2,104 results match your criteria Childhood HIV Disease


HIV-exposed uninfected infant morbidity and mortality within a nationally representative prospective cohort of mother-infant pairs in Zimbabwe.

AIDS 2020 Jul;34(9):1339-1346

Division of Global HIV and TB, Center for Global Health, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Objective: To examine morbidity and mortality risk among HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants.

Design: Secondary data analysis of HEU infants in a prospective cohort study of mother-infant pairs.

Methods: Infants were recruited from immunization clinics (n = 151) in Zimbabwe from February to August 2013, enrolled at 4-12 weeks age, and followed every 3 months until incident HIV-infection, death, or 18-month follow-up. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0000000000002567DOI Listing

Novel drug targets for treatment of cryptosporidiosis.

Expert Opin Ther Targets 2020 Jun 18. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Infectious Disease Division, Department of Internal Medicine University of Texas Medical Branch , Galveston, TX 77555-0435.

Introduction: species are protozoan parasites that are important causes of diarrheal disease including waterborne outbreaks, childhood diarrhea in resource-poor countries, and diarrhea in compromised hosts worldwide. Recent studies highlight importance of cryptosporidiosis in childhood diarrhea, malnutrition, and death in resource-poor countries. Despite this, only a single drug, nitazoxanide, has demonstrated efficacy in human cryptosporidiosis and its efficacy is limited in malnourished children and patients with HIV. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14728222.2020.1785432DOI Listing

Declining Trends in Childhood TB Notifications and Profile of Notified Patients in the City of Harare, Zimbabwe, from 2009 to 2018.

J Trop Med 2020 21;2020:4761051. Epub 2020 May 21.

Ministry of Health & Child Care, AIDS & TB Programme, Harare, Zimbabwe.

Globally, childhood tuberculosis (TB among those aged <15 years) is a neglected component of national TB programmes in high TB burden countries. Zimbabwe, a country in southern Africa, is a high burden country for TB, TB-HIV, and drug-resistant TB. In this study, we assessed trends in annual childhood TB notifications in Harare (the capital of Zimbabwe) from 2009 to 2018 and the demographic, clinical profiles, and treatment outcomes of childhood TB patients notified from 2015-2017 by reviewing the national TB programme records and reports. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/4761051DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7260627PMC

Accuracy of Xpert Ultra in the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis among children in Uganda: a sub-study from the SHINE trial.

J Clin Microbiol 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

MRC Clinical Trials Unit, University College London (UCL), London, United Kingdom.

Childhood tuberculosis presents significant diagnostic challenges associated with paucibacillary disease, and requires a more sensitive test. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of XpertMTB/Rif Ultra (Ultra) compared to other microbiological tests using respiratory samples from Ugandan children in the SHINE trial. SHINE is a randomized trial evaluating shorter treatment in 1204 children with minimal TB disease in Africa/India. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.00410-20DOI Listing
June 2020
3.993 Impact Factor

Maternal genitourinary infections and poor nutritional status increase risk of preterm birth in Gasabo District, Rwanda: a prospective, longitudinal, cohort study.

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2020 Jun 3;20(1):345. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

University of California San Francisco, Institute for Global Health Sciences, San Francisco, USA.

Background: Preterm birth (PTB) is a leading cause of early childhood mortality and morbidity, including long-term physical and mental impairment. The risk factors for PTB are complex and include maternal nutritional status and infections. This study aimed to identify potentially modifiable risk factors for targeted interventions to reduce the occurrence of PTB in Rwanda. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12884-020-03037-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7268654PMC

Predictors of CD4 count changes over time among children who initiated highly active antiretroviral therapy in Ethiopia.

Trop Med Health 2020 22;48:37. Epub 2020 May 22.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Institute of Public Health, College of Medicine & Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia.

Introduction: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection results in a gradual depletion of immune function, particularly CD4 cells. The CD4 assessment plays a significant role in assessing treatment responses and clinical decision-making for patients on combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-limited settings. However, new data on CD4 count changes are scarce; the volatility of CD4 counts after initiation of ART over time remains largely uncharacterized. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s41182-020-00224-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7243309PMC

Emotional violence in childhood and health conditions, risk-taking behaviors, and violence perpetration among young adults in Nigeria.

Child Abuse Negl 2020 Aug 21;106:104510. Epub 2020 May 21.

Division of Global HIV and TB, Center for Global Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Abuja, Nigeria.

Background: Globally, over 1 billion children are victims of violence against children annually. Studies examining the health consequences of childhood violence have mostly focused on childhood physical violence (PV) and sexual violence (SV). Recent evidence suggests that childhood emotional violence (EV) may also be deleterious to the health and wellbeing of victims. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2020.104510DOI Listing

Adolescent Opioid Misuse Attributable to Adverse Childhood Experiences.

J Pediatr 2020 May 10. Epub 2020 May 10.

Division of Violence Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, CDC.

Objectives: To estimate the proportion of opioid misuse attributable to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) among adolescents.

Study Design: A cross-sectional survey was administered to 10,546 7th‒12th grade students in northeastern Ohio in Spring 2018. Study measures included self-reported lifetime exposure to 10 ACEs and past 30 day use of nonmedical prescription opioid or heroin. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2020.05.001DOI Listing

Impact of WHO guidelines on trends in HIV testing and ART initiation among children living with HIV in Zambia.

AIDS Res Ther 2020 May 14;17(1):18. Epub 2020 May 14.

Department of Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.

Background: About 13 years since the introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for children living with HIV (CLHIV) in Zambia, HIV/AIDS testing and treatment guidelines for children have evolved over the years with limited documentation of long-term trends in the numbers testing HIV positive and initiating ART. We examined trends in HIV testing and ART initiation in Zambia.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using routinely collected patient level data from 496 health facilities across Zambia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12981-020-00277-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7226945PMC
May 2020
1.841 Impact Factor

The contribution of syndemic conditions to cardiovascular disease risk.

AIDS Care 2020 May 13:1-9. Epub 2020 May 13.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA.

The syndemic conditions of low education, childhood maltreatment, depression, HIV, alcohol and cocaine use, and obesity have been established as independent risk factors for cardiovascular risk, but research examining the association between syndemic conditions and cardiovascular risk in high-risk populations is lacking. A total of  = 503 participants underwent an ultrasound of the carotid artery to assess for atherosclerotic plaque. Participants, HIV-infected ( = 202) and HIV-uninfected ( = 301) with and without a history of cocaine use, were a mean age of 36. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09540121.2020.1761518DOI Listing

The Brain Retains: Nonhuman Primate Models for Pediatric HIV-1 in the CNS.

Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 2020 May 10. Epub 2020 May 10.

Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Perinatal HIV-1 infection is associated with an increased risk for neurologic impairments. With limited access to clinical specimens, animal models could advance our understanding of pediatric central nervous system (CNS) disease and viral persistence. Here, we summarize current findings on HIV-1 CNS infection from nonhuman primate (NHP) models and discuss their implications for improving pediatric clinical outcomes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11904-020-00503-4DOI Listing

Physical illnesses associated with childhood homelessness: a literature review.

Ir J Med Sci 2020 May 8. Epub 2020 May 8.

Graduate Entry Medical School (GEMS), University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland.

Background: Childhood homelessness is a growing concern in Ireland [1] creating a paediatric subpopulation at increased risk of physical illnesses, many with life-long consequences [2].

Aim: Our aim was to identify and categorize the physical morbidities prevalent in homeless children.

Methods: A review of the English-language literature on physical morbidities affecting homeless children (defined as ≤ 18 years of age) published from 1999 to 2019 was conducted. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11845-020-02233-3DOI Listing

Pediatric HIV: the Potential of Immune Therapeutics to Achieve Viral Remission and Functional Cure.

Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 2020 Jun;17(3):237-248

Duke Human Vaccine Institute, Duke University School of Medicine, 2 Genome Court MSRBII, Durham, NC, 27710, USA.

Purpose Of Review: In the absence of antiretroviral therapy (ART), more than 50% of perinatally HIV-infected children die by 2 years of age. Early ART from infancy is therefore a global recommendation and significantly improves immune health, child survival, and disease outcome. However, even early treatment does not prevent or eradicate the latent reservoir necessitating life-long ART. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11904-020-00495-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7296986PMC

Gender differences in the association between childhood sexual abuse and risk behaviors among people living with HIV in Haiti.

AIDS Care 2020 Apr 28:1-7. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

Department of Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, Robert Stempel College of Public Health and Social Work, Florida International University, Miami, FL, USA.

Research shows that in the Caribbean one-third of people living with HIV continue to engage in unprotected sexual practices. Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and HIV-related risk behaviors have been found to play a contributory role in HIV transmission. We aimed to analyze gender differences in the association between CSA and substance use and sexual risk behaviors among Haitians living with HIV. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09540121.2020.1757022DOI Listing

Are migration routes disease transmission routes? Understanding Hepatitis and HIV transmission amongst undocumented Pakistani migrants and asylum seekers in a Parisian suburb.

Anthropol Med 2020 Apr 27:1-17. Epub 2020 Apr 27.

University Hospitals Paris-Seine-Saint-Denis, CHU Avicenne, Bobigny, France.

Drawing on hospital-based interviews and fieldwork in a deprived Parisian suburb, this paper analyses the spatio-temporal dynamics of risk, exposure, and mobilities in individual stories of undocumented Pakistani male migrants, and asylum seekers-receiving treatment for single and combined diagnoses of HIV, and Hepatitis C and B. Inviting alignments with the 'sexual' turn in mobility studies, it prioritises the interface of all-male undocumented migration, mobility, sexuality, and homosociality in circumscribing disease transmission geneaologies. It questions the extent to which illegal migration routes are transmission routes, and risk environments assume different levels of intensity in everyday life in Pakistan, during the journey, and in France. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13648470.2019.1695170DOI Listing

The Challenge of Eliminating Childhood Tuberculosis in Cuba.

MEDICC Rev 2019 Oct;21(4):59-63

WHO's 2015 End Tuberculosis Strategy can succeed only through universal health coverage, social protection, poverty alleviation and effective multisector actions to tackle social determinants in general. The pediatric age group is particularly vulnerable to tuberculosis and historically neglected worldwide. However, this group is a priority within Cuba's National Tuberculosis Control Pro-gram that has functioned since 1970, and Cuba is considered a low-incidence country with rates < 7 per 100,000 population since 2011. Read More

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October 2019

Clinicopathologic Characterization of Children With B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Over 10 Years at a Tertiary Center in Cape Town, South Africa.

J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2020 May;42(4):e219-e227

Division of Haematology, National Health Laboratory Service (NHLS), Groote Schuur Hospital and the University of Cape Town.

Background: We characterized B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) cases over 10 years at a tertiary children's hospital to contribute to the body of knowledge on pediatric lymphoma in developing countries with a high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) burden.

Methods: A retrospective cohort study was carried out using clinical and laboratory records of children newly diagnosed with B-cell NHL from January 2005 to December 2014.

Results: Seventy-five children ≤15 years of age were included. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MPH.0000000000001709DOI Listing

Uptake and willingness to use PrEP among Chinese gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men with experience of sexualized drug use in the past year.

BMC Infect Dis 2020 Apr 22;20(1):299. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Centre for Health Behaviours Research, JC School of Public Health and Primary Care, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China.

Background: Sexualized drug use (SDU) refers to use of any psychoactive substance before/during sexual intercourse. Chemsex is a subset of SDU, which is defined as the use of some specific psychoactive substances (methamphetamine, mephedrone, γ-hydroxybutyrate, ketamine and cocaine) before/during sexual intercourse. SDU and chemsex are prevalent among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (GBMSM). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-020-05024-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7178573PMC

Tuberculosis vaccine: A journey from BCG to present.

Life Sci 2020 Jul 16;252:117594. Epub 2020 Apr 16.

Immunobiology Group, International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, New Delhi, India. Electronic address:

Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death worldwide due to an infectious disease, causing around 1.6 million deaths each year. This situation has become more complicated by the emergence of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2020.117594DOI Listing

Neonatal, infant and child health in South Africa: Reflecting on the past towards a better future.

S Afr Med J 2019 Dec 5;109(11b):83-88. Epub 2019 Dec 5.

Health Systems Research Unit, South African Medical Research Council, Pretoria, South Africa; Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, South Africa; HIV Prevention Research Unit, South African Medical Research Council, Pretoria, South Africa.

Although the neonatal mortality rate in South Africa (SA) has remained stagnant at 12 deaths per 1 000 live births, the infant and under-5 mortality rates have significantly declined since peaking in 2003. Policy changes that have influenced this decline include policies to prevent vertical HIV transmission, earlier treatment of children living with HIV, expanded immunisation policies, strengthening breastfeeding practices, and health policies to contain tobacco and sugar use. The Sustainable Development Goals (2016 - 2030) have shifted the focus from keeping children alive, as expressed in the Millennium Development Goals (1990 - 2015), to achieving optimal health through the 'Survive, thrive and transform' global agenda. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7196/SAMJ.2019.v109i11b.14301DOI Listing
December 2019

The impact of health programmes to prevent vertical transmission of HIV. Advances, emerging health challenges and research priorities for children exposed to or living with HIV: Perspectives from South Africa.

S Afr Med J 2019 Dec 5;109(11b):77-82. Epub 2019 Dec 5.

Health Systems Research Unit, South African Research Council, Cape Town, South Africa; Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, South Africa; HIV Prevention Research Unit, South African Medical Research Council, Cape Town, South Africa.

Over the past three decades, tremendous global progress in preventing and treating paediatric HIV infection has been achieved. This paper highlights the emerging health challenges of HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) children and the ageing population of children living with HIV (CLHIV), summarises programmatic opportunities for care, and highlights currently conducted research and remaining research priorities in high HIV-prevalence settings such as South Africa. Emerging health challenges amongst HEU children and CLHIV include preterm delivery, suboptimal growth, neurodevelopmental delay, mental health challenges, infectious disease morbidity and mortality, and acute and chronic respiratory illnesses including tuberculosis, pneumonia, bronchiectasis and lymphocytic interstitial pneumonitis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7196/SAMJ.2019.v109i11b.14292DOI Listing
December 2019

Antitumorigenic action of nelfinavir: Effects on multiple myeloma and hematologic malignancies (Review).

Oncol Rep 2020 Jun 26;43(6):1729-1736. Epub 2020 Mar 26.

Division of Hematology, Department of Human Pathology in Adulthood and Childhood 'Gaetano Barresi', University of Messina, I‑98125 Messina, Italy.

Protease inhibitors (PIs) inhibit HIV‑1 and HIV‑2 proteases, impeding virus replication and liberation of viral elements from infected cells. In human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) subjects receiving PI‑based treatment, an impressive decrease in the amount of HIV‑associated cancers, unconnected to viral burden or CD4 amount was observed. Research has reported that PIs have influence on cancer proliferation, spread, and survival as an effect on endoplasmic reticulum stress, proteasome, NF‑κB and Akt signalling. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/or.2020.7562DOI Listing

First Report on HHV-6 Infection Among HIV-Infected Individuals Residing in Surabaya, Indonesia.

HIV AIDS (Auckl) 2020 17;12:107-112. Epub 2020 Mar 17.

Institute of Tropical Disease, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia.

Background: Morbidity and mortality from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) are often associated with the reactivation of a herpes virus infection. Human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) is usually common in childhood infections that remain latent and can act as opportunists during immunosuppression to reactivate and cause disease. In human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, the impact of HHV-6 infection can be an up-regulator of HIV replication and accelerate progress towards AIDS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/HIV.S232146DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7085325PMC

Comprehensive infectious disease screening in a cohort of unaccompanied refugee minors in Germany from 2016 to 2017: A cross-sectional study.

PLoS Med 2020 03 31;17(3):e1003076. Epub 2020 Mar 31.

Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Medical Center-University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.

Background: Information regarding the prevalence of infectious diseases (IDs) in child and adolescent refugees in Europe is scarce. Here, we evaluate a standardized ID screening protocol in a cohort of unaccompanied refugee minors (URMs) in a municipal region of southwest Germany.

Methods And Findings: From January 2016 to December 2017, we employed a structured questionnaire to screen a cohort of 890 URMs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1003076DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7108686PMC

Functional Outcomes among a Cohort of Children in Northeastern Brazil Meeting Criteria for Follow-Up of Congenital Zika Virus Infection.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 05;102(5):955-963

Division of Human Development and Disability, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Atlanta, Georgia.

Following the large outbreak of Zika virus in the Western Hemisphere, many infants have been born with congenital Zika virus infection. It is important to describe the functional outcomes seen with congenital infections to allow for their recognition and appropriate interventions. We evaluated 120 children conceived during the 2015-2016 Zika virus outbreak in Paraíba, Brazil, who were approximately 24 months old, to assess functional outcomes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0961DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7204564PMC

Sensory deprivation in children living in suboptimal care environments.

Authors:
Alan Glasper

Br J Nurs 2020 Mar;29(6):376-377

University of Southampton.

Emeritus Professor , from the University of Southampton, reflects on new research which illuminates the impact of sensory deprivation in early childhood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12968/bjon.2020.29.6.376DOI Listing

Susceptibility to Hepatitis A Virus Infection in the United States, 2007-2016.

Clin Infect Dis 2020 Mar 20. Epub 2020 Mar 20.

Division of Viral Hepatitis, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Atlanta, GA.

Background: Despite national immunization efforts, including universal childhood hepatitis A (HepA) vaccination recommendations in 2006, hepatitis A virus (HAV)-associated outbreaks have increased in the United States. Unvaccinated or previously uninfected persons are susceptible to HAV infection, yet the susceptibility in the U.S. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa298DOI Listing

Correlation between CD4 count and glomerular filtration rate or urine protein:creatinine ratio in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children.

Kidney Res Clin Pract 2020 Mar;39(1):40-46

Department of Child Health, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran/Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital, Bandung, Indonesia.

Background: Studies on kidney complications in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children are lacking. CD4 T lymphocytes are an important immune functions regulator and used as a basis for initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) and monitoring disease progression. This study aims to determine the correlation between CD4 and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) or urine protein:creatinine ratio (uPCR) as markers of kidney complications. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.23876/j.krcp.19.093DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7105624PMC

BK polyomavirus diversity-Why viral variation matters.

Rev Med Virol 2020 Mar 3:e2102. Epub 2020 Mar 3.

Division of Nephrology, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

BK polyomavirus (BKPyV or BKV) is a non-enveloped, circular double-stranded DNA virus that may exceed 80% seroprevalence in adults. BKV infection typically occurs during childhood, and the majority of adults are latently infected. While BKV infection is rarely associated with clinical disease in most individuals, in immunosuppressed individuals, reactivation may cause kidney (BK-associated nephropathy) or bladder (hemorrhagic cystitis and ureteral stenosis) injury. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/rmv.2102DOI Listing

Sexual Health History: Techniques and Tips.

Am Fam Physician 2020 03;101(5):286-293

The Institute for Sexuality and Intimacy, St. Louis, MO, USA.

Family physicians should use a proactive, integrated, patient-centered approach to sexual health that includes, but is not limited to, disease identification and treatment. Successfully delivering positive, affirming, nonjudgmental sexual health care requires intentionally creating safe spaces for all patients. Physician and staff training could include identifying individual implicit bias around sexuality and sexual topics, adverse childhood experiences, and trauma-informed care. Read More

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Childhood tuberculosis treatment outcome and its association with HIV co-infection in Ethiopia: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Trop Med Health 2020 18;48. Epub 2020 Feb 18.

Department of Pediatrics and Child Health Nursing, School of Nursing, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia.

Background: Tuberculosis is the second leading cause of death from an infectious disease worldwide, next to HIV. Hence, initiating and determining the national tuberculosis treatment program and outcome is crucial. However, the childhood tuberculosis treatment outcome in Ethiopia was not investigated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s41182-020-00195-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7027074PMC
February 2020

Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia and follicular bronchiolitis in children: A registry-based case series.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2020 04 10;55(4):909-917. Epub 2020 Feb 10.

Hauner Children's Hospital and KUBUS Research Center, University of Munich, Munich, Germany.

Objectives: Pediatric lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia (LIP) and follicular bronchiolitis (FB) are poorly characterized lymphoproliferative disorders. We present and quantify demographics, radiological and histopathologic patterns, treatments and their responses, and outcomes in non-HIV-infected children with LIP and FB.

Methods: This structured registry-based study included a retrospective chart review, blinded analysis of imaging studies and lung biopsies, genetic testing, and evaluation of treatments and outcomes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.24680DOI Listing

Systemic HIV and SIV latency reversal via non-canonical NF-κB signalling in vivo.

Nature 2020 02 22;578(7793):160-165. Epub 2020 Jan 22.

International Center for the Advancement of Translational Science, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

Long-lasting, latently infected resting CD4 T cells are the greatest obstacle to obtaining a cure for HIV infection, as these cells can persist despite decades of treatment with antiretroviral therapy (ART). Estimates indicate that more than 70 years of continuous, fully suppressive ART are needed to eliminate the HIV reservoir. Alternatively, induction of HIV from its latent state could accelerate the decrease in the reservoir, thus reducing the time to eradication. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-1951-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7111210PMC
February 2020
42.351 Impact Factor

Robust and persistent reactivation of SIV and HIV by N-803 and depletion of CD8 cells.

Nature 2020 02 22;578(7793):154-159. Epub 2020 Jan 22.

Emory Vaccine Center and Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) persists indefinitely in individuals with HIV who receive antiretroviral therapy (ART) owing to a reservoir of latently infected cells that contain replication-competent virus. Here, to better understand the mechanisms responsible for latency persistence and reversal, we used the interleukin-15 superagonist N-803 in conjunction with the depletion of CD8 lymphocytes in ART-treated macaques infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). Although N-803 alone did not reactivate virus production, its administration after the depletion of CD8 lymphocytes in conjunction with ART treatment induced robust and persistent reactivation of the virus in vivo. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-1946-0DOI Listing
February 2020

Early-onset Paget's disease of bone in a Mexican family caused by a novel tandem duplication (77dup27) in TNFRSF11A that encodes RANK.

Bone 2020 Apr 8;133:115224. Epub 2020 Jan 8.

Division of Bone and Mineral Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine at Barnes-Jewish Hospital, St. Louis, MO, USA; Center for Metabolic Bone Disease and Molecular Research, Shriners Hospitals for Children-St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, USA. Electronic address:

Four heterozygous in-frame tandem duplications of different lengths in TNFRSF11A, the gene that encodes receptor activator of nuclear factor κB (RANK), constitutively activate RANK and lead to high turnover skeletal disease. Each duplication elongates the signal peptide of RANK. The 18-base pair (bp) duplication at position 84 (84dup18) causes familial expansile osteolysis (FEO), the 15-bp duplication at position 84 (84dup15) causes expansile skeletal hyperphosphatasia (ESH), the 12-bp duplication at position 90 (90dup12) causes panostotic expansile bone disease (PEBD), and the 27-bp duplication causes early-onset Paget's disease of bone (PDB2). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2020.115224DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7179970PMC

Serious adverse drug reactions at two children's hospitals in South Africa.

BMC Pediatr 2020 Jan 4;20(1). Epub 2020 Jan 4.

Department of Medicine, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.

Background: The high HIV prevalence in South Africa may potentially be shaping the local adverse drug reaction (ADR) burden. We aimed to describe the prevalence and characteristics of serious ADRs at admission, and during admission, to two South African children's hospitals.

Methods: We reviewed the folders of children admitted over sequential 30-day periods in 2015 to the medical wards and intensive care units of each hospital. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12887-019-1892-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6942333PMC
January 2020

Sexual risk classes among youth experiencing homelessness: Relation to childhood adversities, current mental symptoms, substance use, and HIV testing.

PLoS One 2020 3;15(1):e0227331. Epub 2020 Jan 3.

University of Houston, Graduate College of Social Work, Houston, TX, United States of America.

The aim of this study was to determine whether there are meaningful subgroups with different types of sexual risk behaviors among youth experiencing homelessness and examine the associations between potential classes and other risk variables. A latent class analysis was used to identify classes of youth according to sexual risk behaviors and sexual assault. A two-class solution was found to be the best fit for the data-Lower and Higher Risk groups. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0227331PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6941897PMC
April 2020
3.234 Impact Factor

Machine-learning classification of neurocognitive performance in children with perinatal HIV initiating de novo antiretroviral therapy.

AIDS 2020 04;34(5):737-748

HIV Netherlands Australia Thailand (HIV-NAT) Research Collaboration, Thai Red Cross AIDS Research Center.

Objective: To develop a predictive model of neurocognitive trajectories in children with perinatal HIV (pHIV).

Design: Machine learning analysis of baseline and longitudinal predictors derived from clinical measures utilized in pediatric HIV.

Methods: Two hundred and eighty-five children (ages 2-14 years at baseline; Mage = 6. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0000000000002471DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7072001PMC

Bacterial pathogens and resistance causing community acquired paediatric bloodstream infections in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Antimicrob Resist Infect Control 2019 30;8:207. Epub 2019 Dec 30.

1Service de Pédiatrie-Urgences, Hôpital Louis-Mourier, APHP, 178 rue des Renouillers, 92700 Colombes, France.

Background: Despite a high mortality rate in childhood, there is limited evidence on the causes and outcomes of paediatric bloodstream infections from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to characterize the bacterial causes of paediatric bloodstream infections in LMICs and their resistance profile.

Methods: We searched Pubmed and Embase databases between January 1st 1990 and October 30th 2019, combining MeSH and free-text terms for "sepsis" and "low-middle-income countries" in children. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13756-019-0673-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6937962PMC
December 2019

[Tuberculosis in children and adolescents in Ecuador: analysis of reporting, disease characteristics and treatment outcomeTuberculose em crianças e adolescentes no Equador: análise da notificação, características da doença e resultados do tratamento].

Rev Panam Salud Publica 2019 20;43:e104. Epub 2019 Dec 20.

Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana Medellín Colombia Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, Medellín, Colombia.

Objectives: To estimate the tuberculosis (TB) burden in children under 15 years of age and to describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics and the results of the anti-tuberculosis treatment in Ecuador.

Methods: A retrospective study was carried out using data from the national TB programm for 2015 and 2016. The rate and percentage of cases of childhood TB were estimated and the disease characteristics and treatment outcome were described according to age categories: 0-4, 5-9 and 10-14 years. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.26633/RPSP.2019.104DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6922074PMC
December 2019

Measuring and addressing the childhood tuberculosis reporting gaps in Pakistan: The first ever national inventory study among children.

PLoS One 2019 30;14(12):e0227186. Epub 2019 Dec 30.

Global TB Programme, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.

Introduction: Tuberculosis in children may be difficult to diagnose and is often not reported to routine surveillance systems. Understanding and addressing the tuberculosis (TB) case detection and reporting gaps strengthens national routine TB surveillance systems.

Objective: The present study aimed to measure the percentage of childhood TB cases that are diagnosed but not reported to the national surveillance system in Pakistan. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0227186PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6936771PMC
April 2020
3.234 Impact Factor

The effect of childhood trauma, ApoE genotype and HIV-1 viral protein R variants on change in cognitive performance.

BMC Res Notes 2019 Dec 27;12(1):828. Epub 2019 Dec 27.

Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Francie van Zijl Drive, Tygerberg, 7505, South Africa.

Objective: Gene-environment interactions contribute to the development of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. We examined whether childhood trauma, apolipoprotein E isoforms and viral protein R (Vpr) variants were associated with change in cognitive performance. Seventy-three seropositive women completed neuropsychological assessments at baseline and 1-year follow-up. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13104-019-4869-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6935155PMC
December 2019

Loss of Preexisting Immunological Memory Among Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Women Despite Immune Reconstitution With Antiretroviral Therapy.

J Infect Dis 2020 Jun;222(2):243-251

Division of Neuroscience, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Oregon Health & Science University, Beaverton, Oregon, USA.

Background: It is unclear whether human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection results in permanent loss of T-cell memory or if it affects preexisting antibodies to childhood vaccinations or infections.

Methods: We conducted a matched cohort study involving 50 pairs of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women. Total memory T-cell responses were measured after anti-CD3 or vaccinia virus (VV) stimulation to measure T cells elicited after childhood smallpox vaccination. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiz678DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7323495PMC

Navigating the heterogeneous landscape of pediatric Kaposi sarcoma.

Cancer Metastasis Rev 2019 12;38(4):749-758

Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA.

Vivid descriptions of Kaposi sarcoma (KS) occurring in children and adolescents from central and eastern Africa originated over 50 years ago. Unique clinical characteristics of pediatric KS in Africa were well described within these geographic regions that were eventually understood to be endemic for human herpesvirus-8/Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus (HHV-8/KSHV) infection, the causative agent of KS. Having catapulted in incidence with the HIV epidemic, KS is currently among the top five most common childhood cancers in numerous countries throughout the region. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10555-019-09823-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7050576PMC
December 2019
7.234 Impact Factor

Prevalence and factors associated with HIV and syphilis infection among children aged 0-36 months in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania: a community-based cross-sectional study.

Trop Med Health 2019 21;47:53. Epub 2019 Nov 21.

7Department of Forensic Medicine, Institute of Public Health, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

Background: Childhood mortality is high in sub-Saharan Africa. Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV and congenital syphilis are among significant causes. Dual elimination of these two infections is one of the international goals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s41182-019-0183-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6868844PMC
November 2019

Premature mortality attributable to socioeconomic inequality in England between 2003 and 2018: an observational study.

Lancet Public Health 2020 Jan 5;5(1):e33-e41. Epub 2019 Dec 5.

UCL Collaborative Centre for Inclusion Health, University College London, London, UK; Institute of Epidemiology and Health Care, University College London, London, UK.

Background: Low socioeconomic position is consistently associated with increased risk of premature death. The aim of this study is to measure the aggregate scale of inequality in premature mortality for the whole population of England.

Methods: We used mortality records from the UK Office for National Statistics to study all 2 465 285 premature deaths (defined as those before age 75 years) in England between Jan 1, 2003, and Dec 31, 2018. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2468-2667(19)30219-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7098478PMC
January 2020

The effectiveness of using a WeChat account to improve exclusive breastfeeding in Huzhu County Qinghai Province, China: protocol for a randomized control trial.

BMC Public Health 2019 Dec 2;19(1):1603. Epub 2019 Dec 2.

Department of Integrated Early Childhood Development, Capital Institute of Pediatrics, No. 2 Yabao Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing, 100020, People's Republic of China.

Background: An exclusive breastfeeding rate in the first 6 months of life of at least 50% is one of the six World Health Organization global nutrition targets for 2025. However, the exclusive breastfeeding rate in China is quite low and decreasing which makes it urgent to explore effective ways to reverse the current downward trend. As mobile technologies have rapidly developed, mobile communication apps such as WeChat (one of the largest social networking platforms in China) are well accepted and have the potential to improve health behaviors in a convenient way. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-019-7676-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6889429PMC
December 2019
2.264 Impact Factor

Immunological mechanisms of inducing HIV immunity in infants.

Vaccine 2020 01 21;38(3):411-415. Epub 2019 Nov 21.

Vaccine Research Program, Division of AIDS, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, MD, USA.

The potential advantages and unique challenges of the early life immune system for the development of HIV-specific broadly neutralizing antibodies were discussed during a workshop entitled "Immunological Mechanisms of Inducing HIV Immunity in Infants" sponsored by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), National Institutes of Health (NIH) in conjunction with the 2018 HIVR4P Conference held in Madrid, Spain. A safe and effective HIV vaccine remains a critical need in the fight against the HIV pandemic, especially to prevent emerging infections in infants, adolescents, and young adults. To successfully target these populations, a vaccine should ideally induce protective immune responses during childhood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.11.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6955149PMC
January 2020

Lifetime Changes in CD4 T-cell count, Viral Load Suppression and Adherence Among Adolescents Living With HIV in Urban Peru.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2020 01;39(1):54-56

From the Department of Global Health and Social Medicine, Harvard Medical School.

We quantified longitudinal changes in CD4 T-cell count, viral load suppression and combined antiretroviral therapy adherence from childhood to adolescence among patients living with HIV in urban Peru. Mean CD4 count and viral load suppression decreased dramatically in early adolescence (13 years of age) in tandem with increases in nonadherence. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/INF.0000000000002501DOI Listing
January 2020