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    An outbreak of chickenpox in an asylum seeker centre in Italy: outbreak investigation and validity of reported chickenpox history, December 2015-May 2016.
    Euro Surveill 2017 Nov;22(46)
    The members of the Outbreak Investigation Group are listed at the end of the article.
    An outbreak of chickenpox occurred between December 2015 and May 2016 among asylum seekers in a reception centre in Latium, Italy. We describe the epidemiological and laboratory investigations, control measures and validity of reported history of chickenpox infection. Serological screening of all residents and incoming asylum seekers was performed, followed by vaccine offer to all susceptible individuals without contraindication. Read More

    A Unique Case of Acute Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis Secondary to Primary Varicella Zoster Virus Infection.
    Cureus 2017 Sep 16;9(9):e1693. Epub 2017 Sep 16.
    Medicine, Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Primary varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection, predominantly in the pediatric population, presents with pyrexia and a classic pruritic vesicular rash. In adults, although less common, it is more severe and linked to more complications. Neurological complications, which account for less than 1% of all VZV complications, include meningitis, encephalitis, arterial vasculopathy, and venous thrombosis. Read More

    Varicella zoster virus-associated morbidity and mortality in Africa - a systematic review.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Nov 14;17(1):717. Epub 2017 Nov 14.
    Vaccines for Africa Initiative, Division of Medical Microbiology & Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Background: Varicella zoster virus (VZV) causes varicella and herpes zoster. These vaccine preventable diseases are common globally. Most available data on VZV epidemiology are from industrialised temperate countries and cannot be used to guide decisions on the immunization policy against VZV in Africa. Read More

    Varicella-zoster virus ORF7 interacts with ORF53 and plays a role in its trans-Golgi network localization.
    Virol Sin 2017 Oct 30;32(5):387-395. Epub 2017 Oct 30.
    State Key Laboratory of Molecular Vaccinology and Molecular Diagnostics, National Institute of Diagnostics and Vaccine Development in Infectious Diseases, School of Public Health, Xiamen University, Xiamen, 361102, China.
    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a neurotropic alphaherpesvirus that causes chickenpox and shingles. ORF7 is an important virulence determinant of VZV in both human skin and nerve tissues, however, its specific function and involved molecular mechanism in VZV pathogenesis remain largely elusive. Previous yeast two-hybrid studies on intraviral protein-protein interaction network in herpesviruses have revealed that VZV ORF7 may interact with ORF53, which is a virtually unstudied but essential viral protein. Read More

    How to hold an ethical pox party.
    J Med Ethics 2017 Oct 25. Epub 2017 Oct 25.
    Monash Bioethics Centre, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia.
    Pox parties are a controversial alternative to vaccination for diseases such as chickenpox. Such parties involve parents infecting non-immune children by exposing them to a contagious child. If successful, infection will usually lead to immunity, thus preventing infection later in life, which, for several vaccine-preventable diseases, is more severe than childhood infection. Read More

    Investigation of an outbreak of varicella in Chandigarh, North India, using a real-time polymerase chain reaction approach.
    Indian J Med Microbiol 2017 Jul-Sep;35(3):417-420
    Department of Virology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.
    Outbreaks of varicella are reported when susceptible population accumulates. This study reports a chickenpox outbreak in Burail in August 2014, wherein 20 laboratory-confirmed cases were identified by the detection of varicella zoster virus (VZV) DNA and VZV IgM antibodies. The viral load between vesicular swabs and serum samples from 8 patients with active lesions was found to have good correlation and further also related with disease severity. Read More

    Human embryonic stem cell derived neurons are highly permissive for varicella-zoster virus lytic infection.
    J Virol 2017 Oct 18. Epub 2017 Oct 18.
    Medical Virology Section, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD
    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is highly cell-associated when grown in culture and has a much higher (4,000 to 20,000-fold increased) particle-to-plaque forming unit (PFU) ratio in vitro than herpes simplex virus (HSV). In contrast, VZV is highly infectious in vivo by airborne transmission. Neurons are major targets for VZV in vivo, in which the virus can establish latency and reactivate to produce infectious virus. Read More

    Vaccination Coverage for Selected Vaccines, Exemption Rates, and Provisional Enrollment Among Children in Kindergarten - United States, 2016-17 School Year.
    MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2017 Oct 13;66(40):1073-1080. Epub 2017 Oct 13.
    State and local school vaccination requirements help protect students and communities against vaccine-preventable diseases (1). CDC reports vaccination coverage and exemption data for children attending kindergarten (kindergartners) collected by federally funded immunization programs in the United States.* The typical age range for kindergartners is 4-6 years. Read More

    Varicella infection in a non-universally vaccinated population: Actual epidemiology in Bulgaria (2013-2015).
    J Infect Public Health 2017 Oct 7. Epub 2017 Oct 7.
    Department of Preclinical and Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University of Varna, 3, Bregalniza Str., 9002 Varna, Bulgaria. Electronic address:
    Background: Varicella is a common and usually mild disease but it has great importance in regard to general infectious morbidity. The current study aimed to characterize possible risk factors of varicella epidemiology in Bulgaria, a country where infection follows its natural epidemiological pattern as no mandatory or recommended vaccine is currently applied.

    Methods: Administrative regions of Bulgaria were used as units of observation and a set of sociodemographic and economic determinants, as well as geographic location (south or north) were tested for associations with the mean 3-year varicella incidence rates (2013-2015). Read More

    Genome-wide association and HLA region fine-mapping studies identify susceptibility loci for multiple common infections.
    Nat Commun 2017 Sep 19;8(1):599. Epub 2017 Sep 19.
    23andMe, Mountain View, CA, 94041, USA.
    Infectious diseases have a profound impact on our health and many studies suggest that host genetics play a major role in the pathogenesis of most of them. We perform 23 genome-wide association studies for common infections and infection-associated procedures, including chickenpox, shingles, cold sores, mononucleosis, mumps, hepatitis B, plantar warts, positive tuberculosis test results, strep throat, scarlet fever, pneumonia, bacterial meningitis, yeast infections, urinary tract infections, tonsillectomy, childhood ear infections, myringotomy, measles, hepatitis A, rheumatic fever, common colds, rubella and chronic sinus infection, in over 200,000 individuals of European ancestry. We detect 59 genome-wide significant (P < 5 × 10(-8)) associations in genes with key roles in immunity and embryonic development. Read More

    Exposure rate of VZV among women attending antenatal care clinic in Sri Lanka - a cross sectional study.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Sep 16;17(1):625. Epub 2017 Sep 16.
    Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka.
    Background: Varicella or chickenpox was not a notifiable disease until 2005 in Sri Lanka and only a few studies have been conducted on the epidemiology of VZV infection in the country. The anti-VZV IgG sero-prevalence among antenatal women is extremely limited and thus a selected group of antenatal clinic attendees were chosen to determine the exposure rate to VZV infection.

    Methods: Women attending the antenatal clinic at Teaching Hospital, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka were selected for the study and 3 mL of venous blood was collected from 181 participants and the demographic data was obtained through a pre-tested questionnaire. Read More

    Outer nuclear membrane fusion of adjacent nuclei in varicella-zoster virus-induced syncytia.
    Virology 2017 Dec 11;512:34-38. Epub 2017 Sep 11.
    Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers University, 225 Warren Street, Newark, NJ 070101, USA. Electronic address:
    Syncytia formation has been considered important for cell-to-cell spread and pathogenesis of many viruses. As a syncytium forms, individual nuclei often congregate together, allowing close contact of nuclear membranes and possibly fusion to occur. However, there is currently no reported evidence of nuclear membrane fusion between adjacent nuclei in wild-type virus-induced syncytia. Read More

    Appendicitis Caused by Primary Varicella Zoster Virus Infection in a Child with DiGeorge Syndrome.
    Case Rep Pediatr 2017 16;2017:6708046. Epub 2017 Aug 16.
    Department of Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Blegdamsvej 9, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Introduction: Chickenpox is caused by varicella zoster virus (VZV). Although predominantly a mild disease, it can cause considerable morbidity and in rare occasions even mortality in healthy children as well as increased morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. The aetiology of appendicitis is largely unknown but is thought to be multifactorial. Read More

    Prevalence of a history of prior varicella/herpes zoster infection in multiple sclerosis.
    J Neurovirol 2017 Sep 11. Epub 2017 Sep 11.
    Division of Clinical Neuroscience, Section of Clinical Neurology, University of Nottingham, Nottingham University Hospital NHS Trust, Queen's Medical Centre, C Floor S Block, Nottingham, NG7 2UH, UK.
    Varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection has been implicated in multiple sclerosis (MS), but direct causal involvement has been disputed. Nevertheless, knowledge of VZV exposure is important, given the risk of serious complications of first exposure while undergoing immunosuppressive treatment, in particular with fingolimod. We distributed questionnaires to MS clinic patients, requesting information about history of chickenpox, sibling/household/occupational exposure, history of zoster (shingles), and disease-modifying treatment. Read More

    Prevalence, comorbidities and mortality of toxic shock syndrome in children and adults in the USA.
    Microbiol Immunol 2017 Nov;61(11):463-473
    Departments of Dermatology, Preventive Medicine and Medical Social Sciences, Feinberg School of Medicine at Northwestern University, 676 N Saint Clair, St Suite 1600, Chicago, IL 60611, USA.
    Toxic Shock Syndrome (TSS), a superantigen-mediated illness, is characterized by rash, hypotension and multi-organ dysfunction. Predictors of TSS and related morbidity and mortality are poorly defined. In this study, data on 61,959,084 hospitalizations from the 2003-2012 Nationwide Inpatient Sample, a 20% stratified sample of US hospitalizations, were analyzed and ICD-9-CM coding used to identify 4491 hospitalizations with a diagnosis of TSS. Read More

    Trends in the burden of varicella in UK general practice.
    Epidemiol Infect 2017 Oct 30;145(13):2678-2682. Epub 2017 Aug 30.
    Faculty of Epidemiology & Population Health,London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine,Keppel Street,London WC1E 7HT,UK.
    Childhood varicella vaccination has not yet been introduced in the UK. To inform decision-making about future vaccine programmes, data on the burden of varicella in general practice over a 10-year period (01/01/2005-31/12/2014) was calculated by age and ethnicity, using anonymised data from >8 million individuals in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. Varicella consultations peaked at 20 603 in 2007, then decreased annually in all age groups to 11 243 in 2014. Read More

    National, Regional, State, and Selected Local Area Vaccination Coverage Among Adolescents Aged 13-17 Years - United States, 2016.
    MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2017 Aug 25;66(33):874-882. Epub 2017 Aug 25.
    The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends that adolescents routinely receive tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap), meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY), and human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine (1) at age 11-12 years. ACIP also recommends catch-up vaccination with hepatitis B vaccine, measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine, and varicella vaccine for adolescents who are not up to date with childhood vaccinations. ACIP recommends a booster dose of MenACWY at age 16 years (1). Read More

    Keratitis in association with herpes zoster and varicella vaccines.
    Drugs Today (Barc) 2017 Jul;53(7):393-397
    Department of Ophthalmology, Mason Eye Institute, University of Missouri School of Medicine, Columbia, Missouri, USA.
    The objective of this review was to collect reports of keratitis in association with herpes zoster virus (HZV) or varicella zoster virus (VZV) vaccines. HZV vaccination is intended for at-risk adult populations and VZV vaccination is intended for all pediatric patients. We reviewed the literature and reports of keratitis in association with herpes zoster or varicella vaccine from the National Registry of Drug-Induced Ocular Side Effects and the World Health Organization. Read More

    Low Varicella Zoster Virus Seroprevalence Among Young Children in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 2017 Aug 19. Epub 2017 Aug 19.
    1 Department of Epidemiology, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA; 2 Department of Microbiology, Kinshasa School of Medicine, Kinshasa, DRC; 3 Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, WA 4 McKing Consulting, Expanded Programme on Immunization, Kinshasa, DRC; 5 OpGen, Inc. Gaithersburg, MD; 6 Department of Social and Behavioral Health, School of Rural Public Health, Texas A & M University, College Station, TX; 7 Programme on Immunization, Kinshasa, DRC;8 Kinshasa School of Public Health, Kinshasa, DRC; 9National Institute for Biomedical (INRB), Kinshasa, DRC.
    Background: Varicella zoster virus (VZV) causes both varicella (chickenpox) and herpes zoster (shingles) and is associated with significant global morbidity. Most epidemiological data on VZV come from high-come countries and to date there are limited data on the burden of VZV in Africa.

    Methods: We assessed the seroprevalence of VZV antibodies among children in the Democratic Republic of Congo in collaboration with the 2013-2014 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS). Read More

    A systematic review of varicella seroprevalence in European countries before universal childhood immunization: deriving incidence from seroprevalence data.
    Epidemiol Infect 2017 Oct 22;145(13):2666-2677. Epub 2017 Aug 22.
    Sanofi Pasteur MSD,162 avenue Jean Jaurès, Lyon 69007,France.
    Surveillance systems for varicella in Europe are highly heterogeneous or completely absent. We estimated the varicella incidence based on seroprevalence data, as these data are largely available and not biased by under-reporting or underascertainment. We conducted a systematic literature search for varicella serological data in Europe prior to introduction of universal varicella immunization. Read More

    Presumed autoimmune retinopathy following chickenpox; a case report.
    Int Ophthalmol 2017 Aug 20. Epub 2017 Aug 20.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland, New Zealand.
    Purpose: To report a case of presumed autoimmune retinopathy in a patient who had been diagnosed with chickenpox immediately prior to symptom onset.

    Method: This is a retrospective case report with fundus autofluorescence and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography.

    Results: A 29-year-old immunocompetent man presented with a two-month history of photopsia and a bluish light predominantly in the left eye with onset immediately following a diagnosis of chickenpox. Read More

    Evaluation of Combination Measles-Mumps-Rubella-Varicella Vaccine Introduction in Australia.
    JAMA Pediatr 2017 Oct;171(10):992-998
    National Centre for Immunisation Research and Surveillance, Sydney, Australia.
    Importance: Incorporating combination vaccines, such as the measles-mumps-rubella-varicella (MMRV) vaccine, into immunization schedules should be evaluated from a benefit-risk perspective. Use of MMRV vaccine poses challenges due to a recognized increased risk of febrile seizures (FSs) when used as the first dose in the second year of life. Conversely, completion by age 2 years of measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella immunization may offer improved disease control. Read More

    A national register-based study of paediatric varicella hospitalizations in Denmark 2010-2016.
    Epidemiol Infect 2017 Oct 14;145(13):2683-2693. Epub 2017 Aug 14.
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology,Statens Serum Institut,Copenhagen,Denmark.
    Varicella, usually a mild disease of childhood, can also cause complications and hospitalization. Universal varicella immunization is implemented in several countries worldwide, but not in Denmark. Taking advantage of unique national registers, we aimed to estimate the incidence of paediatric varicella hospitalizations and assess determinants for hospitalization. Read More

    Perceptions of caregivers and providers regarding the potential introduction of the varicella vaccine to the childhood immunisation schedule in New Zealand: A qualitative exploratory study.
    J Paediatr Child Health 2017 Aug 9. Epub 2017 Aug 9.
    Department of General Practice and Primary Health Care, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.
    Aim: The varicella vaccine has been proposed to be added to the childhood immunisation schedule in New Zealand as the fourth injectable at the 15-month event. We sought to understand the perceptions of caregivers and health-care providers regarding the potential introduction of routine varicella vaccination.

    Methods: A qualitative exploratory study was conducted using semi-structured interviews with caregivers and providers (N = 20) in Auckland. Read More

    Inborn errors in RNA polymerase III underlie severe varicella zoster virus infections.
    J Clin Invest 2017 Sep 7;127(9):3543-3556. Epub 2017 Aug 7.
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Aarhus University Hospital Skejby, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Varicella zoster virus (VZV) typically causes chickenpox upon primary infection. In rare cases, VZV can give rise to life-threatening disease in otherwise healthy people, but the immunological basis for this remains unexplained. We report 4 cases of acute severe VZV infection affecting the central nervous system or the lungs in unrelated, otherwise healthy children who are heterozygous for rare missense mutations in POLR3A (one patient), POLR3C (one patient), or both (two patients). Read More

    Role of meteorological conditions in reported chickenpox cases in Wuhan and Hong Kong, China.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Aug 3;17(1):538. Epub 2017 Aug 3.
    Department of Hygiene, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, S-1, W-17, Chuo-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido, 060-8556, Japan.
    Background: Chickenpox is a common contagious disease that remains an important public health issue worldwide. Over 90% of unvaccinated individuals become infected, but infection occurs at different ages in different parts of the world. Many people have been infected by 20 to 30 years of age in China, and adults and pregnant women who become infected often develop severe infection. Read More

    Characterization and phylogenetic analysis of Varicella-zoster virus strains isolated from Korean patients.
    J Microbiol 2017 Aug 28;55(8):665-672. Epub 2017 Jul 28.
    Department of Microbiology, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, 28644, Republic of Korea.
    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a causative agent of chickenpox in primary infection and shingles after its reactivation from latency. Complete or almost-complete genomic DNA sequences for various VZV strains have been reported. Recently, clinical VZV strains were isolated from Korean patients whose genome was sequenced using high-throughput sequencing technology. Read More

    Differentiation between wild-type and vaccines strains of varicella zoster virus (VZV) based on four single nucleotide polymorphisms.
    Epidemiol Infect 2017 Sep 27;145(12):2618-2625. Epub 2017 Jul 27.
    Virus Reference Department,National Infections Service,Public Health England,London,UK.
    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection (chickenpox) results in latency and subsequent reactivation manifests as shingles. Effective attenuated vaccines (vOka) are available for prevention of both illnesses. In this study, an amplicon-based sequencing method capable of differentiating between VZV wild-type (wt) strains and vOka vaccine is described. Read More

    Influence of infectious disease seasonality on the performance of the outbreak detection algorithm in the China Infectious Disease Automated-alert and Response System.
    J Int Med Res 2017 Jan 1:300060517718770. Epub 2017 Jan 1.
    1 School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.
    Objective The Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention developed the China Infectious Disease Automated-alert and Response System (CIDARS) in 2008. The CIDARS can detect outbreak signals in a timely manner but generates many false-positive signals, especially for diseases with seasonality. We assessed the influence of seasonality on infectious disease outbreak detection performance. Read More

    [Chickenpox seroprevalence among healthcare and social assistance workers in Catalonia (Spain)].
    Arch Prev Riesgos Labor 2017 Jul to Sep;20(3):158-166
    Salud Laboral, Hospital Universitario Sant Joan, Reus, Spain.
    Aims: Chickenpox is a frequent and contagious disease in healthcare and social assistance settings, and there are limited data on seroprevalence among workers in this sector. We estimated susceptibility to chickenpox among workers, by demographic and occupational variables, and measured the rate of seroprotection after vaccination.

    Methods: A retrospective seroprevalence study of chickenpox (varicella) and serological vaccine response. Read More

    Invasive disease by Streptococcus pyogenes: patients hospitalized for 6 years.
    Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin 2017 Jul 10. Epub 2017 Jul 10.
    Influencia del entorno en el bienestar del niño y del adolescente, Institut de Recerca Sant Joan de Déu, Esplugues de Llobregat, Barcelona, España; Servicio de Urgencias de Pediatría, Institut de Recerca Sant Joan de Déu, Esplugues de Llobregat, Barcelona, España.
    Introduction And Objective: The last years an increase of severe cases of invasive disease (ID) due to Streptococcus pyogenes or streptococcus b-hemolytic group A (SGA) had been detected. The aim of this study was to analyze the epidemiology and the clinical features of ID due to SGA in a tertiary Pediatric Hospital.

    Material And Methods: Retrospective study in a Pediatric hospital, of all in-patients with final diagnosis of ID due to SGA during 6 years (2009-2014). Read More

    Economic burden of varicella in children 1-12 Years of age in Hungary, 2011-2015.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Jul 14;17(1):495. Epub 2017 Jul 14.
    Merck & Co, Inc., Center for Observational and Real-World Evidence (CORE), MAILSTOP WP97-A243, 770 Sumneytown Pike, West Point, PA, 19486, USA.
    Background: Although live-attenuated varicella-zoster virus (VZV) vaccines have been proven to be safe and effective in preventing varicella and real-word evidence shows routine childhood immunization programs are effective in dramatically reducing varicella associated morbidity and mortality, varicella vaccine is not included in the National Immunization Program (NIP) in Hungary. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical and economic burden associated with varicella in Hungary.

    Methods: This was a multicenter, retrospective, chart review study of patients aged 1-12 years with a primary varicella diagnosis between 2011 and 2015. Read More

    Simian varicella virus causes robust transcriptional changes in T cells that support viral replication.
    Virus Res 2017 Jun 8;238:226-235. Epub 2017 Jul 8.
    Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, University of California-Irvine, Irvine, CA, 92697, USA. Electronic address:
    Varicella zoster virus (VZV) causes varicella (chickenpox) during acute infection. Several studies have shown that T cells are early and preferential targets of VZV infection that play a critical role in disseminating VZV in to the skin and ganglia. However, the transcriptional changes that occur in VZV-infected T cells remain unclear due to limited access to clinical samples and robust translational animal models. Read More

    Varicella outbreak in a highly-vaccinated school population in Beijing, China during the voluntary two-dose era.
    Vaccine 2017 Aug 3;35(34):4368-4373. Epub 2017 Jul 3.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA. Electronic address:
    Background: Two-dose varicella vaccination has been available in Beijing since 2012 in the private sector. We investigated a varicella outbreak in a highly vaccinated elementary school population.

    Methods: A cohort study was carried out and a varicella case was defined as an acute onset of generalized maculopapulovesicular rash without other apparent cause in a student attending the school from March 29 through May 17, 2015. Read More

    Vaccine Adverse Events: Separating Myth from Reality.
    Am Fam Physician 2017 Jun;95(12):786-794
    Conemaugh Family Medicine Residency Program, Johnstown, PA, USA.
    Vaccines are one of the most successful medical advances in modern times. Most vaccine-preventable illnesses are unfamiliar to modern parents. Because of this, parents are increasingly questioning the necessity of immunizing their children, especially because no vaccine is completely free of adverse effects or the risk of complications. Read More

    Human varicella zoster virus is not present in the semen of a man affected by chickenpox during the in vitro fertilisation of his wife.
    Andrologia 2017 Dec 3;49(10). Epub 2017 Jul 3.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Queen Mary Hospital, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China.
    Human varicella zoster virus (VZV) is a member of the herpes virus family and affects humans only. Information about the presence of the virus in the semen samples of men affected by chickenpox is rather limited in the literature. Here, we reported a husband was affected by VZV during in vitro fertilisation treatment of his wife treated in our centre. Read More

    Herpes Zoster Involving the Second Division of the Trigeminal Nerve: Case Report and Literature Review.
    J Endod 2017 Sep 27;43(9):1569-1573. Epub 2017 Jun 27.
    Department of Endodontics, The Dental College of Georgia, Augusta University, Augusta, Georgia. Electronic address:
    Herpes zoster along the maxillary division of the trigeminal nerve is a rare condition that is caused by reactivation of the varicella zoster virus that resides within the trigeminal ganglion after the primary infection of chickenpox. The disease may be manifested as a toothache during its prodromal stage. The active stage of the disease is characterized by the appearance of a vesicular rash. Read More

    The Role of Varicella Zoster Virus in the Development of Periapical Pathoses and Root Resorption: A Systematic Review.
    J Endod 2017 Aug 27;43(8):1230-1236. Epub 2017 Jun 27.
    Department of Clinic of Oral Surgery, School of Dental Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia.
    Introduction: Varicella zoster virus (VZV) and subsequent herpes zoster (HZ) infection have been proposed as a causative agent of periapical pathoses and root resorption. This review aimed to identify, synthesize, and present a critical analysis of the available data on the association among VZV, subsequent HZ infection, and the development of periapical pathoses and root resorption and to analyze the level of evidence of available studies.

    Methods: The literature search covered MEDLINE, Science Citation Index Expanded, and Scopus. Read More

    Varicella-related Primary Health-care Visits, Hospitalizations and Mortality in Norway, 2008-2014.
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 2017 Nov;36(11):1032-1038
    From the *Department of Infectious Diseases Epidemiology and Modeling, Infection Control and Environmental Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway; †Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Akershus University Hospital, Nordbyhagen, Norway; ‡Institute of Clinical Medicine Campus AHUS Division of Medicine and Laboratory Sciences, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway; and §Section for Research and Development, Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Akershus University Hospital, Nordbyhagen, Norway.
    Background: Norway does not currently implement universal varicella vaccination in childhood. We aimed to characterize health care burden of varicella in Norway in the prevaccine era.

    Methods: We linked individual patient data from different national registries to examine varicella vaccinations and varicella-coded primary care consultations, hospitalizations, outpatient hospital visits, deaths and viral infections of central nervous system in the whole population of Norway during 2008-2014. Read More

    Is chickenpox so bad, what do we know about immunity to varicella zoster virus, and what does it tell us about the future?
    J Infect 2017 Jun;74 Suppl 1:S27-S33
    Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, 630 West 168th Street, New York, NY 10032, USA. Electronic address:
    Varicella and zoster continue to cause significant morbidity and even mortality in children and adults. Complications include bacterial superinfection, central nervous system manifestations such as meningitis, encephalitis, and cerebellar ataxia, and pain syndromes especially post herpetic neuralgia. Many developed countries but not all, are now administering live attenuated varicella vaccine routinely, with a decrease in the incidence of disease, providing personal and herd immunity. Read More

    Role of the JNK Pathway in Varicella-Zoster Virus Lytic Infection and Reactivation.
    J Virol 2017 Sep 10;91(17). Epub 2017 Aug 10.
    Division of Neuroimmunology and Neuroinfectious Diseases, Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    Mechanisms of neuronal infection by varicella-zoster virus (VZV) have been challenging to study due to the relatively strict human tropism of the virus and the paucity of tractable experimental models. Cellular mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) have been shown to play a role in VZV infection of nonneuronal cells, with distinct consequences for infectivity in different cell types. Here, we utilize several human neuronal culture systems to investigate the role of one such MAPK, the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), in VZV lytic infection and reactivation. Read More

    Lack of evidence for post-vaccine onset of autoimmune/lymphoproliferative disorders, during a nine-month follow-up in multiply vaccinated Italian military personnel.
    Clin Immunol 2017 Aug 15;181:60-66. Epub 2017 Jun 15.
    Sapienza Università di Roma, Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica e Molecolare Azienda Ospedaliera S. Andrea, Roma, Italy. Electronic address:
    Anecdotal case reports, amplified by mass media and internet-based opinion groups, have recently indicated vaccinations as possibly responsible for autoimmunity/lymphoproliferation development. Multiply vaccinated Italian military personnel (group 1, operating in Italy, group 2, operating in Lebanon) were followed-up for nine months to monitor possible post-vaccine autoimmunity/lymphoproliferation onset. No serious adverse event was noticed in both groups. Read More

    Increasing prevalence of infectious diseases in asylum seekers at a tertiary care hospital in Switzerland.
    PLoS One 2017 15;12(6):e0179537. Epub 2017 Jun 15.
    Division of Infectious Diseases & Hospital Epidemiology, University Hospital Basel, University Basel, Basel, Switzerland.
    Objective: The increasing number of refugees seeking asylum in Europe in recent years poses new challenges for the healthcare systems in the destination countries. The goal of the study was to describe the evolution of medical problems of asylum seekers at a tertiary care centre in Switzerland.

    Methods: At the University Hospital Basel, we compared all asylum seekers during two 1-year time periods in 2004/05 and 2014/15 concerning demographic characteristics and reasons for referrals and hospitalizations. Read More

    How to select a proper early warning threshold to detect infectious disease outbreaks based on the China infectious disease automated alert and response system (CIDARS).
    BMC Public Health 2017 Jun 12;17(1):570. Epub 2017 Jun 12.
    School of Public Health, Fudan University, NO. 130 Dong-An Road, Shanghai, 200032, China.
    Background: China Centre for Diseases Control and Prevention (CDC) developed the China Infectious Disease Automated Alert and Response System (CIDARS) in 2005. The CIDARS was used to strengthen infectious disease surveillance and aid in the early warning of outbreak. The CIDARS has been integrated into the routine outbreak monitoring efforts of the CDC at all levels in China. Read More

    Managing varicella zoster virus contact and infection in patients on anti-rheumatic therapy.
    Rheumatology (Oxford) 2017 May 29. Epub 2017 May 29.
    Department of Rheumatology, King's College London, London, UK.
    Chickenpox and shingles can be more severe and occasionally life threatening in immunosuppressed patients. As such, some groups warrant a more detailed history, serological testing and consideration of prophylaxis following contact with the virus. Active disease may also require more aggressive treatment with antivirals. Read More

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