52,858 results match your criteria Child Abuse


"A good mother": Impact of motherhood identity on women's substance use and engagement in treatment across the lifespan.

J Subst Abuse Treat 2021 May 14;130:108474. Epub 2021 May 14.

Yale School of Medicine AIDS Program, New Haven, CT, United States of America; Yale School of Public Health, Chronic Disease Epidemiology, New Haven, CT, United States of America. Electronic address:

Background: Women are underrepresented in substance use disorder (SUD) treatment. Interpersonal and structural factors affect women's access to SUD treatment, but limited research evaluates how motherhood is a potential barrier and facilitator to engagement in SUD treatment. We focus on women from young to middle adulthood, and capture women's identities as mothers, caretakers, and grandmothers, outside of pregnancy and the postpartum period. Read More

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When a house is never a home: Housing instability among youth affected by parental drug abuse.

Child Abuse Negl 2021 Jun 9;118:105131. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Department of Population, Family and Reproductive Health, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21215, USA.

Background: The negative consequences of parental substance abuse are significant and longstanding for children. Among other risks, these youth are more likely to experience housing instability. The most common predictor of a child not living with their biological parent is parental substance use. Read More

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Difficult binds: A systematic review of facilitators and barriers to treatment among mothers with substance use disorders.

J Subst Abuse Treat 2021 Jul 27;126:108341. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Department of Psychiatry, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth and Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, USA. Electronic address:

Background: The United States and Canada have observed sharp increases in substance use disorder among women of child-bearing or child-rearing age. Substance use disorder can have deleterious effects on children, families, and communities. Many evidence-based treatments exist, but engaging mothers in treatment is difficult. Read More

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Legalization of cannabis use in Canada: Impacts on the cannabis use profiles of youth seeking services for substance use.

J Subst Abuse Treat 2021 Jul 25;126:108340. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Margaret and Wallace McCain Centre for Child, Youth and Family Mental Health, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Canada; Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Cannabis is a highly used substance among youth, but has the potential to negatively impact the developing brain. Recreational cannabis use was legalized in Canada in October 2018. This exploratory study examines cannabis use profiles of high-risk youth before and after the national legalization of recreational cannabis use. Read More

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Heterogeneity in prenatal substance use screening despite universal screening recommendations: findings from PRAMS, 2016-2018.

Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM 2021 Jun 8:100419. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD.

Background: The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommends universal screening for tobacco, alcohol, and drug use as a part of routine prenatal care. However, little is known about the prevalence of prenatal substance use screening or factors that may contribute to differential rates of screening during prenatal care.

Objectives: To describe the prevalence of prenatal substance use screening by substance, year, state, and state-level prenatal substance use policies, and to examine individual-level factors associated with receipt of screening. Read More

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Victimization among children and adolescents accessing the Meyer pediatric hospital: A retrospective study.

J Child Adolesc Psychiatr Nurs 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Education, Languages, Intercultures, Literatures and Psychology, University of Florence, Florence, Italy.

Problem: The consistent prevalence and occasionally severe consequences of bullying and victimization suggest the need to include a more accurate assessment of these episodes within the Emergency Departments (ED). However, the literature on mental health related symptoms of bullying/victimization treated in the ED is still scarce. The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of peer victimization amongst children and adolescents referred to an Italian Pediatric Emergency Department. Read More

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Geography of mobility and parenting behavior in low income families.

Child Abuse Negl 2021 Jun 7:105142. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Columbia University, United States of America. Electronic address:

Background: The geographic location of birth has implications for low-income children's upward economic mobility, as Chetty, Hendren, Kline, and Saez (2014) found in an examination of millions of income tax records from each county in the US. Additional work indicates that low income children in higher economic mobility counties have higher language scores and fewer behavioral problems (Donnelly et al., 2017). Read More

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Successful Treatment of a Nail Gun Injury in Right Parietal Region and Superior Sagittal Sinus.

J Craniofac Surg 2021 Jun;32(4):1297-1301

Department of Neurosurgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of USTC, Division of Life Sciences and Medicine, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, China.

Background Introduction: Nail injuries are important causes of penetrating craniocerebral injuries. Theirs incidence is very low, but the injuries can be fatal. Since the nail gun was gradually popularized in 1959, the incidence of nail injuries has been increasing. Read More

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Impact of childhood trauma on multidimensional frailty in older patients with a unipolar depressive-, anxiety- or somatic symptom disorder.

Arch Gerontol Geriatr 2021 May 30;96:104452. Epub 2021 May 30.

University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Rob Giel Research center (RGOc), The Netherlands. Electronic address:

Objectives: Frailty marks an increased risk for adverse health outcomes. Since childhood trauma is associated with the onset of physical and mental health diseases during the lifespan, we examined the link between childhood trauma and multidimensional frailty.

Method: A cross-sectional study embedded in a clinical cohort study (ROM-GPS) of older (≥60 years) patients (n=182) with a unipolar depressive-, anxiety- and/or somatic symptom disorder according to DSM-criteria referred to specialized geriatric mental health care. Read More

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Child physical abuse: awareness and practices of medical and dental doctors in Pakistan.

J Pak Med Assoc 2021 Jun;71(6):1704-1708

Department of Community Health Sciences, Hamdard College of Medicine & Dentistry, Hamdard University, Karachi, Pakistan.

Objective: To determine the awareness and practices of doctors and dentists in detecting and reporting suspected cases of child physical abuse.

Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2017 to June 2018 at the Hamdard College of Medicine and Dentistry, Karachi, and comprised doctors and dentists practising in public and private hospitals across Pakistan. Data was collected using a predesigned questionnaire to assess knowledge of the social indicators of child physical abuse, response to child physical abuse, and actions taken by the professionals when they believed a child abuse case had been detected. Read More

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The development of a morality against power abuse: The case of bribery.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Institute of Child Development.

In three experiments, we presented children and adults with opportunities to condemn acts resembling bribery, a prevalent form of power abuse. Adults and children ( = 333) in the United States rated the acceptability of actions by contest judges. Judges used their position in a self-serving (e. Read More

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Assessing Mothers' Automatic Affective and Discipline Reactions to Child Behavior in Relation to Child Abuse Risk: A Dual-Processing Investigation.

Assessment 2021 Jun 10:10731911211020114. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

Given the scope and adverse clinical consequences of child abuse, assessment of salient etiological factors can lend critical insights needed for abuse prevention. Increasingly, dual-processing models have been applied to aggression, which postulate that parallel automatic and conscious processes can evoke aggressive behavior, implicating both affective and cognitive elements in both routes. Using two samples of mothers ( = 110 and = 195), the current investigation considered evidence of the reliability and convergent, concurrent, and construct validity of the new Automatic Parent Emotion Analog Response task relevant to parent-child aggression, contrasted with a self-reported conscious processing measure. Read More

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Consequences of Alcohol Use: Truancy as a Mediator between Drinking and Achievement.

Authors:
Alyssa L Abrams

J Child Adolesc Subst Abuse 2019 7;28(4):276-281. Epub 2020 Apr 7.

The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA.

Introduction: Adolescents may experience and engage in many risky consequences and behaviors after drinking. It is important to consider the consequences of substance use as these consequences can be helpful in developing feasible and effective school-based prevention programs.

Methods: This paper capitalizes on the use of a nationally representative dataset to consider the consequence of truancy as a result of drinking as a mediator on the relationship between alcohol use and academic achievement. Read More

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Barriers Associated with the Implementation of Homework in Youth Mental Health Treatment and Potential Mobile Health Solutions.

Cognit Ther Res 2021 Apr 16;45(2):272-286. Epub 2020 Mar 16.

Technology Applications Center for Healthful Lifestyles, College of Nursing, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA.

Background: Homework, or between-session practice of skills learned during therapy, is integral to effective youth mental health TREATMENTS. However, homework is often under-utilized by providers and patients due to many barriers, which might be mitigated via Health solutions.

Methods: Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with nationally certified trainers in Trauma Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT; =21) and youth TF-CBT patients ages 8-17 (=15) and their caregivers (=12) to examine barriers to the successful implementation of homework in youth mental health treatment and potential Health solutions to those barriers. Read More

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Prevalence and risk factors of violence against women and children during COVID-19, Germany.

Bull World Health Organ 2021 Jun 19;99(6):429-438. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Technical University of Munich, Richard-Wagner-Strasse 1, 80333 München, Germany.

Objective: To assess the prevalence and exacerbating factors of violence against women and children in Germany during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic.

Methods: We conducted a representative online survey with partnered women (18-65 years) between 22 April and 8 May 2020, when participants had been under lockdown for a month. We determined the prevalence of several forms of violence within the previous month using both direct elicitation and a list experiment. Read More

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First, Do No Harm: From Diversity and Inclusion to Equity and Anti-racism in Interpersonal Violence Research and Scholarship.

Authors:
Emiko A Tajima

J Interpers Violence 2021 Jun;36(11-12):4953-4987

University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

This article aims to support interpersonal violence (IPV) researchers in promoting diversity and inclusion in their research and scholarship and urges the IPV field to advance a racial equity, anti-oppressive, and justice-driven research agenda. The article discusses a range of factors to consider at each stage of the research process as researchers seek to be inclusive, responsive to diversity concerns, and seek equity. The researcher's perspective and positionality are discussed and the importance of critical self-examination of one's position in relation to the research is emphasized. Read More

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The Interaction Effects Between Father-Child Relationship Quality and Parent-perpetrated Maltreatment on Adolescent Behavior Problems.

J Interpers Violence 2021 Jun 9:8862605211021977. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Despite ample evidence supporting the positive and important role fathers play in youth well-being, currently little is known about the potential buffering effects of positive father-child relationships on adolescent behavioral functioning, especially within the context of child maltreatment. Clarifying whether positive parent-child relationships are helpful in the presence of maltreatment perpetrated by the same or another parent is critical for designing and implementing successful family-based interventions for positive youth development. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate the unique and combined effects of the perpetrator of child maltreatment (i. Read More

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Silencing by design: Lessons learned about child sexual abuse from a university sexual assault survey.

Womens Health (Lond) 2021 Jan-Dec;17:17455065211017062

Department of Psychology, Medical & Applied Sciences, CQUniversity Australia, Rockhampton, QLD, Australia.

Background: University students have been recognized as particularly being vulnerable to sexual victimization.

Purpose: With little research to date, and acknowledgement for the need of a better understanding of sexual violence, our study analysed the CQUniversity Sexual Assault Survey's qualitative responses. An open-ended qualitative question allowed students to provide information anonymously. Read More

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A Systematic Review of the Biological Correlates and Consequences of Childhood Maltreatment and Adverse Childhood Experiences.

Trauma Violence Abuse 2021 Jun 9:15248380211021613. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

School of Criminal Justice, 2514University of Cincinnati, OH, USA.

Childhood maltreatment (CM) and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are two primary forms of interpersonal victimization that have been associated with a host of deleterious health outcomes. Studies over the past decade have begun to use a range of biologically informed methods to better understand the role biology plays in the relationship between CM, ACEs, and later life outcomes. This line of research has shown that both forms of victimization occur at sensitive periods of development, which can increase the likelihood of "getting under the skin" and influence health and behavior across the life course. Read More

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Child abuse and neglect in paediatric burns: The majority is caused by neglect and thus preventable.

Burns 2021 May 21. Epub 2021 May 21.

Emma Children's Hospital, Paediatric Surgical Centre Amsterdam, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam & Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Department of Paediatric Surgery, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

Introduction: It is complex to distinguish negligent burns from inflicted and non-intentional burns, especially since no deliberate action caused the burn. Its recognition is important to create a safe life without (future) burns for our loved-ones who cannot take care of themselves (yet). Our aim was to investigate the incidence and associated characteristics of negligent burns are among children treated at a burn center. Read More

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Prevalence of elder abuse and victim-related risk factors during the COVID-19 pandemic in China.

BMC Public Health 2021 06 8;21(1):1096. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Law School, Hunan University, Changsha, Hunan Province, P.R. China.

Background: With the accelerated aging of the Chinese population, elder abuse has become a serious social problem. As COVID-19 has had a very large impact on economic development and lifestyle in China, it has also affected elder abuse. The purpose of this study is to estimate the prevalence of elder abuse in China during the COVID-19 pandemic, and to identify changes in risk factors for elder abuse in the context of COVID-19. Read More

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Child maltreatment and neglect in the United Arab Emirates and relationship with low self-esteem and symptoms of depression.

Int Rev Psychiatry 2021 Jun 9:1-11. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Science, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, UAE University, Al Ain, UAE.

Objectives: To our knowledge, this study is the first in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) to investigate the prevalence of child maltreatment in relation to depressive symptoms and self-esteem.

Study Design: Exposure to physical maltreatment, emotional abuse and neglect was evaluated in 518 adolescents (86% response rate) randomly selected from schools in Al Ain in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi. The Rosenberg self-esteem scale and the Beck Depression Inventory were used to measure self-esteem and depressive symptoms by using multivariate logistic regression analyses. Read More

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Baseline brain function in the preadolescents of the ABCD Study.

Nat Neurosci 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway.

The Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study is a 10-year longitudinal study of children recruited at ages 9 and 10. A battery of neuroimaging tasks are administered biennially to track neurodevelopment and identify individual differences in brain function. This study reports activation patterns from functional MRI (fMRI) tasks completed at baseline, which were designed to measure cognitive impulse control with a stop signal task (SST; N = 5,547), reward anticipation and receipt with a monetary incentive delay (MID) task (N = 6,657) and working memory and emotion reactivity with an emotional N-back (EN-back) task (N = 6,009). Read More

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Associations between parental alcohol problems in childhood and adversities during childhood and later adulthood: a cross-sectional study of 28047 adults from the general population.

Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy 2021 Jun 7;16(1):47. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Psychosocial Health, University of Agder, Postbox 422, 4604, Kristiansand, Norway.

Background: Adverse childhood experiences (ACE) are related to adverse physical and mental health outcomes. However, few larger studies based on a general population sample with age groups ranging from young adults to elderly have investigated whether parental alcohol problems increase the risk of offspring subjective reports of ACE both during childhood and current adult adversities. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between parental alcohol problems and adversities during childhood and later in adulthood. Read More

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A Dual-Process Approach to Moral Panic and Public Support for Sex Offender Management Policies.

J Interpers Violence 2021 Jun 7:8862605211023490. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Rutgers University, School of Criminal Justice, New Jersey, United States.

The current study explores if and how dual-process thinking styles (System I/experiential and System II/rational processing) predict and explain the degree to which members of the public express moral panic toward and support for existing sex offender management policies (registration, notification, residence restrictions), regardless of their efficacy or effects on recidivism rates, for different types of individuals who commit sex offenses (sex offender, juvenile sex offender, cybersex offender, female sex offender, rapist, child molester). Online experimental methods were used with a lay sample ( = 324). Results show that the extent to which participants exhibited a reliance on System I processing significantly predicted their feelings of moral panic (concern, hostility, and volatility) toward individuals classified as child molesters. Read More

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Calculating the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on child abuse and neglect in the U.S.

Authors:
Loc H Nguyen

Child Abuse Negl 2021 May 28;118:105136. Epub 2021 May 28.

Suzanne Dworak-Peck School of Social Work, University of Southern California, Montgomery Ross Fisher Building, Los Angeles, CA 90089-0411, United States of America; County Welfare Directors Association of California, 925 L Street, Suite 350, Sacramento, CA 95814-3701, United States of America. Electronic address:

Background: COVID-19 has had a major impact on child abuse and neglect (CAN) in the U.S. leading to a change in the number of reported screened-in CAN investigations, missed prevention cases, and missed CAN cases. Read More

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Childhood maltreatment predicts poorer executive functioning in adulthood beyond symptoms of internalizing psychopathology.

Child Abuse Negl 2021 Jun 5;118:105140. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA; Department of Psychology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.

Background: A history of childhood maltreatment predicts poorer functioning in several domains during childhood, including executive function (EF). While there is also evidence of poorer EF in adults with a history of childhood trauma, results are mixed. Notable limitations of previous research are (a) the use of single indicators of EF, and/or (b) not consistently assessing whether childhood maltreatment predicts poorer EF beyond internalizing psychopathology. Read More

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Developing a model of care for substance use in pregnancy and parenting services, Sydney, Australia: Service provider perspectives.

J Subst Abuse Treat 2021 Apr 21;131:108420. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Sydney Women's Alcohol and Drug Research Group, Level 6, King George V Building, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Missenden Road, Camperdown 2050, Sydney, Australia; The University of Sydney, Discipline of Addiction Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Camperdown, Sydney, Australia; Sydney Local Health District, Sydney Institute for Women Children and their Families, Sydney, Australia.

Introduction: The absence of a clear model of care for services supporting pregnant women and mothers with substance use disorders has impeded opportunities to build an evidence base for the effectiveness of these services. Previous research has typically focused on the needs of pregnant women or mothers, as two distinct groups. This paper explores service providers' perceptions of key components of a model of care, extending from perinatal care to community-based support for up to 17 years post-delivery. Read More

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Predicting adolescent alcohol and other drug problems using electronic health records data.

J Subst Abuse Treat 2021 May 21;132:108487. Epub 2021 May 21.

Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Division of Research, Oakland, CA 94612, United States of America. Electronic address:

Importance: Alcohol and other drug (AOD) use problems may cause significant burden on affected adolescents and their families, yet treatment providers often do not identify these problems early enough.

Objective: To develop, and internally and externally validate a multivariable prediction model of adolescent AOD problems using child- and maternal-level predictors before age 12, and child-level predictors between ages 12 to 18, as recorded in the electronic health records (EHR).

Design: A retrospective cohort study conducted time-to-event analyses using Cox proportional hazards models. Read More

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