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    1057 results match your criteria Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America[Journal]

    1 OF 22

    The Basic Science of Behavior Change and Its Application to Pediatric Providers.
    Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 2017 Oct 2;26(4):851-874. Epub 2017 Aug 2.
    Silver School of Social Work, New York University, 1 Washington Square North, New York, NY 10003, USA.
    Pediatric primary care providers (PPCPs) are increasingly expected to know how to assess, diagnose, and treat a wide range of mental health problems in children and adolescents. For many PPCPs, this means learning and performing new practice behaviors that were not taught in their residency training. Typical continuing education approaches to engage PPCPs in new practices have not yielded the desired changes in provider behavior. Read More

    Essential Elements of a Collaborative Mental Health Training Program for Primary Care.
    Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 2017 Oct;26(4):839-850
    Primary Children's Hospital, 100 North Mario Capecchi Drive, Salt Lake City, UT 841113, USA; Division of Pediatric Psychiatry and Behavioral Health, Department of Pediatrics, University of Utah School of Medicine, 100 North Mario Capecchi Drive, Salt Lake City, UT 841113, USA. Electronic address:
    Mental health integration in primary care is based on creating an environment that encourages collaboration and supports appropriate care for patients and families while offering a full range of services. Training programs for primary care practitioners should include sessions on how to build and maintain such a practice along with information on basic mental health competencies. Read More

    Payment for Integrated Care: Challenges and Opportunities.
    Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 2017 Oct;26(4):829-838
    Department of Psychiatry, Duke University School of Medicine, 2608 Erwin Road, Suite 300, Durham, NC 27705, USA. Electronic address:
    A multidisciplinary team approach to care and robust care coordination services are primary components of almost all integrated care delivery systems. Given that these services have limited reimbursement in fee-for-service payment arrangements, integrating care in a fee-for-service environment is almost impossible. Capitated payment models hold promise for supporting integrated behavioral and physical health services. Read More

    Comparing Two Models of Integrated Behavioral Health Programs in Pediatric Primary Care.
    Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 2017 Oct;26(4):815-828
    Pediatric Behavioral Health Services, Montefiore Medical Group, 200 Corporate Boulevard South, Suite 175, Yonkers, NY 10701, USA.
    This study examined how to design, staff, and evaluate the feasibility of 2 different models of integrated behavioral health programs in pediatric primary care across primary care sites in the Bronx, NY. Results suggest that the Behavioral Health Integration Program model of pediatric integrated care is feasible and that hiring behavioral health staff with specific training in pediatric, evidence-informed behavioral health treatments may be a critical variable in increasing outcomes such as referral rates, self-reported competency, and satisfaction. Read More

    Evaluating Integrated Mental Health Care Programs for Children and Youth.
    Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 2017 Oct 25;26(4):795-814. Epub 2017 Jul 25.
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Massachusetts, Medical School at Baystate, 759 Chestnut Street, WG703, Springfield, MA 01199, USA.
    Evaluations of integrated care programs share many characteristics of evaluations of other complex health system interventions. However, evaluating integrated care for child and adolescent mental health poses special challenges that stem from the broad range of social, emotional, and developmental problems that need to be addressed; the need to integrate care for other family members; and the lack of evidence-based interventions already adapted for primary care settings. Integrated care programs for children's mental health need to adapt and learn on the fly, so that evaluations may best be viewed through the lens of continuous quality improvement rather than evaluations of fixed programs. Read More

    Integrated Behavioral Health Care in Pediatric Subspecialty Clinics.
    Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 2017 Oct 21;26(4):785-794. Epub 2017 Jul 21.
    Department of Psychiatry, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA; Harvard Medical School, 25 Shattuck Street, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
    Comorbid behavioral and physical health conditions are accompanied by troubling symptom burden, functional impairment, and treatment complexity. Pediatric subspecialty care clinics offer an opportunity for the implementation of integrated behavioral health (BH) care models that promote resiliency. This article reviews integrated BH care in oncology, palliative care, pain, neuropsychiatry, cystic fibrosis, and transplantation. Read More

    Preliminary Outcomes from an Integrated Pediatric Mental Health Outpatient Clinic.
    Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 2017 Oct;26(4):761-770
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University School of Medicine, 2608 Erwin Road, Suite 300, Durham, NC 27705, USA.
    An estimated 1 in 5 children in the United States meet criteria for a diagnosable mental disorder, yet fewer than 20% receive mental health services. Unmet need for psychiatric treatment may contribute to patterns of increasing use of the emergency department. This article describes an integrated pediatric evaluation center designed to prevent the need for treatment in emergency settings by increasing access to timely and appropriate care for emergent and critical mental health needs. Read More

    Family-Based Integrated Care (FBIC) in a Partial Hospital Program for Complex Pediatric Illness: Fostering Shifts in Family Illness Beliefs and Relationships.
    Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 2017 Oct;26(4):733-759
    The Hasbro Children's Partial Hospital Program, The Alpert School of Medicine of Brown University, 593 Eddy Street, Providence, RI 02906, USA.
    The heuristic model of family-based integrated care (FBIC) was developed from 1998 to 2016 in the context of the development of the Hasbro Children's Partial Hospital Program (HCPHP) along with the development of a family therapy training program for Brown University child psychiatry and triple board residents. The clinical experience of the HCPHP team in treating more than 2000 patients and families in combination with the authors' experience in training residents for diverse practice settings highlights the usefulness of the FBIC paradigm for interdisciplinary family-based treatment for a broad range of illnesses and levels of care. Read More

    Competencies and Training Guidelines for Behavioral Health Providers in Pediatric Primary Care.
    Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 2017 Oct;26(4):717-731
    Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, 3440 Market Street, Suite 410, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA; Department of Psychiatry, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 3401 Civic Center Boulevard, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.
    This article focuses on the cross-discipline training competencies needed for preparing behavioral health providers to implement integrated primary care services. After a review of current competencies in the disciplines of child and adolescent psychiatry, psychology, and social work, cross-cutting competencies for integrated training purposes are identified. These competencies are comprehensive and broad and can be modified for use in varied settings and training programs. Read More

    Incorporating Trainees' Development into a Multidisciplinary Training Model for Integrated Behavioral Health Within a Pediatric Continuity Clinic.
    Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 2017 Oct 22;26(4):703-715. Epub 2017 Jul 22.
    Department of Psychiatry, Pediatric Mental Health Institute, Children's Hospital Colorado, University of Colorado School of Medicine, 13123 East 16th Avenue, Box 130, Aurora, CO 80045, USA; Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Mental Health Institute, Children's Hospital Colorado, University of Colorado School of Medicine, 13123 East 16th Avenue, Aurora, CO 80045, USA.
    Integrated behavioral and mental health systems of care for children require multidisciplinary team members to have specific competencies and knowledge of the other disciplines' strengths and practice needs. Training models for multidisciplinary professionals should consider the developmental level of trainees. The authors describe a model of flexible scaffolding, increasing intensity, and depth of experience as trainees gain skills and knowledge. Read More

    Preparing Trainees for Integrated Care: Triple Board and the Postpediatric Portal Program.
    Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 2017 Oct;26(4):689-702
    Child, Adolescent, and Family Psychiatry, Psychiatry and Health Behavior, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta University, 997 St. Sebastian Way, Augusta, GA 30912, USA; Pediatrics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta University, 997 St. Sebastian Way, Augusta, GA 30912, USA.
    Training combining the disciplines of pediatrics, psychiatry, and child and adolescent psychiatry dates back to World War II, but formal combined programs began more than 3 decades ago as the Triple Board Program and 10 years ago as the Postpediatric Portal Program (PPPP). Triple board training was rigorously examined as a pilot program and ongoing surveys suggest that it provides successful training of physicians who can pass the required board examinations and contribute to clinical, academic, and administrative/advocacy endeavors. As evidence grows showing the value of integrated care, physicians with combined training will offer a unique perspective for developing systems. Read More

    From Theory to Action: Children's Community Pediatrics Behavioral Health System.
    Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 2017 Oct 21;26(4):677-688. Epub 2017 Jul 21.
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Michigan, Rachel Upjohn Building, 4250 Plymouth Road, SPC 5766, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2700, USA.
    Integrated health care models attempt to cross the barrier between behavioral and medical worlds in order to improve access to quality care that meets the needs of the whole patient. Unfortunately, the integration of behavioral health and physical health providers in one space is not enough to actually promote integration. There are many models for promoting integration and collaboration within the primary care context. Read More

    Using Effective Public Private Collaboration to Advance Integrated Care.
    Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 2017 Oct 29;26(4):665-675. Epub 2017 Jul 29.
    Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Georgetown University School of Medicine, 2115 Wisconsin Avenue Northwest, Suite 200, Washington, DC 20007, USA.
    Integrated mental health services within health care settings have many benefits; however, several key barriers pose challenges to fully implemented and coordinated care. Collaborative, multistakeholder efforts, such as health networks, have the potential to overcome prevalent obstacles and to accelerate the dissemination of innovative clinical strategies. In addition to engaging clinical experts, efforts should also include the perspectives of families and communities, a grounding in data and evaluation, and a focus on policy and advocacy. Read More

    Massachusetts Child Psychiatry Access Project 2.0: A Case Study in Child Psychiatry Access Program Redesign.
    Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 2017 Oct 11;26(4):647-663. Epub 2017 Jul 11.
    Massachusetts Child Psychiatry Access Programs, Massachusetts Behavioral Health Partnership, Beacon Health Options, 1000 Washington Street, Suite 310, Boston, MA 02118, USA.
    The Massachusetts Child Psychiatry Access Program is a statewide public mental health initiative designed to provide consultation, care navigation, and education to assist pediatric primary care providers in addressing mental health problems for children and families. To improve program performance, adapt to changes in the environment of pediatric primary care services, and ensure the program's long-term sustainability, program leadership in consultation with the Massachusetts Department of Mental Health embarked on a process of redesign. The redesign process is described, moving from an initial strategic assessment of program and the planning of structural and functional changes, through transition and implementation. Read More

    Telemedicine for Child Collaborative or Integrated Care.
    Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 2017 Oct 29;26(4):637-645. Epub 2017 Jun 29.
    University of Washington, M/S CPH, PO Box 5371, Seattle, WA 98105, USA. Electronic address:
    Telemedicine with child psychiatry specialists is a useful tool for collaborative and integrated care systems. This article reviews the workforce and care process rationale for using child psychiatric telemedicine for collaborative care, and discusses practical ways to address the technical challenges that arise when using telemedicine. Different systems of using telemedicine discussed include child psychiatry access programs, collaborative and integrated care use of telephone consultations, televideo consultations, and televideo care delivery. Read More

    The Future of Preschool Prevention, Assessment, and Intervention.
    Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 2017 Jul 22;26(3):611-624. Epub 2017 Mar 22.
    Division of Child Psychiatry, University of Vermont Medical Center, University of Vermont College of Medicine, 1 South Prospect Street, Burlington, VT 05401, USA.
    Preschoolers are in the most rapid period of brain development. Environment shapes the structure and function of the developing brain. Promoting brain health requires cultivation of healthy environments at home, school, and in the community. Read More

    Partnerships with Primary Care for the Treatment of Preschoolers.
    Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 2017 Jul;26(3):597-609
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Michigan, 4250 Plymouth Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.
    This article reviews mental health access issues relevant to preschool children and data on this population obtained through the Michigan Child Collaborative Care Program (MC3). The MC3 program provides telephonic consultation to primary care physicians (PCPs) in 40 counties in Michigan and video telepsychiatric consultation to patients and families. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and disruptive behavioral disorders are frequent initial presenting diagnoses, but autism spectrum disorders, parent-child relational issues, trauma, and posttraumatic stress disorder should also be considered. Read More

    Sleep Disorders: Assessment and Treatment in Preschool-Aged Children.
    Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 2017 Jul 27;26(3):587-595. Epub 2017 Apr 27.
    Department of Neurology, Washington University School of Medicine, Campus Box 8111, 660 South Euclid Avenue, St Louis, MO 63110, USA. Electronic address:
    Sleep issues are common in preschoolers, defined in this article as ages 3 to 5 years. Sleep deprivation can cause behavioral and cognitive issues. Sleep issues seen in the preschool years include insomnia, obstructive sleep apnea, parasomnias, and restless legs syndrome. Read More

    Feeding Disorders.
    Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 2017 Jul;26(3):571-586
    Department of Pediatrics, C.S. Mott Children's Hospital, University of Michigan Medical School, D2232 MPB, 1500 East Medical Center Drive, SPC 5718, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-5718, USA. Electronic address:
    Feeding disorders often present in children with complex medical histories as well as those with neurodevelopmental disabilities. If untreated, feeding problems will likely persist and may lead to additional developmental and medical complications. Treatment of pediatric feeding disorders should involve an interdisciplinary team, but the core intervention should include behavioral feeding techniques as they are the only empirically supported therapy for feeding disorders. Read More

    The Early Origins of Autism.
    Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 2017 Jul;26(3):555-570
    Washington University School of Medicine, 660 South Euclid Avenue, Campus Box 8504, St Louis, MO 63110, USA.
    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are neurodevelopmental disorders whose core features of impaired social communication and atypical repetitive behaviors and/or restrictions in range of interests emerge in toddlerhood and carry significant implications at successive stages of development. The ability to reliably identify most cases of the condition far earlier than the average age of diagnosis presents a novel opportunity for early intervention, but the availability of such an intervention is disparate across US communities, and its impact is imperfectly understood. New research may transform the clinical approach to these conditions in early childhood. Read More

    Intellectual Disability and Language Disorder.
    Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 2017 Jul;26(3):539-554
    Department of Psychology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, 262 Danny Thomas Place, Memphis, TN 38105, USA.
    Intellectual disability (ID) and language disorders are neurodevelopmental conditions arising in early childhood. Child psychiatrists are likely to encounter children with ID and language disorders because both are strongly associated with challenging behaviors and mental disorder. Because early intervention is associated with optimal outcomes, child psychiatrists must be aware of their signs and symptoms, particularly as related to delays in cognitive and adaptive function. Read More

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Preschool-Age Children.
    Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 2017 Jul;26(3):523-538
    Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 South Euclid Avenue, Campus Box 8134, St Louis, MO 63110, USA. Electronic address:
    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder marked by age-inappropriate deficits in attention or hyperactivity/impulsivity that interfere with functioning or development. It is highly correlated with other disorders, such as oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, and mood symptoms. The etiology is multifactorial, and neuroimaging findings are nonspecific. Read More

    Depression and Anxiety in Preschoolers: A Review of the Past 7 Years.
    Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 2017 Jul 18;26(3):503-522. Epub 2017 Mar 18.
    Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, 4444 Forest Park, Suite 2100, St Louis, MO 63108, USA.
    This article reviews recent empirical literature on the prevalence, correlates, assessment, and treatment of preschool-onset internalizing disorders. Major advances in the acceptance and recognition of both preschool-onset depression and anxiety have occurred over the past decade. This work has been greatly enhanced by the discovery of genetic, neural, and physiologic indicators, which further validate these constellations of symptoms in young children. Read More

    Disruptive Behavior Disorders in Children 0 to 6 Years Old.
    Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 2017 Jul 15;26(3):491-502. Epub 2017 Mar 15.
    Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Washington University in St. Louis School of Medicine, 660 South Euclid Avenue, Box 8134, St Louis, MO, USA. Electronic address:
    Disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs), specifically oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder, are common, serious, and treatable conditions among preschoolers. DBDs are marked by frequent aggression, deceitfulness, and defiance, and often persist through the lifespan. Exposure to harsh or inconsistent parenting, as frequently seen with parental depression and stress, increases DBD risk. Read More

    Trauma and Very Young Children.
    Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 2017 Jul;26(3):477-490
    George Warren Brown School of Social Work, Washington University, Campus Box 1196, 1 Brookings Drive, St Louis, MO 63130, USA.
    This article examines the intersection of early childhood mental health and trauma. Working definitions, incidence, and prevalence of trauma events for this population are outlined with an emphasis on children younger than age 4 years. Trauma impacts on early childhood development are reviewed, with attention to clinical consequences, protective factors, and resilience. Read More

    Beyond Reactive Attachment Disorder: How Might Attachment Research Inform Child Psychiatry Practice?
    Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 2017 Jul;26(3):455-476
    Department of Psychology, University of Central Florida, 4111 Pictor Lane, Psychology Building (99), Room 353, Orlando, FL 32816, USA.
    This article provides an updated review of attachment research with a focus on how comprehensive clinical assessment and intervention informs the care of young children. Child psychiatrists can serve as an important part of care coordination teams working with young children who have histories of early maltreatment and/or disruption in caregiving whether or not the children they are seeing meet criteria for an attachment disorder. Child psychiatrists should be familiar with both comprehensive assessment and the recent attachment-based interventions and appreciate how pharmacotherapy can be a useful adjunctive intervention when intensive therapy alone is ineffective. Read More

    Clinical Assessment of Young Children.
    Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 2017 Jul 28;26(3):441-454. Epub 2017 Apr 28.
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Tulane University School of Medicine, 1430 Tulane Avenue, #8055, New Orleans, LA 70115, USA. Electronic address:
    Mental health assessment of young children provides valuable information to shape a formulation and guide treatment. Early childhood mental health assessment can occur in an increasing number of settings beyond traditional mental health practices, including childcare settings, primary care settings, and other settings where children and family are regularly seen. Although many of the components of an early childhood mental health assessment are included in the assessment of older children, assessment of very young children requires some specific developmental adjustments and additional considerations including attention to the parent-child relationship and caregiving context and rapid development. Read More

    Assessment: The Newborn.
    Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 2017 Jul 25;26(3):427-440. Epub 2017 Apr 25.
    Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 South Euclid Avenue, Campus Box 8504, St Louis, MO 63110, USA; Department of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 South Euclid Avenue, Campus Box 8504, St Louis, MO 63110, USA.
    Neonatal neurobehavioral assessment has become a standardized component of clinical care provided to newborn infants, guiding neonatal clinical care and subsequent access to early interventions and services. Links between neonatal assessment and neurosensory and motor impairments in high-risk infants have been relatively well established. In contrast, the extent to which newborn neurobehavioral assessment might also facilitate the early identification of infants susceptible to socioemotional impairments in early childhood is less well documented. Read More

    Early Childhood Mental Health: Starting Early with the Pregnant Mother.
    Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 2017 Jul 7;26(3):411-426. Epub 2017 Apr 7.
    Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, Campus Box 8504, 660 South Euclid Avenue, St Louis, MO 63110, USA. Electronic address:
    Perinatal mental health has important implications for maternal and child outcomes. Most women with psychiatric disorders during pregnancy go undiagnosed and untreated, despite widespread initiatives for early identification. Universal screening for psychiatric disorders, particularly depression and anxiety, has been implemented in obstetric and primary care settings. Read More

    Transitional Age Youth and Mental Illness - Influences on Young Adult Outcomes.
    Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 2017 Apr;26(2):xiii-xvii
    Professor of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences and Pediatrics, Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Director, Psychological and Counseling Center, Vanderbilt University, 1601 23rd Avenue South, Nashville, TN 37212, USA. Electronic address:

    Successful Transition to Young Adulthood with Mental Illness: Common Themes and Future Directions.
    Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 2017 Apr;26(2):395-396
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 225 E Chicago Avenue, Box 10, Chicago, IL 60611, USA. Electronic address:

    Neuroscience-Inspired, Behavioral Change Program for University Students.
    Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 2017 Apr;26(2):381-394
    Leiden University Medical Center, Albinusdreef 2, Leiden, 2333 ZA, The Netherlands.
    It is clear that environmental influences impact the structure and function of the human brain, and thus, thoughts, actions, and behaviors. These in turn influence whether an individual engages in high-risk (drugs, alcohol, violence) or health-promoting (exercise, meditation, music) activities. The developmental mismatch between cortical and subcortical maturation of the transitional age brain places college students at risk for negative outcomes. Read More

    Transition to Adult Health Care Services for Young Adults with Chronic Medical Illness and Psychiatric Comorbidity.
    Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 2017 Apr;26(2):367-380
    Got Transition, The National Alliance to Advance Adolescent Health, 1615 M Street Northwest, Suite 290, Washington, DC 20036, USA.
    This article provides national data on the lack of transition preparation among youth with special health care needs, including those with emotional, behavioral, and developmental conditions. Consumer and provider transition barriers pertaining to inadequate transition support are summarized. In addition, current US transition goals are presented along with health professional recommendations on transition. Read More

    Schizophrenia and Psychosis: Diagnosis, Current Research Trends, and Model Treatment Approaches with Implications for Transitional Age Youth.
    Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 2017 Apr;26(2):341-366
    501 Student Health, Student Health Center, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697-5200, USA; Behavioral Health Services, Children, Youth & Prevention Division, Center for Resiliency Wellness & Education (First Episode Psychosis), Orange County Health Care Agency, 729 W Town & Country Road, Building E, Orange, CA 92868, USA; Department of Psychiatry & Human Behavior, UCI Health, Orange, CA 92868, USA. Electronic address:
    This article reviews the current state of diagnosis and treatment of schizophrenia, describing the recent proliferation of research in high-risk psychosis spectrum conditions, which are different from childhood-onset and early onset schizophrenia, and findings of psychotic-like experiences in the normal population. Taken from adult and childhood literature, clinical quandaries in accurate diagnosis, and treatment gaps in co-occurring, or sometimes confounding, conditions are discussed. Thoughts on the impact of schizophrenia on an emerging adulthood trajectory are offered. Read More

    Autism Spectrum Disorders: Challenges and Opportunities for Transition to Adulthood.
    Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 2017 Apr;26(2):329-339
    Child Study Center, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA. Electronic address:
    Improved outcomes for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have opened a range of potential pathways during the transition to adulthood. These include attending college, entering the labor force, and achieving a degree of independent living. Less cognitively able individuals may be eligible for state benefits and may enter supported employment programs. Read More

    Facilitating Transition from High School and Special Education to Adult Life: Focus on Youth with Learning Disorders, Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, and Speech/Language Impairments.
    Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 2017 Apr;26(2):311-327
    Independent Practice, 5629 Chimney Rocks Circle, Lawrence, KS 66049, USA.
    Youth with learning disorders, speech/language disorders, and/or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder may experience significant struggles during the transition from high school to postsecondary education and employment. These disorders often occur in combination or concurrently with behavioral and emotional difficulties. Incomplete evaluation may not fully identify the factors underlying academic and personal challenges. Read More

    Transitioning to Adulthood from Foster Care.
    Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 2017 Apr;26(2):283-296
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Massachusetts Medical School, 55 Lake Avenue North, Worcester, MA 01655, USA.
    Transitional age foster youth do not typically receive the types of family supports their nonfoster peers enjoy. Many foster youth experience multiple adversities and often fare worse than nonfoster peers on long-term functional outcomes. Governments increasingly recognize their responsibility to act as parents for state dependents transitioning to adulthood and the need to provide services to address social/emotional supports, living skills, finances, housing, education, employment, and physical and mental health. Read More

    Multicultural Developmental Experiences: Implications for Resilience in Transitional Age Youth.
    Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 2017 Apr;26(2):271-281
    Department of Psychology, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, 296 Eberhart Building, Greensboro, NC 27412-5001, USA.
    Transitional age youth were born into a world that is becomingly increasingly diverse. Youth who are ethnic or racial minorities encounter cultural stressors, including acculturative stress and discrimination that undermine their health and mental health. Decades of research demonstrate that cultural assets can serve as risk-reducing and resilience-enhancing mechanisms among minority and immigrant youth. Read More

    Challenges and Gaps in Understanding Substance Use Problems in Transitional Age Youth.
    Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 2017 Apr;26(2):253-269
    Department of Psychiatry, Boston Children's Hospital, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Electronic address:
    Transitional age youth (TAY), developing from adolescence to adulthood, exhibit the highest level of alcohol and other drug use of any other age group. Risk factors mirror those for the development of problems and disorders in adolescents. Early screening of both college students and noncollege high-risk TAY in the community is critical to early and effective intervention. Read More

    Social Media as It Interfaces with Psychosocial Development and Mental Illness in Transitional Age Youth.
    Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 2017 Apr;26(2):217-233
    Center for Research on Media, Technology, and Health, Health Policy Institute, University of Pittsburgh School of Public Health, 230 McKee Place #600, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA.
    For transitional age individuals, social media (SM) is an integral component of connecting with others. There are 2 billion SM users worldwide. SM users may experience an increase in perceived social support and life satisfaction. Read More

    Involving Parents/Family in Treatment during the Transition from Late Adolescence to Young Adulthood: Rationale, Strategies, Ethics, and Legal Issues.
    Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 2017 Apr;26(2):199-216
    Department of Psychiatry, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 3535 Market Street, Room 2007, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. Electronic address:
    The progression from adolescence to adulthood is a time of tremendous change, characterized by issues of identity formation, autonomy, and shifting relationship dynamics. The family is embedded in all aspects of this transition and serves as both a protective support and a limiting factor, a complicated duality that raises psychological, ethical, and legal issues. This article discusses the influence of familial factors and provides assessment strategies for evaluating the family in relation to treatment of transitional age youth. Read More

    Conceptualization of Success in Young Adulthood.
    Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 2017 Apr;26(2):191-198
    Office of the Clinical Director, NIMH, NIH, 10 Center Drive, Bethesda 20817, MD, USA. Electronic address:
    Successful transition from childhood to adulthood is context and culture dependent. This article reviews concepts of mental health and theoretic constructs of successful adulthood that suggest intentional policies and practices are developed with a specific vision of success. Parents, educators, mental health professionals, and policymakers need to be cognizant of their assumptions and essential roles in these processes. Read More

    Aligning Mental Health Treatments with the Developmental Stage and Needs of Late Adolescents and Young Adults.
    Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 2017 Apr;26(2):177-190
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Massachusetts Medical School, 55 Lake Avenue North, Worcester, MA 01655, USA.
    Transitional age youth (TAY) are in a discrete developmental stage, different from both adolescents and mature adults. Serious mental illness can result in their delayed psychosocial development and morbidity. Systemic, provider, and individual barriers result in poor access to care for these youth, potentially impeding their transition to mature adulthood. Read More

    The Transitional Age Brain: "The Best of Times and the Worst of Times".
    Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 2017 Apr;26(2):157-175
    University of Vermont College of Medicine and Medical Center, 1 South Prospect Street, Arnold 3, Burlington, Vermont 05401, USA. Electronic address:
    Over the past two decades, there have been substantial developments in the understanding of brain development and the importance of environmental inputs and context. This paper focuses on the neurodevelopmental mismatch that occurs during the epoch we term the 'transitional age brain' (ages 13-25) and the collateral behavioral correlates. We summarize research findings supporting the argument that, because of this neurodevelopmental mismatch, transitional age youth are at high risk for engaging in behaviors that lead to negative outcomes, morbidity, and mortality. Read More

    Developmental Psychopathology: Risk and Resilience in the Transition to Young Adulthood.
    Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 2017 Apr;26(2):143-156
    Vanderbilt Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Fellowship Program, Vanderbilt University, 1500 21st Avenue South, Nashville, TN 37212, USA.
    The transition from adolescence to young adulthood is a challenging time for many young people, given the multiple simultaneous demands placed by biological, psychological, and social forces that affect an individual's development. There are additional challenges when one is coping with ongoing or evolving mental health disorders. This article focuses on the demographics of transitional age youth, ages 16 to 26 years, in the United States, the unique characteristics of this developmental period, and how risk and resilience factors may affect the course of development and an individual's pathway to adulthood. Read More

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