47,412 results match your criteria Child Abuse


Maternal half-sibling families with discordant fathers: a contrastive design assessing cross-generational paternal genetic transmission of alcohol use disorder, drug abuse and major depression.

Psychol Med 2019 Apr 17:1-8. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Center for Primary Health Care Research, Lund University,Malmö,Sweden.

Background: We introduce and apply an elegant, contrastive genetic-epidemiological design - Maternal Half-Sibling Families with Discordant Fathers - to clarify cross-generational transmission of genetic risk to alcohol use disorder (AUD), drug abuse (DA) and major depression (MD).

Method: Using Swedish national registries, we identified 73 108 eligible pairs of reared together maternal half-siblings and selected those whose biological fathers were discordant for AUD, DA and MD, and had minimal contact with the affected father. We examined differences in outcome in half-siblings with an affected v. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291719000874DOI Listing

How does childhood maltreatment influence ensuing cognitive functioning among people with the exposure of childhood maltreatment? A systematic review of prospective cohort studies.

J Affect Disord 2019 Apr 9;252:278-293. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, McGill University, 6875 boulevard LaSalle, Montreal, QC H4H 1R3, Canada; Douglas Mental Health University Institute, Montreal, QC Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Childhood maltreatment is closely related to normal cognitive development and ensuing adverse mental health outcomes and cognitive dysfunction. Our current comprehensive systematic review examines the relationship between childhood maltreatment and cognitive functioning focusing only on prospective studies, which allow us to draw inferences about the temporal relationships among the constructs and make causal inferences.

Methods: The databases, EMBASE, HealthStar, PsychoInfo, Medline, and Cochrane Library, were searched using a systematic methodology to identify prospective studies published up to December, 2017 to explore the relationship between childhood maltreatment and cognitive functioning. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2019.04.026DOI Listing

Low risk of neurodevelopmental impairment among perinatally acquired HIV-infected preschool children who received early antiretroviral treatment in Thailand.

J Int AIDS Soc 2019 Apr;22(4):e25278

Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Introduction: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is recommended in perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV) infants immediately upon diagnosis. We aimed to compare neurodevelopmental outcomes between PHIV children who initiated ART within 12 months of life and perinatally HIV-exposed uninfected (PHEU) children and to assess neurodevelopmental outcomes by timing of ART.

Methods: This prospective cohort study included Thai children aged 12 to 56 months who were assessed with the Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL) at enrolment and at 48 weeks. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jia2.25278DOI Listing

Paranoia and risk of personality disorder in the general population.

Personal Ment Health 2019 May;13(2):107-116

Unidad de Salud Mental, Hospital Universitario San Cecilio de Granada, Instituto Biosanitario de Granada, Servicio Andaluz de Salud, Granada, Spain.

Background: We hypothesized that paranoia is associated with personality disorder (PD) in the general population.

Method: This was a population-based cross-sectional survey carried out in Andalusia (Spain) using a representative sample of 4 507 participants. Paranoia was measured using the Green Paranoid Thought Scale, and risk of having a PD was screened using the Standardized Assessment of Personality Abbreviated Scale whilst borderline personality disorder (BPD) was measured with the CEPER-III Exploratory Interview of Personality disorder. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/pmh.1443
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pmh.1443DOI Listing
May 2019
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Effects of Childhood Maltreatment on Social Cognition and Brain Functional Connectivity in Borderline Personality Disorder Patients.

Front Psychiatry 2019 29;10:156. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Laboratorio de Neurofisiología Integrativa, Instituto Nacional de Psiquiatría Ramón de la Fuente Muñiz, Mexico City, Mexico.

Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a chronic condition characterized by high levels of impulsivity, affective instability, and difficulty to establish and manage interpersonal relationships. However, little is known about its etiology and neurobiological substrates. In our study, we wanted to investigate the influence of child abuse in the psychopathology of BPD by means of social cognitive paradigms [the Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition (MASC) and the reading the mind in the eyes test (RMET)], and resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2019.00156DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6452291PMC

[The Skin Findings Associated with Neurotrauma].

Authors:
Shigeru Oya

Brain Nerve 2019 Apr;71(4):309-315

Department of Neurosurgery, Asahi General Hospital.

Head trauma is a common condition, but often, serious pathological conditions associated with it are hidden. Skin findings in child abuse cases, such as skull base fracture, battle signs, raccoon eye, open head injury, penetrating wounds, traumatic aneurysm of the superficial temporal artery, traumatic carotid cavernous sinus fistula, and fat embolism have been presented in this paper. It is necessary to observe and record skin findings at the time of consultation and to listen to the detailed medical history that resulted in such an injury. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416201267DOI Listing

Sewing needles in the lungs of children: Two case reports.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2019 Apr;98(15):e15186

Rationale: Foreign bodies are common in children. However, it is uncommon to have a "sewing needle" penetrating the body percutaneously rather than via a natural orifice. Such cases have been reported from across the world, with needles being found in regions such as the cranium, abdomen, limbs, neck, scrotum, and buttocks. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000015186DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads
5.723 Impact Factor

A Multisystemic Approach to the Prevention and Treatment of Child Abuse and Neglect.

Int J Child Maltreat 2018 Nov 13;1(1):97-120. Epub 2018 Sep 13.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Maryland, Baltimore.

Families experiencing physical abuse and/or neglect are at risk of continued difficulties that may involve long-term monitoring by Child Protective Services (CPS) and perhaps even removal of the child. Interventions needed to help the family remain intact safely and reduce both the clinical challenges they are experiencing and risk of further maltreatment will need to meet the multiple needs of all family members and involve a positive, collaborative working relationship with CPS. If services that are typically provided at outpatient clinics are used, the CPS case worker may be tasked with linking the family to many providers. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s42448-018-0002-2
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s42448-018-0002-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6459021PMC
November 2018
1 Read

Knowledge and attitude regarding child abuse among primary health care physician in Abha, Saudi Arabia, 2018.

J Family Med Prim Care 2019 Feb;8(2):706-710

Department of Family and Community Medicine, College of Medicine, King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia.

Backgrounds: Child abuse or child maltreatment is physical, sexual, or psychological maltreatment or neglect of a child or children, especially by a parent or other caregiver. Child abuse may include any act or failure to act by a parent or other caregiver that results in actual or potential harm to a child, and can occur in a child's home or in the organizations, schools, or communities the child interacts with. This study was conducted to assess the primary health care (PHC) centers' physicians' knowledge and attitude toward child abuse including its types, and child neglect with their behavior regarding reporting of abuse cases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_442_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6436322PMC
February 2019

Role of Social Support and Spouse Abuse in Low Birth Weight: A Case-control Study from Puducherry, India.

Indian J Community Med 2019 Jan-Mar;44(1):12-16

Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Puducherry, India.

Background: Low birth weight (LBW) is a major cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. In addition to medical/clinical risk factors, various socio-demographic factors also have an impact on birth weight.

Objective: The objective of the study is to determine the association of antenatal social support and spouse abuse during pregnancy with LBW in Urban areas of Puducherry. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijcm.IJCM_114_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6437797PMC

[We must retain the right to give birth anonymously!]

Rev Prat 2019 Mar;69(3):247-250

Pédiatre-réanimateur, hôpital Antoine Béclère, Clamart, France.

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March 2019
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Viral suppression among children and their caregivers living with HIV in western Kenya.

J Int AIDS Soc 2019 Apr;22(4):e25272

Department of Medicine, Indiana University, Indianapolis, IN, USA.

Introduction: Despite the central role of caregivers in managing HIV treatment for children living with HIV, viral suppression within caregiver-child dyads in which both members are living with HIV is not well described.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of children living with HIV <15 years of age and their caregivers living with HIV attending HIV clinics affiliated with the Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare (AMPATH) in Kenya between 2015 and 2017. To be included in the analysis, children and caregivers must have had ≥1 viral load (VL) during the study period while receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) for ≥6 months, and the date of the caregiver's VL must have occurred ±90 days from the date of the child's VL. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/jia2.25272
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jia2.25272DOI Listing
April 2019
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Sexual abuse and psychogenic nonepileptic seizures.

Neurol Sci 2019 Apr 14. Epub 2019 Apr 14.

Neuroscience Research Center, Shiraz Medical School, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Objective: We investigated the frequency of reported sexual abuse in patients with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) in a Middle-Eastern culture (Iran) and tried to characterize the association between a history of sexual abuse and the clinical characteristics of PNES in these patients.

Methods: In this retrospective database study, patients with PNES, who were investigated at Shiraz Comprehensive Epilepsy Center at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, from 2008 until 2018, were studied. Patients were categorized into two groups: (1) those with a history of sexual abuse and (2) those without such a history. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10072-019-03887-3DOI Listing

Sociodemographic Characterization and Psychiatric Symptoms of Patients With Medically Unexplained Symptoms in a Healthcare Institution in Medellin (Colombia).

Rev Colomb Psiquiatr 2019 Apr - Jun;48(2):72-79. Epub 2017 Nov 4.

Universidad CES, Medellín, Colombia.

Introduction: Medically unexplained symptoms are defined as physical symptoms that have been present for several weeks and that an adequate medical evaluation has not revealed any disease that explains them; when these symptoms become persistent, they lead to comprehensive clinical investigations and multiple interventions. These patients have a greater or at least comparable commitment to physical functioning, mental health, and negative health perception than patients with multiple chronic medical conditions; have significantly more stressful life events (psychological, physical and/or sexual abuse) and are more likely to meet diagnostic criteria for anxiety and depression.

Objective: To characterize sociodemographic and psychiatric characteristics of a group of patients identified in primary care with medically unexplained symptoms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rcp.2017.08.005DOI Listing
November 2017

A factor analytic study of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form in an all-female South African sample with and without HIV infection.

Child Abuse Negl 2019 Apr 10;92:157-166. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

South African Research Chairs Initiative (SARChI), PTSD Program, Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa.

Background: The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form (CTQ-SF) is widely used around the world but no norms have been established for South African users of the CTQ. The CTQ has been employed in South Africa but not yet validated. The present study aims to address this gap. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S01452134193012
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2019.04.002DOI Listing
April 2019
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Long-term loss to follow-up in the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database (TAHOD).

HIV Med 2019 Apr 12. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Faculty of Medicine, Udayana University & Sanglah Hospital, Bali, Indonesia.

Objectives: With earlier antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation, time spent in HIV care is expected to increase. We aimed to investigate loss to follow-up (LTFU) in Asian patients who remained in care 5 years after ART initiation.

Methods: Long-term LTFU was defined as LTFU occurring after 5 years on ART. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/hiv.12734
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/hiv.12734DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads
3.988 Impact Factor

Adverse childhood experiences and bullying in late adolescence in a metropolitan region of Brazil.

Child Abuse Negl 2019 Apr 9;92:146-156. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Post-Graduate Program in Collective Heath, Federal University of Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES, Brazil; Department of Social Medicine, Federal University of Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES, Brazil. Electronic address:

Background: Adverse childhood experiences and bullying are factors associated with an increased risk of harmful outcomes to the physical and mental health of adolescents, which may affect their resilience.

Objective: This study analyzed the association between exposure to childhood adversities and bullying behaviors in late adolescence.

Participants And Setting: The study included adolescents in the 15-19 age range, enrolled in high schools located in a metropolitan region of Brazil. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S01452134193012
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2019.04.003DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

Trauma and Adolescents Who Engage in Sexually Abusive Behavior: A Review of the Literature.

J Child Sex Abus 2019 Apr 12:1-20. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

a The Ohio State University , Columbus , OH , USA.

While recent research has established the abuse and victimization histories of youth who engage in sexually abusive behavior, there is still debate regarding the significance of trauma and abuse as developmental antecedents to sexual offending in adolescence. Moreover, research has not conclusively identified the types, context, and timing of adverse experiences that act as catalysts for subsequent sexual perpetration. The present comprehensive literature review has one primary aim: Explore the adverse childhood experiences of youth who engage in sexually abusive behavior, considering whether trauma may be a consistent developmental antecedent to offending. Read More

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https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/10538712.2019.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10538712.2019.1598528DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

Barriers to Education of Syrian Refugee Girls in Jordan: Gender-Based Threats and Challenges.

J Nurs Scholarsh 2019 Apr 12. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Department of Nursing, California State University Northridge, College of Health and Human Development, Department of Nursing, Northridge, CA,, USA.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to uncover and describe the barriers to education as experienced by Syrian refugee girls in the Za'atri Syrian Refugee Camp in Jordan.

Design: A qualitative nonexperimental design utilizing focus group discussions (FGDs), individual interviews, and participant and nonparticipant observation was used for this study. Four FGDs were facilitated in three dropout education centers (nonformal school) in the Za'atri Syrian Refugee Camp. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jnu.12480DOI Listing
April 2019
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Psychometric evaluation of the Adverse Childhood Experience International Questionnaire (ACE-IQ) in Malawian adolescents.

Child Abuse Negl 2019 Apr 8;92:139-145. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Department of Sociology and Population Studies Center, University of Pennsylvania, 3718 Locust Walk (272 McNeil Building), Philadelphia, PA 19104-6298, United States.

Background: Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) can have lifelong adverse impacts on health and behavior. While this relationship has been extensively documented in high-income countries, evidence from lower-income contexts is largely missing. In order to stimulate greater research on the prevalence and consequences of ACEs in low-income countries, the World Health Organization (WHO) developed the ACE-International Questionnaire (ACE-IQ). Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S01452134193010
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2019.03.015DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

The relationship between exposure to family violence in childhood and post-traumatic stress symptoms in young adulthood: The mediating role of social support.

Child Abuse Negl 2019 Apr 8;92:126-138. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

School of Social Work, Sapir College, Hof Ashkelon, Israel.

Background: Extensive research has examined the relationship between exposure to family violence and its long-term mental health effects. Social support has been found to moderate this relationship, but there is a dearth of research on its mediating role.

Objectives: The article presents the results of a study on the relationship between witnessing interparental violence and experiencing parental violence during childhood and adolescence on the one hand, and post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) during young adulthood on the other. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2019.03.023DOI Listing

Experiences of (young) women after out of home placement: An examination of personality disorder symptoms through the lens of child maltreatment.

Child Abuse Negl 2019 Apr 8;92:116-125. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Université de Sherbrooke, Canada.

Background: Child maltreatment has been associated with the development of various mental health problems, including the development of personality disorders.

Objective: This study investigated the association between child maltreatment and personality disorder symptoms in 125 women who transitioned out of residential care.

Method: The Child Trauma Questionnaire was used for the measurement of child maltreatment, and Personality disorder symptoms were measured using the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire 4 + . Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2019.03.022DOI Listing
April 2019
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Multiple Abusive Fractures in an Infant With a Concurrent Parathyroid Hormone-Related Peptide-Secreting Renal Tumor: Abusive Fractures Accompanying a Parathyroid Hormone-Related Peptide-Secreting Tumor.

Pediatr Emerg Care 2019 Apr 9. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Background: When evaluating an infant with unexplained fractures for child abuse, it is important to evaluate for possible causes of underlying bone fragility.

Case: A 7-month-old infant was found to have a parathyroid hormone (PTH)-related peptide-secreting mesoblastic nephroma. In spite of having an elevated serum calcium, depressed serum phosphate, and high levels of PTH-related peptide, he had no demineralization or other hyper parathyroid-related bone changes. Read More

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http://Insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00006565-900000000-9815
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PEC.0000000000001796DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Adverse childhood experiences, epigenetics and telomere length variation in childhood and beyond: a systematic review of the literature.

Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2019 Apr 9. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Institute of Health and Wellbeing, MVLS, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.

A systematic review following PRISMA guidelines was conducted to answer the question: What epigenetic, telomeric and associated biological changes are associated with exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) in the under 12s? Using PRISMA guidelines, appropriate databases were searched. 190 papers were returned with 38 articles fully reviewed. Articles were each independently quality rated by two authors using the Crowe Critical Appraisal Tool and data were extracted. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00787-019-01329-1DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Altered white matter connectivity in young people exposed to childhood abuse: a tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) and tractography study

J Psychiatry Neurosci 2019 Apr 9;44(3):1-10. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

From the Department of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King’s College London, London, UK (Lim, Hart, Mirza, Rubia); the Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Imperial College – Nanyang Technological University Singapore, Singapore (Lim); the NatBrainLab, Department of Forensic and Neurodevelopmental Sciences, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King’s College London, London, UK (Howells); and the Department of Neuroimaging, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King’s College London, London, UK (Mehta, Simmons).

Background: Childhood abuse is associated with structural brain abnormalities. Few studies have investigated white matter tract abnormalities in medication-naive, drug-free individuals who experienced childhood abuse. We examined the association between childhood abuse and abnormalities in white matter tracts in that population, controlling for psychiatric comorbidities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1503/jpn.170241DOI Listing

Physical Maltreatment and Its Associated Factors Among Adolescents in Karachi, Pakistan.

J Interpers Violence 2019 Apr 9:886260519842177. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

1 Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan.

In many developing countries, physical child maltreatment is considered as an acceptable disciplinary strategy. The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with physical maltreatment among adolescents in Karachi, Pakistan. A survey of 800 adolescents was done using a structured questionnaire adopted by The International Society for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0886260519842177DOI Listing

Antiretroviral Adherence Following Prison Release in a Randomized Trial of the imPACT Intervention to Maintain Suppression of HIV Viremia.

AIDS Behav 2019 Apr 8. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

The Institute for Global Health and Infectious Diseases, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

Many people living with HIV (PLWH) pass through correctional facilities each year, a large proportion of whom do not maintain viral suppression following release. We examined the effects of imPACT, an intervention designed to promote post-release viral suppression, on antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence. PLWH awaiting release from prisons in two southern states were randomized to imPACT (consisting of motivational interviewing, care linkage coordination, and text message medication reminders) versus standard care (SC). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10461-019-02488-7DOI Listing

Violence Victimization and Parenting Among Black South African Mothers.

J Fam Violence 2019 Feb 22;34(2):127-137. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Department of Psychology, Georgia State University, United States.

Purpose: Black South African women and girls face high rates of violence victimization, including physical, sexual, and emotional abuse in childhood and intimate partner violence (IPV) in adulthood. U.S. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10896-018-0022-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6450534PMC
February 2019

Classic Metaphyseal Lesions among Victims of Abuse.

J Pediatr 2019 Apr 5. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Pediatrics and Forensic Unit, Hôtel Dieu Hospital, AP-HP Paris, France.

Objective: To use legal statements by perpetrators to gain new insights into the causative mechanism of classic metaphyseal lesion (CML). The CML, so called "corner fracture," is considered a highly specific marker for abuse in infants. However, the precise correlation between CMLs and abusive head trauma is still unknown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2019.02.013DOI Listing

Difficulties with emotion regulation as a transdiagnostic mechanism linking child maltreatment with the emergence of psychopathology.

Dev Psychopathol 2019 Apr 8:1-17. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Department of Psychology,Harvard University,Cambridge,MA,USA.

Childhood maltreatment is associated with increased risk for most forms of psychopathology. We examine emotion dysregulation as a transdiagnostic mechanism linking maltreatment with general psychopathology. A sample of 262 children and adolescents participated; 162 (61. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0954579419000348DOI Listing

"Sex Offender" Versus "Person": The Influence of Labels on Willingness to Volunteer With People Who Have Sexually Abused.

Sex Abuse 2019 Apr 8:1079063219841904. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

1 The University of Auckland, New Zealand.

The present study examined the effect of offense-based labels on community members' willingness to volunteer with people convicted for varying offenses and any priming effect of labeling language. Participants ( N = 310) were randomly assigned to a label condition or a neutral condition and completed an anonymous online survey about their willingness to volunteer with different groups. The labeling condition utilized labels (e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1079063219841904DOI Listing

Trends in investigations of abuse or neglect referred by hospital personnel in Ontario.

BMJ Paediatr Open 2019 4;3(1):e000386. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Division of Haematology/Oncology, Department of Paediatrics, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Background: There is a dearth of literature surrounding mandated reporters to child welfare services in the Canadian context. This paper examines 20 years of reporting patterns from hospitals, which represent 5% of all referrals to child welfare services in Ontario.

Methods: The Ontario Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect (OIS) is a representative study that has taken place every 5 years since 1993. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjpo-2018-000386DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6422247PMC
February 2019

Burden of adverse childhood experiences in children attending paediatric clinics in South Western Sydney, Australia: a retrospective audit.

BMJ Paediatr Open 2019 8;3(1):e000330. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

Department of Community Paediatrics, South Western Sydney Local Health District, Liverpool, New South Wales, Australia.

Objectives: Adverse childhood experiences (ACE) are associated with poor short, medium and long-term health outcomes. South Western Sydney (SWS) has a large culturally diverse population, including many disadvantaged population groups. Our aims were to determine the burden of ACE in children attending community paediatric (CP) clinics using a purposefully developed ACE checklist, and explore any association with developmental health of children. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjpo-2018-000330DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6422242PMC

A Cross-National Comparison of the Development of Adolescent Problem Behavior: a 1-Year Longitudinal Study in India, the Netherlands, the USA, and Australia.

Prev Sci 2019 Apr 6. Epub 2019 Apr 6.

School of Psychology and Centre for Social and Early Emotional Development, Deakin University, Geelong, 3220, Australia.

The world youth population is the largest ever and the levels of problem behavior will influence future global health. Recognition of these issues raises questions as to whether adolescent development knowledge can be internationally applied. To date, most research examining adolescent problem behavior has been completed in the United States (USA) and there has been neglected analysis of health inequalities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11121-019-01007-3DOI Listing

Paediatrician who downloaded videos of child abuse is given suspended sentence.

Authors:
Clare Dyer

BMJ 2019 Apr 5;365:l1637. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

The BMJ.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.l1637DOI Listing

The utility of direct questions in eliciting subjective content from children disclosing sexual abuse.

Child Abuse Negl 2019 Apr 2. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Judge Edward J. and Ruey L. Guirado Chair in Law and Psychology, Gould School of Law, University of Southern California, 699 Exposition Blvd., Los Angeles, CA 90089, United States. Electronic address:

Background: Children alleging sexual abuse rarely exhibit emotion when disclosing, but they may be able to describe their subjective reactions to abuse if asked.

Objective: This study examined the extent to which different types of questions in child sexual abuse interviews elicited subjective content, namely emotional reactions, cognitive content, and physical sensations.

Participants And Setting: The study included transcripts of 205 Child Advocacy Center interviews with 4- to 12-year-old children alleging sexual abuse. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2019.02.014DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Parental Education and Genetics of BMI from Infancy to Old Age: A Pooled Analysis of 29 Twin Cohorts.

Obesity (Silver Spring) 2019 Apr 5. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Objective: The objective of this study was to analyze how parental education modifies the genetic and environmental variances of BMI from infancy to old age in three geographic-cultural regions.

Methods: A pooled sample of 29 cohorts including 143,499 twin individuals with information on parental education and BMI from age 1 to 79 years (299,201 BMI measures) was analyzed by genetic twin modeling.

Results: Until 4 years of age, parental education was not consistently associated with BMI. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/oby.22451DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads
3.734 Impact Factor

Stress exposures, neurodevelopment and health measures in the ABCD study.

Neurobiol Stress 2019 Feb 19;10:100157. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.

The Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study, a large, longitudinal study of brain development and child health, is uniquely positioned to explore relationships among stress, neurodevelopment, and psychiatric symptomatology, including substance use and addiction. There is much we do not know about how adverse experiences affect the developing brain and cognitive, social, emotional, and academic outcomes. The data collected by the ABCD Study will allow the examination of the relationships among these variables in adolescence, including the effects of stressors (e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ynstr.2019.100157DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6430638PMC
February 2019

Child abuse and the pediatric surgeon: A position statement from the Trauma Committee, the Board of Governors and the Membership of the American Pediatric Surgical Association.

J Pediatr Surg 2019 Mar 21. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Department of General Surgery, Section of Pediatric Surgery, Brenner Children's Hospital, Wake Forest Baptist Health, Winston-Salem, NC. Electronic address:

Background: The pediatric surgeon is in a unique position to assess, stabilize, and manage a victim of child physical abuse (formerly nonaccidental trauma [NAT]) in the setting of a formal trauma system.

Methods: The American Pediatric Surgical Association (APSA) endorses the concept of child physical abuse as a traumatic disease that justifies the resource utilization of a trauma system to appropriately evaluate and manage this patient population including evaluation by pediatric surgeons.

Results: APSA recommends the implementation of a standardized tool to screen for child physical abuse at all state designated trauma or ACS verified trauma and children's surgery hospitals. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00223468193021
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2019.03.009DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Polygenic Risk: Predicting Depression Outcomes in Clinical and Epidemiological Cohorts of Youths.

Am J Psychiatry 2019 Apr 5:appiajp201918091014. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Department of Translational Research in Psychiatry, Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry, Munich (Halldorsdottir, Czamara, Rex-Haffner, Binder); Center of Public Health Sciences (Halldorsdottir) and Landspitali National University Hospital, School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland, Reykjavik (Arnarson); Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Psychosomatics, and Psychotherapy, University Hospital, Ludwig Maximilian University, Munich (Piechaczek, Pehl, Wagenbuechler, Feldmann, Quickenstedt-Reinhardt, Allgaier, Greimel, Schulte-Körne); Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal (Soares de Matos); Department of Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of the German Federal Armed Forces, Neubiberg, Germany (Allgaier); KBO Heckscher Hospital, Munich (Freisleder); Department of Psychology and Logopedics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Kvist, Lahti, Räikkönen); Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences (Craighead, Binder) and Department of Psychology (Craighead), Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta; Major Depressive Disorder Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (see online supplement for list of researchers).

Objective:: Identifying risk factors for major depression and depressive symptoms in youths could have important implications for prevention efforts. This study examined the association of polygenic risk scores (PRSs) for a broad depression phenotype derived from a large-scale genome-wide association study (GWAS) in adults, and its interaction with childhood abuse, with clinically relevant depression outcomes in clinical and epidemiological youth cohorts.

Methods:: The clinical cohort comprised 279 youths with major depression (mean age=14. Read More

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http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/doi/10.1176/appi.ajp.2019.18
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2019.18091014DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Child and family traumatic stress intervention (CFTSI) reduces parental posttraumatic stress symptoms: A multi-site meta-analysis (MSMA).

Child Abuse Negl 2019 Apr 1;92:106-115. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Department of Psychiatry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Campus Box 7160, 387 Medical School, Wing D, Chapel Hill, NC 27516, United States.

Background: Following traumatization, caregiver support is a crucial factor contributing to children's successful management of posttraumatic reactions and their recovery. Caregivers who have been traumatically impacted themselves, however, may be compromised in this posttraumatic caregiving role. Although there are a number of evidence-based child trauma treatments that are effective in reducing children's trauma symptoms, the impact of child treatment on participating caregiver's posttraumatic symptoms (PTS) has received less attention. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2019.03.010DOI Listing

Young frequent binge drinkers show no behavioral deficits in inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility.

Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2019 Apr 1;93:93-101. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Cognitive Neurophysiology, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, TU Dresden, Dresden, Germany. Electronic address:

Alcohol intoxication and abuse are well-known to cause impairments in executive functioning and control. Still, we know surprisingly little about individuals engaging in frequent binge drinking, even though they have an increased risk to develop an alcohol use disorder (AUD) later in life. As this risk has been suggested to be linked to (premorbid) executive deficits, we assessed changes in cognitive flexibility and inhibition with the help of a switching task and a stop-change task. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pnpbp.2019.03.019DOI Listing

Common genetic variants have associations with human cortical brain regions and risk of schizophrenia.

Genet Epidemiol 2019 Apr 3. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Department of Biostatistics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut.

Schizophrenia is a highly heritable mental disorder and is reported to be associated with measurements in cortical regions of the human brain. In this study, we considered genome-wide association studies to uncover genetic effects on cortical regions and prodromal symptoms of schizophrenia. Specifically, area, thickness, and volume of 66 cortical regions derived from magnetic resonance imaging scans of 1,445 children and adolescents from the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort were studied. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gepi.22203DOI Listing
April 2019
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The relationship between childhood abuse and severity of psychosis is mediated by loneliness: an experience sampling study.

Schizophr Res 2019 Mar 30. Epub 2019 Mar 30.

Rivierduinen Psychiatric Institute, Sandifortdreef 19, 2333 ZZ Leiden, the Netherlands; Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology, Maastricht University, Universiteitssingel 50, 6229 ER, Maastricht, the Netherlands.

Background: This study tested the hypotheses that (i) the relationship between a history of childhood abuse and severity of psychosis is mediated by loneliness; (ii) the relationship between loneliness and psychosis is mediated by within-person fluctuations in depressive and anxious feelings.

Methods: Fifty-nine individuals with non-affective psychotic disorder rated the intensity of loneliness, positive symptoms, and depressive and anxious feelings during repeated moments in daily life (Experience Sampling Method). Childhood abuse was assessed retrospectively using the 'Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse' interview. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2019.03.021DOI Listing

Child Life Specialists' Experiences Addressing Social Determinants of Health: A Web-Based Survey.

Clin Pediatr (Phila) 2019 Apr 2:9922819839233. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

5 Department of Child Life Services, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.

We used Google Forms to survey 110 child life specialists on their experiences addressing family psychosocial issues. Most respondents were female (99%) and white (95%), with mean age 34 ± 10 years. Ninety-five percent reported addressing family psychosocial issues during the previous 3 months, including parental separation/divorce (71%), poverty/financial needs (64%), parental mental illness (59%), substance abuse at home (54%), homelessness/housing problems (54%), bullying (49%), physical neglect (46%), physical abuse (46%), unemployment (46%), emotional neglect (45%), and hunger/food insecurity (42%). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0009922819839233DOI Listing

Early childhood exposure to non-violent discipline and physical and psychological aggression in low- and middle-income countries: National, regional, and global prevalence estimates.

Child Abuse Negl 2019 Mar 30;92:93-105. Epub 2019 Mar 30.

Bouvé College of Health Sciences, Northeastern University, United States.

Background: Advocates for children's rights have recommended the elimination of all forms of violent discipline given its detrimental effects on children's development. Yet, little is known about the global prevalence of various forms of discipline, including physical and psychological aggression, as well as alternative forms of non-violent discipline, especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs).

Objective: This study aims to obtain national, regional, and global prevalence estimates of the percentage and number of 2- to- 4-y-olds in LMICs exposed to these disciplinary practices by their caregivers. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S01452134193011
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2019.03.021DOI Listing
March 2019
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Rural-Urban Differences in Adverse Childhood Experiences Across a National Sample of Children.

J Rural Health 2019 Apr 2. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

College of Nursing, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) exposure in 34 states and the District of Columbia, and whether exposure differs between rural and urban residents.

Methods: This cross-sectional study used data from the 2016 National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH), restricted to states in which rural versus urban residence was indicated in the public use data (n = 25,977 respondents). Bivariate analyses were used to estimate unadjusted associations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jrh.12366DOI Listing