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    Adolescents' Friendships, Academic Achievement, and Risk Behaviors: Same-Behavior and Cross-Behavior Selection and Influence Processes.
    Child Dev 2018 Feb 16. Epub 2018 Feb 16.
    University of Groningen.
    This study examined to what extent adolescents' and their friends' risk behaviors (i.e., delinquency and alcohol use) hinder or promote their academic achievement (grade point average [GPA]), and vice versa. Read More

    Development of Children's Use of External Reminders for Hard-to-Remember Intentions.
    Child Dev 2018 Feb 15. Epub 2018 Feb 15.
    University College London.
    This study explored under what conditions young children would set reminders to aid their memory for delayed intentions. A computerized task requiring participants to carry out delayed intentions under varying levels of cognitive load was presented to 63 children (aged between 6.9 and 13. Read More

    Dynamic Changes in Peer Victimization and Adjustment Across Middle School: Does Friends' Victimization Alleviate Distress?
    Child Dev 2018 Feb 13. Epub 2018 Feb 13.
    University of California, Los Angeles.
    Although some adolescents are chronically bullied throughout middle school, others may only experience peer victimization temporarily. This study examined the effects of time-invariant (average level) and time-varying (year-to-year) victimization experiences across middle school on adolescents' depressive symptoms, somatic complaints, and self-blame. A key question was whether friends' victimization buffered students from their victimization-related distress. Read More

    Neural Correlates of Risk Processing Among Adolescents: Influences of Parental Monitoring and Household Chaos.
    Child Dev 2018 Jan 31. Epub 2018 Jan 31.
    Virginia Tech.
    Adolescent risky behavior is related to developmental changes in decision-making processes and their neural correlates. Yet, research investigating how the family environment relates to risk processing in the adolescent brain is limited. In this study, longitudinal data were collected from 167 adolescents (13-15 years, 53% male) who self-reported household chaos and their parent's monitoring practices, and completed a decision-making task during functional MRI at Time 1 and Time 2 (1 year apart). Read More

    Preschoolers' Saving Behavior: The Role of Planning and Self-Control.
    Child Dev 2018 Jan 31. Epub 2018 Jan 31.
    Pennsylvania State University.
    Planning and self-control were examined in relation to preschoolers' (41- to 74-months) saving behavior. Employing a marble run paradigm, 54 children participated in two trials in which they could use their marbles immediately on a less desirable run, or save for a more desirable run. Twenty-nine children received the opportunity to create a budget. Read More

    Dorsomedial Prefrontal Activity to Sadness Predicts Later Emotion Suppression and Depression Severity in Adolescent Girls.
    Child Dev 2018 Jan 30. Epub 2018 Jan 30.
    University of California, Davis.
    The present study used cross-lagged panel analyses to test longitudinal associations among emotion regulation, prefrontal cortex (PFC) function, and depression severity in adolescent girls. The ventromedial and dorsomedial PFC (vmPFC and dmPFC) were regions of interest given their roles in depression pathophysiology, self-referential processing, and emotion regulation. At ages 16 and 17, seventy-eight girls completed a neuroimaging scan to assess changes in vmPFC and dmPFC activation to sad faces, and measures of depressive symptom severity and emotion regulation. Read More

    Impacts of Adolescent and Young Adult Civic Engagement on Health and Socioeconomic Status in Adulthood.
    Child Dev 2018 Jan 23. Epub 2018 Jan 23.
    University of Massachusetts.
    The present study examines links between civic engagement (voting, volunteering, and activism) during late adolescence and early adulthood, and socioeconomic status and mental and physical health in adulthood. Using nationally representative data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, a propensity score matching approach is used to rigorously estimate how civic engagement is associated with outcomes among 9,471 adolescents and young adults (baseline M = 15.9). Read More

    The Nature and Consequences of Essentialist Beliefs About Race in Early Childhood.
    Child Dev 2018 Jan 23. Epub 2018 Jan 23.
    New York University.
    It is widely believed that race divides the world into biologically distinct kinds of people-an essentialist belief inconsistent with reality. Essentialist views of race have been described as early emerging, but this study found that young children (n = 203, M = 5.45) hold only the more limited belief that the physical feature of skin color is inherited and stable. Read More

    Sense and Sensitivity: A Response to the Commentary by Keller et al. (2018).
    Child Dev 2018 Jan 23. Epub 2018 Jan 23.
    Leiden University.
    This reply to the commentary by Keller et al. (2018) on the article "Universality Without Uniformity: A Culturally Inclusive Approach to Sensitive Responsiveness in Infant Caregiving" (Mesman et al., ) highlights key points of agreement emphasizing the sense of investing in synergies across research traditions. Read More

    The Myth of Universal Sensitive Responsiveness: Comment on Mesman et al. (2017).
    Child Dev 2018 Jan 23. Epub 2018 Jan 23.
    University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
    This article considers claims of Mesman et al. (2017) that sensitive responsiveness as defined by Ainsworth, while not uniformly expressed across cultural contexts, is universal. Evidence presented demonstrates that none of the components of sensitive responsiveness (i. Read More

    Children's Early Decontextualized Talk Predicts Academic Language Proficiency in Midadolescence.
    Child Dev 2018 Jan 23. Epub 2018 Jan 23.
    University of Chicago.
    This study examines whether children's decontextualized talk-talk about nonpresent events, explanations, or pretend-at 30 months predicts seventh-grade academic language proficiency (age 12). Academic language (AL) refers to the language of school texts. AL proficiency has been identified as an important predictor of adolescent text comprehension. Read More

    Becoming Kinder: Prosocial Choice and the Development of Interpersonal Regret.
    Child Dev 2018 Jan 22. Epub 2018 Jan 22.
    Queen's University Belfast.
    Three experiments examined children's ability to feel regret following a failure to act prosocially. In Experiment 1, ninety 6- to 7-year-olds and one hundred seven 7- to 9-year-olds were given a choice to donate a resource to another child. If they failed to donate, they discovered that this meant the other child could not win a prize. Read More

    Examining Character Structure and Function Across Childhood and Adolescence.
    Child Dev 2018 Jan 19. Epub 2018 Jan 19.
    West Virginia University.
    Character strengths are an integral component of positive youth development that can promote flourishing. Developmental principles posit constructs become increasingly complex with age, yet this process has not been examined with character. Using a socioeconomically and ethnically diverse sample of 2,467 youth ages 9-19, bifactor models were estimated across elementary, middle, and high school-age groups to examine age differences in character structure and function. Read More

    Mothers' Early Mind-Mindedness Predicts Educational Attainment in Socially and Economically Disadvantaged British Children.
    Child Dev 2018 Jan 18. Epub 2018 Jan 18.
    University of Liverpool.
    Relations between mothers' mind-mindedness (appropriate and nonattuned mind-related comments) at 8 months (N = 206), and children's educational attainment at ages 7 (n = 158) and 11 (n = 156) were investigated in a British sample. Appropriate mind-related comments were positively correlated with reading and mathematics performance at both ages but only in the low-socioeconomic status (SES) group. Path analyses showed that in the low-SES group, appropriate mind-related comments directly predicted age-11 reading performance, with age-4 verbal ability mediating the relation between appropriate mind-related comments and age-7 reading. Read More

    Youth's Conceptions of Adolescence Predict Longitudinal Changes in Prefrontal Cortex Activation and Risk Taking During Adolescence.
    Child Dev 2018 Jan 15. Epub 2018 Jan 15.
    University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
    The development of cognitive control during adolescence is paralleled by changes in the function of the lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC). Using a three-wave longitudinal neuroimaging design (N = 22, M = 13.08 years at Wave 1), this study examined if youth's stereotypes about teens modulate changes in their neural activation during cognitive control. Read More

    How Children Invented Humanity.
    Child Dev 2018 Jan 16. Epub 2018 Jan 16.
    Florida Atlantic University.
    I use the commentaries of Legare, Clegg, and Wen and of Frankenhuis and Tiokhin as jumping-off points to discuss an issue hinted at both in my essay and their commentaries: How a developmental perspective can help us achieve a better understanding of evolution. I examine briefly how neoteny may have contributed to human morphology; how developmental plasticity in great apes, and presumably our common ancestor with them, may have led the way to advances in social cognition; and how the "invention" of childhood contributed to unique human cognitive abilities. I conclude by acknowledging that not all developmentalists have adopted an evolutionary perspective, but that we are approaching a time when an evolutionary perspective will be implicit in the thinking of all psychologists. Read More

    Bridging Evolutionary Biology and Developmental Psychology: Toward An Enduring Theoretical Infrastructure.
    Child Dev 2018 Jan 16. Epub 2018 Jan 16.
    Arizona State University.
    Bjorklund synthesizes promising research directions in developmental psychology using an evolutionary framework. In general terms, we agree with Bjorklund: Evolutionary theory has the potential to serve as a metatheory for developmental psychology. However, as currently used in psychology, evolutionary theory is far from reaching this potential. Read More

    The Legacy of Early Abuse and Neglect for Social and Academic Competence From Childhood to Adulthood.
    Child Dev 2018 Jan 15. Epub 2018 Jan 15.
    University of Minnesota.
    This study used data from the Minnesota Longitudinal Study of Risk and Adaptation (N = 267) to investigate whether abuse and neglect experiences during the first 5 years of life have fading or enduring consequences for social and academic competence over the next 3 decades of life. Experiencing early abuse and neglect was consistently associated with more interpersonal problems and lower academic achievement from childhood through adulthood (32-34 years). The predictive significance of early abuse and neglect was not attributable to the stability of developmental competence over time, nor to abuse and neglect occurring later in childhood. Read More

    A Metatheory for Cognitive Development (or "Piaget is Dead" Revisited).
    Child Dev 2018 Jan 16. Epub 2018 Jan 16.
    Florida Atlantic University.
    In 1997, I argued that with the loss of Piaget's theory as an overarching guide, cognitive development had become disjointed and a new metatheory was needed to unify the field. I suggested developmental biology, particularly evolutionary theory, as a candidate. Here, I examine the increasing emphasis of biology in cognitive development research over the past 2 decades. Read More

    Children's Perceptions of Economic Groups in a Context of Limited Access to Opportunities.
    Child Dev 2018 Jan 15. Epub 2018 Jan 15.
    University of Maryland.
    Children (N = 267, ages 8-14 years, M = 11.61 years, middle to upper-middle income) made predictions regarding groups of same-aged peers from high-wealth and low-wealth backgrounds. The context involved granting access to a special opportunity. Read More

    Bilingualism Narrows Socioeconomic Disparities in Executive Functions and Self-Regulatory Behaviors During Early Childhood: Evidence From the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study.
    Child Dev 2018 Jan 10. Epub 2018 Jan 10.
    Singapore Management University.
    Socioeconomic status (SES) and bilingualism have been shown to influence executive functioning during early childhood. Less is known, however, about how the two factors interact within an individual. By analyzing a nationally representative sample of approximately 18,200 children who were tracked from ages 5 to 7 across four waves, both higher SES and bilingualism were found to account for greater performance on the inhibition and shifting aspects of executive functions (EF) and self-regulatory behaviors in classroom. Read More

    Gaze Following Is Not Dependent on Ostensive Cues: A Critical Test of Natural Pedagogy.
    Child Dev 2018 Jan 8. Epub 2018 Jan 8.
    Uppsala University.
    The theory of natural pedagogy stipulates that infants follow gaze because they are sensitive to the communicative intent of others. According to this theory, gaze following should be present if, and only if, accompanied by at least one of a set of specific ostensive cues. The current article demonstrates gaze following in a range of contexts, both with and without expressions of communicative intent in a between-subjects design with a large sample of 6-month-old infants (n = 94). Read More

    Personality Traits Are Associated With Cortical Development Across Adolescence: A Longitudinal Structural MRI Study.
    Child Dev 2018 Jan 4. Epub 2018 Jan 4.
    University of Oslo.
    How personality traits relate to structural brain changes in development is an important but understudied question. In this study, cortical thickness (CT) and surface area (SA), estimated using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), were investigated in 99 participants aged 8-19 years. Follow-up MRI data were collected after on average 2. Read More

    Differential Associations of Distinct Forms of Childhood Adversity With Neurobehavioral Measures of Reward Processing: A Developmental Pathway to Depression.
    Child Dev 2017 Dec 21. Epub 2017 Dec 21.
    University of Washington.
    Childhood adversity is associated with altered reward processing, but little is known about whether this varies across distinct types of adversity. In a sample of 94 children (6-19 years), we investigated whether experiences of material deprivation, emotional deprivation, and trauma have differential associations with reward-related behavior and white matter microstructure in tracts involved in reward processing. Material deprivation (food insecurity), but not emotional deprivation or trauma, was associated with poor reward performance. Read More

    Distinguishing Polemic From Commentary in Science: Some Guidelines Illustrated With the Case of Sage and Burgio (2017).
    Child Dev 2018 Jan 21;89(1):141-147. Epub 2017 Dec 21.
    University of Oxford.
    Exposure to nonionizing radiation used in wireless communication remains a contentious topic in the public mind-while the overwhelming scientific evidence to date suggests that microwave and radio frequencies used in modern communications are safe, public apprehension remains considerable. A recent article in Child Development has caused concern by alleging a causative connection between nonionizing radiation and a host of conditions, including autism and cancer. This commentary outlines why these claims are devoid of merit, and why they should not have been given a scientific veneer of legitimacy. Read More

    Marital Conflict Predicts Mother-to-Infant Adrenocortical Transmission.
    Child Dev 2017 Dec 21. Epub 2017 Dec 21.
    University of California, Los Angeles.
    Employing an experimental design, mother-to-infant transmission of stress was examined. Mothers (N = 117) were randomized to either have a positive or conflictual discussion with their marital partners, after which infants (age = 6 months) participated in a fear and frustration task. Saliva samples were collected to assess maternal cortisol responses to the discussion and infant cortisol responses to the challenge task. Read More

    Attachment Security Priming Decreases Children's Physiological Response to Threat.
    Child Dev 2017 Dec 20. Epub 2017 Dec 20.
    University of Maryland.
    Ninety 6- and 7-year-olds (49.3% White, mostly middle class) from greater Washington, DC were randomly assigned to a subliminal priming condition (secure, happy, or neutral) to determine if attachment security priming decreases physiological, expressive, and self-reported fear reactions to threatening stimuli. Dispositional attachment security was also assessed. Read More

    Interactive Contributions of Attribution Biases and Emotional Intensity to Child-Friend Interaction Quality During Preadolescence.
    Child Dev 2017 Dec 20. Epub 2017 Dec 20.
    Duke University.
    Using data from a subsample of 913 study children and their friends who participated in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, the interactive contributions of child-reported attribution biases and teacher-reported child emotional intensity (EI) at Grade 4 (M = 9.9 years) to observed child-friend interaction at Grade 6 (M = 11.9 years) were examined. Read More

    Enlisting Peer Cooperation in the Service of Alcohol Use Prevention in Middle School.
    Child Dev 2017 Dec 19. Epub 2017 Dec 19.
    Michigan State University.
    This article reports on a cluster randomized trial of cooperative learning (CL) as a way to prevent escalation in alcohol use during middle school (N = 1,460 seventh-grade students, age 12-13, seven intervention and eight control schools). We hypothesized that CL, by bringing students together in group-based learning activities using positive interdependence, would interrupt the process of deviant peer clustering, provide at-risk youth with prosocial influences, and in turn, reduce escalations in alcohol use. Results indicated that CL significantly reduced growth in deviant peer affiliation and actual alcohol use, and effects for willingness to use alcohol were at the threshold of significance (p = . Read More

    Impact of Contact With Grandparents on Children's and Adolescents' Views on the Elderly.
    Child Dev 2017 Dec 19. Epub 2017 Dec 19.
    University of Liège.
    Stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination against the elderly (ageism) may manifest themselves in children at an early age. However, the factors influencing this phenomenon are not well known. Using both explicit and open-ended questions, this study analyzed the influence of personal and familial parameters on the views of 1,151 seven- to sixteen-year-old Belgian children and adolescents on the elderly. Read More

    Creepiness Creeps In: Uncanny Valley Feelings Are Acquired in Childhood.
    Child Dev 2017 Dec 13. Epub 2017 Dec 13.
    University of Michigan.
    The uncanny valley posits that very human-like robots are unsettling, a phenomenon amply demonstrated in adults but unexplored in children. Two hundred forty 3- to 18-year-olds viewed one of two robots (machine-like or very human-like) and rated their feelings toward (e.g. Read More

    Digital Screen Time Limits and Young Children's Psychological Well-Being: Evidence From a Population-Based Study.
    Child Dev 2017 Dec 13. Epub 2017 Dec 13.
    Cardiff University.
    There is little empirical understanding of how young children's screen engagement links to their well-being. Data from 19,957 telephone interviews with parents of 2- to 5-year-olds assessed their children's digital screen use and psychological well-being in terms of caregiver attachment, resilience, curiosity, and positive affect in the past month. Evidence did not support implementing limits (< 1 or < 2 hr/day) as recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics, once variability in child ethnicity, age, gender, household income, and caregiver educational attainment were considered. Read More

    Shyness and Trajectories of Functional Network Connectivity Over Early Adolescence.
    Child Dev 2017 Dec 8. Epub 2017 Dec 8.
    Washington University School of Medicine.
    High shyness during early adolescence is associated with impaired peer relationships and risk for psychiatric disorders. Little is known, however, about the relation between shyness and trajectories of brain development over early adolescence. The current study longitudinally examined trajectories of resting-state functional connectivity (rs-fc) within four brain networks in 147 adolescents. Read More

    Learning to Individuate: The Specificity of Labels Differentially Impacts Infant Visual Attention.
    Child Dev 2017 Dec 8. Epub 2017 Dec 8.
    University of Florida.
    This study examined differences in visual attention as a function of label learning from 6 to 9 months of age. Before and after 3 months of parent-directed storybook training with computer-generated novel objects, event-related potentials and visual fixations were recorded while infants viewed trained and untrained images (n = 23). Relative to a pretraining, a no-training control group (n = 11), and to infants trained with category-level labels (e. Read More

    Development of Episodic Prospection: Factors Underlying Improvements in Middle and Late Childhood.
    Child Dev 2017 Dec 4. Epub 2017 Dec 4.
    University of California, Davis.
    Episodic prospection is the mental simulation of a personal future event in rich contextual detail. This study examined age-related differences in episodic prospection in 5- to 11-year-olds and adults (N = 157), as well as factors that may contribute to developmental improvements. Participants' narratives of past, future, and make-believe events were coded for episodic content, and self-concept coherence (i. Read More

    Multiracial in Middle School: The Influence of Classmates and Friends on Changes in Racial Self-Identification.
    Child Dev 2017 Nov 27. Epub 2017 Nov 27.
    University of California, Los Angeles.
    In the present research, the influence of racial diversity among classmates and friends on changes in racial self-identification among multiracial youth was examined (n = 5,209; M = 10.56 years at the beginning of sixth grade). A novel individual-level measure of diversity among classmates based on participants' course schedules was utilized. Read More

    Adolescent Perceptions of Parental Privacy Invasion and Adolescent Secrecy: An Illustration of Simpson's Paradox.
    Child Dev 2017 Nov 27. Epub 2017 Nov 27.
    Tilburg University.
    Adolescents' secrecy is intertwined with perception of parents' behaviors as acts of privacy invasion. It is currently untested, however, how this transactional process operates at the within-person level-where these causal processes take place. Dutch adolescents (n = 244, M = 13. Read More

    Exposure to Parental Depression in Adolescence and Risk for Metabolic Syndrome in Adulthood.
    Child Dev 2017 Nov 24. Epub 2017 Nov 24.
    University of Georgia.
    The psychosocial consequences of living with a depressed parent have been well characterized. Less well known, however, is how this exposure is predictive of later physical health problems. The present study evaluated how parental depression across youths' adolescence (ages 11-18) was associated with youth metabolic syndrome at age 25 (n = 391). Read More

    A Within-Family Examination of Interparental Conflict, Cognitive Appraisals, and Adolescent Mood and Well-Being.
    Child Dev 2017 Nov 24. Epub 2017 Nov 24.
    The Pennsylvania State University.
    Interparental conflict (IPC) is a well-established risk factor across child and adolescent development. This study disentangled situational (within-family) and global (between-family) appraisal processes to better map hypothesized processes to adolescents' experiences in the family. This 21-day daily dairy study sampled 151 caregivers and their adolescents (61. Read More

    High-Ability Grouping: Benefits for Gifted Students' Achievement Development Without Costs in Academic Self-Concept.
    Child Dev 2017 Nov 23. Epub 2017 Nov 23.
    University of Würzburg.
    Effects of full-time ability grouping on students' academic self-concept (ASC) and mathematics achievement were investigated in the first 3 years of secondary school (four waves of measurement; students' average age at first wave: 10.5 years). Students were primarily from middle and upper class families living in southern Germany. Read More

    Is There a Downside to Anticipating the Upside? Children's and Adults' Reasoning About How Prior Expectations Shape Future Emotions.
    Child Dev 2017 Nov 24. Epub 2017 Nov 24.
    University of California, Davis.
    Four- to 10-year-olds and adults (N = 205) responded to vignettes involving three individuals with different expectations (high, low, and no) for a future event. Participants judged characters' pre-outcome emotions, as well as predicted and explained their feelings following three events (positive, attenuated, and negative). Although adults rated high-expectation characters more negatively than low-expectation characters after all outcomes, children shared this intuition starting at 6-7 years for negative outcomes, 8-10 years for attenuated, and never for positive. Read More

    The Costs and Benefits of Investing in Universal Preschool: Evidence From a Spanish Reform.
    Child Dev 2017 Nov 20. Epub 2017 Nov 20.
    Utrecht University.
    This study provides a cost-benefit analysis of expanding access to universal preschool education, focusing on a Spanish reform that lowered the age of eligibility for publicly provided universal preschool from age 4 to age 3. Benefits in terms of child development and maternal employment are estimated using evidence on the causal effects of this reform. In the baseline estimation the benefit-cost ratio is over 4, indicating sizeable net societal benefits of the preschool investment. Read More

    Promoting Resilience Among African American Girls: Racial Identity as a Protective Factor.
    Child Dev 2017 Nov 20. Epub 2017 Nov 20.
    University of Michigan.
    This study examines school climate, racial identity beliefs, and achievement motivation beliefs within a cultural-ecological and risk and resilience framework. Data were drawn from a longitudinal study of 733 (M = 14.49) African American adolescent girls. Read More

    Development of Gender Typicality and Felt Pressure in European French and North African French Adolescents.
    Child Dev 2017 Nov 14. Epub 2017 Nov 14.
    Aix Marseille University.
    Trajectories of gender identity were examined from Grade 6 (M = 11.9 years) to Grade 9 in European French (n = 570) and North African French (n = 534) adolescents, and gender and ethnic group differences were assessed in these trajectories. In Grade 6, boys of both ethnic groups reported higher levels of gender typicality and felt pressure for gender conformity than girls. Read More

    Examining Children's Implicit Racial Attitudes Using Exemplar and Category-Based Measures.
    Child Dev 2017 Nov 8. Epub 2017 Nov 8.
    York University.
    The goal of this research was to examine children's implicit racial attitudes. Across three studies, a total of 359 White 5- to 12-year-olds completed child-friendly exemplar (Affective Priming Task; Affect Misattribution Procedure) and category-based (Implicit Association Test) implicit measures of racial attitudes. Younger children (5- to 8-year-olds) showed automatic ingroup positivity toward White child exemplars, whereas older children (9- to 12-year-olds) did not. Read More

    Let's Talk: Parents' Mental Talk (Not Mind-Mindedness or Mindreading Capacity) Predicts Children's False Belief Understanding.
    Child Dev 2017 Nov 8. Epub 2017 Nov 8.
    University of Cambridge.
    Although one might expect parents' mind-mindedness (MM; the propensity to view children as mental agents) to relate to everyday mental-state talk (MST) and theory-of-mind capacity, evidence to support this view is lacking. In addition, both the uniqueness and the specificity of relations between parental MM, parental MST, and children's false belief understanding (FBU) are open to question. To address these three gaps, this study tracked 117 preschoolers (60 boys) and their parents across a 13-month period (M = 3. Read More

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