50,249 results match your criteria Child Abuse & Neglect [Journal]


The Interaction of Adverse Childhood Experiences and Resiliency on the Outcome of Depression Among Children and Youth, 8-17 year olds.

Child Abuse Negl 2020 Jul 6;107:104616. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, 915 Greene Street, Columbia, SC 29208, USA.

Background: Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are common among children. Little is known on how resilience factors and positive childhood experiences (PCEs) may moderate the relationship between ACEs and childhood depression.

Objective: Our study fills this gap by providing recent, nationally representative estimates of ACE and PCE exposure for ages 8-17 and examines the associations between ACE exposure and PCEs on the outcome of depression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2020.104616DOI Listing

Associations of perceived adverse lifetime experiences with brain structure in UK Biobank participants.

J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2020 Jul 9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Background: Adversity experiences (AEs) are major risk factors for psychiatric illness, and ample evidence suggests that adversity-related changes in brain structure enhance this vulnerability. To achieve greater understanding of the underlying biological pathways, increased convergence among findings is needed. Suggested future directions may benefit from the use of large population samples which may contribute to achieving this goal. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.13298DOI Listing

The Impact of Child Abuse and Dissociation on Psychiatric Comorbidity and Self-Concealment Among Prisoners in China.

J Interpers Violence 2020 Jul 9:886260520935480. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

South China Normal University, Guangzhou, China.

Child abuse is a common experience among prisoners in China and associated with elevated psychiatric comorbidity. However, the association between child abuse profiles and dissociation is unclear. The extent to which the relationship between these profiles and dissociation might influence psychiatric comorbidity and self-concealment is also unclear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0886260520935480DOI Listing

Adverse Childhood Experiences and Health Indicators in a Young Adult, College Student Sample: Differences by Gender.

Int J Behav Med 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Department of Health Sciences, California State University, Northridge, Northridge, CA, USA.

Background: The original Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) study demonstrated strong, graded relationships between child maltreatment and household dysfunction and adult health status. The present study re-examined these relationships in a sample of young adult, college students to better characterize the developmental timing of health problems related to ACE exposure and differences by biological sex.

Method: A cross-sectional general health questionnaire that included items on ACE was administered to young adults (ages 18-29) at universities in California (n = 3880), Minnesota (n = 7708), and Texas (n = 451) between 2017 and 2018. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12529-020-09913-5DOI Listing

Combining parenting and economic strengthening programmes to reduce violence against children: a cluster randomised controlled trial with predominantly male caregivers in rural Tanzania.

BMJ Glob Health 2020 07;5(7)

Department of Social Policy and Intervention, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Introduction: Parenting programmes may reduce the risk of violence against children and improve child well-being. However, additional economic support may be necessary in highly deprived rural communities in sub-Saharan Africa. Furthermore, delivering programmes within farmer groups may increase male caregiver recruitment and engagement. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjgh-2020-002349DOI Listing

Prevalence, Patterns, and Correlates of Pain in Medically Hospitalized Pediatric Patients With Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders.

Psychosomatics 2020 May 22. Epub 2020 May 22.

Department of Psychiatry, Boston Children's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.

Background: Somatic symptom and related disorders (SSRDs) and pain are highly comorbid in the pediatric population. Little is known about the prevalence of pain and factors that may predispose and perpetuate pain in hospitalized youth with SSRD.

Objective: To describe the prevalence of pain and widespread pain symptoms in hospitalized youth with SSRD and describe differences between patients who endorsed limited (1-4 sites) versus widespread (5-8 sites) pain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psym.2020.05.008DOI Listing

The Clustering of Adverse Childhood Experiences in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children: Are Gender and Poverty Important?

J Interpers Violence 2020 Jul 8:886260520935096. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

University College London, UK.

Previous research has demonstrated a graded relationship between the number of Adverse Childhood Experiences reported (an ACE score) and child outcomes. However, ACE scores lack specificity and ignore the patterning of adversities, which are informative for interventions. The aim of the present study was to explore the clustering of ACEs and whether this clustering differs by gender or is predicted by poverty. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0886260520935096DOI Listing

Interrelationship of Posttraumatic Stress, Hassles, Uplifts, and Coping in Women With a History of Severe Sexual Abuse: A Cross-Sectional Study.

J Interpers Violence 2020 Jul 8:886260520935479. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Elverum, Norway.

Experiencing trauma, such as sexual abuse, increases the risk of a negative health outcome. The aim of the present study was to compare two groups of female survivors of sexual abuse, one group with a lower indication of posttraumatic stress disorder (L-PTSD) and one with a higher indication of posttraumatic stress disorder (H-PTSD). We hypothesized that, with a history of sexual abuse, higher levels of PTSD symptoms would be associated with more daily hassles, fewer daily uplifts, and more maladaptive coping strategies, and that there would be more reporting of severe types of sexual victimization, less resourceful socioeconomic conditions and a lower level of emotional stability. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0886260520935479DOI Listing

Impacts of a Home Visiting Program Enhanced with Content on Healthy Birth Spacing.

Matern Child Health J 2020 Jul 7. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Mathematica, P.O. Box 2393, Princeton, NJ, 08543, USA.

Objectives: This study sought to determine the impact of Healthy Families Healthy Futures (HFHF) enhanced with Steps to Success (STS). HFHF is a structured home visiting program for teen parents in Houston that focuses on improving parenting skills and preventing child abuse. HFHF enhanced with STS includes content and activities aimed to reduce repeat pregnancies within 24 months after the first child's birth. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10995-020-02968-6DOI Listing

Finding the Victim of Abuse: A New Frontier of Physicians' Liability? Data From a Local Italian Experience on Minor Maltreatment.

Front Pediatr 2020 19;8:309. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

Section of Legal Medicine, Department of Surgical, Medical, Molecular Pathology and Critical Area, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy.

Violence toward minors is a widespread phenomenon and effective programs are desperately needed to prevent it. Data from the literature showed that underreporting child/adolescents abuse has become a widespread phenomenon, exposing minors to additional harm from further potentially dangerous situations. It is proved that systematic screening and standardized procedures for minors presenting at emergency departments with the suspicion of abuse might increase the detection rate, reducing the risk of underreporting. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fped.2020.00309DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7316952PMC

Hepatocellular Carcinoma With Tumor Thrombus to the Hepatic Veins and the Right Atrium: A Case Report and Review Exploring Various Presentations and Treatment Options.

Cureus 2020 Jun 2;12(6):e8405. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Internal Medicine, Legacy Health, Portland, USA.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cause of cancer and cancer-related deaths in the world. Some of the risk factors for the development of HCC include Hepatitis B virus (HBV), Hepatitis C virus (HCV), chronic alcoholism, autoimmune hepatitis, among others. One manifestation of HCC includes tumor thrombus (TT) to the right atrium (RA), which occurs in 0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.8405DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7331928PMC

International Consensus Statement for the Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Adolescents with Concurrent Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Substance Use Disorder.

Eur Addict Res 2020 07 7:1-10. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Parnassia Addiction Research Centre (PARC), Parnassia Psychiatric Institute, The Hague, The Netherlands.

Background: Childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a risk factor for substance misuse and substance use disorder (SUD) in adolescence and (early) adulthood. ADHD and SUD also frequently co-occur in treatment-seeking adolescents, which complicates diagnosis and treatment and is associated with poor treatment outcomes. Research on the effect of treatment of childhood ADHD on the prevention of adolescent SUD is inconclusive, and studies on the diagnosis and treatment of adolescents with ADHD and SUD are scarce. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000508385DOI Listing

Child sexual abuse in Sri Lanka: Past, present and the future.

Asian J Psychiatr 2020 Jul 1;54:102274. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Yasodha Maheshi Rohanachandra Department of Psychiatry, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Soratha Mawatha, Nugegoda, Sri Lanka. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajp.2020.102274DOI Listing

Childhood abuse history and attention bias in adults.

Psychophysiology 2020 Jul 7:e13627. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Department of Psychology & Counseling, University of Texas at Tyler, Tyler, TX, USA.

Attention biases toward unpleasant information are evident among children and adults with a history of abuse and have been identified as a potential pathway through which abused children develop psychopathology. Identifying whether a history of childhood abuse affects the time course of attention biases in adults is critical, as this may provide intervention targets. The present study examined the time course of attention bias during an emotion-word Stroop task using event-related potentials (ERPs) in a sample of adults with a range of child abuse histories using a categorical approach (comparing adults with or without a history of moderate-to-severe childhood abuse) and a dimensional approach (analyzing the range from no abuse to severe abuse in a continuous manner). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/psyp.13627DOI Listing

The prevalence of child maltreatment among Chinese primary and middle school students: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

School of Nursing, Peking Union Medical College, 33 Badachu Road, Beijing, 100144, China.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to provide an estimate of the prevalence of child maltreatment among Chinese primary and middle school students. An attempt was also made to explore the causes of heterogeneity by analyzing stratified variables and other potentially related factors included in the study.

Methods: Literature retrieval has been carried out in the databases, including Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang database and China Biology Medicine disc (CBMdisc), for relevant published studies up to October 2019. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00127-020-01916-7DOI Listing

Infralimbic Cortex biases Preference Decision Making for Offspring over Competing Cocaine Associated Stimuli in New Mother Rats.

eNeuro 2020 Jul 1. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Center for Molecular and Behavioral Neuroscience, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Newark, NJ 07102 USA.

In the context of drug abuse, converging evidence suggests that cocaine use in new mothers is significantly reduced by the competing motivation related to child rearing. Given the demonstrated importance of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in decision making processes, we investigated the contribution of distinct regions of the mPFC (anterior cingulate, prelimbic, infralimbic) to decision-making in new mother rats performing a concurrent pup/cocaine choice conditioned place preference (CPP) task. When given a choice, inactivation of infralimbic cortex significantly biased decision-making of mother rats towards cocaine-associated cues, highly contrasting the distribution of preferences by control groups. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/ENEURO.0460-19.2020DOI Listing

Inter-agency collaboration factors affecting multidisciplinary workers' ability to identify child maltreatment.

BMC Res Notes 2020 Jul 6;13(1):323. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuou-ku, Chiba, Chiba, 260-8670, Japan.

Objectives: This study aimed to clarify the factors of successful inter-agency collaboration that affect multidisciplinary workers' abilities to identify child maltreatment. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted; the contents of the questionnaire included the Collaboration Evaluation Scale we developed and the workers' abilities to identify child maltreatment. In total, 277 individuals from various agencies in Japan participated in this study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13104-020-05162-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7339586PMC

Childhood maltreatment, serotonin transporter gene, and risk for callous and unemotional traits: A prospective investigation.

Psychiatry Res 2020 Jul 2;291:113271. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Genetics and Human Genetics Institute, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 145 Bevier Road, Piscataway, NJ, 08854-8082, USA.

Previous studies have reported associations between the serotonin transporter 5-HTTLPR genotype and antisocial and aggressive traits and between child maltreatment and antisocial traits. However, few studies have examined whether 5-HTTLPR moderates the influence of childhood maltreatment on callous and unemotional traits, a hallmark of psychopathy. Using a prospective cohort design, children with documented cases of maltreatment and matched controls were followed up and interviewed in adulthood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2020.113271DOI Listing

A latent class analysis to identify how patterns of Intimate Partner Violence influence Early Childhood Development outcomes in Honduras.

Authors:
Alejandra Leyton

Child Abuse Negl 2020 Jul 3;107:104609. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Department of Global Community Health and Behavioral Sciences, Tulane University, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, 1440 Canal Street, Ste 2200-11, New Orleans, LA, 70112, United States. Electronic address:

Background: Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) against women is a complex phenomenon with long-term consequences for victims and their families.

Objective: The goals of this study are two-fold: to identify common patterns of co-occurring and/or successive experiences with IPV; and to study the association between these IPV patterns and outcomes of Early Childhood Development (ECD) among the victim's children.

Data And Participants: Data was obtained from the 2011-12 Honduras Demographic Health Survey (DHS). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2020.104609DOI Listing

Intergenerational transmission of childhood trauma? Testing cellular aging in mothers exposed to sexual abuse and their children.

Psychoneuroendocrinology 2020 Jun 27;120:104781. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Department of Biobehavioral Health, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Exposure to maltreatment in childhood can lead to increased risk for poor health outcomes in adulthood. Child maltreatment and later poor health may be linked by premature biological aging. We tested whether childhood sexual abuse (CSA) was associated with telomere length (TL) in adult females. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2020.104781DOI Listing

Impact of low-level viraemia on virological failure among Asian children with perinatally acquired HIV on first-line combination antiretroviral treatment: a multicentre, retrospective cohort study.

J Int AIDS Soc 2020 Jul;23(7):e25550

Research Institute for Health Sciences, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

Introduction: The clinical relevance of low-level viraemia (LLV) and virological outcomes among children living with HIV (CLHIV) remains controversial. This study aimed to determine the impact of LLV on virological failure (VF) among Asian CLHIV on first-line combination antiretroviral therapy (cART).

Methods: CLHIV aged <18 years, who were on first-line cART for ≥12 months, and had virological suppression (two consecutive plasma viral load [pVL] <50 copies/mL) were included. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jia2.25550DOI Listing

Children's Disclosures of Physical Abuse in a Population-Based Sample.

J Interpers Violence 2020 Jul 4:886260520934443. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu, Finland.

Few studies have explored the disclosure of child physical abuse although child sexual abuse disclosure has been widely studied and debated for years. The present study explores the characteristics of child physical abuse disclosures and compares them to previously published findings on child sexual abuse disclosure from the same data. The data consist of a representative sample of 11,364 sixth and ninth graders. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0886260520934443DOI Listing

Nurses' adherence to mandated reporting of suspected cases of child abuse.

Authors:
Michele Green

J Pediatr Nurs 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Mount Pleasant, Wisconsin, United States of America. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pedn.2020.06.007DOI Listing

The neurophysiological embedding of child maltreatment.

Dev Psychopathol 2020 Jul 6:1-31. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Psychology, University of Pennsylvania, 425 S. University Avenue, Philadelphia, PA19104, USA.

Maltreatment adversely impacts the development of children across a host of domains. One way in which maltreatment may exert its deleterious effects is by becoming embedded in the activity of neurophysiological systems that regulate metabolic function. This paper reviews the literature regarding the association between childhood maltreatment and the activity of three systems: the parasympathetic nervous system, the sympathetic nervous system, and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0954579420000383DOI Listing

Childhood adversity and psychosis: a systematic review of bio-psycho-social mediators and moderators.

Psychol Med 2020 Jul 6:1-22. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

King's College London, Social, Genetic & Developmental Psychiatry Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, London, UK.

The association between childhood adversity (CA) and psychosis has been extensively investigated in recent years. An increasing body of research has also focused on the mediating or moderating role of biological and psychological mechanisms, as well as other risk factors that might account for the link between CA and psychosis. We conducted a systematic search of the PsychINFO, Embase, Ovid, and Web of Science databases for original articles investigating the role of genetic vulnerabilities, environmental factors, psychological and psychopathological mechanisms in the association between CA and psychosis up to August 2019. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291720002172DOI Listing

Examining the Role of Genetic Risk and Longitudinal Transmission Processes Underlying Maternal Parenting and Psychopathology and Children's ADHD Symptoms and Aggression: Utilizing the Advantages of a Prospective Adoption Design.

Behav Genet 2020 Jul 4. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

Prevention Science Institute, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR, USA.

Although genetic factors may contribute to initial liability for ADHD onset, there is growing evidence of the potential importance of the rearing environment on the developmental course of ADHD symptomatology. However, associations between family-level variables (maternal hostility, maternal depressive symptoms) and child behaviors (developmental course of ADHD and aggression) may be explained by genes that are shared by biologically related parents and children. Furthermore, ADHD symptoms and aggression commonly co-occur: it is important to consider both simultaneously to have a better understanding of processes underlying the developmental course of ADHD and aggression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10519-020-10006-yDOI Listing

Thirty years of the CRC: Child protection progress, challenges and opportunities.

Child Abuse Negl 2020 Jul 1:104436. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Sydney Law School, University of Sydney, Australia. Electronic address:

The CRC has a challenging and ambitious agenda in relation to the protection of children from all forms of violence, particularly the large and increasing numbers of children affected by natural disasters, armed conflict, trafficking, poverty and increasing inequality, displacement and trafficking. In this article, we outline some of the issues in the implementation and understanding of the Convention and highlight three major international developments over the last decade: the adoption of General Comment No 13, the work of the Special Representative of the Secretary General on Violence Against Children, and the adoption of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development by the UN General Assembly in 2005. We also identify four broad domains in which the Convention can and is being used to enhance efforts to ensure the protection of children based on a rights framework - advocacy and litigation, policy design, service delivery and research and monitoring methodology - rather than a welfare-based approach. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2020.104436DOI Listing

Patterns of Osteopontin Expression in Abusive Head Trauma Compared With Other Causes of Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury.

J Pediatr 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Children's Healthcare of Atlanta, Atlanta GA.

Objective: To examine levels of plasma osteopontin (OPN), a recently described neuroinflammatory biomarker, in children with abusive head trauma compared with other types of traumatic brain injury.

Study Design: Patients included children <4 years diagnosed with TBI and seen in the ICU in a tertiary children's hospital. Patients were classified as having confirmed or suspected abusive head trauma, or TBI by other mechanisms (eg, motor vehicle accidents), as identified by a Child Protection Team clinician. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2020.06.080DOI Listing

Bilateral fibular fractures in a pre-ambulant infant.

Pediatr Radiol 2020 Jul 3. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Academic Unit of Child Health, Sheffield Children's NHS Foundation Trust, University of Sheffield, Damer Street Building, Western Bank, Sheffield, S10 2TH, UK.

Multiple long-bone fractures, particularly bilateral fractures, are of moderate specificity for inflicted injury (physical abuse) in infants and young children. Bilateral healing fractures of the fibulae are rare and, depending on age, raise the suspicion of inflicted injury. We report healing undisplaced fractures of both fibulae, in almost identical positions, in a pre-ambulant infant. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00247-020-04738-6DOI Listing

Reporting of child physical abuse by a group of Brazilian primary care health professionals and associated factors.

Child Abuse Negl 2020 Jun 30;107:104571. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Pediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics of the Faculty of Dentistry of the Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antonio Carlos, 6627 Campus Pampulha, CEP: 31270-901, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Electronic address:

Background: Evidences points to the importance of health professionals to recognize child abuse, but also to a high frequency of underreporting, even in countries where reporting is mandatory, like Brazil.

Objective: To evaluate the frequency of non-reporting behavior of child physical abuse (CPA) among Brazilian primary care health professionals who recognized some cases in their careers and associated factors with reporting.

Methods: Cross-sectional study conducted with a representative sample of dentists, nurses, family physicians, and pediatricians from the Family Health Strategy network in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2020.104571DOI Listing

Spotlight on child abuse and neglect response in the time of COVID-19.

Lancet Public Health 2020 07;5(7):e371

Global Health Innovations Laboratory, Department of Emergency Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA; Harvard Medical School, Harvard University, Boston, MA, USA; Harvard T H Chan School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, MA, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2468-2667(20)30143-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7326432PMC

Intentional Asphyxiation Using Baby Wipes: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

Pediatr Emerg Care 2020 Jul;36(7):e397-e398

From the Department of Emergency Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY.

Abusive suffocation with foreign bodies is an uncommon form of child abuse. We present the case of a 2-month-old infant with colic who was forcibly suffocated with a baby wipe by a female babysitter. He presented to the emergency department in respiratory distress, and the foreign body was removed in the operating room by otorhinolaryngology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PEC.0000000000002159DOI Listing

Rise in the incidence of abusive head trauma during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Arch Dis Child 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital For Children NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/archdischild-2020-319872DOI Listing

Horizontal HIV transmission to children of HIV-uninfected mothers: a case series and review of the global literature.

Int J Infect Dis 2020 Jun 29. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Division of Paediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa.

Background: Vertical transmission is the predominant route for acquisition of HIV infection in children, either in utero, intrapartum or postnatally through breast feeding. Less frequently, children may acquire HIV by horizontal transmission. Horizontal transmission may be healthcare-associated (infusion of HIV-contaminated blood products, use of contaminated needles, syringes and medical equipment, or through ingestion of HIV in expressed breastmilk). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2020.06.081DOI Listing

Impact of COVID -19 on children: special focus on the psychosocial aspect.

Minerva Pediatr 2020 Jun;72(3):226-235

Department of Neuromedicine, Bangur Institute of Neurosciences, SSKM Hospital, Kolkata, India.

Although medical literature shows that children are minimally susceptible to 2019-Corona virus disease (COVID-19), they are hit the hardest by psychosocial impact of this pandemic. Being quarantined in homes and institutions may impose greater psychological burden than the physical sufferings caused by the virus. School closure, lack of outdoor activity, aberrant dietary and sleeping habits are likely to disrupt children's usual lifestyle and can potentially promote monotony, distress, impatience, annoyance and varied neuropsychiatric manifestations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0026-4946.20.05887-9DOI Listing

Inhaled Solvent Abuse Mimicking Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyradiculoneuropathy.

Child Neurol Open 2020 Jan-Dec;7:2329048X20934914. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Research Institute, University of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

Exposure to n-hexane or toluene-containing solvents such as glue or gasoline can produce clinical symptoms and neurophysiological findings that can mimic chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. The authors present a case of a boy with severe sensorimotor polyneuropathy with demyelinating features. Cerebrospinal fluid testing and magnetic resonance imaging spine did not show findings typical of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2329048X20934914DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7307582PMC

WHO Mental Health Gap Action Programme Intervention Guide (mhGAP-IG): the first pre-service training study.

Int J Ment Health Syst 2020 29;14:47. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Regional Centre for Child and Youth Mental Health and Child Welfare, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway.

Background: Despite the increasing burden of mental, neurological, and substance use (MNS) disorders, a significant treatment gap for these disorders continues to exist across the world, and especially in low- and middle-income countries. To bridge the treatment gap, the World Health Organization developed and launched the Mental Health Gap Action Programme (mhGAP) and the mhGAP Intervention Guide (mhGAP-IG) to help train non-specialists to deliver care. Although the mhGAP-IG has been used in more than 100 countries for in-service training, its implementation in pre-service training, that is, training prior to entering caregiver roles, is very limited. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13033-020-00379-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7325034PMC

Trauma and violent offending among adolescents: a birth cohort study.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2020 Jul 1. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Population Research Unit, Faculty of Social Science, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Background: Earlier studies, based on data collected among juvenile court clients or prisoners, suggest that there is an association between trauma and adolescent-onset offending. However, there is a lack of large-scale data on juvenile violence and clinical mental health observations with unselected participants, and a risk-factor-oriented research combining multiple variables affecting violent behaviour.

Methods: We analyse the effect of trauma on violent offending using longitudinal register-linkage population data. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2020-214188DOI Listing

Sexual Crime Against Schoolchildren With Disabilities: A Nationwide Prospective Birth Cohort Study.

J Interpers Violence 2020 Jul 1:886260520934442. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

VIVE-The Danish Center for Social Science Research, Copenhagen K, Denmark.

Numerous studies have shown that the rate of sexual victimization against children with disabilities is higher than the rate for children without disabilities. The study focuses on examining sexual crime against children with disabilities and explaining differences in victimization to elucidate to what extent types of disability, family disadvantages, gender, high-risk behavior, and location influence adolescents' risk of sexual victimization. Data are based on a national study of reported sexual crime against children in Denmark aged between 7 and 18 years using total birth cohorts ( = 679,683). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0886260520934442DOI Listing

Increasing Trend and Characteristics of Korean Adolescents Presenting to Emergency Department for Self-Harm: A 5-Year Experience, 2015 to 2019.

Yonsei Med J 2020 Jul;61(7):614-622

Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, Severance Hospital, Institute of Behavioral Science in Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Purpose: Emergency department (ED) is a common treatment setting for adolescents with clinically serious self-harm. Here, we investigated the clinical characteristics and trends of adolescents with self-harm who visited the ED in one Korean university hospital. We also compared patients with a single ED visit to those with multiple ED visits to identify the risk factor of repeated visits. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3349/ymj.2020.61.7.614DOI Listing

Risk Taking by Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): a Behavioral and Psychophysiological Investigation of Peer Influence.

J Abnorm Child Psychol 2020 Jun 30. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Psychology, University of Amsterdam, Nieuwe Achtergracht 129B, 1018WS, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Adolescents with ADHD demonstrate increased risk-taking behavior (RTB) like substance abuse and dangerous traffic conduct. RTB in adolescence is more likely under peer influence. The current investigation (1) tests the hypothesis that adolescents with ADHD are particularly susceptible to such influence and (2) tests whether groups differed in autonomic reactivity to peer influence. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10802-020-00666-zDOI Listing

Perception of Child Abuse and Child Disciplinary Practice among Adults Abused as Children: Comparison to General Population.

Soa Chongsonyon Chongsin Uihak 2019 Mar;30(2):57-65

Division of Child Welfare & Studies, College of Human Ecology, Sookmyung Women's University, Seoul, Korea.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare differences in perception and knowledge of child abuse and child disciplinary practices according to the history of child abuse victimization.

Methods: A questionnaire survey on child abuse was conducted with 491 adults raising children. We compared the perception and knowledge of child abuse and child disciplinary practices between two groups of adults with and without a history of childhood abuse victimization. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5765/jkacap.180032DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7289501PMC

Aftermath of Child Sexual Abuse in Children in Korea: Data from the Nation-Funded Sexual Violence Victim Protection Center for Children.

Soa Chongsonyon Chongsin Uihak 2018 Apr;29(2):32-39

Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea.

Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the 3-year mean periods aftermath of child sexual abuse and to compare the sexual violence victims regard to the treatment.

Methods: 682 sexual violence victims were recruited by Seoul Sunflower Children Center, a nation-funded sexual violence victim protection center for children age 13, from 2004 to 2008. Data from 49 victims among 116 consented a follow-up, were analyzed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5765/jkacap.2018.29.2.32DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7298898PMC

Association between different types of childhood trauma and parental bonding with antisocial traits in adulthood: A systematic review.

Child Abuse Negl 2020 Jun 27;107:104621. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Department of Psychiatry and Legal Medicine, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, Ramiro Barcelos Street, 2350, Rio Grande do Sul, 90035-003, Brazil; Research Laboratory in Psychodynamic Psychiatry, Post-Graduation Program in Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, Ramiro Barcelos Street, 2350, Rio Grande do Sul, 90035-003, Brazil. Electronic address:

Background: ASPD describes individuals with a pervasive pattern of disregard for the rights of others that begins in childhood and continues into adulthood. The relationship between parental bonding, trauma, and ASPD is well established, however, it remains unclear what types of trauma or which patterns of bonding are more associated with ASPD.

Objectives: Review the literature regarding what types of trauma and bonding characteristics were related to antisocial personality traits. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2020.104621DOI Listing

Can Legislation Alone Protect Devadasi Girls from Child Sexual Abuse and Exploitation?

Authors:
Bincy Wilson

J Child Sex Abus 2020 Jul 30;29(5):606-625. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

National Law School of India University , Bangalore, India.

Girls in India continue to be sexually abused/exploited under the veil of traditional practices such as dedication despite the existence of legislation meant to protect them from child sexual abuse. This study recounts the experiences of 30 girls who were dedicated, initiated into sexual activity, and involved in commercial sexual activity as children. It underscores the need to address this practice as a criminal offense to be prosecuted under the legislation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10538712.2020.1774696DOI Listing

The prenatal maternal representations of mothers at risk of recurrent care proceedings in the Family Drug and Alcohol Court: A thematic analysis.

Infant Ment Health J 2020 Jun 30. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Anna Freud National Centre for Children and Families, London, UK.

Background: A substantial number of birth mothers experience repeat removals of their infants and children due to child protection concerns. The perspectives of mothers going through repeat removals and their experiences of pregnancy are insufficiently researched.

Aims And Methods: The current qualitative study aimed to explore the maternal representations of five pregnant mothers at risk of recurrent care proceedings. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/imhj.21876DOI Listing

Health and public health approach to ending child abuse and neglect.

Child Abuse Negl 2020 Jun 26:104619. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

University of Colorado School of Medicine, United States.

The 30 anniversary of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child provides an opportunity to reflect on whether the approaches to date in dealing with child abuse and neglect (CAN) have been successful. Initial responsibility in most countries to address CAN has been given to Child Protective Services Agencies. Recently, there have been calls for CPS to take a Public Health Approach in their practice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2020.104619DOI Listing

Debate: COVID-19 and children in India.

Child Adolesc Ment Health 2020 Jun 29. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Central University of Tamil Nadu, Thiruvarur, India.

The COVID-19 pandemic impact on children is a growing concern. The United Nations and its agencies (the World Health Organization and UNICEF), Indian Association For Child and Adolescent Mental Health and National Institute of Mental Health and Neuroscience in India warn about the broader impacts on children and call for urgent action to support the world's children amidst the pandemic which may have lasting consequences. The COVID-19 pandemic and unprecedented control measures to prevent its spread have disrupted nearly every aspect of children's lives - their health, development, learning, behaviour and their families' economic security, including protection from violence and abuse. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/camh.12398DOI Listing

Investigating the causal relationship between maltreatment and cognition in children: A systematic review.

Child Abuse Negl 2020 Jun 26;107:104603. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Department of Mental Health and Wellbeing, University of Glasgow, Level 4, West Glasgow Ambulatory Care Hospital, Dalnair Street, Yorkhill, Glasgow, G38SJ, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Background: Cognitive impairment (i.e. lower IQ/cognitive development) in individuals who have experienced childhood maltreatment is well documented in the literature. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2020.104603DOI Listing

European Society of Paediatric Radiology (ESPR) Child Abuse Taskforce Committee: a response to Miller et al.

J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2020 Jun 29. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Academic Unit of Child Health, University of Sheffield, Damer Street Building, Sheffield Children's NHS Foundation Trust, Western Bank, Sheffield, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/jpem-2020-0184DOI Listing