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    HSV-1/HSV-2 Infection-Related Cancers in Bantu Populations Driving HIV-1 Prevalence in Africa: Tracking the Origin of AIDS at the Onset of the 20th Century.
    Case Rep Oncol 2016 Sep-Dec;9(3):815-825. Epub 2016 Nov 29.
    Jacques Monod Institute, CNRS, University of Paris VII, Paris, France.
    Introduction: At the onset of the 20th century, ancient clinical observations of cancer epidemics in Bantu populations of Sub-Saharan Africa were discovered. They were reported from 1914 to 1960, but remained unexplained. In 1983, in San Francisco, Calif. Read More

    T-Cell Lymphoma in a Patient with Neurofibromatosis Type 1 and AIDS.
    Case Rep Oncol 2017 Jan-Apr;10(1):161-168. Epub 2017 Feb 15.
    Universidade Federal do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UNIRIO), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and AIDS are risk factors for the development of malignant neoplasms, including hematological malignancies, such as non-Hodgkin lymphoma. NF1 is an autosomal dominant disease that primarily manifests as café-au-lait spots, dermal neurofibromas, axillary and/or inguinal ephelides or freckles, plexiform neurofibromas, Lisch nodules, and bone deformities. In this report, we present a 38-year-old female patient with NF1 from childhood and AIDS who developed peripheral T-cell lymphoma with good response to chemotherapeutic treatment. Read More

    Does task shifting yield cost savings and improve efficiency for health systems? A systematic review of evidence from low-income and middle-income countries.
    Hum Resour Health 2017 Apr 13;15(1):29. Epub 2017 Apr 13.
    Department of Global Health and Population, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA, 02115, United States of America.
    Background: Task shifting has become an increasingly popular way to increase access to health services, especially in low-resource settings. Research has demonstrated that task shifting, including the use of community health workers (CHWs) to deliver care, can improve population health. This systematic review investigates whether task shifting in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) results in efficiency improvements by achieving cost savings. Read More

    Pain in amaXhosa women living with HIV/AIDS: a cross-sectional study of ambulant outpatients.
    BMC Womens Health 2017 Apr 13;17(1):31. Epub 2017 Apr 13.
    Department of Psychiatry & Mental Health, MRC Unit on Anxiety & Stress Disorders, Groote Schuur Hospital, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Background: Pain is one of the most commonly reported symptoms in people living with HIV/AIDS, whether or not they are receiving anti-retroviral therapy. A recent systematic review identified a paucity of studies exploring pain in women in low and middle income countries. The prevalence and characteristics of pain in women living with HIV/AIDS may differ from that of men as many chronic pain conditions are more prevalent in women. Read More

    Prevention of HIV in Adolescent Girls and Young Women: Key to an AIDS-Free Generation.
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2017 May;75 Suppl 1:S17-S26
    *Centre for the AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa (CAPRISA), Durban, South Africa; †Department of Public Health, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa; ‡Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY; and §Office of the US Global AIDS Coordinator, US Department of State, Washington, DC.
    The Global Plan towards the elimination of new HIV infections among children by 2015 and keeping their mothers alive (Global Plan) has ensured that more infants in high-HIV burden countries survive childhood HIV-free. Although equal numbers of boy and girl children have survived to age 10, a gender divergence starts to emerge as they enter adolescence. Up to 3 times as many young women aged 15-24 years in eastern and southern Africa are living with HIV compared with their male peers. Read More

    Long-term effects of severe acute malnutrition on lung function in Malawian children: a cohort study.
    Eur Respir J 2017 Apr 5;49(4). Epub 2017 Apr 5.
    Respiratory, Critical Care and Anaesthesia section in III, UCL Great Ormond Street, Institute of Child Health, University College London, London, UK.
    Early nutritional insults may increase risk of adult lung disease. We aimed to quantify the impact of severe acute malnutrition (SAM) on spirometric outcomes 7 years post-treatment and explore predictors of impaired lung function.Spirometry and pulse oximetry were assessed in 237 Malawian children (median age: 9. Read More

    Early versus late BCG vaccination in HIV-1-exposed infants in Uganda: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.
    Trials 2017 Mar 31;18(1):152. Epub 2017 Mar 31.
    Centre for Intervention Science in Maternal and Child Health, Centre for International Health, University of Bergen.
    Background: Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination may have nonspecific effects, i.e., effects on childhood morbidity and mortality that go beyond its effect on the risk of childhood tuberculosis (TB). Read More

    Paediatric Virology: A rapidly increasing educational challenge.
    Exp Ther Med 2017 Feb 23;13(2):364-377. Epub 2016 Dec 23.
    Department of Clinical Virology, School of Medicine, University of Crete, Heraklion 71003, Greece.
    The '2nd Workshop on Paediatric Virology', which took place on Saturday the 8th of October 2016 in Athens, Greece, provided an overview on recent views and advances on Paediatric Virology. Emphasis was given to HIV-1 management in Greece, a country under continuous financial crisis, hepatitis B vaccination in Africa, treatment options for hepatitis C virus in childhood, Zika virus in pregnancy and infancy, the burden of influenza on childhood, hand-foot-mouth disease and myocarditis associated with Coxsackie viruses. Other general topics covered included a critical evaluation of Paediatric Accident and Emergency viral infections, multimodality imaging of viral infections in children, surgical approaches of otolaryngologists to complex viral infections, new advances in the diagnosis and treatment of viral conjunctivitis and novel molecular diagnostic methods for HPV in childhood. Read More

    Adverse Childhood Experiences and Health and Wellness Outcomes among Black Men Who Have Sex with Men.
    J Urban Health 2017 Mar 20. Epub 2017 Mar 20.
    University at Albany-SUNY, Albany, NY, USA.
    Black men who have sex with men (BMSM) are a population at the intersection of two minority statuses-racial minority and sexual minority. Membership in either group, compared to white or heterosexual group membership, may increase one's risk of negative childhood and adult experiences. Baseline data from an HIV intervention efficacy trial (the Black Men Evolving Study) were used to explore the prevalence of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) among 536 BMSM and associations between ACEs and adult mental and physical health outcomes. Read More

    Pneumococcal Vaccine Response After Exposure to Parasites in Utero, in Infancy, or Mid-Childhood.
    Pediatrics 2017 Mar 16. Epub 2017 Mar 16.
    Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Stanford School of Medicine, Palo Alto, California.
    Background And Objective: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of mortality before age 5, but few studies examine details of childhood response to pneumococcal vaccine in less-developed settings. Although malnutrition, HIV, and concurrent infections can impair response, evidence suggests that chronic parasitic infections can also contribute to poor vaccination results. The objective of this study was to determine whether response to pneumococcal vaccine varied among children either exposed to parasitic infections in utero, previously infected in infancy, or infected at the time of immunization. Read More

    Prevalence of tuberculosis among children in North Sudan: Are we only seeing the tip of the iceberg?
    J Nat Sci Biol Med 2017 Jan-Jun;8(1):114-118
    Department of Medicine, Melton Keynes University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Melton Keynes, Buckinghamshire, UK.
    Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality among children. The vague symptoms, the uncertain diagnostic tests and lack of adequate awareness among families all contributed in masking the actual prevalence of the disease. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiology of childhood TB in River Nile State (RNS), North Sudan. Read More

    Adenovirus-associated pneumonia in South African children: Presentation, clinical course and outcome.
    S Afr Med J 2017 Jan 30;107(2):123-126. Epub 2017 Jan 30.
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital and Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, South Africa.
    Background: Viruses have emerged as important aetiological agents of childhood pneumonia.

    Objective: To investigate the clinical presentation, severity and outcome of adenovirus-associated pneumonia (AVP) in children.

    Methods: A retrospective analysis of AVP cases over 12 months was performed, including demographic, clinical course and outcome (death, persistent lung disease (PLD)) data. Read More

    Is maternal education a social vaccine for childhood malaria infection? A cross-sectional study from war-torn Democratic Republic of Congo.
    Pathog Glob Health 2017 Mar 21;111(2):98-106. Epub 2017 Feb 21.
    a Department of Pediatrics , University of Alberta , Edmonton , Canada.
    In zones of violent conflict in the tropics, social disruption leads to elevated child mortality, of which malaria is the leading cause. Understanding the social determinants of malaria transmission may be helpful to optimize malaria control efforts. We conducted a cross-sectional study of healthy children aged 2 months to 5 years attending well-child and/or immunization visits in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Read More

    Why being an expert - despite xpert -remains crucial for children in high TB burden settings.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Feb 6;17(1):123. Epub 2017 Feb 6.
    The Global Tuberculosis Program, Texas Children's Hospital, Global and Immigrant Health, Department of Pediatrics Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, 77030, USA.
    Background: As access to Xpert expands in high TB-burden settings, its performance against clinically diagnosed TB as a reference standard provides important insight as the majority of childhood TB is bacteriologically unconfirmed. We aim to describe the characteristics and outcomes of children with presumptive TB and TB disease, and assess performance of Xpert under programmatic conditions against a clinical diagnosis of TB as a reference standard.

    Methods: Retrospective review of children evaluated for presumptive TB in Mbeya, Tanzania. Read More

    The clinical spectrum of severe acute malnutrition in children in Cameroon: a hospital-based study in Yaounde, Cameroon.
    Transl Pediatr 2017 Jan;6(1):32-39
    Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaounde I, Yaounde, Cameroon;; Gynaeco-Obstetric and Pediatric Hospital Yaounde, Yaounde, Cameroon.
    Background: Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is a major health problem, and the cause of more than half of childhood deaths in children less than 5 years in developing countries. Globally, 20 million children under 5 years of age are severely malnourished according to the World Health Organization (WHO). In Cameroon, the prevalence of SAM remains high and estimated at 1. Read More

    The indications and role of paediatric bronchoscopy in a developing country, with high prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis and HIV.
    Expert Rev Respir Med 2017 Feb 20;11(2):159-165. Epub 2017 Jan 20.
    b Department of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences , Stellenbosch University and Tygerberg Children's Hospital , Cape Town , South Africa.
    Background: Bronchoscopy, an important investigation for the diagnosis and management of respiratory diseases, is widely used in high income countries. There is limited information on value of paediatric bronchoscopy in low and middle income countries (LMIC).

    Aims And Objectives: Aim was to describe the indications, findings and complications of bronchoscopy in a middle income country with a high prevalence of tuberculosis and HIV. Read More

    A Prospective Cohort Study of Common Childhood Infections in South African HIV-exposed Uninfected and HIV-unexposed Infants.
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 2017 Feb;36(2):e38-e44
    From the *Department of Paediatrics & Child Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa; †School of Population & Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada; ‡Department of Pathology, Division of Medical Microbiology Immunology Unit, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa; §Division of Paediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Paediatrics & Child Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa; ¶Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, BC Children's Hospital and University of British Columbia, and ‖Faculty of Medicine, School of Population & Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
    Background: Much evidence of HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infant infectious morbidity predates availability of maternal combination antiretroviral therapy and does not control for universal risk factors (preterm birth, low birth weight, suboptimal breastfeeding and poverty).

    Methods: This prospective cohort study identified HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected mothers and their newborns from South African community midwife unit. The primary outcome, infectious cause hospitalization or death before 6 months of age, was compared between HEU and HIV-unexposed (HU) infants and classified for type and severity using validated study-specific case definitions. Read More

    Vaccination with 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in infants according to HIV status.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2017 Jan;96(2):e5881
    aMedical Research Council: Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit bDepartment of Science and Technology/National Research Foundation: Vaccine Preventable Diseases, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa cNational Institute for Communicable Diseases: a Division of the National Health Laboratory Service, Johannesburg, South Africa dGSK, Wavre, Belgium.
    Background: Phase III, open-label, single-center, controlled study in South Africa ( NCT00829010) to evaluate immunogenicity, reactogenicity, and safety of the 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected (HIV+), HIV-exposed-uninfected (HEU), and HIV-unexposed-uninfected (HUU) children.

    Methods: Children stratified by HIV status received PHiD-CV primary vaccination (age 6/10/14 weeks; coadministered with routine childhood vaccines) and booster dose (age 9-10 months). Read More

    Excess respiratory viral infections and low antibody responses among HIV-exposed, uninfected infants.
    AIDS 2017 Mar;31(5):669-679
    aAnschutz Medical Center, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, Colorado, USA bDepartment of Pediatrics, Ribeirão Preto School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil cWestat, Rockville, Maryland, USA dDepartamento de Medicina da Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Sao Carlos, Sao Paulo eEscola de Medicina da Universidade de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais fHFSE - Hospital Federal dos Servidores do Estado, Rio de Janeiro gEscola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil hEunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, Maryland iUniversity of California, San Francisco, California, USA.
    Objective: HIV-exposed uninfected (HEUs) infants have frequent severe infection, hospitalization, and death. We performed a serologic investigation to determine the role of common childhood respiratory pathogens in the excess incidence of infections in HEUs.

    Design: Prospective cohort study of mother-infant pairs. Read More

    Benefits and challenges of molecular diagnostics for childhood tuberculosis.
    Int J Mycobacteriol 2016 Dec 20;5 Suppl 1:S4-S5. Epub 2016 Sep 20.
    Molecular Diagnostics for Childhood Tuberculosis, Avenida Hispanidad 85-5E 36203 Vigo, Spain. Electronic address:
    Expanding tuberculosis (TB)-diagnostic services, including access to rapid tests, is a World Health Organization (WHO) strategy to accelerate progress toward ending TB. Faster and more sensitive molecular tests capable of diagnosing TB and drug-resistant TB have the technical capacity to address limitations associated with smears and cultures by increasing accuracy and shortening turnaround times as compared with those of these conventional laboratory methods. Nucleic acid amplification assays used to detect and analyze Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB)-complex nucleic acids can be used directly on specimens from patients suspected of having TB. Read More

    Global Burden of Childhood Tuberculosis.
    Pneumonia (Nathan) 2016 24;8. Epub 2016 Nov 24.
    Department of Biostatistics, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, MA, 02118, USA.
    In 2015, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared tuberculosis (TB) to be responsible for more deaths than any other single infectious disease. The burden of TB among children has frequently been dismissed as relatively low with resulting deaths contributing very little to global under-five all-cause mortality, although without rigorous estimates of these statistics, the burden of childhood TB was, in reality, unknown. Recent work in the area has resulted in a WHO estimate of 1 million new cases of childhood TB in 2014 resulting in 136,000 deaths. Read More

    Malaria in HIV-Infected Children Receiving HIV Protease-Inhibitor- Compared with Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor-Based Antiretroviral Therapy, IMPAACT P1068s, Substudy to P1060.
    PLoS One 2016 9;11(12):e0165140. Epub 2016 Dec 9.
    Department of Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Disease and Immunology, New York University School of Medicine, NY, United States of America.
    Background: HIV and malaria geographically overlap. HIV protease inhibitors kill malaria parasites in vitro and in vivo, but further evaluation in clinical studies is needed.

    Methods: Thirty-one children from Malawi aged 4-62 months were followed every 3 months and at intercurrent illness visits for ≤47 months (September 2009-December 2011). Read More

    Reverse geroscience: how does exposure to early diseases accelerate the age-related decline in health?
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 2016 Dec 1;1386(1):30-44. Epub 2016 Dec 1.
    Division of Aging Biology, National Institute on Aging, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland.
    Aging is the major risk factor for both the development of chronic diseases and loss of functional capacity. Geroscience provides links among the biology of aging, the biology of disease, and the physiology of frailty, three fields where enormous progress has been made in the last few decades. While, previously, the focus was on the role of aging in susceptibility to disease and disability, the other side of this relationship, which is the contribution of disease to aging, has been less explored at the molecular/cellular level. Read More

    Coinfection with HIV and hepatitis C virus in 229 children and young adults living in Europe.
    • Authors:
    AIDS 2017 Jan;31(1):127-135
    Objective: To characterize children, adolescents and young adults infected with HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV) vertically or before age of 18 years and living in Europe regarding mode of acquisition, HCV genotype, clinical status and treatment.

    Design: Retrospective, cross-sectional study using pooled data from 11 European paediatric HIV cohorts.

    Methods: Patients aged more than 18 months and less than 25 years, with HIV/HCV acquired vertically or in childhood, were included. Read More

    Trends, causes, and risk factors of mortality among children under 5 in Ethiopia, 1990-2013: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013.
    Popul Health Metr 2016 14;14:42. Epub 2016 Nov 14.
    Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, USA.
    Background: Ethiopia has made remarkable progress in reducing child mortality over the last two decades. However, the under-5 mortality rate in Ethiopia is still higher than the under-5 mortality rates of several low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). On the other hand, the patterns and causes of child mortality have not been well investigated in Ethiopia. Read More

    The performance of community health workers in the management of multiple childhood infectious diseases in Lira, northern Uganda - a mixed methods cross-sectional study.
    Glob Health Action 2016 22;9:33194. Epub 2016 Nov 22.
    Makerere University School of Public Health (MakSPH), Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda.
    Background: Community health workers (CHWs) have the potential to reduce child mortality by improving access to care, especially in remote areas. Uganda has one of the highest child mortality rates globally. Moreover, rural areas bear the highest proportion of this burden. Read More

    Pertussis-Associated Pneumonia in Infants and Children From Low- and Middle-Income Countries Participating in the PERCH Study.
    Clin Infect Dis 2016 Dec;63(suppl 4):S187-S196
    Division of Infectious Disease and Tropical Pediatrics, Department of Pediatrics, Center for Vaccine Development, Institute of Global Health, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore.
    Background:  Few data exist describing pertussis epidemiology among infants and children in low- and middle-income countries to guide preventive strategies.

    Methods:  Children 1-59 months of age hospitalized with World Health Organization-defined severe or very severe pneumonia in 7 African and Asian countries and similarly aged community controls were enrolled in the Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health study. They underwent a standardized clinical evaluation and provided nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs and induced sputum (cases only) for Bordetella pertussis polymerase chain reaction. Read More

    [Documented and suspected risk factors for childhood cancer aetiology].
    Epidemiol Prev 2016 Sep-Oct;40(5Suppl2):10-16
    Istituto di elettronica e di ingegneria dell'informazione e delle telecomunicazioni, Consiglio nazionale delle ricerche, Genova.
    We present an updated summary on risk factors for childhood malignancies, following to previous reviews published on Epidemiologia&Prevenzione and largely based on the monographs of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Ionizing radiations are certain carcinogens, with evidence in humans, from studies both on children and on adults. Evidence specifically regarding childhood cancers is available also for other carcinogens, such as tobacco smoking, some solvents, some occupational activities of parents, and some viruses (HIV and EBV). Read More

    Growth at 2 Years of Age in HIV-exposed Uninfected Children in the United States by Trimester of Maternal Antiretroviral Initiation.
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 2017 Feb;36(2):189-197
    From the *Department of Pediatrics, Center for Biostatistics in AIDS Research, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, and †Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts; ‡Department of Pediatrics, The Saban Research Institute, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Keck School of Medicine of USC, Los Angeles, California; §Maternal and Pediatric Infectious Disease (MPID) Branch, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland; ¶Department of Pediatrics, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana; ‖Department of Pediatrics, University of Alabama School of Medicine, Birmingham, Alabama; **Department of Pediatrics, University of Florida, Jacksonville, Florida; ††Department of Pediatrics, Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; ‡‡Department of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital Colorado, Denver, Colorado; §§Department of Pediatrics, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, Louisiana; ¶¶Department of Pediatrics, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois; ‖‖Department of Pediatrics, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, New York; and ***Division of Pediatric Clinical Research, Department of Pediatrics, Miller School of Medicine at the University of Miami, Miami, Florida.
    Background: Abnormal childhood growth may affect future health. Maternal tenofovir (TFV) use was associated with lower body length and head circumference at 1 year of age in HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) US children.

    Methods: We studied 509 HEU children in the US-based Surveillance Monitoring of Antiretroviral Therapy Toxicities cohort whose HIV-infected mothers were not using antiretrovirals at the last menstrual period and began combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in pregnancy (cART initiators). Read More

    Arthritis in childhood human immunodeficiency virus infection predominantly associated with human leukocyte antigen B27.
    Int J Rheum Dis 2016 Oct 26;19(10):1018-1023. Epub 2016 Jul 26.
    Allergy-Immunology Unit, Department of Pediatrics, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh, India.
    Aim: Children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection usually present with recurrent and unusual infections. Although reported among adults, arthritis as a predominant presentation in children with HIV is rare. Reactive arthritis is considered to be the most common musculoskeletal manifestation in adults with HIV infection. Read More

    Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis in a Child with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Co-Infection.
    Clin Med Res 2016 Dec 24;14(3-4):156-158. Epub 2016 Oct 24.
    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis is a fatal infectious disease of childhood caused by persistence of the measles virus in the brain. The effect of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection on subacute sclerosing panencephalitis remains elusive and rare. We report a child who developed subacute sclerosing panencephalitis following a short latency period and a rapidly progressive course with HIV co-infection. Read More

    Immunisation practices in centres caring for children with perinatally acquired HIV: A call for harmonisation.
    Vaccine 2016 Nov 7;34(46):5587-5594. Epub 2016 Oct 7.
    Department of Pediatrics, Unit of Immune and Infectious Diseases, Children's Hospital "Bambino Gesu", Rome, Italy; Research Unit in Congenital and Perinatal Infections, Academic Department of Pediatrics, Division of Immune and Infectious Diseases, IRCCS Ospedale Pediatrico Bambino Gesù, Roma, Italy. Electronic address:
    Background: Current national immunisation schedules differ between countries in terms of vaccine formulation, timing of vaccinations and immunisation programme funding and co-ordination. As a result, some HIV infected paediatric population may be left susceptible to vaccine preventable infections. Vaccines used in healthy population should be subjected to high quality ethical research and be explicitly validated for use in children with special vaccination needs such as those infected with HIV. Read More

    Demographic and mortality analysis of hospitalized children at a referral hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    BMC Pediatr 2016 Oct 21;16(1):168. Epub 2016 Oct 21.
    Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Emergency Medicine, University of Utah School of Medicine, 30 N. 1900 E., Salt Lake City, UT, USA.
    Background: Global childhood mortality rates remain high. Millennium Development Goal 4 focused efforts on reducing rates by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015. In Ethiopia, child mortality rates dropped 71 % from 1990 to 2015, however it is estimated that 184,000 Ethiopian children die each year. Read More

    Disclosing in utero HIV/ARV exposure to the HIV-exposed uninfected adolescent: is it necessary?
    J Int AIDS Soc 2016 13;19(1):21099. Epub 2016 Oct 13.
    ICAP, Mailman School of Public Health and College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA.
    Introduction: The tremendous success of antiretroviral therapy has resulted in a diminishing population of perinatally HIV-infected children on the one hand and a mounting number of HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) children on the other. As the oldest of these HEU children are reaching adolescence, questions have emerged surrounding the implications of HEU status disclosure to these adolescents. This article outlines the arguments for and against disclosure of a child's HEU status. Read More

    Survival of HIV-1 vertically infected children.
    Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2016 Sep;11(5):455-464
    aCentre for Infectious Disease Epidemiology and Research, Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Public Health and Family Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South AfricabMRC Clinical Trials Unit, Institute of Clinical Trials and Methodology, University College LondoncImperial College Healthcare Trust, St Mary's Hospital, London, UK.
    Purpose Of Review: It is 20 years since the start of the combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) era and more than 10 years since cART scale-up began in resource-limited settings. We examined survival of vertically HIV-infected infants and children in the cART era.

    Recent Findings: Good survival has been achieved on cART in all settings with up to 10-fold mortality reductions compared with before cART availability. Read More

    Sex Disparities in Adverse Childhood Experiences and HIV/STIs: Mediation of Psychopathology and Sexual Behaviors.
    AIDS Behav 2016 Sep 29. Epub 2016 Sep 29.
    Health Studies, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI, USA.
    HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are important public health challenges in the US. Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), including abuse (emotional, physical or sexual), witnessing violence among household members, may have an effect on sexual behaviors, which increase the risk of HIV/STIs. The aim of this study was to examine the sex differences in the role of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depression (MD), substance use disorders (SUDs), early sexual debut, and intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration as mediators in the association between ACEs and HIV/STIs. Read More

    Co-infection with HIV and HCV in 229 children and young adults living in Europe.
    AIDS 2016 Sep 24. Epub 2016 Sep 24.
    aUCL Institute of Child Health, University College London, London, UK bMedical Research Council Clinical Trials Unit at UCL, University College London, London, UK cPaediatric and Liver Unit, Meyer Children's University-Hospital of Florence, Florence, Italy dDepartment of Infectious Diseases, Meyer Children's University-Hospital of Florence, Florence, Italy eDepartment of Women and Child Health, University of Padova, Padova, Italy.
    Objective: To characterise children, adolescents and young adults infected with HIV/HCV vertically or before age 18 years and living in Europe regarding mode of acquisition, HCV genotype, clinical status and treatment.

    Design: Retrospective, cross-sectional study using pooled data from 11 European paediatric HIV cohorts METHODS:: Patients aged > 18 months and < 25 years, with HIV/HCV acquired vertically or in childhood, were included. Anonymised individual-patient data were collected using a standard protocol and modified HIV Cohorts Data Exchange Protocol. Read More

    The Epidemiology of Meningitis among Adults in a South African Province with a High HIV Prevalence, 2009-2012.
    PLoS One 2016;11(9):e0163036. Epub 2016 Sep 26.
    National Institute for Communicable Diseases, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Introduction: Meningitis is a major cause of mortality in southern Africa. We aimed to describe the aetiologies and frequencies of laboratory-confirmed fungal and bacterial meningitis among adults in a South African province with an 11% HIV prevalence, over 4 years.

    Methods: We conducted a retrospective, observational study of secondary laboratory data, extracted on all cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens submitted to public-sector laboratories in Gauteng province from 2009 through 2012. Read More

    Measuring the health-related Sustainable Development Goals in 188 countries: a baseline analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015.
    • Authors:
    Lancet 2016 Oct 21;388(10053):1813-1850. Epub 2016 Sep 21.
    Background: In September, 2015, the UN General Assembly established the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The SDGs specify 17 universal goals, 169 targets, and 230 indicators leading up to 2030. We provide an analysis of 33 health-related SDG indicators based on the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 (GBD 2015). Read More

    Paediatric non-progression following grandmother-to-child HIV transmission.
    Retrovirology 2016 Sep 8;13(1):65. Epub 2016 Sep 8.
    Department of Paediatrics, University of Oxford, Peter Medawar Building for Pathogen Research, South Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3SY, UK.
    Background: In contrast to adult HIV infection, where slow disease progression is strongly linked to immune control of HIV mediated by protective HLA class I molecules such as HLA-B*81:01, the mechanisms by which a minority of HIV-infected children maintain normal-for-age CD4 counts and remain clinically healthy appear to be HLA class I-independent and are largely unknown. To better understand these mechanisms, we here studied a HIV-infected South African female, who remained a non-progressor throughout childhood.

    Results: Phylogenetic analysis of viral sequences in the HIV-infected family members, together with the history of grand-maternal breast-feeding, indicated that, unusually, the non-progressor child had been infected via grandmother-to-child transmission. Read More

    The aetiology of diarrhoea, pneumonia and respiratory colonization of HIV-exposed infants randomized to breast- or formula-feeding.
    Paediatr Int Child Health 2016 Aug;36(3):189-97
    b Botswana Harvard Partnership , Gaborone , Botswana.
    Background: Diarrhoea and pneumonia are common causes of childhood death in sub-Saharan Africa but there are few studies describing specific pathogens.

    Objectives: The study aimed to describe the pathogens associated with diarrhoea, pneumonia and oropharyngeal colonization in children born to HIV-infected women (HIV-exposed infants).

    Methods: The Mashi Study randomized 1200 HIV-infected women and their infants to breastfeed for 6 months with ZDV prophylaxis or formula-feed with 4 weeks of ZDV. Read More

    HIV-Infected Children Have Lower Frequencies of CD8+ Mucosal-Associated Invariant T (MAIT) Cells that Correlate with Innate, Th17 and Th22 Cell Subsets.
    PLoS One 2016 25;11(8):e0161786. Epub 2016 Aug 25.
    New York University, Department of Microbiology, New York, NY, United States of America.
    Mucosal-associated invariant T cells (MAIT) are innate T cells restricted by major histocompatibility related molecule 1 (MR1) presenting riboflavin metabolite ligands derived from microbes. Specificity to riboflavin metabolites confers MAIT cells a broad array of host-protective activity against gram-negative and -positive bacteria, mycobacteria, and fungal pathogens. MAIT cells are present at low levels in the peripheral blood of neonates and gradually expand to relatively abundant levels during childhood. Read More

    Stigma, Facility Constraints, and Personal Disbelief: Why Women Disengage from HIV Care During and After Pregnancy in Morogoro Region, Tanzania.
    AIDS Behav 2017 Jan;21(1):317-329
    Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, PO Box 65015, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Millions of children are living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa, and the primary mode of these childhood infections is mother-to-child transmission. While existing interventions can virtually eliminate such transmission, in low- and middle-income settings, only 63 % of pregnant women living with HIV accessed medicines necessary to prevent transmission. In Tanzania, HIV prevalence among pregnant women is 3. Read More

    Human Herpesvirus 6B Downregulates Expression of Activating Ligands during Lytic Infection To Escape Elimination by Natural Killer Cells.
    J Virol 2016 Nov 14;90(21):9608-9617. Epub 2016 Oct 14.
    Lautenberg Center for General and Tumor Immunology, BioMedical Research Institute Israel-Canada, Faculty of Medicine, The Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem, Israel
    The Herpesviridae family consists of eight viruses, most of which infect a majority of the human population. One of the less-studied members is human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) (Roseolovirus), which causes a mild, well-characterized childhood disease. Primary HHV-6 infection is followed by lifelong latency. Read More

    Sexual Identity, Sex of Sexual Contacts, and Health-Related Behaviors Among Students in Grades 9-12 - United States and Selected Sites, 2015.
    MMWR Surveill Summ 2016 Aug 12;65(9):1-202. Epub 2016 Aug 12.
    Division of Adolescent and School Health, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, CDC.
    Problem: Sexual identity and sex of sexual contacts can both be used to identify sexual minority youth. Significant health disparities exist between sexual minority and nonsexual minority youth. However, not enough is known about health-related behaviors that contribute to negative health outcomes among sexual minority youth and how the prevalence of these health-related behaviors compare with the prevalence of health-related behaviors among nonsexual minorities. Read More

    Chronic disease outcomes after severe acute malnutrition in Malawian children (ChroSAM): a cohort study.
    Lancet Glob Health 2016 Sep 25;4(9):e654-62. Epub 2016 Jul 25.
    Leonard Cheshire Disability & Inclusive Development Centre, Department of Epidemiology & Child Health, University College London, London, UK; Malawi-Liverpool Wellcome Trust Clinical Research Programme, University of Malawi College of Medicine, Blantyre, Malawi; Department of Population Health, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
    Background: Tackling severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is a global health priority. Heightened risk of non-communicable diseases (NCD) in children exposed to SAM at around 2 years of age is plausible in view of previously described consequences of other early nutritional insults. By applying developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) theory to this group, we aimed to explore the long-term effects of SAM. Read More

    Rapidly progressive Kaposi's Sarcoma in an Iraqi boy received Valproic acid: a case report and review of literature.
    BMC Pediatr 2016 Jul 26;16:111. Epub 2016 Jul 26.
    Department of Paediatrics, Shinshu University School of Medicine, 3-1-1, Asahi, Matsumoto, Nagano, 390-8621, Japan.
    Background: Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), an endothelial neoplasm, is associated with human herpes virus (HHV) -8 infection. KS has four clinical sub-types: Mediterranean/classic, African/endemic, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) -associated/epidemic, and transplantation-related/iatrogenic. Immunosuppression is an important cofactor in KS process. Read More

    What's In an Identity Label? Correlates of Sociodemographics, Psychosocial Characteristics, and Sexual Behavior Among African American Men Who Have Sex With Men.
    Arch Sex Behav 2016 Jul 22. Epub 2016 Jul 22.
    School of Social Work, College of Public Health, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, 19122, USA.
    African American men who have sex with men (AAMSM) are vastly overrepresented among people with HIV/AIDS. Using data from 595 AAMSM in Philadelphia, we explored differences in sociodemographics, psychosocial characteristics related to beliefs about ethnicity, sexuality and masculinity, and sexual behavior with men and women by self-reported sexual identity (gay, bisexual, down low, straight). Roughly equivalent numbers identified as gay (40. Read More

    Treatment outcomes of childhood tuberculosis in Addis Ababa: a five-year retrospective analysis.
    BMC Public Health 2016 Jul 21;16:612. Epub 2016 Jul 21.
    Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology, School of Medicine, College of, Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    Background: Tuberculosis (TB) kills one child every 5 min. Childhood TB is given low priority in most national health programmes particularly in TB-endemic areas. TB among children is an indicator of a recent transmission of the disease in the community. Read More

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