238,182 results match your criteria Childhood Cancer Epidemiology
Epilepsy Behav 2018 Dec 3;90:99-106. Epub 2018 Dec 3.
Population, Policy and Practice Unit, UCL Great Ormond Street Institute of Child Health, London, United Kingdom.
Background: Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy (SUDEP) is a significant cause of death in childhood epilepsy, and causes considerable concern to patients and their families. Despite this, the condition remains poorly understood. This systematic review investigates the risk factors, pathophysiology, and circumstances associated with childhood SUDEP. Read More
Gait Posture 2018 Nov 29;68:232-237. Epub 2018 Nov 29.
Department of Electrical, Electronic and Information Engineering "Guglielmo Marconi", University of Bologna, Via del Risorgimento 2, 40136 Bologna, Italy.
Background: When aiming at studying and monitoring locomotor development in childhood, innovative indexes for the characterization of motor control performance and wearable technologies have highlighted the potential of significant advances. In particular, quantitative assessment of motor performance during natural walking (NW) and tandem walking (TW) has been proposed to highlight manifestations of motor automaticity and complexity, respectively.
Research Question: This work aims at providing a quantitative overview of metrics characterizing locomotor maturation in a typically developing population, by analysing NW and TW. Read More
Exp Parasitol 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.
Laboratory of Molecular and Evolutionary Parasitology, RAPID Group, School of Biosciences, University of Kent, Canterbury, Kent, UK; School of Biosciences, University of Kent, Canterbury, Kent, UK. Electronic address:
Cryptosporidium is a genus of single celled parasites capable of infecting a wide range of animals including humans. Cryptosporidium species are members of the phylum apicomplexa, which includes well-known genera such as Plasmodium and Toxoplasma. Cryptosporidium parasites cause a severe gastro-intestinal disease known as cryptosporidiosis. Read More
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2018 Dec;59(15):5773-5784
State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.
Purpose: The optic fissure (OF) is a transient opening in the ventral optic cup (OC) that acts as a passage for blood vessels and retinal ganglion cell axons during early eye development. Failure to close the OF is the developmental basis for uveal coloboma, a congenital blinding eye disease that significantly contributes to childhood blindness. Genes specifically expressed in the OF region may play important roles in OF development and function. Read More
PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0208435. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
Occupational and environmental medicine, Public Health and Community Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
Recurrent headache, abdominal and musculoskeletal pain are common in adolescents and it is therefore important to understand their impact on the transitional period from childhood to adulthood. However, studies of the prevalence over time and implications on educational outcomes are still limited, especially regarding multiple pain symptoms. The present study material consists of questionnaire surveys, completed in 2000 and 2008, including two study populations of 9th grade adolescents aged 15 living in West Sweden (n = 20 877). Read More
Folia Med Cracov 2018 ;58(3):83-87
Department of Internal Medicine, General Hospital of Veria, Veria, Greece.
Meckel's diverticulum represents a remnant of the proximal end of the omphalomesenteric duct, which constitutes a connection between the middle intestine and the vitelline vesicle. It is the most common congenital anomaly of the gastrointestinal tract and is found in approximately 0.3-2% of the general population. Read More
Biol Chem 2018 Dec 1. Epub 2018 Dec 1.
Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Applied Sciences Darmstadt, 64295 Darmstadt, Germany.
HDAC8 is an established and validated target for T-cell lymphoma and childhood neuroblastoma. The active site binding pocket of HDAC8 is highly conserved among all zinccontaining representatives of the histone deacetylase family. This explains that most HDACs are unselectively recognized by similar inhibitors featuring a zinc binding group (ZBG), a hydrophobic linker and a head group. Read More
Depress Anxiety 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.
Background: Major depressive disorder (MDD) in college students is associated with substantial burden.
Aims: To assess 1-year incidence of MDD among incoming freshmen and predictors of MDD-incidence in a representative sample of students.
Method: Prospective cohort study of first-year college students (baseline: n = 2,519, 1-year follow-up: n = 958) RESULTS: The incidence of MDD within the first year of college was 6. Read More
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.
Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Bone-metabolic Research Unit, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen Denmark.
Context And Objective: Being born small or large for gestational age and intrauterine exposure to gestational diabetes (GDM) increase the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in the offspring, however, the potential combined deleterious effects of size at birth and GDM exposure remains unknown. We aimed to examine the independent effect of size at birth as well as the influence of GDM exposure in utero on cardio-metabolic traits, body composition, and puberty status in children.
Design, Participants And Methods: This study is a longitudinal birth cohort study. Read More
J Trop Pediatr 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
Department of Pediatrics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning city, 530021 China.
Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of zinc combined with probiotics (Bifico) on antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) secondary to pneumonia.
Methods: A total of 50 patients with AAD secondary to pneumonia were randomly divided into a probiotics group (Bifico) and a combined group (zinc combined with Bifico) and 25 pneumonia patients without AAD as the control group. Serum levels of zinc, diamine oxidase (DAO) activity, D-lactate and intestinal flora [Bifidobacterium, Escherichia coli and Bifidobacterium/E. Read More
Sleep 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
Centre and Discipline of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy, The University of Western Australia, Perth, WA, Australia.
Objectives: Longitudinal data on the course and relationship of concurrent psychopathology in youth are scarce but are of need for better practical patient care and prevention. This study explores the course of (and relationships over time) between sleep problems and concurrent dimensional difficulties relating to anxiety/depression, attention deficiency and aggressive behaviors in childhood and adolescence. The latter three may jointly form a broad syndrome, the dysregulation profile. Read More
J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.
Departments of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery.
This study sought to examine if modern medical evaluations including newborn screening and early diagnosis along with better methods of disease control have improved rates of hearing loss in children with sickle cell disease (SCD). Audiometric and medical data for patients with SCD was obtained from the AudGen Database and analyzed for the presence of hearing loss, type of hearing loss, severity of hearing loss, and correlation with comorbid conditions. Children with sickle cell trait (SCT) were used as a comparison group. Read More
Personal Disord 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
Department of Psychology.
Extant research has supported a connection between socialization in childhood and difficulties regulating emotions. The biosocial theory of borderline personality disorder (BPD; Crowell, Beauchaine, & Linehan, 2009; Linehan, 1993) suggests that emotion dysregulation is a core mechanism underlying the extreme behaviors, mood instability, identity disturbance, and relationship instability observed in BPD. The present study investigated the impact of socialization factors related to emotions, parental autonomy support, parental psychological control, and childhood trauma on BPD features in a nonclinical young adult sample (N = 357). Read More
Pediatr Blood Cancer 2018 Dec 5:e27572. Epub 2018 Dec 5.
Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, McMaster Children's Hospital, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.
Background: Neonatal portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is uncommon with potentially serious complications that may manifest in infancy and childhood.
Objective: The primary aim of our study was to describe the short-term and long-term outcomes of neonatal PVT.
Methods: A retrospective chart review was conducted from 2008 to 2016 of neonates diagnosed with PVT. Read More
Pediatr Dermatol 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.
Department of Dermatology, People's Hospital of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Nanning, China.
We evaluated the efficiency of using a 308-nm excimer laser with either tacrolimus, pimecrolimus, or halometasone for the treatment of childhood vitiligo. Patients who received combined treatments had significantly higher rates of repigmentation in comparison with individuals who underwent excimer laser alone therapy. Moreover, patients who received treatment with excimer laser and halometasone had significantly higher rates of repigmentation, even higher than individuals who were treated with tacrolimus combined or pimecrolimus combined. Read More
J Dermatol 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
Department of Pediatrics, Asan Medical Center Children's Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
Atopic dermatitis is a chronic, relapsing, inflammatory skin disease that usually appears in early childhood and develops into a heterogeneous disease during childhood. The clinical course and treatment for atopic dermatitis can differ according to its phenotype and/or endotype. This study aimed to identify clinical phenotypes of atopic dermatitis in early childhood. Read More
Monogr Soc Res Child Dev 2018 Dec;83(4):162-172
This commentary applauds the authors of the monograph, The Mother-Child Attachment Partnership in Early Childhood: Secure Base Behavioral and Representational Processes, for their thorough and elegant exploration of the development of attachment working models in the preschool years in relation to maternal sensitivity and attachment representations, mother-child co-constructions of attachment-relevant stories, and children's own secure base behavior. These findings are set against a backdrop of children's memory development, with the recommendation that future research delves even younger to explore the development of attachment working models in children under 3 years. A second recommendation is to continue the work with older children, with a particular focus on the conversations they are having with caregivers about actual attachment-related experiences. Read More
Monogr Soc Res Child Dev 2018 Dec;83(4):7-21
Attachment relationships are formed, organized, and elaborated through interactions between an attachment figure and her/his child. The parent-child codetermination process that establishes their relationship in infancy extends and expands during the preschool years. A child's developing ability to use her/his mother as a secure base requires support, time, and practice during early childhood. Read More
Monogr Soc Res Child Dev 2018 Dec;83(4):121-134
Using the secure base construct, the evidence presented indicates that interactional experience continues to be a central factor in the organization of mother-child attachment relationships. The parent-child codetermination process that establishes their relationship in infancy expands during the preschool years. Furthermore, with the increasingly relevant role of language, parent-child verbal communication during this time plays an important part in structuring children's attachment behavior and knowledge. Read More
Monogr Soc Res Child Dev 2018 Dec;83(4):60-73
This study focused on the role of maternal co-construction skills in building attachment relevant representations in early childhood. Thirty-four mothers and their 4- to 5-year-old children were presented with two co-construction tasks, one an attachment storytelling task, the other an affect discussion task about emotion-laden situations. Maternal co-construction skills were assessed with several scales that scored the quality of the co-construction partnership, the mother's skill in prompting elaboration, and helping build an explanatory framework. Read More
Monogr Soc Res Child Dev 2018 Dec;83(4):22-34
In order to examine the interplay between behavioral and cognitive representations of attachment during early childhood, we compiled both behavior-based and more cognitive-based attachment measures for this age range. The behavior-based measures were observational Q-set methodologies already established in the literature. Measures of attachment representations for the children and mothers were narrative-based procedures, that is, established storytelling tasks for obtaining attachment narratives from children and adults. Read More
Monogr Soc Res Child Dev 2018 Dec;83(4):74-90
This study investigated the associations among maternal sensitivity, maternal secure base script co-construction skills, and children's secure base behavior during early childhood. Maternal sensitivity and children's secure base behavior were assessed in naturalistic settings among 81 mother-child dyads when the children were approximately 3.5 years old. Read More
Monogr Soc Res Child Dev 2018 Dec;83(4):154-161
The chapters in this monograph describe the transition of attachment representations from a predominantly sensorimotor, in the moment, experience for the infant/toddler to internalized, mental representations of attachment that are transportable to new social contexts, in which attachment figures may not be present. The chapters focus on means that parents use to help their child effect this transition in terms of both behavioral support for the child's secure base behavior and for cognitive skills that underlie the child's construction of mental models of attachment. The results cohere across studies and make a compelling case for Bowlby's notion that internal models of how attachment "works" are co-constructed through social processes during early childhood. Read More
Monogr Soc Res Child Dev 2018 Dec;83(4):35-59
This article investigated two central questions about mother-child attachment relationships during early childhood: (1) the association between maternal sensitivity and child attachment behavior (Study 1) and (2) the link between child attachment behavior and representations (Study 2). In Study 1, maternal sensitivity and child security were assessed in naturalistic contexts among 74 middle-class dyads, when children were about 3.5 and again 5. Read More
Prenat Diagn 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.
Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences, Division of Maternal Fetal Medicine, Rutgers/Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ.
Advanced paternal age (APA) is associated with infertility and other reproductive risks. Studies looking at APA and outcomes have used different paternal age cut-offs, which has complicated systematic evaluations of reproductive risk associated with paternal aging. This review of the literature suggests that the impact of paternal aging on adverse reproductive outcomes is small, but significant. Read More
Eur J Pediatr 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.
Pediatric Liver and Gut Research Group, Children's Hospital, Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.
We addressed growth of biliary atresia (BA) patients living with native livers between ages 0-6 and effects of post-surgical corticosteroid treatment on growth. Growth charts of 28 BA patients born in Finland between 1987 and 2017 were retrospectively evaluated. Dosage and length of corticosteroid treatment and hydrocortisone substitution were reviewed. Read More
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.
City, University of London, London, UK.
Children and adolescents with developmental language disorder (DLD) are, overall, vulnerable to difficulties in emotional adjustment and in peer relations. However, previous research has shown that different subgroups follow different trajectories in respect to the quality of peer relations. Less is known about the trajectories of emotional development. Read More
Front Immunol 2018 16;9:2583. Epub 2018 Nov 16.
Department of Gastroenterology, Bethune First Affiliated Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, China.
Systemic Epstein-Barr virus-positive T-cell lymphoproliferative childhood disease (EBV+ T-LPD) is extremely rare. Primary acute or chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection triggers EBV+ T-LPD's onset and the disease involves clonal proliferation of infected T-cells with activated cytotoxic phenotype. The adult-onset EBV+ T-LPD (ASEBV+ T-LPD) is even rarer and needs to be extensively studied. Read More
Case Rep Gastroenterol 2018 Sep-Dec;12(3):661-670. Epub 2018 Nov 21.
Division of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, USA.
Zellweger spectrum disorders (ZSDs) are a subgroup of peroxisomal biogenesis disorders with a generalized defect in peroxisome function. Liver disease in ZSDs has been associated with the lack of peroxisomal β-oxidation of C-bile acid intermediates to form primary C-bile acids, which prevents normal physiologic feedback and leads to accumulation of hepatotoxic bile acid intermediates. Primary bile acid therapy, oral cholic acid (CA), as adjunctive treatment for ZSDs, restores physiologic feedback inhibition on bile acid synthesis and inhibits formation of hepatotoxic bile acid intermediates. Read More
Psychol Res Behav Manag 2018 12;11:581-588. Epub 2018 Nov 12.
Department of Developmental and Educational Psychology, Faculty of Education, Philosophy and Anthropology, University of the Basque Country, San Sebastián, Spain.
Purpose: The study had two goals as follows: 1) to identify the prevalence of children with mild and severe depression (MD and SD), exploring sex differences; and 2) to determine possible significant differences in adaptive and clinical variables between children with different levels of depression (absence of depression, MD, and SD).
Materials And Methods: We used a sample of 420 participants aged 7-10 years (53.3% boys) enrolled in third and fourth grade of primary education, from schools in the Basque Country (Spain). Read More
Int J Obes (Lond) 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.
Division of Behavioral Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, 14214, USA.
Rapid infant weight gain predicts childhood obesity. We aimed to estimate effect size and identify critical timing for intervention-assisted smoking cessation during pregnancy to impact infant weight gain. We followed 25 mother-infant dyads in the UB Pregnancy and Smoking Cessation Study (Buffalo, NY, USA). Read More
J Hum Hypertens 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.
Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine (IUMSP), Lausanne University Hospital (CHUV), Lausanne, Switzerland.
Clin Chem 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.
Department of Molecular Medicine and SurgeryCenter for Molecular Medicine Karolinska Institutet Stockholm, Sweden.
BMJ 2018 Dec 5;363:k5056. Epub 2018 Dec 5.
J Clin Sleep Med 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.
Study Objectives: Adenotonsillar hypertrophy is the major cause of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in prepubertal children, but children without enlarged lymphoid tissues may still suffer from OSA. This study aimed to identify other potential anatomic features associated with childhood OSA.
Methods: This prospective study took place between January 2010 and April 2014. Read More
BMC Pediatr 2018 Dec 5;18(1):383. Epub 2018 Dec 5.
Beijing Key Laboratory of Pediatric Respiratory Infection Diseases, Key Laboratory of Major Diseases in Children, Ministry of Education, National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Diseases, National Key Discipline of Pediatrics (Capital Medical University), Beijing Pediatric Research Institute, Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University, National Center for Children's Health, Beijing, 100045, China.
Background: Vaccination is still one of the most important methods to control and prevent childhood infections including diphtheria and pertussis. This study evaluated the level of diphtheria (DT) and pertussis (PT)-related antibodies among children with pneumonia in Ji'nan, China.
Methods: A total of 484 sera of children from 1 day to 13 years of age were collected from 2014 to 2015 in Ji'nan. Read More
BMC Psychiatry 2018 Dec 5;18(1):381. Epub 2018 Dec 5.
Department of Population Health, New York University School of Medicine, New York, USA.
Background: Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) is a significant public health and social welfare problem in low-and middle income countries (LMICs). However, most ACEs research is based on developed countries, and little is known about mechanisms of early ACEs on adulthood health and offspring's wellbeing for populations in LMICs. This area is needed to guide social welfare policy and intervention service planning. Read More
BMC Oral Health 2018 Dec 5;18(1):203. Epub 2018 Dec 5.
Department of Endodontics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University, Urumqi, Xinjiang, 830054, China.
Background: In recent years, the opportunistic fungus C.albicans has been linked to ECC.It is important to investigate the relationship between the distribution of C. Read More
BMC Infect Dis 2018 Dec 5;18(1):624. Epub 2018 Dec 5.
Institute for Infectious Disease Control and Prevention, Qinghai Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Xining, Qinghai, China.
Background: Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease (HFMD) is most frequently caused by Enterovirus71 (EV-A71) or Coxsackie virus A16 (CV-A16), infants and young children are at greatest risk. Describing the epidemiology of HFMD can help develop and better target interventions, including the use of pediatric EV-A71 vaccination.
Methods: We obtained data from the national surveillance system for HFMD cases with onset dates from 2009 to 2015. Read More
BMC Fam Pract 2018 Dec 5;19(1):191. Epub 2018 Dec 5.
Michael & Susan Dell Center for Healthy Living, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHealth) School of Public Health in Austin, Austin, TX, USA.
Background: The Texas Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration study was an integrated, systems-oriented intervention that incorporated primary and secondary obesity prevention approaches targeting multiple sectors, including primary care clinics, to address childhood obesity. The primary care clinic component included the American Academy of Pediatrics' Next Steps weight management counseling materials that support brief healthy lifestyle-focused visits. The current study describes the methodology and assesses the implementation of the Next Steps program in the participating primary care clinics, as well as the association of implementation with enrollment of children with overweight and obesity in the secondary prevention intervention. Read More
J Oncol Pharm Pract 2018 Dec 5:1078155218817816. Epub 2018 Dec 5.
1 Princess Noorah Oncology Center, King Abdulaziz Medical City, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Ministry of National Guard Health Affairs, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
Background: Outcomes of relapsed/refractory childhood acute leukemia remain poor. We analyzed the safety/efficacy of fludarabine, cytarabine, and granulocyte colony stimulating factor, with/without idarubicin (FLAG ± IDA) as salvage therapy compared with recent published results of novel therapies.
Methods: This retrospective study included children aged 1 to 15 years with relapsed/refractory acute leukemia who received FLAG ± IDA salvage therapy from January 2000 to December 2014. Read More
J Child Neurol 2018 Dec 5:883073818811544. Epub 2018 Dec 5.
1 Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, Palliative Research Centre, Stockholm, Sweden.
Background And Aims:: Children with severe spinal muscular atrophy have complex care needs due to progressive muscle weakness, eventually leading to respiratory failure. To design a care system adapted to families' needs, more knowledge about parents' experience of care and its coordination between settings is required. This study explores (1) whether parents felt that health professionals took every opportunity to help the child feel as good as possible, (2) parents' satisfaction with various care settings, and (3) parents' satisfaction with coordination between settings. Read More
Sleep Med 2018 Oct 11;53:124-132. Epub 2018 Oct 11.
Early Start, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Wollongong, NSW, Australia; Illawarra Health and Medical Research Institute, NSW, Australia; Research Centre in Physical Activity, Health and Leisure, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal. Electronic address:
Objective: To explore the correlates of nocturnal sleep duration, nocturnal sleep variability, and nocturnal sleep problems in a sample of Australian toddlers.
Methods: Participants were 173 toddlers (average age 19.7 ± 4. Read More
Neuroimage 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.
Psychology Department, Stanford University, CA, 94305, USA; Stanford Neurosciences Institute, Stanford University, CA, 94305, USA.
Human visual cortex encompasses more than a dozen visual field maps across three major processing streams. One of these streams is the lateral visual stream, which extends from V1 to lateral-occipital (LO) and temporal-occipital (TO) visual field maps and plays a prominent role in shape as well as motion perception. However, it is unknown if and how population receptive fields (pRFs) in the lateral visual stream develop from childhood to adulthood, and what impact this development may have on spatial coding. Read More
Endocr Connect 2018 Dec 1. Epub 2018 Dec 1.
G Hu, Chronic Disease Epidemiology Laboratory, Pennington Biomedical , Baton ROuge, United States.
Previous studies found conflicting results about the associations between the exposure to hyperglycemia in utero and the later risks of childhood overweight and obesity. The aim of the present study is to compare the children's body mass index (BMI) growth between offspring exposed to maternal gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and those not exposed, and assess the associations between maternal GDM and their offspring's overweight and obesity risk. We performed a large observational study in 1156 women and their offspring (578 GDM and 578 non-GDM mother-child pairs, matched by their offspring's gender and age). Read More
Clin Exp Allergy 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.
Department of Medical Statistics, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.
Background: Phase Three of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) measured the global prevalence of symptoms of asthma in children. We undertook comprehensive analyses addressing risk factors for asthma symptoms in combination, at both the individual and the school level, to explore the potential role of reverse causation due to selective avoidance or confounding by indication.
Objective: To explore the role of reverse causation in risk factors of asthma symptoms. Read More
Am J Hypertens 2018 Dec 2. Epub 2018 Dec 2.
Department of Nutrition, Federal University of Espírito Santo, Brazil.
Background: To analyze the relationship between early life indicators, blood pressure (BP) and arterial stiffness in childhood, in three samples with different bio-cultural characteristics.
Methods: The total sample included 520 schoolchildren 9-10 years of age from Madrid (Spain), Vitória (Brazil) and Luanda (Angola). Height and weight, BP and carotid-femoral Pulse Wave Velocity (cf-PWV) were measured, all by 1 observer in each site, BMI was calculated. Read More