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    Reasoning About the Scope of Religious Norms: Evidence From Hindu and Muslim Children in India.
    Child Dev 2018 Jun 13. Epub 2018 Jun 13.
    University of California, Santa Cruz.
    Conflicts arise when members of one religion apply their norms to members of another religion. Two studies explored how one hundred 9- to 15-year-old Hindu and Muslim children from India reason about the scope of religious norms. Both Hindus and Muslims from a diverse Hindu-Muslim school (Study 1) and Hindus from a homogeneous Hindu school (Study 2) more often judged it wrong for Hindus to violate Hindu norms, compared to Muslim norms, and said the opposite for Muslims. Read More

    Kindergarten Children's Executive Functions Predict Their Second-Grade Academic Achievement and Behavior.
    Child Dev 2018 Jun 9. Epub 2018 Jun 9.
    The Pennsylvania State University.
    Whether and to what extent kindergarten children's executive functions (EF) constitute promising targets of early intervention is currently unclear. This study examined whether kindergarten children's EF predicted their second-grade academic achievement and behavior. This was done using (a) a longitudinal and nationally representative sample (N = 8,920, M  = 97. Read More

    Helping, Sharing, and Comforting in Young Children: Links to Individual Differences in Attachment.
    Child Dev 2018 Jun 5. Epub 2018 Jun 5.
    University of Maryland, College Park.
    Although attachment theory has long posited a link between early experiences of care and children's prosocial behavior, investigations of this association have not embraced the multifaceted nature of prosociality. This study is the first to assess associations between child attachment and independent observations of helping, sharing, and comforting. Attachment quality in 3- to 5-year-old children (N = 137) was linked to all three prosocial behaviors. Read More

    Secure Base Representations in Children With Asthma: Links With Symptoms, Family Asthma Management, and Cytokine Regulation.
    Child Dev 2018 Jun 6. Epub 2018 Jun 6.
    Northwestern University.
    Children's perceptions of caregivers as a secure base have been linked with socioemotional outcomes, but little is known about connections to physical health. We examined whether secure base representations are associated with children's symptoms, family management strategies, and inflammatory processes in children with asthma. Participants included 308 children (ages 8-17) and one parent. Read More

    Children's Developing Descriptions and Judgments of Pretending.
    Child Dev 2018 Jun 4. Epub 2018 Jun 4.
    NY Hall of Science.
    Two studies investigated 4- to 7-year-olds' knowledge about pretending. In Study 1, children (N = 66) defined pretending and described examples of own and others' pretending. In Study 2, children (N = 52) defined pretending and then completed a battery of measures that examined their understanding that pretending involved mental states. Read More

    Prospective Relationships Between Ethnic Discrimination and Substance Use by Mexican-American Adolescents.
    Child Dev 2018 May 31. Epub 2018 May 31.
    University of California, Davis.
    Guided by the integrative model (García Coll et al., 1996), this study examines prospective associations between perceived ethnic discrimination by peers, parental support, and substance use from 7th to 11th grades (M  = 12.3-16. Read More

    Explaining the Unpredictable: The Development of Causal Theories of Mind in Deaf and Hearing Children.
    Child Dev 2018 May 30. Epub 2018 May 30.
    University of Michigan.
    Two studies of 100 children aged 3-12 years examined theory of mind (ToM) understanding via explanations and predictions in hearing preschoolers and ToM-delayed deaf children. Study 1's 75 children (31 deaf; 44 hearing) displayed an "explanation advantage," devising valid epistemic ToM explanations despite failing simpler forced-choice false-belief (FB) prediction tests. This novel discovery for deaf children extended to unexpectedly frequent cognitive ("think" or "know") explanations. Read More

    Correspondence of Pubertal Neuroendocrine and Tanner Stage Changes in Boys and Associations With Substance Use.
    Child Dev 2018 May 31. Epub 2018 May 31.
    University of Pittsburgh.
    This study examined correspondence between timing (onset) and tempo (rate) of sexual maturation prospectively (average ages 11-16 years) measured by gonadal hormones and secondary sex characteristics (Tanner stage) using dual-process models, and associations of these measures with substance use (SU) involvement in boys at age 16 years (N = 534, 77.5% White/22.5% Non-White). Read More

    Developmental Trajectories of Chinese Adolescents' Relational Aggression: Associations With Changes in Social-Psychological Adjustment.
    Child Dev 2018 May 25. Epub 2018 May 25.
    Shandong Normal University.
    This study investigated the development of relational aggression (RA) in a sample of Chinese youth (N = 2,274, 52% boys) from fourth (M  = 10.27 years) to ninth grade. Using latent class growth analysis, four trajectories were identified for both peer- and teacher-rated RA: a no aggression trajectory, a low-increasing trajectory, a moderate-decreasing trajectory, and a chronically high trajectory. Read More

    Improving Causal Inferences in Meta-analyses of Longitudinal Studies: Spanking as an Illustration.
    Child Dev 2018 May 24. Epub 2018 May 24.
    Stetson University.
    To evaluate and improve the validity of causal inferences from meta-analyses of longitudinal studies, two adjustments for Time-1 outcome scores and a temporally backwards test are demonstrated. Causal inferences would be supported by robust results across both adjustment methods, distinct from results run backwards. A systematic strategy for evaluating potential confounds is also introduced. Read More

    Intergroup Contact Attitudes Across Peer Networks in School: Selection, Influence, and Implications for Cross-Group Friendships.
    Child Dev 2018 May 22. Epub 2018 May 22.
    University of Michigan.
    This study offers new insights into the power of peer networks for shaping intergroup relations in a diverse school. Data were drawn from a longitudinal study of sixth-eighth graders (N = 524; M  = 11.87; 48% girls; 9% Asian American/Pacific Islander, 28% African American, 13% Latino, 1% Native American, 31% White, 5% Other, and 11% Multiracial) in the Midwestern United States. Read More

    The Role of Competitive and Cooperative Norms in the Development of Deviant Evaluations.
    Child Dev 2018 May 20. Epub 2018 May 20.
    Goldsmiths, University of London.
    The present study examined how peer group norms influence children's evaluations of deviant ingroup members. Following the manipulation of competitive or cooperative norms, participants (children, M  = 8.69; adolescents, M  = 13. Read More

    Developmental Transactions Between Self-Regulation and Academic Achievement Among Low-Income African American and Latino Children.
    Child Dev 2018 May 19. Epub 2018 May 19.
    University of Georgia.
    This study examined the development of emerging self-regulation (SR) skills across the preschool years and relations to academic achievement in kindergarten and first grade. SR skills of 403 low-income African American and Latino children were measured at 2&1/2, 3&1/2, and 5 years (kindergarten). Reading and math skills were measured at 5 and 6 years (first grade) using the Woodcock-Johnson. Read More

    The Intersection of Race and Gender Among Black American Adolescents.
    Child Dev 2018 May 19. Epub 2018 May 19.
    University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
    This study employed an exploratory sequential mixed-methods design to examine the intersection of race and gender among Black American adolescents, aged 11-19. The quantitative component (n = 344) used survey data to examine gender differences in peer-perpetrated and adult-perpetrated racial discrimination experiences, and no gender differences were evident. Qualitative data (n = 42) probed how males and females interpret discrimination experiences given the intersection of race and gender. Read More

    Routine Language: Speech Directed to Infants During Home Activities.
    Child Dev 2018 May 15. Epub 2018 May 15.
    New York University.
    Everyday activities are replete with contextual cues for infants to exploit in the service of learning words. Nelson's (1985) script theory guided the hypothesis that infants participate in a set of predictable activities over the course of a day that provide them with opportunities to hear unique language functions and forms. Mothers and their firstborn 13-month-old infants (N = 40) were video-recorded during everyday activities at home. Read More

    Infant Motor Development in Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Synthesis and Meta-analysis.
    Child Dev 2018 May 15. Epub 2018 May 15.
    University of Pittsburgh.
    Studies of infant motor development in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have increased in recent years. This article synthesized this literature through meta-analysis to assess (a) whether infant motor ability differs in ASD relative to neurotypical controls; and (b) whether motor ability and communication are related in infants with ASD. Study 1 aggregated data from 1,953 infants with ASD (ages 3. Read More

    Getting What You Pay For: Children's Use of Market Norms to Regulate Exchanges.
    Child Dev 2018 May 11. Epub 2018 May 11.
    University of Wisconsin.
    Children are sensitive to a number of considerations influencing distributions of resources, including equality, equity, and reciprocity. We tested whether children use a specific type of reciprocity norm-market norms-in which resources are distributed differentially based strictly on amount offered in return. In two studies, 195 children 5-10 years and 60 adults distributed stickers to friends offering same or different amounts of money. Read More

    Examining Ecological Constraints on the Intergenerational Transmission of Attachment Via Individual Participant Data Meta-analysis.
    Child Dev 2018 May 9. Epub 2018 May 9.
    Dr. von Hauner Children's Hospital.
    Parents' attachment representations and child-parent attachment have been shown to be associated, but these associations vary across populations (Verhage et al., 2016). The current study examined whether ecological factors may explain variability in the strength of intergenerational transmission of attachment, using individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis. Read More

    Young Children From Three Diverse Cultures Spontaneously and Consistently Prepare for Alternative Future Possibilities.
    Child Dev 2018 May 8. Epub 2018 May 8.
    University of Queensland.
    This study examined future-oriented behavior in children (3-6 years; N = 193) from three diverse societies-one industrialized Western city and two small, geographically isolated communities. Children had the opportunity to prepare for two alternative versions of an immediate future event over six trials. Some 3-year-olds from all cultures demonstrated competence, and a majority of the oldest children from each culture prepared for both future possibilities on every trial. Read More

    Promoting Replicability in Developmental Research Through Meta-analyses: Insights From Language Acquisition Research.
    Child Dev 2018 May 7. Epub 2018 May 7.
    PSL Research University.
    Previous work suggests that key factors for replicability, a necessary feature for theory building, include statistical power and appropriate research planning. These factors are examined by analyzing a collection of 12 standardized meta-analyses on language development between birth and 5 years. With a median effect size of Cohen's d = . Read More

    N-back Working Memory Task: Meta-analysis of Normative fMRI Studies With Children.
    Child Dev 2018 May 7. Epub 2018 May 7.
    National Research University Higher School of Economics.
    The n-back task is likely the most popular measure of working memory for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies. Despite accumulating neuroimaging studies with the n-back task and children, its neural representation is still unclear. fMRI studies that used the n-back were compiled, and data from children up to 15 years (n = 260) were analyzed using activation likelihood estimation. Read More

    The Out-Group Homogeneity Effect Across Development: A Cross-Cultural Investigation.
    Child Dev 2018 May 7. Epub 2018 May 7.
    Bar-Ilan University.
    The present studies investigated the out-group homogeneity effect in 5- and 8-year-old Israeli and German children (n = 150) and adults (n = 96). Participants were asked to infer whether a given property (either biological or psychological) was true of an entire group-either the participants' in-group ("Jews" or "Germans") or their out-group ("Arabs" or "Turks"). To that end, participants had to select either a homogenous or a heterogeneous sample of group members. Read More

    Enduring Association Between Parenting and Cortisol: A Meta-analysis.
    Child Dev 2018 May 5. Epub 2018 May 5.
    University of Oregon.
    Warm caregiving is associated with concurrent hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis function, although the persistence of this association over time is less established. Using longitudinal and intervention studies, this meta-analysis examined the enduring association of parental warmth (measured when children were ages < 1 through 15 years) with basal cortisol, reactivity and recovery (measured when children were ages < 1 through 25 years; k = 38; N = 6,608). These studies demonstrate no overall associations between parenting and children's HPA axis; instead there are small associations that vary based on moderators such as socioeconomic status, developmental stage, study design and stressor type, though many moderators are confounded. Read More

    Learning and Socializing Preferences in Hong Kong Chinese Children.
    Child Dev 2018 Apr 30. Epub 2018 Apr 30.
    Duke University.
    The impact of social group information on the learning and socializing preferences of Hong Kong Chinese children were examined. Specifically, the degree to which variability in racial out-group exposure affects children's use of race to make decisions about unfamiliar individuals (Chinese, White, Southeast Asian) was investigated. Participants (N = 212; M  = 60. Read More

    Reexamining the Verbal Environments of Children From Different Socioeconomic Backgrounds.
    Child Dev 2018 Apr 30. Epub 2018 Apr 30.
    University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
    Amid growing controversy about the oft-cited "30-million-word gap," this investigation uses language data from five American communities across the socioeconomic spectrum to test, for the first time, Hart and Risley's (1995) claim that poor children hear 30 million fewer words than their middle-class counterparts during the early years of life. The five studies combined ethnographic fieldwork with longitudinal home observations of 42 children (18-48 months) interacting with family members in everyday life contexts. Results do not support Hart and Risley's claim, reveal substantial variation in vocabulary environments within each socioeconomic stratum, and suggest that definitions of verbal environments that exclude multiple caregivers and bystander talk disproportionately underestimate the number of words to which low-income children are exposed. Read More

    Maternal Language and Child Vocabulary Mediate Relations Between Socioeconomic Status and Executive Function During Early Childhood.
    Child Dev 2018 Apr 30. Epub 2018 Apr 30.
    University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill.
    This article examined longitudinal relations among socioeconomic risk, maternal language input, child vocabulary, and child executive function (EF) in a large sample (N = 1,009) recruited for a prospective longitudinal study. Two measures of maternal language input derived from a parent-child picture book task, vocabulary diversity (VOCD), and language complexity, showed variation by socioeconomic risk at child ages 15, 24, and 36 months. Maternal VOCD at child age 24 months and maternal language complexity at child age 36 months mediated the relation between socioeconomic risk and 48-month child EF, independent of parenting sensitivity. Read More

    Dissecting "Peer Presence" and "Decisions" to Deepen Understanding of Peer Influence on Adolescent Risky Choice.
    Child Dev 2018 Apr 27. Epub 2018 Apr 27.
    Radboud University.
    This study evaluated the aspects of complex decisions influenced by peers, and components of peer involvement influential to adolescents' risky decisions. Participants (N = 140) aged 13-25 completed the Columbia Card Task (CCT), a risky choice task, isolating deliberation-reliant and affect-reliant decisions while alone, while a friend monitors choices, and while a friend is merely present. There is no condition in which a nonfriend peer is present. Read More

    Together I Can! Joint Attention Boosts 3- to 4-Year-Olds' Performance in a Verbal False-Belief Test.
    Child Dev 2018 Apr 20. Epub 2018 Apr 20.
    Lund University.
    Effects of joint attention were addressed on 3- to 4-year-olds' performance in a verbal false-Belief Test (FBT), featuring the experimenter as co-watcher rather than narrator. In two experiments, children (N = 183) watched a filmed-FBT jointly with a test leader, disjointed from a test leader, or alone. Children attending jointly with a test leader were more likely to pass the FBT compared with normative data and to spontaneously recall information indicating false-belief understanding, suggesting that joint attention strengthens the plausibility of the FBT and renders plot-critical information more salient. Read More

    Shifting Practices, Shifting Selves: Negotiations of Local and Global Cultures Among Adolescents in Northern Thailand.
    Child Dev 2018 Apr 20. Epub 2018 Apr 20.
    California State University.
    Around the world, adolescents increasingly grow up as members of local and global cultures. Little is known, however, about how precisely adolescents in rapidly globalizing societies blend local and global cultures. Interviews with 40 (16- to 19-year old) Thai adolescents, evenly divided between rural and urban communities, were analyzed alongside participant observation data for the interplay between local and global linguistic and dietary practices. Read More

    Reciprocal Relations Between Parental Problem Drinking and Children's Sleep: The Role of Socioeconomic Adversity.
    Child Dev 2018 Apr 18. Epub 2018 Apr 18.
    Auburn University.
    Reciprocal relations between parental problem drinking (PPD) and children's sleep were examined longitudinally, and socioeconomic status was considered as a moderating variable. At Wave 1, 280 children (M  = 10.33) and their parent(s) participated, and 275 families returned 1 year later. Read More

    Preschool and Children's Outcomes in Elementary School: Have Patterns Changed Nationwide Between 1998 and 2010?
    Child Dev 2018 Apr 17. Epub 2018 Apr 17.
    Stanford University.
    This study employs data from both kindergarten cohorts of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (n ~ 12,450 in 1998; n ~ 11,000 in 2010) to assess whether associations between preschool participation and children's academic and behavioral outcomes-both at school entry (M  = 5.6 years in both cohorts) and through third grade-have changed over time. Findings are strikingly similar across these two, nationally representative, U. Read More

    Opportunities for Neurodevelopmental Plasticity From Infancy Through Early Adulthood.
    Child Dev 2018 May 17;89(3):687-697. Epub 2018 Apr 17.
    Leiden University.
    Multiple and rapid changes in brain development occur in infancy and early childhood that undergird behavioral development in core domains. The period of adolescence also carries a second influx of growth and change in the brain to support the unique developmental tasks of adolescence. This special section documents two core conclusions from multiple studies. Read More

    Modeling Prosocial Behavior Increases Helping in 16-Month-Olds.
    Child Dev 2018 Apr 17. Epub 2018 Apr 17.
    University of Münster.
    In two experiments, the imitation of helping behavior in 16-month-olds was investigated. In Study 1 (N = 31), infants either observed an adult model helping or not helping another individual before they had the opportunity to assist an unfamiliar experimenter. In one of two tasks, more children helped in the prosocial model condition than in the no model control condition. Read More

    Associations Among Mothers' Depression, Emotional and Learning-Material Support to Their Child, and Children's Cognitive Functioning: A 16-Year Longitudinal Study.
    Child Dev 2018 Apr 17. Epub 2018 Apr 17.
    University of California, San Diego.
    This study examined the associations among maternal depression, mothers' emotional and material investment in their child, and children's cognitive functioning. Middle-class Chilean mothers and children (N = 875; 52% males) were studied when children were 1, 5, 10, and 16 years (1991-2007). Results indicated that highly depressed mothers provided less emotional and material support to their child across all ages, which related to children's lower IQ. Read More

    Sibling Experiences in Middle Childhood Predict Sibling Differences in College Graduation.
    Child Dev 2018 Apr 17. Epub 2018 Apr 17.
    Arizona State University.
    To illuminate how within-family differences in achievement may emerge, this study examined sibling experiences in middle childhood as predictors of sibling differences in college graduation. First- and second-borns from 152 families reported on their experiences with siblings and parents at ages 11.80 (SD = 0. Read More

    Longitudinal Theory of Mind (ToM) Development From Preschool to Adolescence With and Without ToM Delay.
    Child Dev 2018 Apr 16. Epub 2018 Apr 16.
    University of Michigan.
    Longitudinal tracking of 107 three- to-thirteen-year-olds in a cross-sequential design showed a 6-step theory of mind (ToM) sequence identified by a few past cross-sectional studies validly depicted longitudinal ToM development from early to middle childhood for typically developing (TD) children and those with ToM delays owing to deafness or autism. Substantively, all groups showed ToM progress throughout middle childhood. Atypical development was more extended and began and ended at lower levels than for TD children. Read More

    Intrapersonal Emotion Regulation Processes Influence What Children Remember About Their Emotional Experiences.
    Child Dev 2018 Apr 16. Epub 2018 Apr 16.
    University of California, Riverside.
    Little work has tested how emotion regulation (ER) processes influence children's memory for negative experiences. We investigated how two intrapersonal ER processes (affect-biased attention and changes in negative feelings) predicted children's (N = 184, 93 girls, ages 3-11) memory. Recall of a sad or scary film was tested after a delay. Read More

    Associations of Number Line Estimation With Mathematical Competence: A Meta-analysis.
    Child Dev 2018 Apr 10. Epub 2018 Apr 10.
    University of Leuven.
    The number line estimation task is widely used to investigate mathematical learning and development. The present meta-analysis statistically synthesized the extensive evidence on the correlation between number line estimation and broader mathematical competence. Averaged over 263 effect sizes with 10,576 participants with sample mean ages from 4 to 14 years, this correlation was r = . Read More

    From Exploration to Instruction: Children Learn From Exploration and Tailor Their Demonstrations to Observers' Goals and Competence.
    Child Dev 2018 Apr 10. Epub 2018 Apr 10.
    Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
    This study investigated whether children learn from exploration and act as effective informants by providing informative demonstrations tailored to observers' goals and competence. Children (4.0-6. Read More

    Maternal Behavior and Socioeconomic Status Predict Longitudinal Changes in Error-Related Negativity in Preschoolers.
    Child Dev 2018 May 3;89(3):725-733. Epub 2018 Apr 3.
    Texas A&M University.
    The development self-regulation has been called a primary task of childhood. One system of self-regulation, self-monitoring, is indexed at the level of neural activity as early as preschool as the error-related negativity (ERN). However, how context elicits developmental changes in neural processes of self-monitoring like the ERN is not well understood. Read More

    Development of Multifaceted Risk Taking and the Relations to Sex Steroid Hormones: A Longitudinal Study.
    Child Dev 2018 Apr 1. Epub 2018 Apr 1.
    Leiden University.
    Risk taking is a multidimensional construct. It is currently unclear which aspects of risk-taking change most during adolescence and if/how sex hormones contribute to risk-taking tendencies. This study applied a longitudinal design with three time-points, separated by 2 years, in participants aged 8-29 years (670 observations). Read More

    Response Time Adjustment in the Stop Signal Task: Development in Children and Adolescents.
    Child Dev 2018 Mar 30. Epub 2018 Mar 30.
    Hospital for Sick Children.
    Adjusting speed to maintain fast and accurate performance is critical to goal-directed behavior. This study examined development of response time adjustments in the stop signal task in 13,709 individuals aged 6-17 years (49.0% Caucasian) across four trial types: correct and incorrect go, successful (stop-inhibit), and failed (stop-respond) trials. Read More

    Longitudinal Associations Among Child Maltreatment, Resting Frontal Electroencephalogram Asymmetry, and Adolescent Shyness.
    Child Dev 2018 May 26;89(3):746-757. Epub 2018 Mar 26.
    McMaster University.
    Child maltreatment is linked to distinct neurophysiological patterns and social-emotional vulnerability. Relations among maltreatment, relative resting frontal alpha asymmetry, shyness, and psychopathology were examined prospectively. Adolescent girls (age 14-16) who experienced child maltreatment (N = 55) were compared to nonmaltreated controls (N = 25), and returned for 6- and 12-month follow-ups. Read More

    Comparing Meta-analysis and Individual Person Data Analysis Using Raw Data on Children's Understanding of Equivalence.
    Child Dev 2018 Mar 25. Epub 2018 Mar 25.
    University of Notre Dame.
    A prevailing theory of mathematical problem solving predicts that children will be less accurate solving a + b = c + __ problems versus a + b = __ + c. However, this has never been tested directly. Because of low base rates, information combined from multiple studies can help improve estimation accuracy and precision. Read More

    Are Relationship Enhancement and Behavior Management "The Golden Couple" for Disruptive Child Behavior? Two Meta-analyses.
    Child Dev 2018 Mar 20. Epub 2018 Mar 20.
    University of Amsterdam.
    Parenting programs for reducing disruptive child behavior are built on two main perspectives: relationship enhancement (i.e., unconditional sensitivity diminishes disruptiveness) and behavior management (i. Read More

    Contributions of Reward Sensitivity to Ventral Striatum Activity Across Adolescence and Early Adulthood.
    Child Dev 2018 May 13;89(3):797-810. Epub 2018 Mar 13.
    Leiden University.
    It was examined how ventral striatum responses to rewards develop across adolescence and early adulthood and how individual differences in state- and trait-level reward sensitivity are related to these changes. Participants (aged 8-29 years) were tested across three waves separated by 2 years (693 functional MRI scans) in an accelerated longitudinal design. The results confirmed an adolescent peak in reward-related ventral striatum, specifically nucleus accumbens, activity. Read More

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