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    1769 results match your criteria Childhood HIV Disease

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    Tetralogy of Fallot and HIV infection in pregnancy: A case report.
    Cent Afr J Med 2013 May-Aug;59(5-8):42-5
    Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is the commonest congenital heart abnormality beyond the age of one year. Cases of Tetralogy of Fallot can present during pregnancy following successful surgical repair in childhood or occasionally as uncorrected TOF presenting for the first time during pregnancy, indeed the most frequently encountered congenital cyanotic heart lesion during pregnancy is cyanotic TOF. Most adult congenital heart disease in Africa is uncorrected due to widespread unavailability of cardiothoracic surgical services on the continent. Read More

    Immunity Following Childhood Vaccinations in Perinatally HIV-Exposed Children with and without HIV Infection in Latin America.
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 2017 Nov 14. Epub 2017 Nov 14.
    1 Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, UNIFESP, São Paulo, Brazil 2 Westat, Rockville, MD, USA 3 Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil 4 Clínica de Inmunodeficiencias/Depto. de Infectología, Hospital Infantil de Mexico Federico Gomez, Mexico City 5 Department of Child & Adolescent Health, the University of the West Indies, Jamaica 6 National Institute of Child Health and Faculty of Medicine of National University of San Marcos of Lima Peru 7 Hospital Federal dos Servidores do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil 8 Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Argentina 9 Instituto de Pesquisas Biomédicas da Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul and Irmandade da Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Porto Alegre, both in Porto Alegre, Brazil 10 Maternal and Pediatric Infectious Disease Branch, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.
    Background: Perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV) children are at risk for undervaccination and poor vaccine response at four years of age. Childhood vaccine coverage and immune response were compared between PHIV and HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) children in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Methods: PHIV and HEU children were enrolled prospectively at fifteen sites from 2002-2009. Read More

    Relationship Between Childhood Sexual Abuse and HIV-Related Risks Among Men Who Have Sex with Men: Findings from Mainland China.
    Arch Sex Behav 2017 Nov 13. Epub 2017 Nov 13.
    Key Laboratory of Cognition and Personality, Southwest University, Chongqing, China.
    Men who have sex with men (MSM) carry the burden of HIV infection in China. Outside of China, a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has been associated with HIV-related risks (behavioral, sexual, and mental health outcomes) among MSM. We therefore evaluated the relationship between CSA and these HIV-related risks among MSM in China. Read More

    Use of Multiplex Quantitative PCR To Evaluate the Impact of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine on Nasopharyngeal Pneumococcal Colonization in African Children.
    mSphere 2017 Nov-Dec;2(6). Epub 2017 Nov 8.
    Department of Science and Technology/National Research Foundation, Vaccine Preventable Diseases, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) immunization of children induces shifts in colonizing pneumococcal serotypes. This study evaluated the effect of infant vaccination with 7-valent PCV (PCV7) on vaccine serotype (VT) colonization and whether the increase in nonvaccine serotype (NVT) was due to either unmasking of previously low-density-colonizing serotypes or increase in acquisition of NVT. A multiplex quantitative PCR (qPCR) was used to evaluate VT and NVT nasopharyngeal colonization in archived swabs of PCV-vaccinated and PCV-unvaccinated African children at 9 and 15 to 16 months of age. Read More

    Sixteen-year history of rituximab therapy for 1085 pemphigus vulgaris patients: A systematic review.
    Int Immunopharmacol 2017 Nov 10;54:131-138. Epub 2017 Nov 10.
    Autoimmune Bullous Diseases Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is a rare autoimmune disease due to the production of pathogenic autoantibodies directed against desmoglein 1 and 3, usually affecting both skin and mucous membranes. Recently, rituximab, a chimeric IgG1 monoclonal antibody which targets the CD20 molecules have been regarded as a promising treatment for PV. In this study, a systematic review was conducted to conclude on how and which PV patients could benefit from rituximab infusion. Read More

    Assessment of the Combined Effect of Epstein-Barr Virus and Plasmodium falciparum Infections on Endemic Burkitt Lymphoma Using a Multiplex Serological Approach.
    Front Immunol 2017 26;8:1284. Epub 2017 Oct 26.
    ISGlobal, Barcelona Centre for International Health Research (CRESIB), Hospital Clínic, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a necessary cause of endemic Burkitt lymphoma (eBL), while the role of Plasmodium falciparum in eBL remains uncertain. This study aimed to generate new hypotheses on the interplay between both infections in the development of eBL by investigating the IgG and IgM profiles against several EBV and P. falciparum antigens. Read More

    The experience of violence against children in domestic servitude in Haiti: Results from the Violence Against Children Survey, Haiti 2012.
    Child Abuse Negl 2017 Nov 4;76:184-193. Epub 2017 Nov 4.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Center for Global Health Division of Global HIV/AIDS Haiti, U.S. Embassy Tabarre, PO Box 1634, Haiti. Electronic address:
    Background: There have been estimates that over 150,000 Haitian children are living in servitude. Child domestic servants who perform unpaid labor are referred to as "restavèks." Restavèks are often stigmatized, prohibited from attending school, and isolated from family placing them at higher risk for experiencing violence. Read More

    Sex based differences in neurocognitive functioning in HIV infected young adults.
    AIDS 2017 Nov 2. Epub 2017 Nov 2.
    aHIV Department, "Dr. Victor Babes" Hospital for Infectious and Tropical Diseases, Bucharest, Romania bDepartment of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA cDepartment of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA dDepartment of Virology, Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Bucharest, Romania eEmerging Viral Diseases Department, Stefan S. Nicolau Virology Institute, Bucharest, Romania. Bucharest, Romania. fSdjfjg.
    Introduction: Sex differences in cognition of HIV positive (HIV+) patients are controversial. We aimed to investigate the relationship between cognition, HIV status, and sex, in a highly homogenous cohort of young Romanians parenterally infected during early childhood.

    Methods: 250 HIV+ participants were compared to age-matched HIV negative (HIV-) controls (n = 72) in a cross-sectional study. Read More

    Child Sexual Abuse and Negative Affect as Shared Risk Factors for Sexual Aggression and Sexual HIV Risk Behavior in Heterosexual Men.
    Arch Sex Behav 2017 Oct 31. Epub 2017 Oct 31.
    The Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender, and Reproduction, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, USA.
    Previous research has suggested that sexually aggressive behavior and sexual HIV risk behavior are associated. Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is a well-established risk factor for both types of problematic sexual behavior. Negative affect (i. Read More

    Life History theory hypotheses on child growth: Potential implications for short and long-term child growth, development and health.
    Am J Phys Anthropol 2017 Oct 26. Epub 2017 Oct 26.
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, MRC/Wits Developmental Pathways for Health Research Unit, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, Gauteng 2193, South Africa.
    Life history theory integrates ecological, physiological, and molecular layers within an evolutionary framework to understand organisms' strategies to optimize survival and reproduction. Two life history hypotheses and their implications for child growth, development, and health (illustrated in the South African context) are reviewed here. One hypothesis suggests that there is an energy trade-off between linear growth and brain growth. Read More

    Association between intimate partner violence & HIV/AIDS: Exploring the pathways in Indian context.
    Indian J Med Res 2017 Jun;145(6):815-823
    Department of Community Medicine, Armed Forces Medical College, Pune, India.
    Background & Objectives: Violence against women cutting across diverse socio-economic classes is an under-recognized human rights violation in the world. This analysis was undertaken to examine the prevalence along with predictors of intimate partner violence (IPV) and its association with HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Indian ever-married women.

    Methods: The data obtained from 2005 to 2006 third round of National Family Health Survey-3 (NFHS-3) were used in this study. Read More

    Development and Refinement of a Targeted Sexual Risk Reduction Intervention for Women With a History of Childhood Sexual Abuse.
    Cogn Behav Pract 2017 Nov 12;24(4):496-507. Epub 2017 Jan 12.
    The Miriam Hospital and Brown University.
    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with sexual risk behavior in adulthood. Traditional sexual risk reduction interventions do not meet the unique needs of women who have been sexually abused. In the current paper, we describe the four-stage process we followed to develop and refine a targeted sexual risk reduction intervention for this population. Read More

    Evidence-based guidelines for supportive care of patients with Ebola virus disease.
    Lancet 2017 Oct 17. Epub 2017 Oct 17.
    Department of Health Research Methods, Evidence, and Impact, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada; Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada.
    The 2013-16 Ebola virus disease outbreak in west Africa was associated with unprecedented challenges in the provision of care to patients with Ebola virus disease, including absence of pre-existing isolation and treatment facilities, patients' reluctance to present for medical care, and limitations in the provision of supportive medical care. Case fatality rates in west Africa were initially greater than 70%, but decreased with improvements in supportive care. To inform optimal care in a future outbreak of Ebola virus disease, we employed the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology to develop evidence-based guidelines for the delivery of supportive care to patients admitted to Ebola treatment units. Read More

    Evolution of hepatitis A virus seroprevalence among HIV-positive adults in Taiwan.
    PLoS One 2017 16;12(10):e0186338. Epub 2017 Oct 16.
    Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, and National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Objectives: The study aimed to describe the seroprevalence of hepatitis A virus (HAV) in HIV-positive adult patients in Taiwan between 2012 and 2016 and to examine the evolution of HAV seroprevalence between 2004-2007 and 2012-2016.

    Methods: Clinical information and data of anti-HAV antibody results were collected from 2,860 antiretroviral-naïve HIV-positive Taiwanese aged 18 years or older who initiated combination antiretroviral therapy at 11 hospitals around Taiwan between 2012 and 2016 (2012-2016 cohort). A multivariate logistic regression model was applied to identify independent variables associated with HAV seropositivity. Read More

    Are scientific research outputs aligned with national policy makers' priorities? A case study of tuberculosis in Cambodia.
    Health Policy Plan 2017 Oct;32(suppl_2):i3-i11
    Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health, National University of Singapore, 12 Science Drive 2 #10-01, Singapore 117549, Singapore.
    With funding for tuberculosis (TB) research decreasing, and the high global disease burden persisting, there are calls for increased investment in TB research. However, justification of such investments is questionable, when translation of research outputs into policy and health care improvements remains a challenge for TB and other diseases. Using TB in Cambodia as a case study, we investigate how evidence needs of national policy makers are addressed by topics covered in research publications. Read More

    Short-course versus long-course intravenous therapy with the same antibiotic for severe community-acquired pneumonia in children aged two months to 59 months.
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2017 10 11;10:CD008032. Epub 2017 Oct 11.
    The Robinson Research Institute, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia, 5005.
    Background: Pneumonia is a leading cause of childhood mortality from infectious disease, responsible for an estimated 1.3 million deaths annually in children under five years of age, many of which are in low-income countries. The World Health Organization recommends intravenous antibiotics for five days as first-line treatment for children with severe pneumonia. Read More

    Current assessment of heart rate variability and QTc interval length in HIV/AIDS.
    Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2017 Nov;12(6):528-533
    aDepartment of Health Psychology, University of Miami, Coral Gables, Florida bBehavioral Medicine Research Center cDivision of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, Florida, USA.
    Purpose Of Review: The increasing prevalence of cardiovascular disease comorbidity in persons infected with the HIV has become a global concern. The electrocardiogram (ECG) is increasingly being utilized to provide clinically relevant information regarding cardiac arrhythmias and cardio-autonomic dysfunction. The purpose of this review is to summarize the latest research comparing QT and R-to-R interval length as a function of HIV+ status or antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimen. Read More

    Correlates of multi-drug non-susceptibility in enteric bacteria isolated from Kenyan children with acute diarrhea.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Oct 2;11(10):e0005974. Epub 2017 Oct 2.
    Department of Global Health, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America.
    Background: Reduced antimicrobial susceptibility threatens treatment efficacy in sub-Saharan Africa, where data on the burden and correlates of antibiotic resistance among enteric pathogens are limited.

    Methods: Fecal samples from children aged 6 mos-15 yrs presenting with acute diarrhea in western Kenya were cultured for bacterial pathogens. HIV-uninfected children with identified Shigella or Salmonella species or pathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC, ETEC, EAEC or EIEC) were included in this cross-sectional sub-study. Read More

    Association of Household Food- and Drink-Sharing Practices With Human Herpesvirus 8 Seroconversion in a Cohort of Zambian Children.
    J Infect Dis 2017 Oct;216(7):842-849
    Nebraska Center for Virology and the School of Biological Sciences, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska.
    Background: Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) infection occurs in early childhood and is associated with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection and risk for Kaposi sarcoma, but behaviors associated with HHV-8 transmission are not well described.

    Methods: We enrolled and followed a prospective cohort of 270 children and their household members to investigate risk factors for HHV-8 transmission in Lusaka, Zambia.

    Results: We report an incidence of 30. Read More

    HIV-related chronic lung disease in adolescents: are we prepared for the future?
    Expert Rev Respir Med 2017 Dec 10;11(12):969-975. Epub 2017 Oct 10.
    a Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences , Stellenbosch University , Cape Town , South Africa.
    Introduction: Chronic lung diseases (CLD) are the most chronic disease occurring in adolescents living with human immunodeficiency virus (ALHIV). In ALHIV who received antiretroviral therapy (ART) late in childhood, bronchiectasis, bronchiolitis obliterans and interstitial pneumonitis are common. In adolescents who received ART early in life the spectrum of CLD has changed with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease being common. Read More

    Childhood nephrotic syndrome in tropical Africa: then and now.
    Paediatr Int Child Health 2017 Sep 26:1-10. Epub 2017 Sep 26.
    d Department of Paediatrics , University of Maiduguri/University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital , Maiduguri , Nigeria.
    This descriptive and comparative review examines the changing epidemiology, treatment, renal and patient outcome of childhood nephrotic syndrome (NS) in tropical Africa (TpAfr). In the 1960s to 1980s, corticosteroid-resistant non-minimal change disease (nMCD) including quartan malaria nephropathy (QMN) was the dominant renal histopathology type. The overall incidence of NS was 0. Read More

    The role of young adult social bonds, substance problems, and sexual risk in pathways between adolescent substance use and midlife risky sexual behavior among urban African Americans.
    Psychol Addict Behav 2017 Nov 21;31(7):828-838. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    Department of Behavioral and Community Health, University of Maryland School of Public Health.
    African Americans are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections relative to other racial groups. Although substance use has been linked to risky sexual behavior, the understanding of how these associations develop over the life course remains limited, particularly the role of social bonds. This study uses structural equation modeling to examine pathways from adolescent substance use to young adult sexual risk, substance problems, and social bonds and then to midlife risky sexual behavior among African American men and women, controlling for childhood confounders. Read More

    Long-term health outcomes of childhood sexual abuse and peer sexual contact among an urban sample of behaviourally bisexual Latino men.
    Cult Health Sex 2017 Sep 20:1-18. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    f School of Public Health , University of Puerto Rico , San Juan , Puerto Rico , USA.
    While previous research indicates high rates of childhood sexual abuse among Latino men who have sex with men, few studies have examined the long-term health outcomes of childhood sexual abuse specifically among behaviourally bisexual Latino men. In a sample of 148 behaviourally bisexual Latino men in New York City, we examined associations between childhood sexual abuse and multiple dimensions of adult health: sexual risk behaviours; sexually transmitted infections incidence; polydrug use; depressive symptoms; and perceived stress. We compared outcomes between those with histories of childhood sexual abuse, those reporting peer sexual contact prior to age 13 and those with no sexual contact prior to age 13. Read More

    Global, regional, and national under-5 mortality, adult mortality, age-specific mortality, and life expectancy, 1970-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016.
    • Authors:
    Lancet 2017 Sep;390(10100):1084-1150
    Background: Detailed assessments of mortality patterns, particularly age-specific mortality, represent a crucial input that enables health systems to target interventions to specific populations. Understanding how all-cause mortality has changed with respect to development status can identify exemplars for best practice. To accomplish this, the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 (GBD 2016) estimated age-specific and sex-specific all-cause mortality between 1970 and 2016 for 195 countries and territories and at the subnational level for the five countries with a population greater than 200 million in 2016. Read More

    The relationship between burden of childhood disease and foreign aid for child health.
    BMC Health Serv Res 2017 Sep 15;17(1):655. Epub 2017 Sep 15.
    Center for Health Policy and the Center for Primary Care and Outcomes Research, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.
    Background: We sought to examine the relationship between child specific health aid (CHA) and burden of disease. Based on existing evidence, we hypothesized that foreign aid for child health would not be proportional to burden of disease.

    Methods: In order to examine CHA and burden of disease, we obtained estimates of these parameters from established sources. Read More

    Extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma in Malawi: a report of three cases.
    BMC Cancer 2017 Sep 6;17(1):633. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    UNC Project-Malawi, Private Bag A104, Lilongwe, Malawi.
    Background: Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma (ENKTCL) reports from sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are remarkably rare, despite early childhood acquisition and high prevalence of the causative infectious agent, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and frequent occurrence of other lymphoproliferative disorders causally associated with EBV.

    Case Presentations: At a national teaching hospital in Malawi, three patients of African descent were seen with ENKTCL between 2013 and 2014. Patients were aged between 29 and 60 years, two with craniofacial involvement and one with a primary abdominal tumor, and all were HIV-negative. Read More

    Deaths during tuberculosis treatment among paediatric patients in a large tertiary hospital in Nigeria.
    PLoS One 2017 17;12(8):e0183270. Epub 2017 Aug 17.
    Institute for Global Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Background: Despite availability of effective cure, tuberculosis (TB) remains a leading cause of death in children. In many high-burden countries, childhood TB is underdiagnosed and underreported, and care is often accessed too late, resulting in adverse treatment outcomes. In this study, we examined the time to death and its associated factors among a cohort of children that commenced TB treatment in a large treatment centre in northern Nigeria. Read More

    Oesophageal candidiasis and squamous cell cancer in patients with gain-of-function STAT1 gene mutation.
    United European Gastroenterol J 2017 Aug 6;5(5):625-631. Epub 2016 Dec 6.
    Departments of Gastroenterology and Clinical Immunology, County Durham and Darlington NHS Foundation Trust, County Durham, UK.
    Background: Oesophageal candidiasis is a common, usually self-limiting opportunistic infection, but long-term infection with Candida is known to predispose to oral and oesophageal squamous cell cancer (SCC). Permissive factors that lead to immune deficiencies can underlie persistent or recurring candidiasis, called chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC). Secondary immune deficiencies are most often due to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, antibiotic use and immunosuppressive treatment (steroids, chemotherapy). Read More

    Outcome of Children with Presumptive Tuberculosis in Mbarara, Rural Uganda.
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 2017 Aug 2. Epub 2017 Aug 2.
    1IRD UMI233/ INSERM U1175/ Université de Montpellier, France; 2Epicentre Mbarara Research Centre, Uganda; 3Epicentre Paris, France; 4Mbarara Regional Reference Hospital, Uganda; 5Mbarara University of Science and Technology, Uganda; 6IRD UMR196/CEPED, France.
    Background: Mortality among children with presumptive tuberculosis (TB) empiric TB treatment can be high. We describe the predictors of death among children with presumptive TB, and the relation between treatment and mortality.

    Methods: A prospective cohort of children with presumptive TB who underwent clinical assessment, chest radiograph, tuberculin skin test and sputum bacterial tests for TB was followed up for 3 months. Read More

    Paediatric asthma control under a community management model in China: a protocol for a prospective multicentre cohort study.
    BMJ Open 2017 Aug 4;7(8):e015741. Epub 2017 Aug 4.
    Department of Respiratory Medicine, Shanghai Children's Medical Center affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University of Medicine, Shanghai, China.
    Introduction: Childhood asthma is globally one of the most common respiratory disorders and accounts for more school absences and more hospitalizations than any other chronic illness. The worldwide economic burden of this disease exceeds those of HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis combined. Proper intervention and effective management is of paramount importance for the control and prognosis of paediatric asthma. Read More

    Orphanhood and Self-Esteem: An 18-Year Longitudinal Study From an HIV-Affected Area in Tanzania.
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2017 Nov;76(3):225-230
    *IOB, University of Antwerp and KU Leuven, Belgium; †World Bank, Ghana; and ‡Blavatnik School of Government and Department of Economics, University of Oxford, United Kingdom.
    Background: The HIV epidemic exacerbated the prevalence of prime-aged adult death in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa, resulting in increased rates of orphanhood. Little is known about whether this will coincide with adverse psychosocial well-being in adulthood for those who were orphaned at childhood.

    Methods: We studied a cohort of 1108 children from Kagera, a region of Tanzania that was heavily affected by HIV early in the epidemic. Read More

    Rapid Accurate Identification of Tuberculous Meningitis Among South African Children Using a Novel Clinical Decision Tool.
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 2017 Aug 1. Epub 2017 Aug 1.
    1. Manchester Collaborative Centre for Inflammation Research, University of Manchester, UK 2. Manchester Academic Health Sciences Centre, University of Manchester, UK 3. Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Pietermaritzburg Metropolitan Hospitals Complex, South Africa 4. Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa 5. Department of Microbiology, National Health Laboratory Service, South Africa 6. School of Laboratory Medicine and Medical Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa 7. Health Protection Research Unit in Emerging and Zoonotic Infections, Institute of Infection and Global Health, University of Liverpool, UK 8. Walton Centre NHS Foundation Trust, UK 9. Centre for Epidemiology, Institute of Population Health, University of Manchester, UK 10. Department of Neurology, Alder Hey Children's NHS Trust, UK.
    Introduction: Early diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is crucial to achieve optimum outcomes. There is no effective rapid diagnostic test for use in children. We aimed to develop a clinical decision tool to facilitate the early diagnosis of childhood TBM. Read More

    Effects of Inner Nuclear Membrane Proteins SUN1/UNC-84A and SUN2/UNC-84B on the Early Steps of HIV-1 Infection.
    J Virol 2017 Oct 12;91(19). Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    Department of Infectious Diseases, King's College London, London, United Kingdom
    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection of dividing and nondividing cells involves regulatory interactions with the nuclear pore complex (NPC), followed by translocation to the nucleus and preferential integration into genomic areas in proximity to the inner nuclear membrane (INM). To identify host proteins that may contribute to these processes, we performed an overexpression screen of known membrane-associated NE proteins. We found that the integral transmembrane proteins SUN1/UNC84A and SUN2/UNC84B are potent or modest inhibitors of HIV-1 infection, respectively, and that suppression corresponds to defects in the accumulation of viral cDNA in the nucleus. Read More

    Performance-based financing contributes to the resilience of health services affected by the Liberian Ebola outbreak.
    Public Health Action 2017 Jun;7(Suppl 1):S100-S105
    MoH, Monrovia, Liberia.
    Setting: The Liberian counties of Bong, with performance-based financing (PBF) for all 36 public primary-care facilities, and Margibi, with no PBF for its 24 public primary-care facilities. Objective: To compare whether specific maternal and child health indicators changed in the two counties during the pre-Ebola (2013), Ebola (2014) and post-Ebola (2015) disease outbreak periods from July to September each year. Design: This was a cross-sectional study. Read More

    Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome triggered by varicella infection.
    IDCases 2017 24;9:89-90. Epub 2017 Jun 24.
    Department of virology, CH Toulouse, Toulouse, France.
    Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) is a well-known virus that belongs to the Herpesviridae family which induces a self-limited disease except in specific cases in particular among stem cell transplant patients. This virus is not known however to trigger atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (aHUS). Here we report the case of a six-year-old boy who was hospitalized with fever and abdominal pains associated to pruritic and vesicular rash, thrombocytopenia and acute renal failure. Read More

    Infectious disease morbidity and growth among young HIV-exposed uninfected children in Jamaica.
    Rev Panam Salud Publica 2016 Dec;40(6):401-409
    Department of Child and Adolescent Health, University of the West Indies, Kingston, Jamaica.
    Objective: There is a growing body of data that demonstrates increased infectious disease outcomes for HIV-exposed uninfected (HIV-EU) infants as compared to their HIV-unexposed (HU) counterparts. We hypothesized that these HIV-EU infants are at greater risk for infectious morbidity and mortality when compared to the general childhood population. We therefore aimed to characterize infections and growth outcomes among HIV-EU infants in Jamaica during their first two years of life. Read More

    Loss to follow-up among children and adolescents growing up with HIV infection: age really matters.
    J Int AIDS Soc 2017 07;20(1):21737
    Department of Clinical Research, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
    Introduction: Globally, increasing numbers of HIV-infected children are reaching adolescence due to antiretroviral therapy (ART). We investigated rates of loss-to-follow-up (LTFU) from HIV care services among children as they transition from childhood through adolescence.

    Methods: Individuals aged 5-19 years initiated on ART in a public-sector HIV clinic in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe, between 2005 and 2009 were included in a retrospective cohort study. Read More

    Longitudinal increases of brain metabolite levels in 5-10 year old children.
    PLoS One 2017 11;12(7):e0180973. Epub 2017 Jul 11.
    MRC/UCT Medical Imaging Research Unit, Division of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Observatory, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies reveal significant changes in brain structure and structural networks that occur together with cognitive and behavioral maturation in childhood. However, the underlying cellular changes accompanying brain maturation are less understood. Examining regional age-related changes in metabolite levels provides insight into the physiology of neurodevelopment. Read More

    Comprehensive review of the evidence regarding the effectiveness of community-based primary health care in improving maternal, neonatal and child health: 4. child health findings.
    J Glob Health 2017 Jun;7(1):010904
    Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.
    Background: This paper assesses the effectiveness of community-based primary health care (CBPHC) in improving child health beyond the neonatal period. Although there has been an accelerated decline in global under-5 mortality since 2000, mortality rates remain high in much of sub-Saharan Africa and in some south Asian countries where under-5 mortality is also decreasing more slowly. Essential interventions for child health at the community level have been identified. Read More

    Decreasing seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 in Germany leaves many people susceptible to genital infection: time to raise awareness and enhance control.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Jul 6;17(1):471. Epub 2017 Jul 6.
    Robert Koch Institute (RKI), Berlin, Germany.
    Background: Herpes simplex infections (HSV1/2) are characterized by recurrent symptoms, a risk of neonatal herpes, and the facilitation of HIV transmission. In Germany, HSV1/2 infections are not notifiable and data are scarce. A previous study found higher HSV1/2 seroprevalences in women in East Germany than in women in West Germany. Read More

    Neurocognitive development in HIV-positive children is correlated with plasma viral loads in early childhood.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2017 Jun;96(23):e6867
    aDepartment of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine bDepartment of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy, University Hospital, Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main cDepartment of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, University Hospital Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany.
    Because of neurocognitive impairments in perinatally human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children and adolescents, this study aimed to demonstrate the effect of plasma viral loads and early initiation of sufficient combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) on neurocognitive development.In total, 14 perinatally infected HIV-positive children (median age 8.24 years [range: 6. Read More

    Space-time patterns in maternal and mother mortality in a rural South African population with high HIV prevalence (2000-2014): results from a population-based cohort.
    BMC Public Health 2017 Jun 3;17(1):543. Epub 2017 Jun 3.
    Discipline of Public Health Medicine, School of Nursing and Public Health, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa.
    Background: International organs such as, the African Union and the South African Government view maternal health as a dominant health prerogative. Even though most countries are making progress, maternal mortality in South Africa (SA) significantly increased between 1990 and 2015, and prevented the country from achieving Millennium Development Goal 5. Elucidating the space-time patterns and risk factors of maternal mortality in a rural South African population could help target limited resources and policy guidelines to high-risk areas for the greatest impact, as more generalized interventions are costly and often less effective. Read More

    Mental health challenges among adolescents living with HIV.
    J Int AIDS Soc 2017 05;20(Suppl 3):21497
    National Institutes of Health, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Maternal and Pediatric Infectious Disease Branch, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.
    Introduction: Mental health is a critical and neglected global health challenge for adolescents infected with HIV. The prevalence of mental and behavioural health issues among HIV-infected adolescents may not be well understood or addressed as the world scales up HIV prevention and treatment for adolescents. The objective of this narrative review is to assess the current literature related to mental health challenges faced by adolescents living with HIV, including access to mental health services, the role of mental health challenges during transition from paediatric to adult care services and responsibilities, and the impact of mental health interventions. Read More

    Dysplasia of Granulocytes in a Patient with HPV Disease, Recurrent Infections, and B Lymphopenia: A Novel Variant of WHIM Syndrome?
    Front Pediatr 2017 2;5:95. Epub 2017 May 2.
    Department of Medicine of Systems, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy.
    WHIM syndrome is a condition in which affected persons have chronic peripheral neutropenia, lymphopenia, abnormal susceptibility to human papilloma virus infection, and myelokathexis. Myelokathexis refers to the retention of mature neutrophils in the bone marrow (BM), which accounts for degenerative changes and hypersegmentation. Most patients present heterozygous autosomal dominant mutations of the gene encoding CXCR4. Read More

    With me or against me: Tumor suppressor and drug resistance activities of SAMHD1.
    Exp Hematol 2017 Aug 11;52:32-39. Epub 2017 May 11.
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Virology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany. Electronic address:
    Sterile alpha motif and histidine/aspartic acid domain-containing protein 1 (SAMHD1) is a (deoxy)guanosine triphosphate (dGTP/GTP)-activated deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) triphosphohydrolase involved in cellular dNTP homoeostasis. Mutations in SAMHD1 have been associated with the hyperinflammatory disease Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS). SAMHD1 also limits cells' permissiveness to infection with diverse viruses, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1), and controls endogenous retroviruses. Read More

    Diagnosis and treatment of paediatric tuberculosis: An insight review.
    Crit Rev Microbiol 2017 Aug 17;43(4):466-480. Epub 2017 Feb 17.
    d Regional Medical Research Centre (ICMR) , Bhubaneswar , India.
    Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health problem, invading all age groups world-wide. It is an opportunistic infection affecting the individuals alone or with co-infections. Childhood TB is a neglected aspect and a significant health problem in epidemic areas. Read More

    Patterns of Attendance at Mother Support Groups in Zimbabwe. The EPAZ Trial (2014-2016).
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2017 Jun;75 Suppl 2:S216-S223
    *INSERM U1219-Centre Inserm Bordeaux Population Health, Université de Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France; †Université de Bordeaux, ISPED, Centre INSERM U1219-Bordeaux Population Health, Bordeaux, France; ‡Organization for Public Health Interventions and Development, Harare, Zimbabwe; §Clinical Research Centre, Africa University, Mutare, Zimbabwe; ‖University of Zimbabwe, College of Health Sciences, Harare, Zimbabwe; ¶North West University, School of Basic Sciences, Vanderbijlpark, South Africa; #Family AIDS Caring Trust, Mutare, Zimbabwe; and **Mutare Provincial Hospital, Mutare, Zimbabwe.
    Background: In Southern Africa, groups of mothers living with HIV successfully provide peer psychosocial support during pregnancy and early childhood. We report patterns of attendance at Mother Support Groups (MSGs) sessions among women and mothers living with HIV in rural Zimbabwe.

    Methods: In the Elimination of Pediatric AIDS cluster-randomized trial, MSGs were established in 14 health facilities in Mutare and Makoni districts. Read More

    Imputing the Direct and Indirect Effectiveness of Childhood Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Against Invasive Pneumococcal Disease by Surveying Temporal Changes in Nasopharyngeal Pneumococcal Colonization.
    Am J Epidemiol 2017 Aug;186(4):435-444
    The limited capability in most low- to middle-income countries to study the benefit of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) in protecting against invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) calls for alternate strategies to assess this. We used a mathematical model to predict the direct and indirect effectiveness of PCV by analyzing serotype-specific colonization prevalence and IPD incidence prior to and following childhood PCV immunization in South Africa. We analyzed IPD incidence from 2005 to 2012 and colonization studies undertaken in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-uninfected and HIV-infected child-mother dyads from 2007 to 2009 (pre-PCV era), in 2010 (7-valent PCV era), and in 2012 (13-valent PCV era). Read More

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