Background: The purpose of this study was to examine the rate and distribution of comorbidities, severity of childhood maltreatment, and clinical characteristics of adolescents with conduct disorder detained in a juvenile detention center in South Korea.
Methods: In total, 173 juvenile detainees were recruited. We analyzed the distribution of psychiatric disorders among the sample and compared the rate of comorbidities between groups with and without conduct disorder. Read More
Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health 2017 6;11:46. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Tomtebodavägen 18a, 17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
Background: Understanding the association between parental socioeconomic position and self-harm in adolescence is crucial due to its substantial magnitude and associated inequality. Most previous studies have been either of cross-sectional nature or based solely on self-reports or hospital treated self-harm. The aim of this study is to determine the association between parental socioeconomic position and self-harm among adolescents with a specific focus on gender and severity of self-harm. Read More
Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health 2017 6;11:43. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
University of Braunschweig, Institute of Psychology, Humboldtstr. 33, 38106 Brunswick, Germany.
Background: This study focuses on children living in foster families with a history of maltreatment or neglect. These children often show adverse mental health outcomes reflected in increased externalizing and internalizing problems. It is expected that these adverse outcomes are associated with increased parental stress levels experienced by foster mothers as well as foster fathers. Read More
Background: During stressful events, individuals (particularly adolescents) from minority groups are often more vulnerable to distress. This claim will be examined in terms of coping resources and stress reactions to escalated political violence. This study aimed to compare coping resources and stress reactions among adolescents from two ethnic groups in southern Israel-Jews and Bedouin Arabs-during a period of escalated political violence (November 2012). Read More
Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health 2017 22;11:41. Epub 2017 Aug 22.
Center for Health and Medical Psychology, JPS: Psychology, Örebro University, 701 82 Örebro, Sweden.
Objectives: We examined whether co-rumination with online friends buffered the link between social anxiety and depressive symptoms over time in a community sample.
Methods: In a sample of 526 participants (358 girls; Mage = 14.05) followed at three time points, we conducted a latent cross-lagged model with social anxiety, depressive symptoms, and co-rumination, controlling for friendship stability and friendship quality, and adding a latent interaction between social anxiety and co-rumination predicting depressive symptoms. Read More
Background: Although mental health literacy has been widely studied in adults, there are still relatively few studies on adolescent populations. In Sri Lanka, adolescents account for about one fifth of the population. Current evidence shows that most mental health problems diagnosed in adulthood begin in adolescence. Read More
Purpose: To examine associations between health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and anxiety symptoms across anxiety domains (obsessions/compulsions, social anxiety, panic disorder, agoraphobia, separation anxiety, physical injury fears, generalised anxiety, and posttraumatic stress) in a general adolescent population. Expanded knowledge about these associations can provide valuable information for improving interventions and prevention strategies for adolescent anxiety.
Methods: Cross-sectional data about anxiety were collected via a school survey from a community sample of Norwegian adolescents aged 12-17 (N = 1719). Read More
Background: The mortality rate of young offenders is high. Furthermore, mortality in young offenders is associated with psychiatric and substance use disorders. The primary aim of this national register-based follow-up study was to investigate the mortality rate of Finnish delinquents who underwent a forensic psychiatric examination between 1980 and 2010. Read More
Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health 2017 24;11:40. Epub 2017 Jul 24.
Laboratório Interdisciplinar de Neurociências Clínicas (LiNC), Departamento de Psiquiatria, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Edifício de Pesquisas II - UNIFESP, Rua Pedro de Toledo, 669-3° andar fundos, Vila Clementino, São Paulo, SP Brazil.
Background: Adaptive behavior can be impaired in different neurodevelopmental disorders and may be influenced by confounding factors, such as intelligence quotient (IQ) and socioeconomic classification. Our main objective was to verify whether adaptive behavior profiles differ in three conditions-Williams Beuren syndrome (WBS), Down syndrome (DS), and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), as compared with healthy controls (HC) and with each other. Although the literature points towards each disorder having a characteristic profile, no study has compared profiles to establish the specificity of each one. Read More
Objective: The majority of studies on the associations between breastfeeding and cognitive functioning have focused on IQ, with only a few investigating learning skills, and none of the latter adjusting for maternal IQ. We examined the association between breastfeeding and learning abilities in school-aged children using a cross-sectional design.
Methods: We recruited 868 children, aged 8-11 years and parents completed the Learning Disability Evaluation Scale (LDES). Read More
Background: Adolescents living with chronic illnesses engage in health risk behaviors (HRB) which pose challenges for optimizing care and management of their ill health. Frequent monitoring of HRB is recommended, however little is known about which are the most useful tools to detect HRB among chronically ill adolescents.
Aims: This systematic review was conducted to address important knowledge gaps on the assessment of HRB among chronically ill adolescents. Read More
Background: We examined the efficacy of olanzapine/fluoxetine combination (OFC) in improving health-related quality of life (QoL) in the treatment of bipolar depression in children and adolescents.
Methods: Patients aged 10-17 years with bipolar I disorder, depressed episode, baseline children's depression rating scale-revised (CDRS-R) total score ≥40, Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) total score ≤15, and YMRS-item 1 ≤ 2 were randomized to OFC (6/25-12/50 mg/day olanzapine/fluoxetine; n = 170) or placebo (n = 85) for up to 8 weeks of double-blind treatment. Patients and parents completed the revised KINDL questionnaire for measuring health-related QoL in children and adolescents (KINDL-R) at baseline and endpoint. Read More
Background: The prevalence of mood disorders in children is a growing global concern. Omega-3 fatty acids (FA) are emerging as a promising adjuvant therapy for depressive disorder (DD) in paediatric patients. The primary objective of this pilot, single-centre, randomized, double-blind controlled study was to compare the efficacy of an Omega-3 FA fish oil emulsion with a control oil emulsion alongside standard treatment for depressive symptoms in children and adolescents suffering from depressive disorder (DD) and mixed anxiety depressive disorder (MADD). Read More
Background: 'Almajiris' are children and adolescents sent far away from their homes to study in Islamic schools under the care of Muslim scholars. Over the years, there has been a decline in the capacity of the scholars to cater to these pupils. Consequently, Almajiris spend significant periods of time on the streets begging and carrying out menial jobs to earn a living thereby increasing their risk for physical and mental disorders. Read More
Background: Several longitudinal studies have shown the partial symptomatic persistence of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in clinic-based samples. However, little is known about the patterns and trajectories of ADHD symptoms in community-based populations.
Methods: To differentiate developmental trajectories of ADHD symptoms over 1 year, with a four-wave quarterly follow-up in children and adolescents in the community of Taiwan, we conducted this prospective study in 1281 students in grade 3, 5, and 8. Read More
Background: There is a need to prevent anxiety and depression in young people and mindfulness contains important emotion regulation strategies. Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), a mindfulness-based therapy, has yet to be evaluated as a prevention program, but has demonstrated an ability to reduce symptoms of anxiety and depression in adult and adolescent populations. This study examines the feasibility of using an ACT-based prevention program in a sample of year 10 (aged 14-16 years) high school students from Sydney, Australia. Read More
Background: The stimulant methylphenidate (MPH) and the nonstimulant atomoxetine (ATX) are the most commonly-prescribed pharmacological treatments for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the drug-specific mechanism of action on brain function in ADHD patients is not well known. This study examined differences in prefrontal hemodynamic activity between MPH and ATX in children with ADHD as measured by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) using the Stroop color-word task. Read More
Background: Infants are the most likely recipients of child welfare services; however, little is known about infants and families who come into contact with the child welfare system and factors that are associated with service provision. Investigations involving infants and their families present an unparalleled opportunity for the child welfare sector to enhance infants' safety and well-being through early identification, referral and intervention. Understanding how the child welfare system responds to the unique needs of infants and caregivers is critical to developing appropriate practice and policy responses within the child welfare sector and across other allied sectors. Read More
Background: Discrepancies between multiple informants often create considerable uncertainties in delivering services to youth. The present study assessed the ability of the parent and youth scales of the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) to predict mental health problems/disorders across several mental health domains as validated against two contrasting indices of validity for psychopathology derived from the Development and Well Being Assessment (DAWBA): (1) an empirically derived computer algorithm and (2) expert based ICD-10 diagnoses.
Methods: Ordinal and logistic regressions were used to predict any problems/disorders, emotional problems/disorders and behavioural problems/disorders in a community sample (n = 252) and in a clinic sample (n = 95). Read More
Background: Discrepancies are often found between child and parent reports of child psychopathology, nevertheless the role of the child's presenting difficulties in relation to these is underexplored. This study investigates whether parent-child agreement on the conduct and emotional scales of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) varied as a result of certain child characteristics, including the child's presenting problems to clinical services, age and gender.
Methods: The UK-based sample consisted of 16,754 clinical records of children aged 11-17, the majority of which were female (57%) and White (76%). Read More
Background: This study aims to investigate the prevalence, correlates and treatment seeking behavior related to ADHD among adolescents from Lebanon.
Methods: Five hundred and ten adolescents were recruited through multistage stratified cluster sampling of households in Beirut, and separately interviewed along with one parent/legal guardian, using the DAWBA. All adolescents completed the PRQ and the SDQ; the parent/legal guardian also completed the SDQ and provided basic demographic information, including attitudes towards seeking mental health services. Read More
Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neuropsychiatric disorder among the children. The burden of ADHD or its associated factors in Uganda are not known. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and the associated factors of ADHD among children attending the neurology and psychiatry clinics at Mulago National Referral Hospital. Read More
Background: Stigmatizing attitudes and discriminatory behaviour towards persons with mental illness are known to start in childhood. In Nigeria, it is not unusual to see children taunting persons with mental illness. This behaviour continues into adulthood as evidenced by the day-to-day occurrences in the community of negative attitudes and social distance from persons with mental illness. Read More
Background: To meet the required hours of intensive intervention for treating children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), we developed an automated serious gaming platform (11 games) to deliver intervention at home (GOLIAH) by mapping the imitation and joint attention (JA) subset of age-adapted stimuli from the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM) intervention. Here, we report the results of a 6-month matched controlled exploratory study.
Methods: From two specialized clinics, we included 14 children (age range 5-8 years) with ASD and 10 controls matched for gender, age, sites, and treatment as usual (TAU). Read More
Background: To validate the association between country-of-birth and disparities in the stimulant use for ADHD among individuals in Western Australia.
Methods: Using linked data, a population-based retrospective cohort of individuals admitted to hospital before age 25 years was followed through to identify having stimulants for ADHD in 2003-2007. Multivariate logistic and linear regressions were used to characterise associations between stimulants and country-of-birth, geographical remoteness and socioeconomic status. Read More
Background: There are indications that teachers have limited knowledge about attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), despite its high prevalence in childhood and its long-term effects on students such as academic underachievement, reduced self-esteem, and social and behavioural difficulties. This study is therefore aimed at assessing the effect of an ADHD training program on the knowledge of ADHD among primary school teachers in Kaduna, Nigeria and their attitudes towards pupils with ADHD.
Methods: This was a randomized controlled trial involving 84 primary school teachers in the intervention group and 75 teachers in the control group. Read More
Background: The presence of psychiatric morbidity in the child and adolescent age group is demonstrable in various studies conducted in various settings in Kenya. This study set out to determine the psychiatric morbidity and socio-demographic profile of patients who eventually present for care at a tertiary specialist child and adolescent mental health clinic in Kenya. Knowledge of the patterns of presentation of disorders is crucial for planning of service scale up as well as serving as a useful training guide. Read More
Objectives: To distinguish between ethnic differences among segregated schoolgirls and restrictive anorexia nervosa using a simple culture-fair test of body image (BI) figure drawings.
Methods: Several responses to BI figure drawings by 178 adolescent schoolgirls from three ethnically distinct and segregated schools and communities in Israel, Jewish secular (JS), Jewish Haredi (H), and Christian Arab (C), and a group of 14 severely restricting anorexic girls (AN). BI evaluations were analyzed by MANCOVA, followed by paired or Student-t tests for comparisons between responses and groups respectively. Read More
Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health 2017 8;11:12. Epub 2017 Mar 8.
Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, Research Division "Child Public Health", Centre for Psychosocial Medicine, University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistrasse 52 (Building W26), 20246 Hamburg, Germany.
Background: Mental health problems (MHPs) in preschoolers are precursors of mental disorders which have shown to be associated with suffering, functional impairment, exposure to stigma and discrimination, as well as enhanced risk of premature death. A better understanding of factors associated with MHPs in preschoolers can facilitate early identification of children at risk and inform prevention programs. This cross-sectional study investigated the association of risk and protective factors with MHPs within a German representative community sample. Read More
Background: We examined the relationships between mothers' sense of coherence (SOC) and their child's social skills development among preschool children, and how this relationship is mediated by mother's childrearing style.
Methods: Mothers of 1341 Japanese children, aged 4-5 years, completed a self-report questionnaire on their SOC and childrearing style. The children's teachers evaluated their social skills using the social skills scale (SSS), which comprises three factors: cooperation, self-control, and assertion. Read More
Background: Difficult conditions during childhood can limit an individual's development in many ways. Factors such as being raised in an at-risk family, child temperamental traits or maternal traits can potentially influence a child's later behaviour. The present study investigated the extent of regulatory problems in 6-month-old infants and their link to temperamental traits and impact on externalizing and internalizing problems at 36 months. Read More
Background: Attention is currently being drawn to child psychiatric care, most especially in the developed countries. This type of care is still rudimentary in the developing countries. Botswana is one of the African countries with good health care services but mental illness is given the low priority. Read More
Background: Depressive symptoms in the young constitute a public health issue. The current study aims to estimate: (a) the frequency of depressive symptoms in a sample of final grade elementary-school children in Cyprus, (b) the association among frequency of depressive symptoms, gender and nationality and, (c) the metric properties of the Greek-Cypriot version of the children's depression inventory (CDI).
Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study with internal comparison was performed. Read More
Background: High rates of psychiatric disorders and comorbidities have been reported in juvenile detainees, and both phenomena are thought to contribute to repeat offending. However, research on this topic has been limited in Asian countries, like South Korea. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of psychiatric disorders, comorbidity patterns, and the relationship between psychiatric disorders and repeat offending among a cross-section of youths detained in a male juvenile detention center in South Korea. Read More
During the past 50 years, health insurance providers and national registers of mental health regularly report significant increases in the number of mental disorder diagnoses in children and adolescents. However, epidemiological studies show mixed effects of time trends of prevalence of mental disorders. Overdiagnosis in clinical practice rather than an actual increase is assumed to be the cause for this situation. Read More
Background: The use of restraints in adolescent psychiatric settings requires particular professional, ethical, and legal considerations. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the number of restraint episodes per patient was related to any of several characteristics of the adolescents.
Methods: In this nationwide study, we included all adolescents restrained during the period 2008-2010 (N = 267) in Norwegian adolescent acute psychiatric inpatient units. Read More
Background: This study examined the pathways by which destructive and constructive marital conflict leading to social skills development in preschool children, are mediated through negative and positive parenting practices.
Methods: Mothers of 2931 Japanese children, aged 5-6 years, completed self-report questionnaires regarding their marital relationship (the Quality of co-parental communication scale) and parental practices (the Alabama parenting questionnaire). The children's teachers evaluated their social skills using the Social skills scale. Read More
Background: Aggression comprises a heterogeneous set of behavioral patterns that aim to harm and hurt others. Empathy represents a potential mechanism that inhibits aggressive conduct and enhances prosocial behavior. Nevertheless, research results on the relationship between empathy and aggression are mixed. Read More
Background: The transition from high school to post-secondary education and work is difficult for adolescents on the autism spectrum. Transition planning can be an effective way of supporting adolescents on the autism spectrum to prepare for leaving school and to succeed in obtaining employment; however, there is a need for an autism-specific transition planning program with proven effectiveness. This paper describes a trial protocol for evaluating the Better OutcOmes & Successful Transitions for Autism (BOOST-A™); an online interactive program that empowers adolescents on the autism spectrum to plan their transition from school to further study, training, or employment. Read More
Objective: At present, there are no well-validated biomarkers for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The present study used an infrared motion tracking system to monitor and record the movement intensity of children and to determine its diagnostic precision for ADHD and its possible associations with ratings of ADHD symptom severity.
Methods: A Microsoft motion sensing camera recorded the movement of children during a modified Go/No-Go Task. Read More
Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health 2016 1;10:45. Epub 2016 Nov 1.
Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and the EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research, VU University Medical, P.O. Box 303, 1115 ZG Duivendrecht, Amsterdam, The Netherlands ; Curium-LUMC, Leiden University Medical Center and Academic Workplace Forensic Care for Youth, Leiden, The Netherlands.
Objective: To examine the relationship between a history of childhood abuse and mental health problems in juveniles who sexually offended (JSOs) over and above general offending behavior.
Methods: A sample of 44 JSOs incarcerated in two juvenile detention centers in the Netherlands between May 2008 and March 2014 were examined for childhood abuse history (Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form) and mental health problems (Massachusetts Youth Screening Instrument-Version 2). Furthermore, the connection between childhood abuse and mental health problems in JSOs was compared to a sample of 44 propensity score matched juveniles who offended non-sexually (non-JSOs). Read More
Background: Policies, designed to promote resilience, and research, to understand the determinants and correlates of resilience, require reliable and valid measures to ensure data quality. The student resilience survey (SRS) covers a range of external supports and internal characteristics which can potentially be viewed as protective factors and can be crucial in exploring the mechanisms between protective factors and risk factors, and to design intervention and prevention strategies. This study examines the validity of the SRS. Read More