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    Risk factors for Burkitt lymphoma: a nested case-control study in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink.
    Br J Haematol 2018 Apr 20. Epub 2018 Apr 20.
    Infections and Immunoepidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.
    Burkitt lymphoma (BL) occurs as three subtypes: endemic BL, immunosuppression-related BL and sporadic BL. Descriptive studies of BL age-specific incidence patterns have suggested multimodal peaks near 10, 40 and 70 years of age, but the risk factors for BL at different ages are unknown. We investigated risk factors for BL in the United Kingdom among 156 BL cases and 608 matched BL-free controls identified in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) between 1992 and 2016. Read More

    Hepatitis A vaccine immune response 22 years after vaccination.
    J Med Virol 2018 Apr 16. Epub 2018 Apr 16.
    Liver Disease and Hepatitis Program, Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium.
    In the United States, the incidence of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection has been reduced through universal childhood vaccination. However, the duration of immunogenicity for the hepatitis A vaccine is not known. We report on the 22 year follow-up time point of a cohort of Alaska children who were randomized to three different vaccine schedules: A) 0,1,2 months; B) 0,1,6 months; and C) 0,1,12 months. Read More

    Hepatitis A vaccine immune response 22 years after vaccination.
    J Med Virol 2018 Apr 12. Epub 2018 Apr 12.
    Liver Disease and Hepatitis Program, Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium.
    In the United States, the incidence of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection has been reduced through universal childhood vaccination. However, the duration of immunogenicity for the hepatitis A vaccine is not known. We report on the 22 year follow-up time point of a cohort of Alaska children who were randomized to three different vaccine schedules: A) 0,1,2 months; B) 0,1,6 months; and C) 0,1,12 months. Read More

    Changes in susceptibility to life-threatening infections after treatment for complicated severe malnutrition in Kenya.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2018 Apr;107(4):626-634
    KEMRI/Wellcome Trust Research Programme, Kilifi, Kenya.
    Background: Goals of treating childhood severe acute malnutrition (SAM), in addition to anthropometric recovery and preventing short-term mortality, include reducing the risks of subsequent serious infections. How quickly and how much the risk of serious illness changes during rehabilitation are unknown but could inform improving the design and scope of interventions.

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate changes in the risk of life-threatening events (LTEs) in relation to anthropometric recovery from SAM. Read More

    Syndemics: A theory in search of data or data in search of a theory?
    Soc Sci Med 2018 Mar 30. Epub 2018 Mar 30.
    Harvard Medical School and The Massachusetts General Hospital, United States; Mbarara University of Science and Technology, Uganda. Electronic address:
    The concept of a syndemic was proposed more than two decades ago to explain how large-scale social forces might give rise to co-occurring epidemics that synergistically interact to undermine health in vulnerable populations. This conceptual instrument has the potential to help policymakers and program implementers in their endeavors to improve population health. Accordingly, it has become an increasingly popular heuristic for advocacy, most notably in the field of HIV treatment and prevention. Read More

    Complementary surveillance strategies are needed to better characterise the epidemiology, care pathways and treatment outcomes of tuberculosis in children.
    BMC Public Health 2018 Mar 23;18(1):397. Epub 2018 Mar 23.
    Desmond Tutu TB Centre, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Background: Tuberculosis (TB) in young and HIV-infected children is frequently diagnosed at hospital level. In settings where general hospitals do not function as TB reporting units, the burden and severity of childhood TB may not be accurately reflected in routine TB surveillance data. Given the paucibacillary nature of childhood TB, microbiological surveillance alone will miss the majority of hospital-managed children. Read More

    Clinical Features and Outcome of Children with Severe Lower Respiratory Tract Infection Admitted to a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit in South Africa.
    J Trop Pediatr 2018 Mar 9. Epub 2018 Mar 9.
    Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, Cape Town 7700, South Africa.
    Aim: Severe acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRTI) remains an important cause of childhood morbidity and mortality.

    Methods: This is a 12-month retrospective cohort study of children (0-12 years) admitted to a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) with ALRTI to investigate risk factors, clinical course and in-hospital survival.

    Results: In total, 265 patients (median age = 4 months [2-12 months]) were identified. Read More

    Priorities for Decreasing Morbidity and Mortality in Children With Advanced HIV Disease.
    Clin Infect Dis 2018 Mar;66(suppl_2):S147-S151
    HIV Department, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Early mortality and morbidity remain high in children initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART), especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Many children still present with advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease. Tuberculosis, pneumonia, and severe bacterial infections are the main causes of hospital admission in HIV-infected children. Read More

    Childhood Tuberculosis in Nigeria: Disease Presentation and Treatment Outcomes.
    Health Serv Insights 2018 22;11:1178632918757490. Epub 2018 Feb 22.
    KNCV Tuberculosis Foundation, Hague, The Netherlands.
    Objectives: Understanding the factors that influence tuberculosis (TB) treatment outcomes in children is key to designing interventions to address them. This study aimed to determine the case category distribution of childhood TB in Nigeria and assess which clinical and demographic factors are associated with different treatment outcomes in childhood TB.

    Materials And Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study involving a review of medical records of children (0-14 years) with TB in 3 states in Nigeria in 2015. Read More

    Changing demographics of visceral leishmaniasis in northeast Brazil: Lessons for the future.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 Mar 6;12(3):e0006164. Epub 2018 Mar 6.
    Health Graduate Program, Health Science Center; Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN, Brazil.
    Background: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania infantum became a disease of urban areas in Brazil in the last 30 years and there has been an increase in asymptomatic L. infantum infection with these areas.

    Methodology/principal Findings: A retrospective study of human VL was performed in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, for the period of 1990-2014. Read More

    Childhood exposures to discarded needles and other objects potentially contaminated with blood-borne pathogens in Toronto, Canada.
    Paediatr Child Health 2017 Oct 25;22(7):372-376. Epub 2017 Sep 25.
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Paediatrics, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario.
    Background: Exposure to discarded needles or other objects put children at risk for infection with blood-borne pathogens (BBP), including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C.

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to retrospectively analyze the epidemiology, management and outcome of children following such exposures in the greater Toronto community setting.

    Methods: A retrospective study of children <19 years of age who had community-based exposure to objects that could contain BBP between January 2001 and December 2014. Read More

    Tuberculin skin test conversion and primary progressive tuberculosis disease in the first 5 years of life: a birth cohort study from Cape Town, South Africa.
    Lancet Child Adolesc Health 2018 Jan;2(1):46-55
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital and Medical Research Council Unit on Child and Adolescent Health, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Background: Tuberculosis is a leading cause of global childhood mortality. However, the epidemiology and burden of tuberculosis in infancy is not well understood. We aimed to investigate tuberculin skin test conversion and tuberculosis in the Drakenstein Child Health study, a South African birth cohort in a community in which tuberculosis incidence is hyperendemic. Read More

    The impact of programs for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV on health care services and systems in sub-Saharan Africa - A review.
    Public Health Rev 2017 5;38:28. Epub 2017 Dec 5.
    1Département de Médecine Sociale et Préventive, École de Santé Publique, Université de Montréal, Pavillon 7101, Avenue du Parc, Montreal, QC H3N 1X7 Canada.
    Background: The global scale-up of Prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) services is credited for a 52% worldwide decline in new HIV infections among children between 2001 and 2012. However, the epidemic continues to challenge maternal and paediatric HIV control efforts in Sub Saharan Africa (SSA), with repercussions on other health services beyond those directly addressing HIV and AIDS. This systematised narrative review describes the effects of PMTCT programs on other health care services and the implications for improving health systems in SSA as reported in the existing articles and scientific literature. Read More

    Global disability-adjusted life-year estimates of long-term health burden and undernutrition attributable to diarrhoeal diseases in children younger than 5 years.
    Lancet Glob Health 2018 03;6(3):e255-e269
    Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA. Electronic address:
    Background: Diarrhoea is a leading cause of death and illness globally among children younger than 5 years. Mortality and short-term morbidity cause substantial burden of disease but probably underestimate the true effect of diarrhoea on population health. This underestimation is because diarrhoeal diseases can negatively affect early childhood growth, probably through enteric dysfunction and impaired uptake of macronutrients and micronutrients. Read More

    Factors Associated With Syphilis Testing and a History of Syphilis Infection Among a Sample of Transgender Women in Jamaica.
    Sex Transm Dis 2018 Mar;45(3):158-162
    Background: Globally, social inequalities contribute to elevated sexually transmitted infections (STIs) rates among transgender women. High syphilis prevalence has been documented among transgender women in Latin America. Little is known, however, of syphilis testing uptake among transgender women in Jamaica, where homosexuality is criminalized. Read More

    Comparison of HIV Testing among Children and Adults with Tuberculosis, Vietnam.
    J Tuberc Res 2017 Dec 29;5(4):292-297. Epub 2017 Dec 29.
    Division of Global HIV and TB, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, USA.
    HIV testing among persons with tuberculosis (TB) results in high-yield identification of persons infected with HIV. To evaluate differences in HIV testing among children versus adults with TB in Vietnam, we collected and analyzed age-disaggregated facility and aggregated provincial data from the National Tuberculosis Program. HIV testing was incompletely documented for >70% of children, whereas adult testing data were >90% complete. Read More

    Risk factors for acute respiratory infections in children under five years attending the Bamenda Regional Hospital in Cameroon.
    BMC Pulm Med 2018 Jan 16;18(1). Epub 2018 Jan 16.
    Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaoundé 1, Yaoundé, Cameroon.
    Background: Acute respiratory infections (ARI) are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in under-five children worldwide. About 6.6 million children less than 5 years of age die every year in the world; 95% of them in low-income countries and one third of the total deaths is due to ARI. Read More

    National audit of perinatal HIV infections in the UK, 2006-2013: what lessons can be learnt?
    HIV Med 2018 Apr 16;19(4):280-289. Epub 2018 Jan 16.
    Population Policy & Practice Programme, UCL Great Ormond Street Institute of Child Health, London, UK.
    Objectives: The aim of the study was to investigate circumstances surrounding perinatal transmissions of HIV (PHIVs) in the UK.

    Methods: The National Study of HIV in Pregnancy and Childhood conducts comprehensive surveillance of all pregnancies in women diagnosed with HIV infection and their infants in the UK; reports of all HIV-diagnosed children are also sought, regardless of country of birth. Children with PHIV born in 2006-2013 and reported by 2014 were included in an audit, with additional data collection via telephone interviews with clinicians involved in each case. Read More

    Multi-drug resistant non-typhoidal Salmonella associated with invasive disease in western Kenya.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 Jan 12;12(1):e0006156. Epub 2018 Jan 12.
    Department of Global Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States of America.
    Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) is a leading cause of bloodstream infections in Africa, but the various contributions of host susceptibility versus unique pathogen virulence factors are unclear. We used data from a population-based surveillance platform (population ~25,000) between 2007-2014 and NTS genome-sequencing to compare host and pathogen-specific factors between individuals presenting with NTS bacteremia and those presenting with NTS diarrhea. Salmonella Typhimurium ST313 and Salmonella Enteritidis ST11 were the most common isolates. Read More

    Influence of birth origin and risk factor profile on hepatitis B mortality: Philadelphia, PA 2003-2013.
    Ann Epidemiol 2018 Mar 22;28(3):169-174. Epub 2017 Dec 22.
    Division of Disease Control, Philadelphia Department of Public Health, Philadelphia, PA.
    Purpose: Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) affects specific subpopulations in the United States, including individuals born in HBV-endemic countries and persons engaging in high-risk behaviors.

    Methods: The 2003-2013 HBV registry data and surveillance investigations for Philadelphia, PA were matched to death certificate data to examine demographic, risk factor, and cause of death characteristics among HBV-infected populations. Bivariate analysis compared investigated foreign-born (FB) and US-born chronic HBV individuals. Read More

    Hepatitis A, B, C and HIV seroprevalence among Syrian refugee children admitted to outpatient clinics.
    Infez Med 2017 Dec;25(4):339-343
    Division of Paediatric Infectious Diseases, Tepecik Training and Research Hospital, Izmir, Turkey.
    Viral hepatitis is the most common cause of serious health problems such as liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Leading to immunodeficiency disorders through different mechanisms, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) causes the development of severe secondary infections. Hepatitis A (HAV) is thought to spread by the faecal-oral route, while Hepatitis B (HBV), Hepatitis C (HCV) and HIV are mostly transmitted vertically during childhood. Read More

    Utility of Point-of-Care Ultrasound in Children with Pulmonary Tuberculosis.
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 2017 Dec 22. Epub 2017 Dec 22.
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital, and MRC Unit on Child & Adolescent Health, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Background: Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) detects extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) in HIV-infected adults but has not been evaluated in children despite their higher risk of EPTB. This study's aims were to investigate feasibility of POCUS for EPTB in children, frequency of POCUS findings suggestive of EPTB, and time to sonographic resolution of findings with treatment.

    Methods: This prospective South African cohort study enrolled children with suspected PTB. Read More

    Effectiveness of WHO's pragmatic screening algorithm for child contacts of tuberculosis cases in resource-constrained settings: a prospective cohort study in Uganda.
    Lancet Respir Med 2018 Apr 19;6(4):276-286. Epub 2017 Dec 19.
    Uganda-CWRU Research Collaboration, Makerere University and Mulago Hospital, Kampala, Uganda.
    Background: Tuberculosis is a leading cause of global childhood mortality; however, interventions to detect undiagnosed tuberculosis in children are underused. Child contact tracing has been widely recommended but poorly implemented in resource-constrained settings. WHO has proposed a pragmatic screening approach for managing child contacts. Read More

    Burden and correlates of mental health diagnoses among sex workers in an urban setting.
    BMC Womens Health 2017 Dec 19;17(1):133. Epub 2017 Dec 19.
    Gender and Sexual Health Initiative, British Columbia Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS, St. Paul's Hospital, 608-1081 Burrard Street, Vancouver, BC, V6Z 1Y6, Canada.
    Background: Women involved in both street-level and off-street sex work face disproportionate health and social inequities compared to the general population. While much research has focused on HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among sex workers, there remains a gap in evidence regarding the broader health issues faced by this population, including mental health. Given limited evidence describing the mental health of women in sex work, our objective was to evaluate the burden and correlates of mental health diagnoses among this population in Vancouver, Canada. Read More

    Childhood multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in the European Union and European Economic Area: an analysis of tuberculosis surveillance data from 2007 to 2015.
    Euro Surveill 2017 Nov;22(47)
    European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, Stockholm, Sweden.
    BackgroundConfirming tuberculosis (TB) in children and obtaining information on drug susceptibility is essential to ensure adequate treatment. We assessed whether there are gaps in diagnosis and treatment of multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB in children in the European Union and European Economic Area (EU/EEA), quantified the burden of MDR TB in children and characterised cases. : We analysed surveillance data from 2007 to 2015 for paediatric cases younger than 15 years. Read More

    Infectious diseases in Poland in 2015
    Przegl Epidemiol 2017 ;71(3):295-309
    National Institute of Public Health – National Institute of Hygiene in Warsaw, Department of Epidemiology
    Purpose Of The Study: This is the next annual analysis of the situation of infectious and parasitic diseases in Poland in 2015 within the framework of the Epidemiological Chronicle of Przegląd Epidemiologiczny - Epidemiological Review. Its purpose is to identify potential threats to the health of populations from infectious diseases occurring in Poland with reference to other parts of the globe.

    Material And Methods: This paper is an introduction to more detailed studies of the epidemiological situation of selected infectious diseases and summarizes the results of the surveillance of infectious diseases in Poland in 2015. Read More

    Prevalence of Asymptomatic Parasitemia and Gametocytemia in HIV-Infected Children on Differing Antiretroviral Therapy.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2018 Jan;98(1):67-70
    Department of Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Disease and Immunology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York.
    Laboratory data and prior pediatric reports indicate that HIV protease inhibitor (PI)-based antiretroviral therapy (ARV) kills gametocytes and reduces rates of gametocytemia, but not asymptomatic parasitemia, in a high malaria-transmission area. To determine whether ARV regimen impacts these rates in areas with less-intense malaria transmission, we compared asymptomatic parasitemia and gametocytemia rates in HIV-infected children by ARV regimen in Lilongwe, Malawi, an area of low-to-moderate transmission intensity. HIV PI lopinavir-ritonavir (LPV-rtv) ARV- or non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor nevirapine ARV-treated children did not differ in the rates of polymerase chain reaction-detected asymptomatic parasitemia (relative risk [RR] 0. Read More

    Relationship Between Childhood Sexual Abuse and HIV-Related Risks Among Men Who Have Sex with Men: Findings from Mainland China.
    Arch Sex Behav 2017 Nov 13. Epub 2017 Nov 13.
    Key Laboratory of Cognition and Personality, Southwest University, Chongqing, China.
    Men who have sex with men (MSM) carry the burden of HIV infection in China. Outside of China, a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has been associated with HIV-related risks (behavioral, sexual, and mental health outcomes) among MSM. We therefore evaluated the relationship between CSA and these HIV-related risks among MSM in China. Read More

    Use of Multiplex Quantitative PCR To Evaluate the Impact of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine on Nasopharyngeal Pneumococcal Colonization in African Children.
    mSphere 2017 Nov-Dec;2(6). Epub 2017 Nov 8.
    Department of Science and Technology/National Research Foundation, Vaccine Preventable Diseases, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) immunization of children induces shifts in colonizing pneumococcal serotypes. This study evaluated the effect of infant vaccination with 7-valent PCV (PCV7) on vaccine serotype (VT) colonization and whether the increase in nonvaccine serotype (NVT) was due to either unmasking of previously low-density-colonizing serotypes or increase in acquisition of NVT. A multiplex quantitative PCR (qPCR) was used to evaluate VT and NVT nasopharyngeal colonization in archived swabs of PCV-vaccinated and PCV-unvaccinated African children at 9 and 15 to 16 months of age. Read More

    Sixteen-year history of rituximab therapy for 1085 pemphigus vulgaris patients: A systematic review.
    Int Immunopharmacol 2018 Jan 10;54:131-138. Epub 2017 Nov 10.
    Autoimmune Bullous Diseases Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is a rare autoimmune disease due to the production of pathogenic autoantibodies directed against desmoglein 1 and 3, usually affecting both skin and mucous membranes. Recently, rituximab, a chimeric IgG1 monoclonal antibody which targets the CD20 molecules have been regarded as a promising treatment for PV. In this study, a systematic review was conducted to conclude on how and which PV patients could benefit from rituximab infusion. Read More

    Assessment of the Combined Effect of Epstein-Barr Virus and Infections on Endemic Burkitt Lymphoma Using a Multiplex Serological Approach.
    Front Immunol 2017 26;8:1284. Epub 2017 Oct 26.
    ISGlobal, Barcelona Centre for International Health Research (CRESIB), Hospital Clínic, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a necessary cause of endemic Burkitt lymphoma (eBL), while the role of in eBL remains uncertain. This study aimed to generate new hypotheses on the interplay between both infections in the development of eBL by investigating the IgG and IgM profiles against several EBV and antigens. Serum samples collected in a childhood study in Malawi (2005-2006) from 442 HIV-seronegative children (271 eBL cases and 171 controls) between 1. Read More

    Re-establishing safer medical-circumcision-integrated initiation ceremonies for HIV prevention in a rural setting in Papua New Guinea. A multi-method acceptability study.
    PLoS One 2017 8;12(11):e0187577. Epub 2017 Nov 8.
    College of Medicine and Dentistry, James Cook University, Queensland, Australia.
    Background: Efforts to stem the spread of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) in Papua New Guinea (PNG) are hampered by multiple interrelated factors including limited health services, extreme diversities in culture and language and highly prevalent gender inequity, domestic violence and poverty. In the rural district of Yangoru-Saussia, a revival of previously ceased male initiation ceremonies (MICs) is being considered for a comprehensive approach to HIV prevention. In this study, we explore the local acceptability of this undertaking including replacing traditional penile cutting practices with medical male circumcision (MMC). Read More

    The experience of violence against children in domestic servitude in Haiti: Results from the Violence Against Children Survey, Haiti 2012.
    Child Abuse Negl 2018 Feb 4;76:184-193. Epub 2017 Nov 4.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Center for Global Health Division of Global HIV/AIDS Haiti, U.S. Embassy Tabarre, PO Box 1634, Haiti. Electronic address:
    Background: There have been estimates that over 150,000 Haitian children are living in servitude. Child domestic servants who perform unpaid labor are referred to as "restavèks." Restavèks are often stigmatized, prohibited from attending school, and isolated from family placing them at higher risk for experiencing violence. Read More

    Sex-based differences in neurocognitive functioning in HIV-infected young adults.
    AIDS 2018 Jan;32(2):217-225
    HIV Department, 'Dr Victor Babes' Hospital for Infectious and Tropical Diseases, Bucharest, Romania.
    Introduction: Sex differences in cognition of HIV positive (HIV) patients are controversial. We aimed to investigate the relationship between cognition, HIV status, and sex, in a highly homogenous cohort of young Romanians parenterally infected during early childhood.

    Methods: In total, 250 HIV participants were compared with age-matched HIV negative (HIV) controls (n = 72) in a cross-sectional study. Read More

    Child Sexual Abuse and Negative Affect as Shared Risk Factors for Sexual Aggression and Sexual HIV Risk Behavior in Heterosexual Men.
    Arch Sex Behav 2018 Feb 31;47(2):465-480. Epub 2017 Oct 31.
    The Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender, and Reproduction, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, USA.
    Previous research has suggested that sexually aggressive behavior and sexual HIV risk behavior are associated. Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is a well-established risk factor for both types of problematic sexual behavior. Negative affect (i. Read More

    Depressive Symptoms, Alcohol and Drug Use, and Physical and Sexual Abuse Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Kisumu, Kenya: The Anza Mapema Study.
    AIDS Behav 2018 May;22(5):1517-1529
    Nyanza Reproductive Health Society, Kisumu, Kenya.
    Men who have sex with men (MSM) are disproportionately burdened by depressive symptoms and psychosocial conditions including alcohol and substance abuse as well as physical and sexual abuse. We examined sociodemographic and psychosocial factors associated with depressive symptoms at baseline among a cohort of MSM in Kisumu, Kenya. Depressive symptoms were assessed via the Personal Health Questionnaire 9 instrument and examined dichotomously. Read More

    Life History theory hypotheses on child growth: Potential implications for short and long-term child growth, development and health.
    Am J Phys Anthropol 2018 01 26;165(1):4-19. Epub 2017 Oct 26.
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, MRC/Wits Developmental Pathways for Health Research Unit, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, Gauteng 2193, South Africa.
    Life history theory integrates ecological, physiological, and molecular layers within an evolutionary framework to understand organisms' strategies to optimize survival and reproduction. Two life history hypotheses and their implications for child growth, development, and health (illustrated in the South African context) are reviewed here. One hypothesis suggests that there is an energy trade-off between linear growth and brain growth. Read More

    Association between intimate partner violence & HIV/AIDS: Exploring the pathways in Indian context.
    Indian J Med Res 2017 Jun;145(6):815-823
    Department of Community Medicine, Armed Forces Medical College, Pune, India.
    Background & Objectives: Violence against women cutting across diverse socio-economic classes is an under-recognized human rights violation in the world. This analysis was undertaken to examine the prevalence along with predictors of intimate partner violence (IPV) and its association with HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Indian ever-married women.

    Methods: The data obtained from 2005 to 2006 third round of National Family Health Survey-3 (NFHS-3) were used in this study. Read More

    Development and Refinement of a Targeted Sexual Risk Reduction Intervention for Women With a History of Childhood Sexual Abuse.
    Cogn Behav Pract 2017 Nov 12;24(4):496-507. Epub 2017 Jan 12.
    The Miriam Hospital and Brown University.
    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with sexual risk behavior in adulthood. Traditional sexual risk reduction interventions do not meet the unique needs of women who have been sexually abused. In the current paper, we describe the four-stage process we followed to develop and refine a targeted sexual risk reduction intervention for this population. Read More

    Evidence-based guidelines for supportive care of patients with Ebola virus disease.
    Lancet 2018 Feb 17;391(10121):700-708. Epub 2017 Oct 17.
    Department of Health Research Methods, Evidence, and Impact, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada; Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada.
    The 2013-16 Ebola virus disease outbreak in west Africa was associated with unprecedented challenges in the provision of care to patients with Ebola virus disease, including absence of pre-existing isolation and treatment facilities, patients' reluctance to present for medical care, and limitations in the provision of supportive medical care. Case fatality rates in west Africa were initially greater than 70%, but decreased with improvements in supportive care. To inform optimal care in a future outbreak of Ebola virus disease, we employed the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology to develop evidence-based guidelines for the delivery of supportive care to patients admitted to Ebola treatment units. Read More

    Dating Violence Against HIV-Infected Youth in South Africa: Associations With Sexual Risk Behavior, Medication Adherence, and Mental Health.
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2018 01;77(1):64-71
    Perinatal HIV Research Unit, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Background: As perinatal HIV-infected youth become sexually active, the potential for onward transmission becomes an increasing concern. In other populations, intimate partner violence (IPV) is a risk factor for HIV acquisition. We build on this critical work by studying the role of IPV in facilitating onward transmission among HIV-infected youth-an important step toward effective intervention. Read More

    Evolution of hepatitis A virus seroprevalence among HIV-positive adults in Taiwan.
    PLoS One 2017 16;12(10):e0186338. Epub 2017 Oct 16.
    Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, and National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Objectives: The study aimed to describe the seroprevalence of hepatitis A virus (HAV) in HIV-positive adult patients in Taiwan between 2012 and 2016 and to examine the evolution of HAV seroprevalence between 2004-2007 and 2012-2016.

    Methods: Clinical information and data of anti-HAV antibody results were collected from 2,860 antiretroviral-naïve HIV-positive Taiwanese aged 18 years or older who initiated combination antiretroviral therapy at 11 hospitals around Taiwan between 2012 and 2016 (2012-2016 cohort). A multivariate logistic regression model was applied to identify independent variables associated with HAV seropositivity. Read More

    Are scientific research outputs aligned with national policy makers' priorities? A case study of tuberculosis in Cambodia.
    Health Policy Plan 2017 Oct;32(suppl_2):i3-i11
    Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health, National University of Singapore, 12 Science Drive 2 #10-01, Singapore 117549, Singapore.
    With funding for tuberculosis (TB) research decreasing, and the high global disease burden persisting, there are calls for increased investment in TB research. However, justification of such investments is questionable, when translation of research outputs into policy and health care improvements remains a challenge for TB and other diseases. Using TB in Cambodia as a case study, we investigate how evidence needs of national policy makers are addressed by topics covered in research publications. Read More

    Short-course versus long-course intravenous therapy with the same antibiotic for severe community-acquired pneumonia in children aged two months to 59 months.
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2017 10 11;10:CD008032. Epub 2017 Oct 11.
    The Robinson Research Institute, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia, 5005.
    Background: Pneumonia is a leading cause of childhood mortality from infectious disease, responsible for an estimated 1.3 million deaths annually in children under five years of age, many of which are in low-income countries. The World Health Organization recommends intravenous antibiotics for five days as first-line treatment for children with severe pneumonia. Read More

    Current assessment of heart rate variability and QTc interval length in HIV/AIDS.
    Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2017 Nov;12(6):528-533
    aDepartment of Health Psychology, University of Miami, Coral Gables, Florida bBehavioral Medicine Research Center cDivision of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, Florida, USA.
    Purpose Of Review: The increasing prevalence of cardiovascular disease comorbidity in persons infected with the HIV has become a global concern. The electrocardiogram (ECG) is increasingly being utilized to provide clinically relevant information regarding cardiac arrhythmias and cardio-autonomic dysfunction. The purpose of this review is to summarize the latest research comparing QT and R-to-R interval length as a function of HIV+ status or antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimen. Read More

    Correlates of multi-drug non-susceptibility in enteric bacteria isolated from Kenyan children with acute diarrhea.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Oct 2;11(10):e0005974. Epub 2017 Oct 2.
    Department of Global Health, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America.
    Background: Reduced antimicrobial susceptibility threatens treatment efficacy in sub-Saharan Africa, where data on the burden and correlates of antibiotic resistance among enteric pathogens are limited.

    Methods: Fecal samples from children aged 6 mos-15 yrs presenting with acute diarrhea in western Kenya were cultured for bacterial pathogens. HIV-uninfected children with identified Shigella or Salmonella species or pathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC, ETEC, EAEC or EIEC) were included in this cross-sectional sub-study. Read More

    Association of Household Food- and Drink-Sharing Practices With Human Herpesvirus 8 Seroconversion in a Cohort of Zambian Children.
    J Infect Dis 2017 Oct;216(7):842-849
    Nebraska Center for Virology and the School of Biological Sciences, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska.
    Background: Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) infection occurs in early childhood and is associated with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection and risk for Kaposi sarcoma, but behaviors associated with HHV-8 transmission are not well described.

    Methods: We enrolled and followed a prospective cohort of 270 children and their household members to investigate risk factors for HHV-8 transmission in Lusaka, Zambia.

    Results: We report an incidence of 30. Read More

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