Read More

    Reverse geroscience: how does exposure to early diseases accelerate the age-related decline in health?
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 2016 Dec 1;1386(1):30-44. Epub 2016 Dec 1.
    Division of Aging Biology, National Institute on Aging, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland.
    Aging is the major risk factor for both the development of chronic diseases and loss of functional capacity. Geroscience provides links among the biology of aging, the biology of disease, and the physiology of frailty, three fields where enormous progress has been made in the last few decades. While, previously, the focus was on the role of aging in susceptibility to disease and disability, the other side of this relationship, which is the contribution of disease to aging, has been less explored at the molecular/cellular level. Read More

    Coinfection with HIV and hepatitis C virus in 229 children and young adults living in Europe.
    • Authors:
    AIDS 2017 Jan;31(1):127-135
    Objective: To characterize children, adolescents and young adults infected with HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV) vertically or before age of 18 years and living in Europe regarding mode of acquisition, HCV genotype, clinical status and treatment.

    Design: Retrospective, cross-sectional study using pooled data from 11 European paediatric HIV cohorts.

    Methods: Patients aged more than 18 months and less than 25 years, with HIV/HCV acquired vertically or in childhood, were included. Read More

    Trends, causes, and risk factors of mortality among children under 5 in Ethiopia, 1990-2013: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013.
    Popul Health Metr 2016 14;14:42. Epub 2016 Nov 14.
    Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, USA.
    Background: Ethiopia has made remarkable progress in reducing child mortality over the last two decades. However, the under-5 mortality rate in Ethiopia is still higher than the under-5 mortality rates of several low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). On the other hand, the patterns and causes of child mortality have not been well investigated in Ethiopia. Read More

    The performance of community health workers in the management of multiple childhood infectious diseases in Lira, northern Uganda - a mixed methods cross-sectional study.
    Glob Health Action 2016 22;9:33194. Epub 2016 Nov 22.
    Makerere University School of Public Health (MakSPH), Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda.
    Background: Community health workers (CHWs) have the potential to reduce child mortality by improving access to care, especially in remote areas. Uganda has one of the highest child mortality rates globally. Moreover, rural areas bear the highest proportion of this burden. Read More

    Pertussis-Associated Pneumonia in Infants and Children From Low- and Middle-Income Countries Participating in the PERCH Study.
    Clin Infect Dis 2016 Dec;63(suppl 4):S187-S196
    Division of Infectious Disease and Tropical Pediatrics, Department of Pediatrics, Center for Vaccine Development, Institute of Global Health, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore.
    Background:  Few data exist describing pertussis epidemiology among infants and children in low- and middle-income countries to guide preventive strategies.

    Methods:  Children 1-59 months of age hospitalized with World Health Organization-defined severe or very severe pneumonia in 7 African and Asian countries and similarly aged community controls were enrolled in the Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health study. They underwent a standardized clinical evaluation and provided nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs and induced sputum (cases only) for Bordetella pertussis polymerase chain reaction. Read More

    [Documented and suspected risk factors for childhood cancer aetiology].
    Epidemiol Prev 2016 Sep-Oct;40(5Suppl2):10-16
    Istituto di elettronica e di ingegneria dell'informazione e delle telecomunicazioni, Consiglio nazionale delle ricerche, Genova.
    We present an updated summary on risk factors for childhood malignancies, following to previous reviews published on Epidemiologia&Prevenzione and largely based on the monographs of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Ionizing radiations are certain carcinogens, with evidence in humans, from studies both on children and on adults. Evidence specifically regarding childhood cancers is available also for other carcinogens, such as tobacco smoking, some solvents, some occupational activities of parents, and some viruses (HIV and EBV). Read More

    Linear growth trajectories in Zimbabwean infants.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2016 Dec 2;104(6):1616-1627. Epub 2016 Nov 2.
    School of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
    Background: Undernutrition in early life underlies 45% of child deaths globally. Stunting malnutrition (suboptimal linear growth) also has long-term negative effects on childhood development. Linear growth deficits accrue in the first 1000 d of life. Read More

    Diagnostic Test Accuracy in Childhood Pulmonary Tuberculosis: A Bayesian Latent Class Analysis.
    Am J Epidemiol 2016 Nov 13;184(9):690-700. Epub 2016 Oct 13.
    Evaluation of tests for the diagnosis of childhood pulmonary tuberculosis (CPTB) is complicated by the absence of an accurate reference test. We present a Bayesian latent class analysis in which we evaluated the accuracy of 5 diagnostic tests for CPTB. We used data from a study of 749 hospitalized South African children suspected to have CPTB from 2009 to 2014. Read More

    Growth at 2 Years of Age in HIV-exposed Uninfected Children in the United States by Trimester of Maternal Antiretroviral Initiation.
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 2017 Feb;36(2):189-197
    From the *Department of Pediatrics, Center for Biostatistics in AIDS Research, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, and †Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts; ‡Department of Pediatrics, The Saban Research Institute, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Keck School of Medicine of USC, Los Angeles, California; §Maternal and Pediatric Infectious Disease (MPID) Branch, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland; ¶Department of Pediatrics, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana; ‖Department of Pediatrics, University of Alabama School of Medicine, Birmingham, Alabama; **Department of Pediatrics, University of Florida, Jacksonville, Florida; ††Department of Pediatrics, Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; ‡‡Department of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital Colorado, Denver, Colorado; §§Department of Pediatrics, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, Louisiana; ¶¶Department of Pediatrics, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois; ‖‖Department of Pediatrics, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, New York; and ***Division of Pediatric Clinical Research, Department of Pediatrics, Miller School of Medicine at the University of Miami, Miami, Florida.
    Background: Abnormal childhood growth may affect future health. Maternal tenofovir (TFV) use was associated with lower body length and head circumference at 1 year of age in HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) US children.

    Methods: We studied 509 HEU children in the US-based Surveillance Monitoring of Antiretroviral Therapy Toxicities cohort whose HIV-infected mothers were not using antiretrovirals at the last menstrual period and began combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in pregnancy (cART initiators). Read More

    Arthritis in childhood human immunodeficiency virus infection predominantly associated with human leukocyte antigen B27.
    Int J Rheum Dis 2016 Oct 26;19(10):1018-1023. Epub 2016 Jul 26.
    Allergy-Immunology Unit, Department of Pediatrics, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh, India.
    Aim: Children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection usually present with recurrent and unusual infections. Although reported among adults, arthritis as a predominant presentation in children with HIV is rare. Reactive arthritis is considered to be the most common musculoskeletal manifestation in adults with HIV infection. Read More

    Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis in a Child with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Co-Infection.
    Clin Med Res 2016 Dec 24;14(3-4):156-158. Epub 2016 Oct 24.
    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis is a fatal infectious disease of childhood caused by persistence of the measles virus in the brain. The effect of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection on subacute sclerosing panencephalitis remains elusive and rare. We report a child who developed subacute sclerosing panencephalitis following a short latency period and a rapidly progressive course with HIV co-infection. Read More

    Immunisation practices in centres caring for children with perinatally acquired HIV: A call for harmonisation.
    Vaccine 2016 Nov 7;34(46):5587-5594. Epub 2016 Oct 7.
    Department of Pediatrics, Unit of Immune and Infectious Diseases, Children's Hospital "Bambino Gesu", Rome, Italy; Research Unit in Congenital and Perinatal Infections, Academic Department of Pediatrics, Division of Immune and Infectious Diseases, IRCCS Ospedale Pediatrico Bambino Gesù, Roma, Italy. Electronic address:
    Background: Current national immunisation schedules differ between countries in terms of vaccine formulation, timing of vaccinations and immunisation programme funding and co-ordination. As a result, some HIV infected paediatric population may be left susceptible to vaccine preventable infections. Vaccines used in healthy population should be subjected to high quality ethical research and be explicitly validated for use in children with special vaccination needs such as those infected with HIV. Read More

    Demographic and mortality analysis of hospitalized children at a referral hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    BMC Pediatr 2016 Oct 21;16(1):168. Epub 2016 Oct 21.
    Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Emergency Medicine, University of Utah School of Medicine, 30 N. 1900 E., Salt Lake City, UT, USA.
    Background: Global childhood mortality rates remain high. Millennium Development Goal 4 focused efforts on reducing rates by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015. In Ethiopia, child mortality rates dropped 71 % from 1990 to 2015, however it is estimated that 184,000 Ethiopian children die each year. Read More

    Disclosing in utero HIV/ARV exposure to the HIV-exposed uninfected adolescent: is it necessary?
    J Int AIDS Soc 2016 13;19(1):21099. Epub 2016 Oct 13.
    ICAP, Mailman School of Public Health and College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA.
    Introduction: The tremendous success of antiretroviral therapy has resulted in a diminishing population of perinatally HIV-infected children on the one hand and a mounting number of HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) children on the other. As the oldest of these HEU children are reaching adolescence, questions have emerged surrounding the implications of HEU status disclosure to these adolescents. This article outlines the arguments for and against disclosure of a child's HEU status. Read More

    Unmet core needs for self-determination in HIV-infected women of color in medical care.
    AIDS Care 2017 May 13;29(5):603-611. Epub 2016 Oct 13.
    a Institute for Global Health and Infectious Diseases , University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill , Chapel Hill , NC , USA.
    The levels of satisfaction of the core self-determination needs (relatedness, autonomy and competence) among HIV-infected women of color as well as the association between need fulfillment and patient characteristics were examined. Having less than a high-school education was associated with lowest need satisfaction: autonomy (β = -1.90; 95%CI = -3. Read More

    Survival of HIV-1 vertically infected children.
    Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2016 Sep;11(5):455-464
    aCentre for Infectious Disease Epidemiology and Research, Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Public Health and Family Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South AfricabMRC Clinical Trials Unit, Institute of Clinical Trials and Methodology, University College LondoncImperial College Healthcare Trust, St Mary's Hospital, London, UK.
    Purpose Of Review: It is 20 years since the start of the combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) era and more than 10 years since cART scale-up began in resource-limited settings. We examined survival of vertically HIV-infected infants and children in the cART era.

    Recent Findings: Good survival has been achieved on cART in all settings with up to 10-fold mortality reductions compared with before cART availability. Read More

    Sex Disparities in Adverse Childhood Experiences and HIV/STIs: Mediation of Psychopathology and Sexual Behaviors.
    AIDS Behav 2017 Jun;21(6):1550-1566
    Health Studies, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI, USA.
    HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are important public health challenges in the US. Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), including abuse (emotional, physical or sexual), witnessing violence among household members, may have an effect on sexual behaviors, which increase the risk of HIV/STIs. The aim of this study was to examine the sex differences in the role of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depression (MD), substance use disorders (SUDs), early sexual debut, and intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration as mediators in the association between ACEs and HIV/STIs. Read More

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