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    Comparison of HIV Testing among Children and Adults with Tuberculosis, Vietnam.
    J Tuberc Res 2017 Dec 29;5(4):292-297. Epub 2017 Dec 29.
    Division of Global HIV and TB, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, USA.
    HIV testing among persons with tuberculosis (TB) results in high-yield identification of persons infected with HIV. To evaluate differences in HIV testing among children versus adults with TB in Vietnam, we collected and analyzed age-disaggregated facility and aggregated provincial data from the National Tuberculosis Program. HIV testing was incompletely documented for >70% of children, whereas adult testing data were >90% complete. Read More

    Risk factors for acute respiratory infections in children under five years attending the Bamenda Regional Hospital in Cameroon.
    BMC Pulm Med 2018 Jan 16;18(1). Epub 2018 Jan 16.
    Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaoundé 1, Yaoundé, Cameroon.
    Background: Acute respiratory infections (ARI) are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in under-five children worldwide. About 6.6 million children less than 5 years of age die every year in the world; 95% of them in low-income countries and one third of the total deaths is due to ARI. Read More

    National audit of perinatal HIV infections in the UK, 2006-2013: what lessons can be learnt?
    HIV Med 2018 Jan 16. Epub 2018 Jan 16.
    Population Policy & Practice Programme, UCL Great Ormond Street Institute of Child Health, London, UK.
    Objectives: The aim of the study was to investigate circumstances surrounding perinatal transmissions of HIV (PHIVs) in the UK.

    Methods: The National Study of HIV in Pregnancy and Childhood conducts comprehensive surveillance of all pregnancies in women diagnosed with HIV infection and their infants in the UK; reports of all HIV-diagnosed children are also sought, regardless of country of birth. Children with PHIV born in 2006-2013 and reported by 2014 were included in an audit, with additional data collection via telephone interviews with clinicians involved in each case. Read More

    Multi-drug resistant non-typhoidal Salmonella associated with invasive disease in western Kenya.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 Jan 12;12(1):e0006156. Epub 2018 Jan 12.
    Departments of Global Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States of America.
    Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) is a leading cause of bloodstream infections in Africa, but the various contributions of host susceptibility versus unique pathogen virulence factors are unclear. We used data from a population-based surveillance platform (population ~25,000) between 2007-2014 and NTS genome-sequencing to compare host and pathogen-specific factors between individuals presenting with NTS bacteremia and those presenting with NTS diarrhea. Salmonella Typhimurium ST313 and Salmonella Enteritidis ST11 were the most common isolates. Read More

    Influence of birth origin and risk factor profile on hepatitis B mortality: Philadelphia, PA 2003-2013.
    Ann Epidemiol 2017 Dec 22. Epub 2017 Dec 22.
    Division of Disease Control, Philadelphia Department of Public Health, Philadelphia, PA.
    Purpose: Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) affects specific subpopulations in the United States, including individuals born in HBV-endemic countries and persons engaging in high-risk behaviors.

    Methods: The 2003-2013 HBV registry data and surveillance investigations for Philadelphia, PA were matched to death certificate data to examine demographic, risk factor, and cause of death characteristics among HBV-infected populations. Bivariate analysis compared investigated foreign-born (FB) and US-born chronic HBV individuals. Read More

    Hepatitis A, B, C and HIV seroprevalence among Syrian refugee children admitted to outpatient clinics.
    Infez Med 2017 Dec;25(4):339-343
    Division of Paediatric Infectious Diseases, Tepecik Training and Research Hospital, Izmir, Turkey.
    Viral hepatitis is the most common cause of serious health problems such as liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Leading to immunodeficiency disorders through different mechanisms, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) causes the development of severe secondary infections. Hepatitis A (HAV) is thought to spread by the faecal-oral route, while Hepatitis B (HBV), Hepatitis C (HCV) and HIV are mostly transmitted vertically during childhood. Read More

    Utility of Point-of-Care Ultrasound in Children with Pulmonary Tuberculosis.
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 2017 Dec 22. Epub 2017 Dec 22.
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital, and MRC Unit on Child & Adolescent Health, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Background: Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) detects extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) in HIV-infected adults but has not been evaluated in children despite their higher risk of EPTB. This study's aims were to investigate feasibility of POCUS for EPTB in children, frequency of POCUS findings suggestive of EPTB, and time to sonographic resolution of findings with treatment.

    Methods: This prospective South African cohort study enrolled children with suspected PTB. Read More

    Effectiveness of WHO's pragmatic screening algorithm for child contacts of tuberculosis cases in resource-constrained settings: a prospective cohort study in Uganda.
    Lancet Respir Med 2017 Dec 19. Epub 2017 Dec 19.
    Uganda-CWRU Research Collaboration, Makerere University and Mulago Hospital, Kampala, Uganda.
    Background: Tuberculosis is a leading cause of global childhood mortality; however, interventions to detect undiagnosed tuberculosis in children are underused. Child contact tracing has been widely recommended but poorly implemented in resource-constrained settings. WHO has proposed a pragmatic screening approach for managing child contacts. Read More

    Burden and correlates of mental health diagnoses among sex workers in an urban setting.
    BMC Womens Health 2017 Dec 19;17(1):133. Epub 2017 Dec 19.
    Gender and Sexual Health Initiative, British Columbia Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS, St. Paul's Hospital, 608-1081 Burrard Street, Vancouver, BC, V6Z 1Y6, Canada.
    Background: Women involved in both street-level and off-street sex work face disproportionate health and social inequities compared to the general population. While much research has focused on HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among sex workers, there remains a gap in evidence regarding the broader health issues faced by this population, including mental health. Given limited evidence describing the mental health of women in sex work, our objective was to evaluate the burden and correlates of mental health diagnoses among this population in Vancouver, Canada. Read More

    Childhood multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in the European Union and European Economic Area: an analysis of tuberculosis surveillance data from 2007 to 2015.
    Euro Surveill 2017 Nov;22(47)
    European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, Stockholm, Sweden.
    BackgroundConfirming tuberculosis (TB) in children and obtaining information on drug susceptibility is essential to ensure adequate treatment. We assessed whether there are gaps in diagnosis and treatment of multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB in children in the European Union and European Economic Area (EU/EEA), quantified the burden of MDR TB in children and characterised cases. Methods: We analysed surveillance data from 2007 to 2015 for paediatric cases younger than 15 years. Read More

    Infectious diseases in Poland in 2015
    Przegl Epidemiol 2017 ;71(3):295-309
    National Institute of Public Health – National Institute of Hygiene in Warsaw, Department of Epidemiology
    Purpose Of The Study: This is the next annual analysis of the situation of infectious and parasitic diseases in Poland in 2015 within the framework of the Epidemiological Chronicle of Przegląd Epidemiologiczny - Epidemiological Review. Its purpose is to identify potential threats to the health of populations from infectious diseases occurring in Poland with reference to other parts of the globe.

    Material And Methods: This paper is an introduction to more detailed studies of the epidemiological situation of selected infectious diseases and summarizes the results of the surveillance of infectious diseases in Poland in 2015. Read More

    Prevalence of Asymptomatic Parasitemia and Gametocytemia in HIV-Infected Children on Differing Antiretroviral Therapy.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2018 Jan;98(1):67-70
    Department of Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Disease and Immunology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York.
    Laboratory data and prior pediatric reports indicate that HIV protease inhibitor (PI)-based antiretroviral therapy (ARV) kills gametocytes and reduces rates of gametocytemia, but not asymptomatic parasitemia, in a high malaria-transmission area. To determine whether ARV regimen impacts these rates in areas with less-intense malaria transmission, we compared asymptomatic parasitemia and gametocytemia rates in HIV-infected children by ARV regimen in Lilongwe, Malawi, an area of low-to-moderate transmission intensity. HIV PI lopinavir-ritonavir (LPV-rtv) ARV- or non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor nevirapine ARV-treated children did not differ in the rates of polymerase chain reaction-detected asymptomatic parasitemia (relative risk [RR] 0. Read More

    Immunity Following Childhood Vaccinations in Perinatally HIV-Exposed Children with and without HIV Infection in Latin America.
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 2017 Nov 14. Epub 2017 Nov 14.
    1 Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, UNIFESP, São Paulo, Brazil 2 Westat, Rockville, MD, USA 3 Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil 4 Clínica de Inmunodeficiencias/Depto. de Infectología, Hospital Infantil de Mexico Federico Gomez, Mexico City 5 Department of Child & Adolescent Health, the University of the West Indies, Jamaica 6 National Institute of Child Health and Faculty of Medicine of National University of San Marcos of Lima Peru 7 Hospital Federal dos Servidores do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil 8 Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Argentina 9 Instituto de Pesquisas Biomédicas da Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul and Irmandade da Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Porto Alegre, both in Porto Alegre, Brazil 10 Maternal and Pediatric Infectious Disease Branch, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.
    Background: Perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV) children are at risk for undervaccination and poor vaccine response at four years of age. Childhood vaccine coverage and immune response were compared between PHIV and HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) children in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Methods: PHIV and HEU children were enrolled prospectively at fifteen sites from 2002-2009. Read More

    Relationship Between Childhood Sexual Abuse and HIV-Related Risks Among Men Who Have Sex with Men: Findings from Mainland China.
    Arch Sex Behav 2017 Nov 13. Epub 2017 Nov 13.
    Key Laboratory of Cognition and Personality, Southwest University, Chongqing, China.
    Men who have sex with men (MSM) carry the burden of HIV infection in China. Outside of China, a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has been associated with HIV-related risks (behavioral, sexual, and mental health outcomes) among MSM. We therefore evaluated the relationship between CSA and these HIV-related risks among MSM in China. Read More

    Use of Multiplex Quantitative PCR To Evaluate the Impact of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine on Nasopharyngeal Pneumococcal Colonization in African Children.
    mSphere 2017 Nov-Dec;2(6). Epub 2017 Nov 8.
    Department of Science and Technology/National Research Foundation, Vaccine Preventable Diseases, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) immunization of children induces shifts in colonizing pneumococcal serotypes. This study evaluated the effect of infant vaccination with 7-valent PCV (PCV7) on vaccine serotype (VT) colonization and whether the increase in nonvaccine serotype (NVT) was due to either unmasking of previously low-density-colonizing serotypes or increase in acquisition of NVT. A multiplex quantitative PCR (qPCR) was used to evaluate VT and NVT nasopharyngeal colonization in archived swabs of PCV-vaccinated and PCV-unvaccinated African children at 9 and 15 to 16 months of age. Read More

    Sixteen-year history of rituximab therapy for 1085 pemphigus vulgaris patients: A systematic review.
    Int Immunopharmacol 2018 Jan 10;54:131-138. Epub 2017 Nov 10.
    Autoimmune Bullous Diseases Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is a rare autoimmune disease due to the production of pathogenic autoantibodies directed against desmoglein 1 and 3, usually affecting both skin and mucous membranes. Recently, rituximab, a chimeric IgG1 monoclonal antibody which targets the CD20 molecules have been regarded as a promising treatment for PV. In this study, a systematic review was conducted to conclude on how and which PV patients could benefit from rituximab infusion. Read More

    Assessment of the Combined Effect of Epstein-Barr Virus and Plasmodium falciparum Infections on Endemic Burkitt Lymphoma Using a Multiplex Serological Approach.
    Front Immunol 2017 26;8:1284. Epub 2017 Oct 26.
    ISGlobal, Barcelona Centre for International Health Research (CRESIB), Hospital Clínic, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a necessary cause of endemic Burkitt lymphoma (eBL), while the role of Plasmodium falciparum in eBL remains uncertain. This study aimed to generate new hypotheses on the interplay between both infections in the development of eBL by investigating the IgG and IgM profiles against several EBV and P. falciparum antigens. Read More

    Re-establishing safer medical-circumcision-integrated initiation ceremonies for HIV prevention in a rural setting in Papua New Guinea. A multi-method acceptability study.
    PLoS One 2017 8;12(11):e0187577. Epub 2017 Nov 8.
    College of Medicine and Dentistry, James Cook University, Queensland, Australia.
    Background: Efforts to stem the spread of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) in Papua New Guinea (PNG) are hampered by multiple interrelated factors including limited health services, extreme diversities in culture and language and highly prevalent gender inequity, domestic violence and poverty. In the rural district of Yangoru-Saussia, a revival of previously ceased male initiation ceremonies (MICs) is being considered for a comprehensive approach to HIV prevention. In this study, we explore the local acceptability of this undertaking including replacing traditional penile cutting practices with medical male circumcision (MMC). Read More

    The experience of violence against children in domestic servitude in Haiti: Results from the Violence Against Children Survey, Haiti 2012.
    Child Abuse Negl 2018 Feb 4;76:184-193. Epub 2017 Nov 4.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Center for Global Health Division of Global HIV/AIDS Haiti, U.S. Embassy Tabarre, PO Box 1634, Haiti. Electronic address:
    Background: There have been estimates that over 150,000 Haitian children are living in servitude. Child domestic servants who perform unpaid labor are referred to as "restavèks." Restavèks are often stigmatized, prohibited from attending school, and isolated from family placing them at higher risk for experiencing violence. Read More

    Sex-based differences in neurocognitive functioning in HIV-infected young adults.
    AIDS 2018 Jan;32(2):217-225
    HIV Department, 'Dr Victor Babes' Hospital for Infectious and Tropical Diseases, Bucharest, Romania.
    Introduction: Sex differences in cognition of HIV positive (HIV) patients are controversial. We aimed to investigate the relationship between cognition, HIV status, and sex, in a highly homogenous cohort of young Romanians parenterally infected during early childhood.

    Methods: In total, 250 HIV participants were compared with age-matched HIV negative (HIV) controls (n = 72) in a cross-sectional study. Read More

    Child Sexual Abuse and Negative Affect as Shared Risk Factors for Sexual Aggression and Sexual HIV Risk Behavior in Heterosexual Men.
    Arch Sex Behav 2018 Feb 31;47(2):465-480. Epub 2017 Oct 31.
    The Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender, and Reproduction, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, USA.
    Previous research has suggested that sexually aggressive behavior and sexual HIV risk behavior are associated. Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is a well-established risk factor for both types of problematic sexual behavior. Negative affect (i. Read More

    Life History theory hypotheses on child growth: Potential implications for short and long-term child growth, development and health.
    Am J Phys Anthropol 2018 Jan 26;165(1):4-19. Epub 2017 Oct 26.
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, MRC/Wits Developmental Pathways for Health Research Unit, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, Gauteng 2193, South Africa.
    Life history theory integrates ecological, physiological, and molecular layers within an evolutionary framework to understand organisms' strategies to optimize survival and reproduction. Two life history hypotheses and their implications for child growth, development, and health (illustrated in the South African context) are reviewed here. One hypothesis suggests that there is an energy trade-off between linear growth and brain growth. Read More

    Association between intimate partner violence & HIV/AIDS: Exploring the pathways in Indian context.
    Indian J Med Res 2017 Jun;145(6):815-823
    Department of Community Medicine, Armed Forces Medical College, Pune, India.
    Background & Objectives: Violence against women cutting across diverse socio-economic classes is an under-recognized human rights violation in the world. This analysis was undertaken to examine the prevalence along with predictors of intimate partner violence (IPV) and its association with HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Indian ever-married women.

    Methods: The data obtained from 2005 to 2006 third round of National Family Health Survey-3 (NFHS-3) were used in this study. Read More

    Development and Refinement of a Targeted Sexual Risk Reduction Intervention for Women With a History of Childhood Sexual Abuse.
    Cogn Behav Pract 2017 Nov 12;24(4):496-507. Epub 2017 Jan 12.
    The Miriam Hospital and Brown University.
    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with sexual risk behavior in adulthood. Traditional sexual risk reduction interventions do not meet the unique needs of women who have been sexually abused. In the current paper, we describe the four-stage process we followed to develop and refine a targeted sexual risk reduction intervention for this population. Read More

    Evidence-based guidelines for supportive care of patients with Ebola virus disease.
    Lancet 2017 Oct 17. Epub 2017 Oct 17.
    Department of Health Research Methods, Evidence, and Impact, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada; Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada.
    The 2013-16 Ebola virus disease outbreak in west Africa was associated with unprecedented challenges in the provision of care to patients with Ebola virus disease, including absence of pre-existing isolation and treatment facilities, patients' reluctance to present for medical care, and limitations in the provision of supportive medical care. Case fatality rates in west Africa were initially greater than 70%, but decreased with improvements in supportive care. To inform optimal care in a future outbreak of Ebola virus disease, we employed the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology to develop evidence-based guidelines for the delivery of supportive care to patients admitted to Ebola treatment units. Read More

    Dating Violence Against HIV-Infected Youth in South Africa: Associations With Sexual Risk Behavior, Medication Adherence, and Mental Health.
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2018 Jan;77(1):64-71
    Perinatal HIV Research Unit, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Background: As perinatal HIV-infected youth become sexually active, the potential for onward transmission becomes an increasing concern. In other populations, intimate partner violence (IPV) is a risk factor for HIV acquisition. We build on this critical work by studying the role of IPV in facilitating onward transmission among HIV-infected youth-an important step toward effective intervention. Read More

    Evolution of hepatitis A virus seroprevalence among HIV-positive adults in Taiwan.
    PLoS One 2017 16;12(10):e0186338. Epub 2017 Oct 16.
    Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, and National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Objectives: The study aimed to describe the seroprevalence of hepatitis A virus (HAV) in HIV-positive adult patients in Taiwan between 2012 and 2016 and to examine the evolution of HAV seroprevalence between 2004-2007 and 2012-2016.

    Methods: Clinical information and data of anti-HAV antibody results were collected from 2,860 antiretroviral-naïve HIV-positive Taiwanese aged 18 years or older who initiated combination antiretroviral therapy at 11 hospitals around Taiwan between 2012 and 2016 (2012-2016 cohort). A multivariate logistic regression model was applied to identify independent variables associated with HAV seropositivity. Read More

    Are scientific research outputs aligned with national policy makers' priorities? A case study of tuberculosis in Cambodia.
    Health Policy Plan 2017 Oct;32(suppl_2):i3-i11
    Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health, National University of Singapore, 12 Science Drive 2 #10-01, Singapore 117549, Singapore.
    With funding for tuberculosis (TB) research decreasing, and the high global disease burden persisting, there are calls for increased investment in TB research. However, justification of such investments is questionable, when translation of research outputs into policy and health care improvements remains a challenge for TB and other diseases. Using TB in Cambodia as a case study, we investigate how evidence needs of national policy makers are addressed by topics covered in research publications. Read More

    Short-course versus long-course intravenous therapy with the same antibiotic for severe community-acquired pneumonia in children aged two months to 59 months.
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2017 10 11;10:CD008032. Epub 2017 Oct 11.
    The Robinson Research Institute, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia, 5005.
    Background: Pneumonia is a leading cause of childhood mortality from infectious disease, responsible for an estimated 1.3 million deaths annually in children under five years of age, many of which are in low-income countries. The World Health Organization recommends intravenous antibiotics for five days as first-line treatment for children with severe pneumonia. Read More

    Current assessment of heart rate variability and QTc interval length in HIV/AIDS.
    Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2017 Nov;12(6):528-533
    aDepartment of Health Psychology, University of Miami, Coral Gables, Florida bBehavioral Medicine Research Center cDivision of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, Florida, USA.
    Purpose Of Review: The increasing prevalence of cardiovascular disease comorbidity in persons infected with the HIV has become a global concern. The electrocardiogram (ECG) is increasingly being utilized to provide clinically relevant information regarding cardiac arrhythmias and cardio-autonomic dysfunction. The purpose of this review is to summarize the latest research comparing QT and R-to-R interval length as a function of HIV+ status or antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimen. Read More

    Correlates of multi-drug non-susceptibility in enteric bacteria isolated from Kenyan children with acute diarrhea.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Oct 2;11(10):e0005974. Epub 2017 Oct 2.
    Department of Global Health, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America.
    Background: Reduced antimicrobial susceptibility threatens treatment efficacy in sub-Saharan Africa, where data on the burden and correlates of antibiotic resistance among enteric pathogens are limited.

    Methods: Fecal samples from children aged 6 mos-15 yrs presenting with acute diarrhea in western Kenya were cultured for bacterial pathogens. HIV-uninfected children with identified Shigella or Salmonella species or pathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC, ETEC, EAEC or EIEC) were included in this cross-sectional sub-study. Read More

    Association of Household Food- and Drink-Sharing Practices With Human Herpesvirus 8 Seroconversion in a Cohort of Zambian Children.
    J Infect Dis 2017 Oct;216(7):842-849
    Nebraska Center for Virology and the School of Biological Sciences, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska.
    Background: Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) infection occurs in early childhood and is associated with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection and risk for Kaposi sarcoma, but behaviors associated with HHV-8 transmission are not well described.

    Methods: We enrolled and followed a prospective cohort of 270 children and their household members to investigate risk factors for HHV-8 transmission in Lusaka, Zambia.

    Results: We report an incidence of 30. Read More

    HIV-related chronic lung disease in adolescents: are we prepared for the future?
    Expert Rev Respir Med 2017 Dec 10;11(12):969-975. Epub 2017 Oct 10.
    a Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences , Stellenbosch University , Cape Town , South Africa.
    Introduction: Chronic lung diseases (CLD) are the most chronic disease occurring in adolescents living with human immunodeficiency virus (ALHIV). In ALHIV who received antiretroviral therapy (ART) late in childhood, bronchiectasis, bronchiolitis obliterans and interstitial pneumonitis are common. In adolescents who received ART early in life the spectrum of CLD has changed with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease being common. Read More

    Childhood nephrotic syndrome in tropical Africa: then and now.
    Paediatr Int Child Health 2017 Nov 26;37(4):259-268. Epub 2017 Sep 26.
    d Department of Paediatrics , University of Maiduguri/University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital , Maiduguri , Nigeria.
    This descriptive and comparative review examines the changing epidemiology, treatment, renal and patient outcome of childhood nephrotic syndrome (NS) in tropical Africa (TpAfr). In the 1960s to 1980s, corticosteroid-resistant non-minimal change disease (nMCD) including quartan malaria nephropathy (QMN) was the dominant renal histopathology type. The overall incidence of NS was 0. Read More

    The role of young adult social bonds, substance problems, and sexual risk in pathways between adolescent substance use and midlife risky sexual behavior among urban African Americans.
    Psychol Addict Behav 2017 Nov 21;31(7):828-838. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    Department of Behavioral and Community Health, University of Maryland School of Public Health.
    African Americans are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections relative to other racial groups. Although substance use has been linked to risky sexual behavior, the understanding of how these associations develop over the life course remains limited, particularly the role of social bonds. This study uses structural equation modeling to examine pathways from adolescent substance use to young adult sexual risk, substance problems, and social bonds and then to midlife risky sexual behavior among African American men and women, controlling for childhood confounders. Read More

    Long-term health outcomes of childhood sexual abuse and peer sexual contact among an urban sample of behaviourally bisexual Latino men.
    Cult Health Sex 2017 Sep 20:1-18. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    f School of Public Health , University of Puerto Rico , San Juan , Puerto Rico , USA.
    While previous research indicates high rates of childhood sexual abuse among Latino men who have sex with men, few studies have examined the long-term health outcomes of childhood sexual abuse specifically among behaviourally bisexual Latino men. In a sample of 148 behaviourally bisexual Latino men in New York City, we examined associations between childhood sexual abuse and multiple dimensions of adult health: sexual risk behaviours; sexually transmitted infections incidence; polydrug use; depressive symptoms; and perceived stress. We compared outcomes between those with histories of childhood sexual abuse, those reporting peer sexual contact prior to age 13 and those with no sexual contact prior to age 13. Read More

    Global, regional, and national under-5 mortality, adult mortality, age-specific mortality, and life expectancy, 1970-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016.
    • Authors:
    Lancet 2017 Sep;390(10100):1084-1150
    Background: Detailed assessments of mortality patterns, particularly age-specific mortality, represent a crucial input that enables health systems to target interventions to specific populations. Understanding how all-cause mortality has changed with respect to development status can identify exemplars for best practice. To accomplish this, the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 (GBD 2016) estimated age-specific and sex-specific all-cause mortality between 1970 and 2016 for 195 countries and territories and at the subnational level for the five countries with a population greater than 200 million in 2016. Read More

    The relationship between burden of childhood disease and foreign aid for child health.
    BMC Health Serv Res 2017 Sep 15;17(1):655. Epub 2017 Sep 15.
    Center for Health Policy and the Center for Primary Care and Outcomes Research, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.
    Background: We sought to examine the relationship between child specific health aid (CHA) and burden of disease. Based on existing evidence, we hypothesized that foreign aid for child health would not be proportional to burden of disease.

    Methods: In order to examine CHA and burden of disease, we obtained estimates of these parameters from established sources. Read More

    Extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma in Malawi: a report of three cases.
    BMC Cancer 2017 Sep 6;17(1):633. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    UNC Project-Malawi, Private Bag A104, Lilongwe, Malawi.
    Background: Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma (ENKTCL) reports from sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are remarkably rare, despite early childhood acquisition and high prevalence of the causative infectious agent, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and frequent occurrence of other lymphoproliferative disorders causally associated with EBV.

    Case Presentations: At a national teaching hospital in Malawi, three patients of African descent were seen with ENKTCL between 2013 and 2014. Patients were aged between 29 and 60 years, two with craniofacial involvement and one with a primary abdominal tumor, and all were HIV-negative. Read More

    Deaths during tuberculosis treatment among paediatric patients in a large tertiary hospital in Nigeria.
    PLoS One 2017 17;12(8):e0183270. Epub 2017 Aug 17.
    Institute for Global Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Background: Despite availability of effective cure, tuberculosis (TB) remains a leading cause of death in children. In many high-burden countries, childhood TB is underdiagnosed and underreported, and care is often accessed too late, resulting in adverse treatment outcomes. In this study, we examined the time to death and its associated factors among a cohort of children that commenced TB treatment in a large treatment centre in northern Nigeria. Read More

    Oesophageal candidiasis and squamous cell cancer in patients with gain-of-function STAT1 gene mutation.
    United European Gastroenterol J 2017 Aug 6;5(5):625-631. Epub 2016 Dec 6.
    Departments of Gastroenterology and Clinical Immunology, County Durham and Darlington NHS Foundation Trust, County Durham, UK.
    Background: Oesophageal candidiasis is a common, usually self-limiting opportunistic infection, but long-term infection with Candida is known to predispose to oral and oesophageal squamous cell cancer (SCC). Permissive factors that lead to immune deficiencies can underlie persistent or recurring candidiasis, called chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC). Secondary immune deficiencies are most often due to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, antibiotic use and immunosuppressive treatment (steroids, chemotherapy). Read More

    Outcome of Children With Presumptive Tuberculosis in Mbarara, Rural Uganda.
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 2018 Feb;37(2):147-152
    Background: Mortality among children with presumptive tuberculosis (TB) empiric TB treatment can be high. We describe the predictors of death among children with presumptive TB, and the relation between treatment and mortality.

    Methods: A prospective cohort of children with presumptive TB who underwent clinical assessment, chest radiograph, tuberculin skin test and sputum bacterial tests for TB was followed up for 3 months. Read More

    Paediatric asthma control under a community management model in China: a protocol for a prospective multicentre cohort study.
    BMJ Open 2017 Aug 4;7(8):e015741. Epub 2017 Aug 4.
    Department of Respiratory Medicine, Shanghai Children's Medical Center affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University of Medicine, Shanghai, China.
    Introduction: Childhood asthma is globally one of the most common respiratory disorders and accounts for more school absences and more hospitalizations than any other chronic illness. The worldwide economic burden of this disease exceeds those of HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis combined. Proper intervention and effective management is of paramount importance for the control and prognosis of paediatric asthma. Read More

    Orphanhood and Self-Esteem: An 18-Year Longitudinal Study From an HIV-Affected Area in Tanzania.
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2017 Nov;76(3):225-230
    *IOB, University of Antwerp and KU Leuven, Belgium; †World Bank, Ghana; and ‡Blavatnik School of Government and Department of Economics, University of Oxford, United Kingdom.
    Background: The HIV epidemic exacerbated the prevalence of prime-aged adult death in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa, resulting in increased rates of orphanhood. Little is known about whether this will coincide with adverse psychosocial well-being in adulthood for those who were orphaned at childhood.

    Methods: We studied a cohort of 1108 children from Kagera, a region of Tanzania that was heavily affected by HIV early in the epidemic. Read More

    Rapid Accurate Identification of Tuberculous Meningitis Among South African Children Using a Novel Clinical Decision Tool.
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 2017 Aug 1. Epub 2017 Aug 1.
    1. Manchester Collaborative Centre for Inflammation Research, University of Manchester, UK 2. Manchester Academic Health Sciences Centre, University of Manchester, UK 3. Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Pietermaritzburg Metropolitan Hospitals Complex, South Africa 4. Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa 5. Department of Microbiology, National Health Laboratory Service, South Africa 6. School of Laboratory Medicine and Medical Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa 7. Health Protection Research Unit in Emerging and Zoonotic Infections, Institute of Infection and Global Health, University of Liverpool, UK 8. Walton Centre NHS Foundation Trust, UK 9. Centre for Epidemiology, Institute of Population Health, University of Manchester, UK 10. Department of Neurology, Alder Hey Children's NHS Trust, UK.
    Introduction: Early diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is crucial to achieve optimum outcomes. There is no effective rapid diagnostic test for use in children. We aimed to develop a clinical decision tool to facilitate the early diagnosis of childhood TBM. Read More

    Effects of Inner Nuclear Membrane Proteins SUN1/UNC-84A and SUN2/UNC-84B on the Early Steps of HIV-1 Infection.
    J Virol 2017 Oct 12;91(19). Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    Department of Infectious Diseases, King's College London, London, United Kingdom
    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection of dividing and nondividing cells involves regulatory interactions with the nuclear pore complex (NPC), followed by translocation to the nucleus and preferential integration into genomic areas in proximity to the inner nuclear membrane (INM). To identify host proteins that may contribute to these processes, we performed an overexpression screen of known membrane-associated NE proteins. We found that the integral transmembrane proteins SUN1/UNC84A and SUN2/UNC84B are potent or modest inhibitors of HIV-1 infection, respectively, and that suppression corresponds to defects in the accumulation of viral cDNA in the nucleus. Read More

    Perinatal HIV Infection and Exposure and Their Association With Dental Caries in Nigerian Children.
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 2018 Jan;37(1):59-65
    Background: Although HIV infection is associated with well-known oral pathologies, there remains a dearth of comparative studies aimed at determining the association between HIV infection/exposure and early childhood caries.

    Methods: This is a cross-sectional study using a convenience sample of 3 groups of children receiving care at a tertiary care hospital in Nigeria. The groups include HIV infected (HI), HIV exposed but uninfected and HIV-unexposed and -uninfected children 6 through 72 months of age. Read More

    Performance-based financing contributes to the resilience of health services affected by the Liberian Ebola outbreak.
    Public Health Action 2017 Jun;7(Suppl 1):S100-S105
    MoH, Monrovia, Liberia.
    Setting: The Liberian counties of Bong, with performance-based financing (PBF) for all 36 public primary-care facilities, and Margibi, with no PBF for its 24 public primary-care facilities. Objective: To compare whether specific maternal and child health indicators changed in the two counties during the pre-Ebola (2013), Ebola (2014) and post-Ebola (2015) disease outbreak periods from July to September each year. Design: This was a cross-sectional study. Read More

    Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome triggered by varicella infection.
    IDCases 2017 24;9:89-90. Epub 2017 Jun 24.
    Department of virology, CH Toulouse, Toulouse, France.
    Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) is a well-known virus that belongs to the Herpesviridae family which induces a self-limited disease except in specific cases in particular among stem cell transplant patients. This virus is not known however to trigger atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (aHUS). Here we report the case of a six-year-old boy who was hospitalized with fever and abdominal pains associated to pruritic and vesicular rash, thrombocytopenia and acute renal failure. Read More

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