1,921 results match your criteria Childhood HIV Disease


Chronic medical conditions in U.S. adults with incarceration history.

Authors:
Tomoko Udo

Health Psychol 2019 Mar;38(3):217-225

University at Albany, State University of New York.

Objectives: To examine the associations between incarceration history and chronic medical conditions in a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults and whether risk for chronic medical conditions differ by sex and race among those with incarceration history. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/hea0000720
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/hea0000720DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

An Overview on Epidemiology of Tuberculosis.

Mymensingh Med J 2019 Jan;28(1):259-266

Dr Mohammad Kamruzzaman Khan, Lecturer, Department of Community Medicine, Mymensingh Medical College (MMC), Mymensingh, Bangladesh; E-mail: kamruz

Tuberculosis (TB) is a progressive granulomatous infectious disease caused by the gram positive, acid fast bacilli classified under the genus Mycobacterium. Tuberculosis in human is mostly by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and primarily affects lungs causing pulmonary tuberculosis. It can also affect intestine, meninges, bones, joints, lymph nodes, skin and other tissues of the body causing extra-pulmonary tuberculosis. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
January 2019
1 Read

Childhood Violence Is Associated with Forced Sexual Initiation Among Girls and Young Women in Malawi: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

J Pediatr 2019 Feb 6. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Division of Violence Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA; Office of the Global AIDS Coordinator, Washington, DC.

Objective: To describe associations between childhood violence and forced sexual initiation in young Malawian females.

Study Design: We analyzed data from 595 women and girls who were 13-24 years old who ever had sex and participated in Malawi's 2013 Violence Against Children Survey, a nationally representative household survey. We estimated the overall prevalence of forced sexual initiation and identified subgroups with highest prevalences. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2018.12.066DOI Listing
February 2019

Recurrent group A tonsillitis is an immunosusceptibility disease involving antibody deficiency and aberrant T cells.

Sci Transl Med 2019 Feb;11(478)

Division of Vaccine Discovery, La Jolla Institute for Immunology (LJI), La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.

"Strep throat" is highly prevalent among children, yet it is unknown why only some children develop recurrent tonsillitis (RT), a common indication for tonsillectomy. To gain insights into this classic childhood disease, we performed phenotypic, genotypic, and functional studies on pediatric group A (GAS) RT and non-RT tonsils from two independent cohorts. GAS RT tonsils had smaller germinal centers, with an underrepresentation of GAS-specific CD4 germinal center T follicular helper (GC-T) cells. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.aau3776DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Intravenous fluid contaminated with Klebsiella oxytoca as a source of sepsis in a preterm newborn: Case report.

Am J Infect Control 2019 Feb 2. Epub 2019 Feb 2.

Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Maternal, Newborn, Child Health and Childhood HIV, TB and Malaria, Geneva, Switzerland.

Advances in neonatal care have led to the increasing survival of smaller and sicker infants, but nosocomial infections continue to be a serious problem, associated with increased mortality rates, immediate and long-term morbidity, prolonged hospital stay, and increased cost of care. We report a case of hospital-acquired sepsis in a preterm baby secondary to Klebsiella oxytoca, resulting from contaminated intravenous fluid. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajic.2018.12.025DOI Listing
February 2019
7 Reads

The role of sexual risk behaviors on PrEP awareness and interest among men who have sex with men in Latin America.

Int J STD AIDS 2019 Feb 5:956462419825944. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

1 Department of Behavioral and Social Health Sciences, Brown University School of Public Health, Providence, RI, USA.

In Latin America, men who have sex with men (MSM) remain disproportionately impacted by HIV. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is an effective HIV prevention tool and has been FDA approved in the United States since 2012, but no Latin American state, with the recent exception of Brazil, has implemented PrEP guidelines. We carried out a multinational online survey of MSM in Latin America (n = 22698) in 2012 to assess whether MSM at highest risk of HIV acquisition (i. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956462419825944DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads
1.037 Impact Factor

Lipodystrophies, dyslipidaemias and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.

Pathology 2019 Feb 27;51(2):202-212. Epub 2018 Dec 27.

Division of Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Center for Human Nutrition, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA. Electronic address:

Lipodystrophies are rare, heterogeneous, genetic or acquired, disorders characterised by varying degrees of body fat loss and associated metabolic complications, including insulin resistance, dyslipidaemias, hepatic steatosis and predisposition to atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). The four main types of lipodystrophy, excluding antiretroviral therapy-induced lipodystrophy in HIV-infected patients, are congenital generalised lipodystrophy (CGL), familial partial lipodystrophy (FPLD), acquired generalised lipodystrophy (AGL) and acquired partial lipodystrophy (APL). This paper reviews the literature related to the prevalence of dyslipidaemias and ASCVD in patients with lipodystrophies. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00313025183052
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pathol.2018.11.004DOI Listing
February 2019
5 Reads

Design and application of a novel two-amplicon approach for defining eukaryotic microbiota.

Microbiome 2018 Dec 20;6(1):228. Epub 2018 Dec 20.

Program in Molecular Medicine, The Hospital for Sick Children, Peter Gilgan Centre for Research and Learning, 686 Bay Street, Toronto, ON, M5G 0A4, Canada.

Background: Due to a lack of systematic diagnostics, our understanding of the diversity and role of eukaryotic microbiota in human health is limited. While studies have shown fungal communities to be significant modulators of human health, information on the prevalence of taxa such as protozoa and helminths has been limited to a small number of species for which targeted molecular diagnostics are available. To probe the diversity of eukaryotic microbes and their relationships with other members of the microbiota, we applied in silico and experimental approaches to design a novel two-amplicon surveillance tool, based on sequencing regions of ribosomal RNA genes and their internal transcribed spacers. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://microbiomejournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40168-018-0612-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6302507PMC
December 2018
5 Reads

Causes of death and predictors of childhood mortality in Rwanda: a matched case-control study using verbal social autopsy.

BMC Public Health 2018 Dec 17;18(1):1378. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Partners In Health/Inshuti Mu Buzima, Rwinkwavu, Rwanda.

Background: Rwanda has dramatically reduced child mortality, but the causes and sociodemographic drivers for mortality are poorly understood.

Methods: We conducted a matched case-control study of all children who died before 5 years of age in eastern Rwanda between 1st March 2013 and 28th February 2014 to identify causes and risk factors for death. We identified deaths at the facility level and via a community health worker reporting system. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-018-6282-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6296058PMC
December 2018
1 Read

Early Childhood Development in Children Born to HIV-Infected Mothers: Perspectives From Kenyan Clinical Providers and Caregivers.

Glob Pediatr Health 2018 14;5:2333794X18811795. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Indiana University, Indianapolis, IN, USA.

. To understand the perspectives of clinical providers and caregivers regarding early childhood development (ECD) in children born to HIV-infected mothers in Kenya. . Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2333794X18811795DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6236581PMC
November 2018

Metagenomic Discovery of 83 New Human Papillomavirus Types in Patients with Immunodeficiency.

mSphere 2018 12 12;3(6). Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Laboratory of Cellular Oncology, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

Several immunodeficiencies are associated with high susceptibility to persistent and progressive human papillomavirus (HPV) infection leading to a wide range of cutaneous and mucosal lesions. However, the HPV types most commonly associated with such clinical manifestations in these patients have not been systematically defined. Here, we used virion enrichment, rolling circle amplification, and deep sequencing to identify circular DNA viruses present in skin swabs and/or wart biopsy samples from 48 patients with rare genetic immunodeficiencies, including patients with warts, hypogammaglobulinemia, infections, myelokathexis (WHIM) syndrome, or epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://msphere.asm.org/lookup/doi/10.1128/mSphereDirect.0064
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mSphereDirect.00645-18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6291628PMC
December 2018
14 Reads

Past and future trends of Cryptosporidium in vitro research.

Exp Parasitol 2019 Jan 3;196:28-37. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Laboratory of Molecular and Evolutionary Parasitology, RAPID Group, School of Biosciences, University of Kent, Canterbury, Kent, UK; School of Biosciences, University of Kent, Canterbury, Kent, UK. Electronic address:

Cryptosporidium is a genus of single celled parasites capable of infecting a wide range of animals including humans. Cryptosporidium species are members of the phylum apicomplexa, which includes well-known genera such as Plasmodium and Toxoplasma. Cryptosporidium parasites cause a severe gastro-intestinal disease known as cryptosporidiosis. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exppara.2018.12.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6333944PMC
January 2019
3 Reads

A Clinico-epidemiological Study of Childhood Herpes Zoster.

Indian Dermatol Online J 2018 Nov-Dec;9(6):383-388

Department of Dermatology, Military Hospital, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Herpes zoster (HZ) is a viral infection believed to be caused by the re activation of varicella zoster virus (VZV) or human herpes virus type 3 (HHV 3) that persists in the posterior nerve root ganglion. HZ is rarely reported in the pediatric age group with an intact immunity. Past infection with VZV and immunization with chickenpox vaccine are key markers in the onset of varicella zoster in children. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/idoj.IDOJ_107_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6232977PMC
December 2018
5 Reads

Porphyria cutanea tarda and hepatoerythropoietic porphyria: Identification of 19 novel uroporphyrinogen III decarboxylase mutations.

Mol Genet Metab 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Genetics and Genomic Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address:

Porphyria Cutanea Tarda (PCT) is a cutaneous porphyria that results from the hepatic inhibition of the heme biosynthetic enzyme uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase (UROD), and can occur either in the absence or presence of an inherited heterozygous UROD mutation (PCT subtypes 1 and 2, respectively). A heterozygous UROD mutation causes half-normal levels of UROD activity systemically, which is a susceptibility factor but is not sufficient alone to cause type 2 PCT. In both Types 1 and 2 PCT, the cutaneous manifestations are precipitated by additional factors that lead to generation of an inhibitor that more profoundly reduces hepatic UROD activity. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymgme.2018.11.013DOI Listing
November 2018
3 Reads

A qualitative study on the voluntariness of counselling and testing for HIV amongst antenatal clinic attendees: do women have a choice?

BMC Med Ethics 2018 11 21;19(1):92. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, P.O. Box 65001, Dar es salaam, Tanzania.

Background: Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of the Human Immunodeficiency -Virus (HIV) is a serious public health problem, contributing up to 90% of childhood HIV infections. In Tanzania, the prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission (PMTCT) feature of the HIV programme was rolled out in 2000. The components of PMTCT include counselling and HIV testing directed at antenatal clinic attendees. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12910-018-0329-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6249978PMC
November 2018
7 Reads

Hepatitis B vaccination using a dissolvable microneedle patch is immunogenic in mice and rhesus macaques.

Bioeng Transl Med 2018 Sep 27;3(3):186-196. Epub 2018 Aug 27.

School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Georgia Institute of Technology Atlanta GA 30332.

Chronic Hepatitis B virus infection remains a major global public health problem, accounting for about 887,000 deaths in 2015. Perinatal and early childhood infections are strongly associated with developing chronic hepatitis B. Adding a birth dose of the hepatitis B vaccine (HepB BD) to routine childhood vaccination can prevent over 85% of these infections. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/btm2.10098
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/btm2.10098DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6195907PMC
September 2018
5 Reads

Individual and Network Factors Associated With Racial Disparities in HIV Among Young Men Who Have Sex With Men: Results From the RADAR Cohort Study.

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2019 Jan;80(1):24-30

Department of Medical Social Sciences, Institute for Sexual and Gender Minority Health and Wellbeing, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL.

Background: Individual sexual risk behaviors have failed to explain the observed racial disparity in HIV acquisition. To increase understanding of potential drivers in disparities, we assessed differences across individual, network, and social determinants.

Methods: Data come from RADAR (N = 1015), a longitudinal cohort study of multilevel HIV-risk factors among young men who have sex with men (YMSM) aged 16-29 years in Chicago, IL. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://Insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00126334-900000000-9654
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAI.0000000000001886DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6289601PMC
January 2019
3 Reads

Evidence for persistence of the SHIV reservoir early after MHC haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

Nat Commun 2018 10 25;9(1):4438. Epub 2018 Oct 25.

Ben Towne Center for Childhood Cancer Research, Seattle Children's Research Institute, 1100 Olive Way, Suite 100, Seattle, WA, 98101, USA.

Allogeneic transplantation (allo-HCT) has led to the cure of HIV in one individual, raising the question of whether transplantation can eradicate the HIV reservoir. To test this, we here present a model of allo-HCT in SHIV-infected, cART-suppressed nonhuman primates. We infect rhesus macaques with SHIV-1157ipd3N4, suppress them with cART, then transplant them using MHC-haploidentical allogeneic donors during continuous cART. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-018-06736-7
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-06736-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6202377PMC
October 2018
3 Reads

Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms and Emerging Adult Sexual Minority Men: Implications for Assessment and Treatment of Childhood Sexual Abuse.

J Trauma Stress 2018 Oct 19;31(5):665-675. Epub 2018 Oct 19.

The Fenway Institute at Fenway Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Emerging adulthood (EA) is a developmental period marked by unique challenges that affect health including burgeoning occupational, relational, and financial stability; and increased risk taking in terms of sexual behavior(s) and substance use. Data were collected from 296 HIV-uninfected sexual minority men with childhood sexual abuse (CSA) histories. We analyzed baseline assessment data from a multisite randomized controlled trial that tested the efficaciousness of an experimental psychosocial treatment and examined vulnerabilities known to be linked with CSA. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jts.22335DOI Listing
October 2018
1 Read

Disease- and Treatment-related Morbidity in Adolescents With Perinatal HIV Infection in Asia.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2019 Mar;38(3):287-292

From the The Kirby Institute, UNSW, Sydney, Australia.

Background: Perinatally HIV-infected adolescents (PHIVA) are exposed to a chronic systemic infection and long-term antiretroviral therapy (ART), leaving them susceptible to morbidities associated with inflammation, immunodeficiency and drug toxicity.

Methods: Data collected 2001 to 2016 from PHIVA 10-19 years of age within a regional Asian cohort were analyzed using competing risk time-to-event and Poisson regression analyses to describe the nature and incidence of morbidity events and hospitalizations and identify factors associated with disease-related, treatment-related and overall morbidity. Morbidity was defined according to World Health Organization clinical staging criteria and U. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/INF.0000000000002208DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6375771PMC
March 2019
5 Reads

Potential effect of household contact management on childhood tuberculosis: a mathematical modelling study.

Lancet Glob Health 2018 Dec 25;6(12):e1329-e1338. Epub 2018 Sep 25.

Centre for International Child Health, Department of Paediatrics, Imperial College London, London, UK; Desmond Tutu TB Centre, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa.

Background: Tuberculosis is recognised as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children, with most cases in children going undiagnosed and resulting in poor outcomes. Household contact management, which aims to identify children with active tuberculosis and to provide preventive therapy for those with HIV or those younger than 5 years, has long been recommended but has very poor coverage globally. New guidelines include widespread provision of preventive therapy to children with a positive tuberculin skin test (TST) who are older than 5 years. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(18)30401-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6227381PMC
December 2018
1 Read

Quality of care in childhood tuberculosis diagnosis at primary care clinics in Kampala, Uganda.

Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2018 Oct;22(10):1196-1202

Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine and Center for Vulnerable Populations, Zuckerberg San Francisco General Hospital, and Curry International Tuberculosis Center, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA.

Objective: To assess the quality of routine childhood tuberculosis (TB) evaluation in Kampala, Uganda.

Setting And Design: This was a cross-sectional study of children aged <15 years attending six government-run clinics from November 2015 to December 2016. Clinicians completed a standardized patient record form for all child visits. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.5588/ijtld.18.0043DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6339686PMC
October 2018
1 Read

Epidemiology of human astroviruses among children younger than 5 years: Prospective hospital-based sentinel surveillance in South Africa, 2009-2014.

J Med Virol 2019 Feb 9;91(2):225-234. Epub 2018 Oct 9.

Centre for Enteric Diseases, Virology Division, National Institute for Communicable Disease, Sandringham, South Africa.

Background: The epidemiology of human astroviruses (HAstVs) in hospitalised patients less than 5 years of age from selected sites in South Africa was investigated. Diarrheagenic stool specimens collected from April 2009 to May 2014 were screened retrospectively for selected viruses, bacteria and parasites.

Method: Patient data were analysed to identify epidemiologic factors most frequently detected with HAstV infections. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25308DOI Listing
February 2019
4 Reads

Morbidity benefit conferred by childhood immunisation in relation to maternal HIV status: a meta-analysis of demographic and health surveys.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2018 13;14(10):2414-2426. Epub 2018 Sep 13.

a Cochrane South Africa , South African Medical Research Council , Cape Town , South Africa.

The study determined the prevalence of acute respiratory infections and diarrhoea among sub-Saharan African children. It also examined if there was any significant morbidity benefit conferred by three doses of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis containing vaccines (DTP3) with respect to maternal HIV status. Data were obtained from the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) program, United Nations Development Programs, World Bank and Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2018.1515453DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6284503PMC
September 2018
5 Reads
2.131 Impact Factor

Non-specific effects of childhood vaccines on acute childhood morbidity among HIV-exposed children in sub-Saharan Africa: a multilevel analysis.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2018 27;14(10):2382-2390. Epub 2018 Sep 27.

a Cochrane South Africa, South African Medical Research Council , Cape Town , South Africa.

We examined the roles of determining factors responsible for acute respiratory infections and diarrhoea among immunised human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-exposed children in sub-Saharan Africa. This study used demographic and health surveys obtained from 27 sub-Saharan African countries. The outcome variable is defined as symptoms of acute respiratory infections or episode of diarrhoea in the child of an HIV-infected mother who is vaccinated with the third dose of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis containing vaccines. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2018.1516490DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6284489PMC
September 2018
5 Reads
2.131 Impact Factor

Prevalence and correlates of HIV testing and HIV-positive status in the US: Results from the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions III (NESARC-III).

J Psychiatr Res 2018 Oct 3;105:1-8. Epub 2018 Aug 3.

National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, USA.

We used the 2012-2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions III (NESARC-III), a nationally representative sample of US adults (n = 34,653), to estimate the prevalence and correlates of HIV testing and HIV status. The diagnostic interview used was the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-DSM-5 Version. We found that in 2012-2013, the prevalence of a history of HIV testing was 53. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2018.08.007DOI Listing
October 2018
39 Reads

Subcutaneous Granuloma Annulare.

Acta Dermatovenerol Croat 2017 Dec;25(4):292-294

Mihaela Paula Toader MD, PhD, T. Popa University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Iasi, Romania, 16 Universitatii str. 700115, Iasi, Romania;

Dear Editor, Subcutaneous granuloma annulare (SGA) is considered a rare clinical variant of granuloma annulare, a common self-healing chronic inflammatory disorder that may appear in childhood as well as in adult age (1-3). A 29-year-old female patient reported the onset of several small subcutaneous nodules on the dorsal aspect of the second interphalangeal joint of the left medius finger and the left elbow, accompanied by vague joint pain, had occurred 13 years ago. Specific markers for rheumatoid arthritis were negative, leading to a diagnosis of sero-negative rheumatoid arthritis, for which treatment with methotrexate was initiated. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
December 2017
7 Reads

Cycle of violence among young Kenyan women: The link between childhood violence and adult physical intimate partner violence in a population-based survey.

Child Abuse Negl 2018 Oct 21;84:45-52. Epub 2018 Jul 21.

Division of Global HIV/AIDS & Tuberculosis, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, PO Box 606-00621 Nairobi, Kenya. Electronic address:

The aim of the current analysis is to elucidate the link between childhood experiences of violence and physical intimate partner violence in young adulthood in a national survey of young Kenyan women. In 2010, we conducted the Violence against Children Survey in Kenya, collecting retrospective reports from 13 to 24 year old males and females (N = 2928). The analysis presented here focused on females aged 18-24 who ever had an intimate partner (n = 566). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2018.07.010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6139638PMC
October 2018

Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Latency Locus Renders B Cells Hyperresponsive to Secondary Infections.

J Virol 2018 10 12;92(19). Epub 2018 Sep 12.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Programs in Global Oncology and Virology, Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center and Center for AIDS Research, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.

Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) induces B cell hyperplasia and neoplasia, such as multicentric Castleman's disease (MCD) and primary effusion lymphoma (PEL). To explore KSHV-induced B cell reprogramming , we expressed the KSHV latency locus, inclusive of all viral microRNAs (miRNAs), in B cells of transgenic mice in the absence of the inhibitory FcγRIIB receptor. The BALB/c strain was chosen as this is the preferred model to study B cell differentiation. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01138-18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6146794PMC
October 2018
18 Reads
4.440 Impact Factor

Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Persistence in Cellular and Anatomic Reservoirs in Antiretroviral Therapy-Suppressed Infant Rhesus Macaques.

J Virol 2018 09 29;92(18). Epub 2018 Aug 29.

Department of Pediatrics and Center for AIDS Research, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, USA

Worldwide, nearly two million children are infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), with breastfeeding accounting for the majority of contemporary HIV transmissions. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has reduced HIV-related morbidity and mortality but is not curative. The main barrier to a cure is persistence of latent HIV in long-lived reservoirs. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://jvi.asm.org/lookup/doi/10.1128/JVI.00562-18
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00562-18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6146711PMC
September 2018
21 Reads

Optimizing Clinical Trial Design to Maximize Evidence Generation in Pediatric HIV.

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2018 Aug;78 Suppl 1:S40-S48

MRC Clinical Trials Unit at UCL, University College London, London, United Kingdom.

For HIV-infected children, formulation development, pharmacokinetic (PK) data, and evaluation of early toxicity are critical for licensing new antiretroviral drugs; direct evidence of efficacy in children may not be needed if acceptable safety and PK parameters are demonstrated in children. However, it is important to address questions where adult trial data cannot be extrapolated to children. In this fast-moving area, interventions need to be tailored to resource-limited settings where most HIV-infected children live and take account of decreasing numbers of younger HIV-infected children after successful prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAI.0000000000001748DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6071856PMC
August 2018
12 Reads
1 Citation
4.560 Impact Factor

Low Birthweight, Retention in HIV Care, and Adherence to ART Among Postpartum Women Living with HIV in Ghana.

AIDS Behav 2019 Feb;23(2):433-444

Social and Behavioral Interventions Program, Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD, 21205, USA.

Care for low birthweight (LBW) infants can contribute to psychological difficulties and stigma among mothers living with HIV, creating challenges for antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence and retention in HIV care. We explored how caring for LBW infants affects maternal ART adherence and retention in care. We conducted 30 in-depth interviews with postpartum women living with HIV in Accra, Ghana: 15 with LBW infants and 15 with normal birthweight (NBW) infants. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10461-018-2194-2DOI Listing
February 2019
27 Reads

The At Risk Child Clinic (ARCC): 3 Years of Health Activities in Support of the Most Vulnerable Children in Beira, Mozambique.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2018 06 27;15(7). Epub 2018 Jun 27.

Department of Science for Health Promotion and Mother to Child Care "G. D'Alessandro", University of Palermo, Via del Vespro, Palermo 90217, Italy.

The concept of “children at risk” changes worldwide according to each specific context. Africa has a large burden of overall risk factors related to childhood health and development, most of which are of an infective or social origin. The aim of this study was to report and analyze the volumes of activities of fifteen At Risk Child Clinics (ARCCs) within the Beira District (Mozambique) over a 3 year-period in order to define the health profile of children accessing such health services. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15071350DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6069480PMC
June 2018
3 Reads

CD4+ cell count recovery following initiation of HIV antiretroviral therapy in older childhood and adolescence.

AIDS 2018 Sep;32(14):1977-1982

Biomedical Research and Training Institute, Harare.

Objective: To investigate CD4 cell count recovery following ART initiation in perinatally HIV-infected children diagnosed in later childhood.

Design: Observational prospective cohort study of newly diagnosed children aged 6-15 in Harare, Zimbabwe.

Methods: Participants were enrolled into a cohort at seven primary healthcare clinics between January 2013 and January 2015. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0000000000001905DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6125740PMC
September 2018
18 Reads

Condom-use self-efficacy as a mediator between syndemics and condomless sex in men who have sex with men (MSM).

Health Psychol 2018 Sep 21;37(9):820-827. Epub 2018 Jun 21.

Fenway Institute at Fenway Health.

Objective: Among men who have sex with men (MSM), HIV sexual risk and poor self-care behavior is associated with syndemics, or co-occurring psychosocial problems. Though prior research has demonstrated an additive total effect of syndemics on HIV risk behavior and infection, mostly within cross-sectional designs, it is possible that these associations are not direct but rather that syndemics disrupt relevant individual-level mediating psychological variables. One of the more common individual-level psychological variables that predicts health behavior generally, and HIV risk behavior specifically, is self-efficacy. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/hea0000617DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6107409PMC
September 2018
19 Reads

Childhood Trauma and the Inability to Access Hospital Care Among People who Inject Drugs.

J Trauma Stress 2018 Jun 20;31(3):383-390. Epub 2018 Jun 20.

British Columbia Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS, St. Paul's Hospital, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Childhood traumatic experiences can disrupt attachment, influence personality development, and precipitate chronic disease. Although the repercussions of these experiences may also pose a barrier to healthcare, few studies have examined the association between childhood trauma and access to healthcare. Therefore, we sought to investigate whether a history of childhood trauma is associated with self-reported inability to access hospital care among persons who inject drugs (PWID). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jts.22286DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6026062PMC
June 2018
31 Reads

Prevalence of cervical, oral, and anal human papillomavirus infection in women living with HIV in Denmark - The SHADE cohort study.

J Clin Virol 2018 Aug 25;105:64-71. Epub 2018 May 25.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Denmark.

Background: Women living with HIV (WLWH) have elevated risk of human papillomavirus (HPV) related cancers.

Objectives: To assess prevalence, distribution and concordance of cervical, oral, and anal HPV infection, and predictors of oral and anal HPV in WLWH in Denmark.

Study Design: WLWH followed in the Study on HIV, cervical Abnormalities and infections in women in Denmark (SHADE) were enrolled and examined for cervical, oral, and anal HPV infection. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcv.2018.05.010DOI Listing
August 2018
13 Reads

Maternal Peripartum Serum DDT/E and Urinary Pyrethroid Metabolite Concentrations and Child Infections at 2 Years in the VHEMBE Birth Cohort.

Environ Health Perspect 2018 06 14;126(6):067006. Epub 2018 Jun 14.

Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Background: Indoor residual spraying (IRS) of insecticides, conducted in low- and middle-income countries to control malaria, may result in high exposure to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), its breakdown product dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), or pyrethroids. Animal studies suggest exposure to these chemicals may increase childhood infection frequency.

Objectives: We investigated associations between maternal DDT/E and pyrethroid metabolite concentration and child infection associations in an IRS setting in which susceptibility factors are common and infections are leading causes of child morbidity and mortality. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP2657DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6108579PMC
June 2018
3 Reads

Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance - United States, 2017.

MMWR Surveill Summ 2018 06 15;67(8):1-114. Epub 2018 Jun 15.

Problem: Health-risk behaviors contribute to the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among youth and adults in the United States. In addition, significant health disparities exist among demographic subgroups of youth defined by sex, race/ethnicity, and grade in school and between sexual minority and nonsexual minority youth. Population-based data on the most important health-related behaviors at the national, state, and local levels can be used to help monitor the effectiveness of public health interventions designed to protect and promote the health of youth at the national, state, and local levels. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.ss6708a1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6002027PMC
June 2018
4 Reads

Epidemiology of Pediatric Tuberculosis in Kenya and Risk Factors for Mortality during Treatment: A National Retrospective Cohort Study.

J Pediatr 2018 10 6;201:115-121. Epub 2018 Jun 6.

University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Objectives: To describe the epidemiology of childhood tuberculosis (TB) in Kenya, assess the magnitude of TB/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection and identify risk factors for mortality during TB treatment.

Study Design: We conducted a retrospective analysis of the Kenyan national TB program data for patients enrolled from 2013 through 2015. A total of 23 753 children aged less than 15 years were included in the analysis. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2018.05.017DOI Listing
October 2018
4 Reads

Consequences of prenatal geophagy for maternal prenatal health, risk of childhood geophagy and child psychomotor development.

Trop Med Int Health 2018 Aug 22;23(8):841-849. Epub 2018 Jun 22.

Département Méthodes Quantitatives en Santé Publique, Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Santé Publique, Rennes, France.

Objective: To investigate the relationship between prenatal geophagy, maternal prenatal haematological indices, malaria, helminth infections and cognitive and motor development among offspring.

Methods: At least a year after delivery, 552 of 863 HIV-negative mothers with singleton births who completed a clinical trial comparing the efficacy of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and mefloquine during pregnancy in Allada, Benin, responded to a nutrition questionnaire including their geophagous habits during pregnancy. During the clinical trial, helminth infection, malaria, haemoglobin and ferritin concentrations were assessed at 1st and 2nd antenatal care visits (ANV) and at delivery. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/tmi.13088
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tmi.13088DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6103800PMC
August 2018
10 Reads
2.329 Impact Factor

Building Resilience Among Orphaned and Vulnerable Children Through the Memory Book Intervention.

J Christ Nurs 2018 Jul/Sep;35(3):184-190

Barbara J. Braband, EdD, RN, is an associate professor in nursing and RN-to-BSN program director at the University of Portland, Oregon. She teaches graduate and undergraduate courses in addition to an interdisciplinary theology course on suffering and an interdisciplinary course on social determinants of health. Tamara Faris, MSN, RN, has spent the 12 years training caregivers of thousands of children experiencing loss and grief, and initiating the use of a simple scrapbook to preserve and tell children's stories in the U.S., Africa, Southeast Asia, and South America. Kaye Wilson-Anderson, DNS, RN, is an associate professor of Nursing at the University of Portland and has been teaching nursing for 32 years. Currently, she is engaged in international teaching and research related to postabortion care and recovery.

Children who are orphaned and vulnerable due to poverty, war, or disease (HIV/AIDS) may experience childhood traumatic grief. A qualitative phenomenological approach was implemented to explore and compare the lived experiences of orphaned children, adolescents, and caregivers who had used the Memory Book intervention at six children's homes in India, Kenya, and South Africa. Study findings revealed similar themes between the countries, with primary themes of identity and relationships, and secondary themes of coping, hope, and emotion. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CNJ.0000000000000504DOI Listing
June 2018
2 Reads

Trends in Antiretroviral Therapy Eligibility and Coverage Among Children Aged <15 Years with HIV Infection - 20 PEPFAR-Supported Sub-Saharan African Countries, 2012-2016.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2018 May 18;67(19):552-555. Epub 2018 May 18.

Rapid disease progression and associated opportunistic infections contribute to high mortality rates among children aged <15 years with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (1). Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has decreased childhood HIV-associated morbidity and mortality rates over the past decade (2). As accumulating evidence revealed lower HIV-associated mortality with early ART initiation, the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines broadened ART eligibility for children with HIV infection (2). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6719a4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6048945PMC
May 2018
5 Reads

Pharyngeal colonization and drug resistance profiles of Morraxella catarrrhalis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Haemophilus influenzae among HIV infected children attending ART Clinic of Felegehiwot Referral Hospital, Ethiopia.

PLoS One 2018 10;13(5):e0196722. Epub 2018 May 10.

Department of Biology, Science College, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia.

Background: Asymptomatic pharyngeal colonization by potential bacteria is the primary reservoir for bacterial species within a population and is considered a prerequisite for development of major childhood diseases such as sinusitis, otitis media, pneumonia, bacteremia, and meningitis. However, there is dearth of data on the colonization and drug resistance pattern of the main bacterial pathogens in the pharynx of HIV infected children in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study determined the pharyngeal colonization and drug resistance profile of bacterial pathogens in HIV infected children attending ART clinic of Felegehiwot Referral Hospital (FHRH), Amhara Region, Ethiopia. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0196722PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5944927PMC
August 2018
23 Reads
1 Citation
3.230 Impact Factor

Evaluation of the effectiveness of a latrine intervention in the reduction of childhood diarrhoeal health in Nyando District, Kisumu County, Kenya.

Epidemiol Infect 2018 07 10;146(9):1079-1088. Epub 2018 May 10.

Division of Epidemiology & Biostatistics,School of Public Health,University of Illinois at Chicago,IL,USA.

Community-led total sanitation (CLTS) is an intervention that strives to end the practice of open defaecation. This study measured the effectiveness of CLTS in Nyando District by examining the association between community open defaecation-free (ODF) status and childhood diarrhoeal illness. A cross-sectional study design was used among households with children ⩽5 years old to ascertain information on acute diarrhoea in the past year (outcome), sanitation and health behaviours. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://www.cambridge.org/core/product/identifier/S095026881
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268818000924DOI Listing
July 2018
6 Reads