9,017 results match your criteria Chickenpox


Safety Profile of the Adjuvanted Recombinant Zoster Vaccine in Immunocompromised Populations: An Overview of Six Trials.

Drug Saf 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

GSK, Avenue Fleming 20, 1300, Wavre, Belgium.

Introduction: The adjuvanted recombinant zoster vaccine (RZV) has demonstrated high efficacy against herpes zoster in older adults and immunocompromised populations. We present comprehensive safety data from six clinical trials in immunocompromised populations (autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant and renal transplant recipients, patients with hematologic malignancies, patients with solid tumors, and human immunodeficiency virus-infected adults) who are at an increased risk of herpes zoster.

Methods: In all trials, immunocompromised adults ≥ 18 years of age were administered RZV or placebo. Read More

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Sudden deafness as an initial presentation of varicella: case report and literature review.

Ann Palliat Med 2021 May;10(5):5891-5896

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Shanghai University (Wenzhou Central Hospital), Wenzhou, China.

Varicella, or chickenpox, is a highly contagious disease transmitted by the varicella zoster virus (VZV). Idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSNHL) has been defined as a loss of at least 30 dB over at least three frequencies on audiogram within three days and with an uncertain cause. Deafness caused by varicella-zoster virus occasionally occurred in Ramsey hunter syndrome but associated with chickenpox is rare. Read More

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Rickettsialpox or chickenpox?

Authors:
Mana Rao

IDCases 2021 14;25:e01138. Epub 2021 May 14.

Essen Medical Associates, 2015 Grand Concourse, Bronx, NY 10453, USA.

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Assessment of Genetical, Pre, Peri and Post Natal Risk Factors of Deciduous Molar Hypomineralization (DMH), Hypomineralized Second Primary Molar (HSPM) and Molar Incisor Hypomineralization (MIH): A Narrative Review.

Children (Basel) 2021 May 21;8(6). Epub 2021 May 21.

Unit of Orthodontics and Pediatric Dentistry, Section of Dentistry, Department of Clinical, Surgical, Diagnostic and Pediatric Sciences, University of Pavia, 27100 Pavia, Italy.

Objectives: Analyze defects in the state of maturation of the enamel result in an adequate volume of enamel, but in an insufficient mineralization, which can affect both deciduous teeth and permanent teeth. Among the most common defects, we recognize Deciduous Molar Hypominerlization (DMH), Hypomineralized Second Primary Molar (HSPM), and Molar Incisor Hypomineralization (MIH). These, in fact, affect the first deciduous molars, the second deciduous molars and molars, and permanent incisors, respectively, but their etiology remains unclear. Read More

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Varicella-Zoster Meningitis in an Immunocompetent Male without Fever or Rash.

Case Rep Infect Dis 2021 6;2021:9940393. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Cleveland Clinic Abu Dhabi, Abu Dhabi, UAE.

Varicella-Zoster virus (VZV) is a human herpesvirus that primarily causes chickenpox and can reactivate later in life. Chickenpox occurs mostly in children and is characterized by a typical generalized vesicular rash. Following the primary infection, VZV can remain latent and can reactivate decades later to produce Zoster, being more common in the elderly as well as immunosuppressed individuals. Read More

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Long -term persistence of antibodies against varicella in fully immunized healthcare workers: an Italian retrospective cohort study.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 May 25;21(1):475. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Biomedical Science and Human Oncology, Aldo Moro University of Bari, Piazza Giulio Cesare 11, 70124, Bari, Italy.

Background: Chickenpox is a highly contagious disease caused by the varicella zoster virus (VZV), and in infants, adolescents, adults, pregnant women, and the immunocompromised it can be serious. The best way to prevent chickenpox is immunization with the varicella vaccine. Protective levels of antibodies induced by the varicella vaccine decline over time, but there is currently no formal recommendation for testing anti-varicella zoster virus (VZV) IgG levels in immunized healthcare workers (HCWs). Read More

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Reactance revisited: Consequences of mandatory and scarce vaccination in the case of COVID-19.

Appl Psychol Health Well Being 2021 May 25. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Psychology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Psychological reactance theory assumes that the restriction of valued behaviors elicits anger and negative cognitions, motivating actions to regain the limited freedom. Two studies investigated the effects of two possible restrictions affecting COVID-19 vaccination: the limitation of non-vaccination by mandates and the limitation of vaccination by scarce vaccine supply. In the first study, we compared reactance about mandatory and scarce vaccination scenarios and the moderating effect of vaccination intentions, employing a German quota-representative sample (N = 973). Read More

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Knowledge and attitude about cervical cancer and human papillomavirus vaccine among medical and paramedical students of a university.

J Family Med Prim Care 2021 Jan 30;10(1):462-467. Epub 2021 Jan 30.

Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad, Gujarat, India.

Background: Every year, globally 570,000 women are diagnosed with cervical cancer, out of which around 311,000 die. India contributes to about 132,000 new cases and 74,000 deaths yearly. One of the major risk factors for cervical cancer is infection with some types of human papillomavirus (HPV). Read More

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January 2021

Burden of Herpes Zoster in Adult Patients with Underlying Conditions: Analysis of German Claims Data, 2007-2018.

Dermatol Ther (Heidelb) 2021 Jun 6;11(3):1009-1026. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department for Health Economics and Health Care Management, Bielefeld University, Universitätsstrasse 25, 33615, Bielefeld, Germany.

Introduction: Several chronic underlying conditions (UCs) are known to be risk factors for developing herpes zoster (HZ) and to increase the severity of HZ and its risk of recurrence. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence and recurrence of HZ in adult patients with one or multiple UCs.

Methods: A retrospective cohort study based on claims data representing 13% of the statutory health insurance population from 2007 to 2018 in Germany was performed. Read More

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Ein sonnenliebendes Varizella-Zoster-Virus.

MMW Fortschr Med 2021 04;163(8):28

Facharzt für Innere Medizin, München, Deutschland.

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Evaluation of varicella vaccine effectiveness during outbreaks in schools or nurseries by cross-sectional study.

Vaccine 2021 05 22;39(21):2901-2905. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Pediatrics, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Toyoake, Aichi 470-1192, Japan.

Objective: The aim of this study was to elucidate vaccine effectiveness (VE) during varicella outbreaks in schools and nurseries in Japan.

Methods: An outbreak was defined as emergence of three or more cases of varicella within 21 days at the same institute. Clinical information such as varicella vaccination status, and history of varicella was collected. Read More

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Primary varicella-zoster virus infection of the immunocompromised associated with acute pancreatitis and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis: A case report.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Apr;100(16):e25351

CH René Pleven, Department of Internal Medicine, Dinan.

Rationale: Primary varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection may be associated with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), as well as with acute pancreatitis. However, there is few data concerning the evolution and the optimal treatment of these rare associations.

Patient Concerns: A 57-year-old immunocompromised woman, who was treated for chronic lymphocytic leukemia 3 years prior to admission, was hospitalized with abdominal pain revealing severe acute pancreatitis. Read More

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Ten-year follow-up on efficacy, immunogenicity and safety of two doses of a combined measles-mumps-rubella-varicella vaccine or one dose of monovalent varicella vaccine: Results from five East European countries.

Vaccine 2021 05 12;39(19):2643-2651. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

GSK, Wavre, Belgium. Electronic address:

Background: We assessed the 10-year efficacy, immunogenicity and safety of two doses of a combined measles-mumps-rubella-varicella vaccine (MMRV) or one dose of a monovalent varicella vaccine (V) in children from Czech Republic, Lithuania, Poland, Romania and Slovakia.

Methods: This was a phase IIIB follow-up of an observer-blind, randomized, controlled trial (NCT00226499). In phase A, healthy children aged 12-22 months from 10 European countries were randomized in a 3:3:1 ratio to receive two doses of MMRV (MMRV group), one dose of MMR followed by one dose of V (MMR + V group), or two doses of MMR (MMR; control group), 42 days apart. Read More

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The impact of two-dose varicella vaccination on varicella and herpes zoster incidence in South Korea using a mathematical model with changing population demographics.

Vaccine 2021 04 1;39(18):2575-2583. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Background: In South Korea, one-dose varicella vaccination was introduced to the National Immunization Program in 2005, but varicella outbreaks have continued to occur. Therefore, a two-dose vaccination strategy is considered.

Methods: We developed an age-structured deterministic compartment model using Korean population projection data. Read More

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Inadequate Measles, Mumps, Rubella, and Varicella Immunity Among Employees.

J Prim Care Community Health 2021 Jan-Dec;12:21501327211005902

Crossover Health, San Clemente, CA, USA.

Objectives: The purpose of this cohort study was to evaluate measles, mumps, rubella (MMR), and varicella immunity among a population of adult employees receiving primary care in an employer-sponsored health center.

Methods: Participants were eligible for MMR and varicella immunity screening if they were an employee receiving primary care in an employer-sponsored health center between January 1, 2019 and November 1, 2020 who could not provide proof of immunization and 1) had it recommended by their provider, 2) specifically requested immunity testing (often because they had heard of measles outbreaks in their country of origin), or 3) were seen for an immigration physical for their Green Card application.

Results: Overall, 3494 patients were screened for their MMR immunity. Read More

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Ischemic Cerebellar Stroke in a 4-Year-Old Boy After Chickenpox: An Atypical Vascular Involvement.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2021 Jun 1;30(6):105719. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Child Development Centre, Pediatric Hospital, Centro Hospitalar e Universitário de Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal. Electronic address:

Cerebrovascular events in pediatric population are very rare. Up to 30% may result from varicella zoster (VZV) arteriopathy, usually as a delayed complication of varicella primary infection. The most typical pattern includes involvement of anterior brain circulation arteries, probably by VZV migration from the trigeminal ganglia. Read More

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Is breakthrough chickenpox caused by different genotypes of Varicella zoster virus?

Pediatr Int 2021 Apr 3;63(4):478-480. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Department of Dermatology, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan.

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Immunogenicity of Varicella-Zoster Virus Glycoprotein E Formulated with Lipid Nanoparticles and Nucleic Immunostimulators in Mice.

Vaccines (Basel) 2021 Mar 25;9(4). Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Kunming 650118, China.

Theoretically, the subunit herpes zoster vaccine Shingrix could be used as a varicella vaccine that avoids the risk of developing shingles from vaccination, but bedside mixing strategies and the limited supply of the adjuvant component QS21 have made its application economically impracticable. With lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) that were approved by the FDA as vectors for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 vaccines, we designed a series of vaccines efficiently encapsulated with varicella-zoster virus glycoprotein E (VZV-gE) and nucleic acids including polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (Poly I:C) and the natural phosphodiester CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG ODN), which was approved by the FDA as an immunostimulator in a hepatitis B vaccine. Preclinical trial in mice showed that these LNP vaccines could induce VZV-gE IgG titers more than 16 times those induced by an alum adjuvant, and immunized serum could block in vitro infection completely at a dilution of 1:80, which indicated potential as a varicella vaccine. Read More

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Varicella-Zoster Virus Infection of Neurons Derived from Neural Stem Cells.

Viruses 2021 03 15;13(3). Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Aarhus University Hospital, 8000 Aarhus, Denmark.

Varicella-Zoster virus (VZV) is a human herpesvirus that causes varicella (chickenpox) as a primary infection, and, following a variable period of ganglionic latency in neurons, it reactivates to cause herpes zoster (shingles). An analysis of VZV infection in cultures of neural cells, in particular when these have been obtained from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) or neural stem cells consisting of highly purified neuronal cultures, has revealed much data that may be of neurobiological significance. Early studies of VZV infection of mature cultured neural cells were mainly descriptive, but more recent studies in homogeneous neural stem cell cultures have used both neuronal cell markers and advanced molecular technology. Read More

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Serum Concentration of Antibodies to Mumps, but Not Measles, Rubella, or Varicella, Is Associated with Intake of Dietary Fiber in the NHANES, 1999-2004.

Nutrients 2021 Mar 2;13(3). Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Ramboll U.S. Consulting, Inc., 3214 Charles B. Root Wynd, Suite 130, Raleigh, NC 27612, USA.

Treatment with prebiotics, a type of dietary fiber, was recently shown to increase antibody concentrations following influenza vaccination in a meta-analysis of clinical trials. In observational epidemiologic studies it is not possible to estimate intake of prebiotics, but quantifying intake of dietary fiber is routine. Our objective was to investigate the potential effect of dietary fiber on immunogenicity. Read More

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Antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of Mahanintangtong and its constituent herbs, a formula used in Thai traditional medicine for treating pharyngitis.

BMC Complement Med Ther 2021 Mar 30;21(1):105. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Faculty of Public Health, Thammasat University, Pathum Thani, 12120, Thailand.

Background: Mahanintangtong is listed in the Thailand's National List of Essential Medicines (NLEM). It is used to treat non-specific fevers and illnesses such as pharyngitis and chickenpox. In this study, we investigated the biological activities of the different medicinal plants used in the Mahanintangtong formula. Read More

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Photodistributed chickenpox in a 3-year-old boy.

CMAJ 2021 Mar;193(12):E425

Department of Dermatology, Centre hospitalier régional universitaire (CHRU) de Besançon, Besançon, France.

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Correlation of protection against varicella in a randomized Phase III varicella-containing vaccine efficacy trial in healthy infants.

Vaccine 2021 Jun 16;39(25):3445-3454. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

GSK, Avenue Fleming 20, 1300 Wavre, Belgium. Electronic address:

Background: Varicella vaccination confers high and long-lasting protection against chickenpox and induces robust immune responses, but an absolute correlate of protection (CoP) against varicella has not been established. This study models the relationship between varicella humoral response and protection against varicella.

Methods: This was a post-hoc analysis of data from a Phase IIIb, multicenter, randomized trial (NCT00226499) conducted in ten varicella-endemic European countries. Read More

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Close contact infection dynamics over time: insights from a second large-scale social contact survey in Flanders, Belgium, in 2010-2011.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Mar 18;21(1):274. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

I-Biostat, Data Science Institute, Hasselt University, Martelarenlaan 42, Hasselt, 3500, Belgium.

Background: In 2010-2011, we conducted a social contact survey in Flanders, Belgium, aimed at improving and extending the design of the first social contact survey conducted in Belgium in 2006. This second social contact survey aimed to enable, for the first time, the estimation of social mixing patterns for an age range of 0 to 99 years and the investigation of whether contact rates remain stable over this 5-year time period.

Methods: Different data mining techniques are used to explore the data, and the age-specific number of social contacts and the age-specific contact rates are modelled using a generalized additive models for location, scale and shape (GAMLSS) model. Read More

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Exploring the seasonal drivers of varicella zoster transmission and reactivation.

Am J Epidemiol 2021 Mar 18. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY, 10025, USA.

Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is a herpesvirus that causes chickenpox and shingles. The biological mechanisms underpinning the multi-decadal latency of VZV in the body and subsequent viral reactivation-which occurs in approximately 30% of individuals-are largely unknown. Because chickenpox and shingles are endemic worldwide, understanding the relationship between VZV transmission and reactivation is important for informing disease treatment and control. Read More

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Chronic Headache and Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis Due to Varicella Zoster Virus Infection: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

Am J Case Rep 2021 Mar 17;22:e927699. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Department of Medicine, Hamad General Hospital, Doha, Qatar.

BACKGROUND Varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection causes 2 clinically distinct forms of the disease: varicella (chickenpox) and herpes zoster (shingles). Primary VZV infection results in the diffuse vesicular rash of varicella, or chickenpox. Endogenous reactivation of latent VZV typically results in a localized skin infection known as herpes zoster, or shingles. Read More

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Children hospitalised with four common viral diseases showed epidemiological differences but few socio-economic variations.

Acta Paediatr 2021 Mar 13. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.

Aim: This study explored the differences in demographic and socio-economic factors between children hospitalised due to four common viral infections.

Methods: Demographic data were obtained from Statistics Sweden on >3000 children admitted to Astrid Lindgren Children's Hospital in 2009-2014 with rotavirus, influenza, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) or chickenpox. We compared demographic and socio-economic factors between case groups using logistic regression with rotavirus cases as reference. Read More

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Advances and Perspectives in the Management of Varicella-Zoster Virus Infections.

Molecules 2021 Feb 20;26(4). Epub 2021 Feb 20.

Laboratory of Virology and Chemotherapy, Rega Institute for Medical Research, KU Leuven, 3000 Leuven, Belgium.

Varicella-zoster virus (VZV), a common and ubiquitous human-restricted pathogen, causes a primary infection (varicella or chickenpox) followed by establishment of latency in sensory ganglia. The virus can reactivate, causing herpes zoster (HZ, shingles) and leading to significant morbidity but rarely mortality, although in immunocompromised hosts, VZV can cause severe disseminated and occasionally fatal disease. We discuss VZV diseases and the decrease in their incidence due to the introduction of live-attenuated vaccines to prevent varicella or HZ. Read More

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February 2021

New Approach to the Surveillance of Pediatric Infectious Diseases From Ambulatory Pediatricians in the Digital Era.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2021 Jul;40(7):674-680

From the AFPA, Association Française de Pédiatrie Ambulatoire, Orléans, France.

Background: Many ambulatory networks in several countries have established syndromic surveillance systems to detect outbreaks of different illnesses. Here, we describe a new Pediatric and Ambulatory Research in Infectious diseases network that combined automated data extraction from the computers of primary care pediatricians.

Methods: Pediatricians who used the same software, AxiSanté 5-Infansoft for electronic medical records were specially trained in infectious diseases, encouraged to comply with French treatments' recommendations, use of point-of-care tests and vaccination guidelines. Read More

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