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    A survey on pediatric brain death and on organ transplantation: how did the law amendment change the awareness of pediatric healthcare providers?
    Childs Nerv Syst 2017 Oct 6;33(10):1769-1774. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    The Exploratory Committee for Brain Death Determination and Related Issues, The Japanese Society of Emergency Pediatrics, Shinjuku 1-15-11, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 160-0022, Japan.
    Objectives: In Japanese society taking a cautious attitude towards organ transplantation, we investigate how amendment of the Organ Transplant Law which legalized brain death (BD) determination criteria changed the awareness concerning BD and organ transplantation of pediatric healthcare providers.

    Methods: The questionnaire survey adopted the bearer method and was sent to members of the Japanese Society of Emergency Pediatrics (JSEP). In both the surveys of 2008 and 2016, the same item "Questionnaire survey on BD and organ transplant" was disseminated. Read More

    Shaken baby syndrome: what certainty do we have?
    Childs Nerv Syst 2017 Oct 6;33(10):1727-1733. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    Department of Pediatric Neurosurgery, University Hospital, Hôpital Roger Salengro, 59037, Lille Cedex, France.
    Background: Shaken baby syndrome is a common and devastating disease in infants. In spite of its frequency, many controversies persist, regarding the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management.

    Aim Of The Study: We reviewed several salient and challenging issues related to SBS, like its pathogenesis, predisposing factors, differential diagnosis, and prevention programs. Read More

    Challenges and opportunities for pediatric severe TBI-review of the evidence and exploring a way forward.
    Childs Nerv Syst 2017 Oct 6;33(10):1663-1667. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    Department of Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading killer of children in the developed and developing world. Despite evidence-based guidelines and several recent clinical trials, the progress in developing best practices for children with severe TBI has been slow. This article describes (i) the burden of the disease, (ii) the inadequacies of the evidence-based guidelines, (iii) the failure of the largest clinical trials to prove their primary hypotheses, and (iv) possible advances from an observational cohort study called the Approaches and Decisions for Acute Pediatric TBI (ADAPT) Trial that has recently completed enrollment. Read More

    Challenges in minor TBI and indications for head CT in pediatric TBI-an update.
    Childs Nerv Syst 2017 Oct 6;33(10):1677-1681. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    Division of Pediatric Neurosurgery, British Columbia Children's Hospital, 4480 Oak Street, Room K3-159, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6H 3V4, Canada.
    Introduction: Pediatric head trauma is one of the commonest presentations to emergency departments. Over 90% of such head injuries are considered mild, but still present risk acute clinical deterioration and longer term morbidity. Identifying which children are at risk of clinically important brain injuries remains challenging and much of the data on minor head injuries is based on the adult population. Read More

    When in doubt, sit it out! Pediatric concussion-an update.
    Childs Nerv Syst 2017 Oct 6;33(10):1669-1675. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    Department of Neurosurgery and Pediatrics, UCLA Steve Tisch BrainSPORT Program, 300 Stein Plaza Driveway, Suite 562, Los Angeles, CA, 90095, USA.
    Concussion is a major public health issue that has received much publicity in recent years. Reported concussions are increasing across all ages, including the highest rates in pediatric age ranges. Due to the age-related physiological responses and differential recovery of symptoms after concussion, special consideration must be given to youth concussions. Read More

    Decompressive craniectomy for traumatic intracranial hypertension: application in children.
    Childs Nerv Syst 2017 Oct 6;33(10):1745-1750. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Addenbrooke's Hospital & University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.
    Traumatic brain injury remains prevalent in children, particularly within the adolescent age group. In severe injury, the priority of treatment is to stabilise the patient initially and prevent the evolution of brain swelling and secondary ischaemia using tiers of medical therapy. The final stage of intervention for such patients is a decompressive craniectomy. Read More

    Decompressive craniectomy and CSF disorders in children.
    Childs Nerv Syst 2017 Oct 6;33(10):1751-1757. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    Hôpital Femme Mère Enfant, Hospices Civils de Lyon and Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, 59 Bd Pinel, 69677, Bron Cedex, France.
    Introduction: Decompressive craniectomy (DC) is a lifesaving procedure but is associated to several post-operative complications, namely cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics impairment. The aim of this multicentric study was to evaluate the incidence of such CSF alterations after DC and review their impact on the overall outcome.

    Material And Methods: We performed a retrospective multicentric study to analyze the CSF disorders occurring in children aged from 0 to 17 years who had undergone a DC for traumatic brain injury (TBI) in the major Departments of Pediatric Neurosurgery of France between January 2006 and August 2016. Read More

    Autoregulation in paediatric TBI-current evidence and implications for treatment.
    Childs Nerv Syst 2017 Oct 6;33(10):1735-1744. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    Departments of Pediatrics, Anesthesia, Critical Care, Texas Children's Hospital, Baylor College of Medicine, 6621 Fannin St., WT-17417B, Houston, TX, 77030, USA.
    Background: Children who survive acute traumatic brain injury are at risk of death from subsequent brain swelling and secondary injury. Strict physiologic management in the ICU after traumatic brain injury is believed to be key to survival, and cerebral perfusion pressure is a prominent aspect of post brain injury care. However, optimal cerebral perfusion pressure targets for children are not known. Read More

    Problems of reconstructive cranioplasty after traumatic brain injury in children.
    Childs Nerv Syst 2017 Oct 6;33(10):1759-1768. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    Department of Neurosurgery, International Neuroscience Institute, Hannover, Germany.
    Cranial repair after traumatic brain injury in children is still burdened by unsolved problems and controversial issues, mainly due to the high rate of resorption of autologous bone as well as the absence of valid alternative material to replace the autologous bone. Indeed, inert biomaterials are associated to satisfactory results in the short period but bear the continuous risk of complications related to the lack of osteointegration capacity. Biomimetic materials claiming osteoconductive properties that could balance their mechanical limits seem to allow good cranial bone reconstruction. Read More

    Analgosedation in paediatric severe traumatic brain injury (TBI): practice, pitfalls and possibilities.
    Childs Nerv Syst 2017 Oct 6;33(10):1703-1710. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    Intensive Care and Department of Paediatric Surgery, Erasmus Medical Center, Sophia Children's Hospital, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Analgosedation is a fundamental part of traumatic brain injury (TBI) treatment guidelines, encompassing both first and second tier supportive strategies. Worldwide analgosedation practices continue to be heterogeneous due to the low level of evidence in treatment guidelines (level III) and the choice of analgosedative drugs is made by the treating clinician. Current practice is thus empirical and may result in unfavourable (often hemodynamic) side effects. Read More

    Glucose metabolism in pediatric traumatic brain injury.
    Childs Nerv Syst 2017 Oct 6;33(10):1711-1718. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    UCLA Department of Neurosurgery, 300 Stein Plaza, Suite 532, PO Box 957039, Los Angeles, CA, 90024-7039, USA.
    Traumatic brain injury is the number one cause of death and disability among the pediatric population in the USA. The heterogeneity of the pediatric population is reflected by both the normal cerebral maturation and the age differences in the causes of TBI, which generate unique age-related pathophysiology responses and recovery profiles. This review will address the normal changes in cerebral glucose metabolism throughout developmental phases and how TBI alters glucose metabolism. Read More

    Pre-clinical models in pediatric traumatic brain injury-challenges and lessons learned.
    Childs Nerv Syst 2017 Oct 6;33(10):1693-1701. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    Safar Center for Resuscitation Research, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, 4401 Penn Ave, Pittsburgh, PA, 15224, USA.
    Purpose: Despite the enormity of the problem and the lack of new therapies, research in the pre-clinical arena specifically using pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) models is limited. In this review, some of the key models addressing both the age spectrum of pediatric TBI and its unique injury mechanisms will be highlighted. Four topics will be addressed, namely, (1) unique facets of the developing brain important to TBI model development, (2) a description of some of the most commonly used pre-clinical models of severe pediatric TBI including work in both rodents and large animals, (3) a description of the pediatric models of mild TBI and repetitive mild TBI that are relatively new, and finally (4) a discussion of challenges, gaps, and potential future directions to further advance work in pediatric TBI models. Read More

    Brain metabolism and severe pediatric traumatic brain injury.
    Childs Nerv Syst 2017 Oct 6;33(10):1719-1726. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    Department of Pediatrics and Neurology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA.
    Age-dependent changes in brain metabolism may influence the response to and tolerance of secondary insults, potentially affecting outcomes. More complete characterization of brain metabolism across the clinical trajectory of severe pediatric TBI is needed to improve our ability to measure and better mitigate the impact of secondary insults. Better management of secondary insults will impact clinical care and the probability of success of future neuroprotective clinical trials. Read More

    Diffusion MRI in pediatric brain injury.
    Childs Nerv Syst 2017 Oct 6;33(10):1683-1692. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major public health issue around the world and can be especially devastating in children as TBI can derail cognitive and social development. White matter (WM) is particularly vulnerable to disruption post-TBI, as myelination is ongoing during this period. Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) is a versatile modality for identifying and quantifying WM disruption and can detect diffuse axonal injury (DAI or TAI (traumatic axonal injury)). Read More

    Local and global challenges in pediatric traumatic brain injury outcome and rehabilitation assessment.
    Childs Nerv Syst 2017 Oct 6;33(10):1775-1784. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major public health problem associated with high morbidity and mortality rates in children in both high- and low- and middle-income countries. Predicting outcome after pediatric TBI is challenging given the wide range of injury and non-injury-related factors which may have an impact. Some of these factors are relevant globally (like heterogeneity in patient and injury-related factors and research methodology) and others are more specific to local contexts (like sociodemographic and cultural factors). Read More

    Chronic overdrainage syndrome: pathophysiological insights based on ICP analysis: a case-based review.
    Childs Nerv Syst 2017 Nov 11. Epub 2017 Nov 11.
    Division of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Department of Neurosurgery, Eberhard Karls University Hospital of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.
    Introduction: Chronic overdrainage affects shunted patients producing a variety of symptoms that may be misdiagnosed. The best known symptoms are so-called shunt-related headaches. There is mounting evidence that changes in cerebrospinal venous system dynamics are a key factor to the pathophysiology of chronic overdrainage syndrome. Read More

    Multiple hereditary osteochondromatosis with spinal cord compression: case report.
    Childs Nerv Syst 2017 Nov 11. Epub 2017 Nov 11.
    Instituto Nacional de Pediatría, México City, Mexico.
    Objective: The purpose of the report is to describe a patient with hereditary osteochondromatosis and spinal cord compression at the thoracic level.

    Clinical Features: An 8-year-old patient with hereditary osteochondromatosis inherited from his father presented paraparesis in the left foot, leading to complete paralysis in both legs.

    Intervention: In a CT scan, a bony tumor rising from the posterior wall of the T3 body narrowing the spinal canal, and the MRI spinal cord compression at the same level and the hydrosyringomyelic cavity extended to the conus medullaris; with an anterior thoracic approach to T2-T4, the fibro-cartilaginous tumor was removed, and the stabilization was completed with bone graft and a plate. Read More

    Neurological manifestations of congenital Zika virus infection.
    Childs Nerv Syst 2017 Nov 10. Epub 2017 Nov 10.
    Division of Pediatric Neurology, National Institute of Women, Children and Adolescents Health Fernandes Figueira/FIOCRUZ, 716 Rui Barbosa Avenue, Rio de Janeiro, 22250-020, Brazil.
    Introduction: In 2015, it was observed a rise in the number of microcephalic newborns associated with a history of non-specific febrile sickness and rash during pregnancy in Brazil. Since then, microcephaly has emerged as a public health concern. A few months after, the causal relation between congenital microcephaly and the Zika virus was discovered. Read More

    Implementing a digital real-time Hydrocephalus and Shunt Registry to evaluate contemporary pattern of care and surgical outcome in pediatric hydrocephalus.
    Childs Nerv Syst 2017 Nov 9. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Department of Neurosurgery, Section Pediatric Neurosurgery, University Medical Center Göttingen, Robert-Koch-Str. 40, 37075, Göttingen, Germany.
    Objective: Treatment monitoring and outcome evaluation in pediatric hydrocephalus require gapless documentation regarding surgical and clinical follow-up data beginning from day 1 of treatment in order to apply high quality of care. Endoscopic procedures, shunt insertion and revision surgeries, and individual modifications of valve hardware or pressure settings during follow-up as well as established outcome measurements are highly relevant for complete illustration of the patient's hydrocephalus histories. A digital tool to capture, organize, and analyze comprehensive treatment-related data was estimated long overdue, consequentially developed, and implemented in daily pediatric neurosurgical routine. Read More

    The Liebau phenomenon: a translational approach to new paradigms of CSF circulation and related flow disturbances.
    Childs Nerv Syst 2017 Nov 9. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Department of Neurosurgery , Treviso Hospital , University of Padova, Piazza Ospedale 1, 31100, Treviso, Italia.
    Purpose: The aim of the study is to provide a comparison between Liebau's effect, underlying the working principles of impedance pumps, and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulation.

    Methods: Gerhard Liebau was a cardiologist with a specific interest in severe aortic regurgitation. Such interest drew his scientific attention to the flow-driven efficiency of valveless pumps. Read More

    Dry-field maneuver for controlling the massive intraventricular bleeding during neuroendoscopic procedures.
    Childs Nerv Syst 2017 Nov 9. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Ege University, Izmir, Barnova, Turkey.
    Purpose: Massive hemorrhages pose a significant problem in intraventricular endoscopic surgeries. These hemorrhages have the potential to cause mortality and morbidity, particularly in excisional surgeries. Often, the bleeding can be controlled only by cauterization and liquid irrigation, due to the incongruity of the use of antihemorrhagic agents in the fluid. Read More

    Surgical management of craniosynostosis in the setting of a ventricular shunt: a case series and treatment algorithm.
    Childs Nerv Syst 2017 Nov 6. Epub 2017 Nov 6.
    Department of Neurosurgery, Arkansas Children's Hospital, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, USA.
    Purpose: Cerebrospinal fluid diversion via ventricular shunt is a common treatment for hydrocephalus. Change in cranial morphology associated with a sutural fusion has been termed shunt-related or induced craniosynostosis (SRC) or craniocerebral disproportion (CCD). We present a series of patients with SRC who underwent cranial vault remodeling (CVR) and our treatment algorithm. Read More

    Zika virus infection in children: epidemiology and clinical manifestations.
    Childs Nerv Syst 2017 Nov 6. Epub 2017 Nov 6.
    Pediatric Infectious Diseases Unit, National Institute of Women, Children and Adolescents Health Fernandes Figueira (IFF)/Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (FIOCRUZ), Av. Rui Barbosa 716, Rio de Janeiro, 22250-020, Brazil.
    Purpose: The purpose of this review is to comprehensively review Congenital Zika Syndrome in regard to their epidemiology and clinical manifestations.

    Methods: This subject review of congenital Zika syndrome was composed after conducting a thorough review of the available literature on this topic using PubMed and other primary sources.

    Results: The first epidemic of Zika virus infection in Brazil was followed by an unexpected sharp increase in the incidence of infants born with microcephaly and the description of a new disease, the congenital Zika syndrome. Read More

    Challenges for molecular and serological ZIKV infection confirmation.
    Childs Nerv Syst 2017 Nov 6. Epub 2017 Nov 6.
    Fernandes Figueira Institute, Fiocruz, Avenida Rui Barbosa 716, Flamengo, Rio de Janeiro, 22250-020, Brazil.
    Background: Zika Virus (ZIKV), member of Flaviviridae family and Flavivirus genus, has recently emerged as international public health emergency after its association with neonatal microcephaly cases. Clinical diagnosis hindrance involves symptom similarities produced by other arbovirus infections, therefore laboratory confirmation is of paramount importance.

    Discussion: The most reliable test available is based on ZIKV RNA detection from body fluid samples. Read More

    Visual outcome after endoscopic third ventriculostomy for hydrocephalus.
    Childs Nerv Syst 2017 Nov 3. Epub 2017 Nov 3.
    Department of Neurosurgery, Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital & Medical School, 322, Seoyang-ro, Hwasun-eup, Hwasun-gun, Jeollanam-do, 519-763, Republic of Korea.
    Purpose: Hydrocephalus-related symptoms are mostly improved after successful endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV). However, visual symptoms can be different. This study was focused on visual symptoms. Read More

    Retained medullary cord extending to a sacral subcutaneous meningocele.
    Childs Nerv Syst 2017 Nov 3. Epub 2017 Nov 3.
    Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.
    Background: A retained medullary cord (RMC) is a rare closed spinal dysraphism with a robust elongated neural structure continuous from the conus and extending to the dural cul-de-sac. One case extending down to the base of a subcutaneous meningocele at the sacral level has been reported.

    Clinical Presentation: We report on three cases of closed spinal dysraphism, in which a spinal cord-like tethering structure extended out from the dural cul-de-sac and terminated at a skin-covered meningocele sac in the sacrococcygeal region, which was well delineated in curvilinear coronal reconstructed images of 3D-heavily T2-weighted images (3D-hT2WI). Read More

    The congenital Zika virus infection: still a puzzle.
    Childs Nerv Syst 2017 Nov 3. Epub 2017 Nov 3.
    Fernandes Figueira Institute, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (IFF-Fiocruz), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Background: As a new disease, some features of the congenital Zika virus infection are not yet fully understood. The current Brazilian outbreak brought up an unexpected increase in the number of microcephaly cases as this strain is essentially neurotropic and associated with devastating effects on the developing central nervous system.

    Object: This focus session aims to discuss the several issues related to the epidemiology, diagnosis, clinical features, and treatment of the congenital Zika virus infection. Read More

    Thirty-day outcomes in pediatric epilepsy surgery.
    Childs Nerv Syst 2017 Oct 30. Epub 2017 Oct 30.
    Division of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Texas Children's Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Baylor College of Medicine, 6701 Fannin St., Ste. 1230, Houston, TX, 77030, USA.
    Purpose: The aim of this study was to use the multicenter American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program-Pediatric (NSQIP-P) to evaluate and identify risk factors for 30-day adverse events in children undergoing epilepsy surgery.

    Methods: Using the 2015 NSQIP-P database, we identified children (age 0-18 years) undergoing pediatric epilepsy surgery and analyzed NSQIP-defined complications, unplanned reoperations, and unplanned readmissions. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed using perioperative data to identify risk factors for adverse events within 30 days of the index procedure. Read More

    A primary extradural malignant rhabdoid tumor at the craniovertebral junction in a 3-year-old boy.
    Childs Nerv Syst 2017 Oct 30. Epub 2017 Oct 30.
    Department of Neurosurgery, Yamaguchi University School of Medicine, 1-1-1, Minamikogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi, 755-8505, Japan.
    Introduction: Malignant rhabdoid tumor (MRT) is a highly aggressive childhood neoplasm and mainly presents in kidney and brain. We report the case of a patient with extrarenal extracranial MRT in the craniovertebral junction (CVJ).

    Case Report: A 3-year-old boy presented with tetraparesis that had rapidly developed for 2 weeks. Read More

    Hydrocephalus associated to congenital Zika syndrome: does shunting improve clinical features?
    Childs Nerv Syst 2017 Oct 30. Epub 2017 Oct 30.
    Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil.
    Purpose: Congenital Zika syndrome (CZS) is a new entity with little information about its course and natural history. It is known that prenatal infection by Zika virus is associated to disrupted nervous system development, leading to typical neurological disabilities and deformities. Some children present progressive ventriculomegaly and hydrocephalus associated to aggravation of seizures and neurological impairment. Read More

    Peritoneal catheter knot formation in ventriculoperitoneal shunting: an intraoperative artificial phenomenon?
    Childs Nerv Syst 2017 Oct 31. Epub 2017 Oct 31.
    Department of Neurological Surgery, National Hospital Organization Okayama Medical Center, Tamasu 1711-1, Kita-ku, Okayama, 701-1192, Japan.
    Background: Peritoneal catheter knot formation is a rare complication associated with ventriculoperitoneal shunting. In most reports, the knot formation was also considered to be the cause of shunt malfunction.

    Discussion: In this study, we demonstrate the possible misinterpretation of peritoneal catheter knot formation in ventriculoperitoneal shunting. Read More

    Craniotomy bone flap fixation: revisiting the use of bone struts.
    Childs Nerv Syst 2017 Oct 31. Epub 2017 Oct 31.
    Division of Neurosurgery, BC Children's Hospital and University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
    Introduction: Bone flap fixation after craniotomy is a standard part of neurosurgical practice. Several techniques and devices exist, though no ideal strategy has been identified. The key aims are to prevent infection and to achieve adequate cosmesis and bony fusion whilst also minimising costs and complications. Read More

    Occult spinal dysraphisms in newborns with skin markers: role of ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging.
    Childs Nerv Syst 2017 Oct 27. Epub 2017 Oct 27.
    Spina Bifida Center, Women's and Infant Health Sciences, A. Gemelli Policlinic, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Largo A. Gemelli 8, 00168, Rome, Italy.
    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate occult spinal dysraphisms (OSD) using lumbar ultrasonography (LUS) in newborns presenting with specific skin markers or sacrococcygeal dimple.

    Method: From 2012 to 2015, we performed LUS in newborns with cutaneous stigmata and/or sacroccygeal dimple. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed in all patients with abnormal ultrasound or features of neurological involvement in order to detect spinal lesions. Read More

    Non-surgical transient cerebellar mutism-case report and systematic review.
    Childs Nerv Syst 2017 Oct 24. Epub 2017 Oct 24.
    Department of Surgery, Vancouver General Hospital and University of British Columbia, 899 West 12th Avenue, Vancouver, BC, V5Z 1M9, Canada.
    Introduction: Transient cerebellar mutism has been well recognized in literature as a complication of posterior fossa tumor resection. It is marked by profound impairment of fluency, articulation, and modulation of speech, irritability and autistic features and typically resolves within days to months. Underlying pathophysiology is debated, but currently unknown. Read More

    Length of synostosis and segmented intracranial volume correlate with age in patients with non-syndromic sagittal synostosis.
    Childs Nerv Syst 2017 Oct 24. Epub 2017 Oct 24.
    Helsinki Medical Imaging Center, Department of Radiology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.
    Purpose: The aim of this study is to compare the length of synostosis and segmented intracranial volume (SIV) with age in children with non-syndromic sagittal synostosis.

    Methods: Thirty-three consecutive patients (22 boys) who had been operated by cranial vault remodeling because of sagittal synostosis were compared retrospectively from 3D-CT imaging data sets obtained from volumetric CT. The mean age of the patients at preoperative CT imaging was 0. Read More

    Multimaterial 3D printing preoperative planning for frontoethmoidal meningoencephalocele surgery.
    Childs Nerv Syst 2017 Oct 24. Epub 2017 Oct 24.
    Department of Plastic Surgery, Santa Marcelina Hospital, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Introduction: Surgical correction of frontoethmoidal meningoencephalocele, although rare, is still challenging to neurosurgeons and plastic reconstructive surgeons. It is fundamental to establish reliable and safe surgical techniques. The twenty-first century has brought great advances in medical technology, and the 3D models can mimic the correct tridimensional anatomical relation of a tissue organ or body part. Read More

    Clinical features, radiologic findings, and treatment of pediatric germ cell tumors involving the basal ganglia and thalamus: a retrospective series of 15 cases at a single center.
    Childs Nerv Syst 2017 Oct 24. Epub 2017 Oct 24.
    Department of Neurosurgery, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, No. 37, Guoxue Alley, Chengdu, 610041, People's Republic of China.
    Purpose: Pediatric germ cell tumors (GCTs) involving the basal ganglia and thalamus are relatively rare neoplasms which have not been extensively described. We here summarize the clinical and radiological features of a series of such tumors and discuss optimal treatment strategies based upon our experience.

    Methods: A total of 15 pediatric patients with basal ganglionic and thalamic GCTs were treated between 2011 and 2016 at West China Hospital. Read More

    A multidisciplinary approach for the treatment of young patients with suprasellar osteochondroma.
    Childs Nerv Syst 2017 Oct 24. Epub 2017 Oct 24.
    Department of Radiology, Soroka University Medical Center, Rager Boulevard, PO Box 151, Beer Sheva, Israel.
    Background: Osteochondroma is the most common benign bone tumor; intracranial osteochondroma is a very rare finding in the neurosurgical literature and most of them arise from the skull base.

    Case Report: We report a case of suprasellar ostheocondroma in a 16-year-old female, with its CT and MRI appearances, which caused visual deficits, resolved after surgery.

    Discussion: To our knowledge, this is the fifth case of osteochondroma affecting the suprasellar region that has been reported, with all the characteristic features of this tumor: optic chiasmal syndrome, intralesional calcifications, cartilage cap, and contrast enhancement. Read More

    Monitoring intraventricular vancomycin for ventriculostomy access device infection in preterm infants.
    Childs Nerv Syst 2017 Oct 24. Epub 2017 Oct 24.
    Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Southmead Hospital, Bristol, BS10 5NB, UK.
    Purpose: Ventriculitis is a known complication during external CSF drainage in preterm infants with posthaemorrhagic ventricular dilatation. Staphylococci are most frequently isolated in device-associated ventriculitis, and hence, intraventricular vancomycin is a commonly used therapy. Our aim was to study the CSF vancomycin level pattern and drug safety in ventriculostomy access device infection in preterm infants less than 28 weeks gestation. Read More

    Prognosis of surgical treatment of the tethered cord syndrome in children.
    Childs Nerv Syst 2017 Oct 24. Epub 2017 Oct 24.
    Almazov National Medical Research Centre, Akkuratova str. 2, St. Petersburg, Russian Federation.
    Purpose: The aim of this study was to identify the factors relevant to the prognosis of the outcome of the surgical treatment of the tethered cord syndrome (TCS).

    Methods: The results of surgical treatment performed on 58 children with TCS were analyzed, with follow-up periods ranging from 6 months to 5 years. The data of preoperative clinical and instrumental examinations, as well as those of intraoperative electrophysiological diagnostics and morphometry, were compared with the dynamics of the TCS clinical presentation. Read More

    Significance of H3K27M mutation with specific histomorphological features and associated molecular alterations in pediatric high-grade glial tumors.
    Childs Nerv Syst 2017 Oct 24. Epub 2017 Oct 24.
    Department of Pathology, Cerrahpasa Faculty, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Purpose: Pediatric high-grade gliomas (pHGGs) constitute almost 15% of all childhood brain tumors. Recurrent mutations such as H3K27M mutation in H3F3A and HIST1H3B genes encoding histone H3 and its variants were identified in approximately 30% of pediatric glioblastomas. This study aimed to ascertain the morphological and molecular characteristics of pHGGs with H3K27M mutation. Read More

    Congenital absence of the bilateral internal carotid artery: a review of the associated (ab)normalities from a newborn status to the eighth decade of life.
    Childs Nerv Syst 2017 Oct 23. Epub 2017 Oct 23.
    Department of Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Niš, 81 Blvd. Dr. Zoran Djindjić, Niš, 18000, Serbia.
    Purpose: Due to the fact that the internal carotid artery (ICA) is responsible for nourishing two thirds of the brain volume, our aim was to inspect the morphofunctional consequences of the bilateral lack of this artery.

    Methods: In order to examine this condition, we referred to both the library archive of our Faculty of Medicine and electronic databases of anatomical and clinical reports that included the following keywords: "absence," "aplasia," or "agenesis" in combination with "internal carotid artery," "common carotid artery," or only "carotid artery."

    Result: We found 60 recorded cases of the bilateral ICA absence in the subjects of newborn status to the eighth decade of life, which had been discovered in 20 countries. Read More

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