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    1 OF 167

    [Varicella and herpes zoster: challenges for public health].
    Salud Publica Mex 2017 Nov-Dec;59(6):650-656
    MSD México. Ciudad de México, México.
    Objective: To evaluate the epidemiological behavior of varicella and herpes zoster (HZ) to determine the need of health policies to diminish prevalence and avoid complications.

    Materials And Methods: To assess frequency, we analyzed data from the National Information System for Epidemiological Surveillance (SUIVE) from 2000 to 2013; to assess the discharge data of varicella and HZ, we evaluated information from the National System of health information (Sinais).

    Results: The average annual cases of chickenpox were 296 733, 57% mostly children under 9 years, most of them from March to May. Read More

    Chickenpox outbreak in a tribal and industrial zone from the Union Territory of Dadra and Nagar Haveli, India.
    Epidemiol Infect 2018 Feb 13:1-5. Epub 2018 Feb 13.
    ICMR-National Institute of Virology,20-A Dr Ambedkar Road,Pune 411001,India.
    During 9th December 2016 and 12th February 2017, 149-chickenpox cases were reported in a tribal and industrial zone of Rakholi (n = 80) and Surangi (n = 69) villages from Union Territory of India. An epidemiological investigation was performed to assess the characteristics and determinants of the chickenpox outbreak. Overall, the attack rate per 100 population in Rakholi village (n = 1757) was 4. Read More

    Herpes Zoster and Postherpetic Neuralgia: Prevention and Management.
    Am Fam Physician 2017 Nov;96(10):656-663
    Nellis Family Medicine Residency, Mike O'Callaghan Federal Medical Center, Nellis Air Force Base, NV, USA.
    Herpes zoster, or shingles, is caused by reactivation of varicella zoster virus, which causes chickenpox. There are an estimated 1 million cases in the Unites States annually, with an individual lifetime risk of 30%. Patients with conditions that decrease cell-mediated immunity are 20 to 100 times more likely to develop herpes zoster. Read More

    The impact of immunization programs on 10 vaccine preventable diseases in Italy: 1900-2015.
    Vaccine 2018 Mar 7;36(11):1435-1443. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Istituto Superiore di Sanità (Italian National Institute of Health), Rome, Italy.
    Background: Vaccination has determined a dramatic decline in morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases over the last century. However, low perceived risk of the infectious threat and increased concern about vaccines' safety led to a reduction in vaccine coverage, with increased risk of disease outbreaks.

    Methods: Annual surveillance data of nationally communicable infectious diseases in Italy between 1900 and 2015 were used to derive trends in morbidity and mortality rates before and after vaccine introduction, focusing particularly on the effect of vaccination programs. Read More

    [Hope-Simpson and shingles].
    Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 2018 ;162(0):D2158
    Nederlands Huisartsen Genootschap, afd. Richtlijnontwikkeling en Wetenschap, Utrecht.
    Dr Robert Edgar Hope-Simpson (1908-2003) was a British general practitioner, who has laid the foundation for unravelling the pathogenesis of shingles. At the beginning of the 20th century, both conditions were known to be related, but the precise relationship was unclear. It was assumed that chickenpox could originate after infection by both a person with shingles or someone with chickenpox, but that both diseases were caused by different viruses. Read More

    Patient's experiences with the care for juvenile idiopathic arthritis across Europe.
    Pediatr Rheumatol Online J 2018 Feb 8;16(1):10. Epub 2018 Feb 8.
    Paediatric Rheumatology, Wilhelmina Children's Hospital, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Room KC.03.063.0, P.O. box 85090, 3508, AB, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Background: To assess the views of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) patients and their parents on the care and treatment they receive in referral pediatric rheumatology centers throughout Europe.

    Methods: In a collaboration between physicians and patient associations, a questionnaire was developed, covering various domains of JIA care, including demographics, diagnosis, referrals to various health care professionals, access to pain and fatigue management and support groups, information they received about the disease and awareness of and participation in research. The questionnaire was translated and distributed by parent associations and pediatric rheumatologists in 25 countries, 22 of which were European. Read More

    Chickenpox in Poland in 2015
    Przegl Epidemiol 2017 ;71(4):487-491
    National Institute of Public Health – National Institute of Hygiene in Warsaw, Department of Epidemiology
    Background: A large number of chickenpox cases, indicates the rationale for the use of chickenpox vaccinations. In Poland since 2002, chickenpox vaccination is included in the National Immunisation Programme as recommended.(1)

    Aim: To assess epidemiological situation of chickenpox in Poland in 2015 in comparison to previous years

    Methods: The descriptive analysis was based on based on the results of the analysis of aggregate data published in the annual bulletins “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2015” and “Vaccinations in Poland in 2015” (2,3). Read More

    Economic burden of varicella in children 1-12 years of age in Argentina, 2009-2014.
    J Med Econ 2018 Feb 7:1-9. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    d Merck & Co., Inc. , Kenilworth , NJ , USA.
    Background: In Argentina, varicella vaccination was included in the national schedule for mandatory immunizations in 2015. The vaccine has been shown to substantially reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with the virus. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical and economic burden associated with varicella in Argentina prior to vaccine introduction. Read More

    Epidemic Varicella Zoster Virus among University Students, India.
    Emerg Infect Dis 2018 Feb;24(2):366-369
    We investigated a yearlong varicella zoster virus outbreak in a highly susceptible young adult population at a large university in India. Outbreaks of varicella infection among adults are not well described in the literature. Infection control measures and vaccination policy for this age group and setting are needed. Read More

    Attenuation of Simian Varicella Virus Infection by Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein in Rhesus Macaques.
    J Virol 2018 Jan 17. Epub 2018 Jan 17.
    Division of Microbiology, Tulane University, Tulane National Primate Research Center, Covington, Louisiana, USA.
    Simian varicella virus (SVV), the primate counterpart of varicella zoster virus, causes varicella (chickenpox), establishes latency in ganglia and reactivates to produce zoster. We previously demonstrated that a recombinant SVV expressing the enhanced green fluorescent protein (rSVV.eGFP) is slightly attenuated both in culture and infected monkeys. Read More

    Utility of ultra-deep sequencing for detection of varicella-zoster virus antiviral resistance mutations.
    Antiviral Res 2018 Jan 12;151:20-23. Epub 2018 Jan 12.
    Persistent Viral Infections Team, U1135, CR7, CIMI-UPMC and AP-HP, Hôpitaux Universitaires La Pitié Salpêtrière - Charles Foix, Service de Virologie, Paris, France. Electronic address:
    We report the first application of ultra-deep sequencing (UDS) to varicella-zoster virus (VZV) genotypic antiviral testing in a case of acyclovir-resistant VZV infection initially detected by Sanger sequencing within a deeply immunocompromised heart transplant recipient. As added-value compared to Sanger analysis, UDS revealed complex dynamics of viral population under antiviral pressure. Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a ubiquitous human herpesvirus affecting populations worldwide. Read More

    Post-varicella Arterial Ischemic Stroke in Denmark 2010 to 2016.
    Pediatr Neurol 2017 Dec 1. Epub 2017 Dec 1.
    Department of Paediatric and Adolescent Medicine, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen Ø, Denmark.
    Background: Varicella, most often a benign disease of childhood, is associated with an increased risk of arterial ischemic stroke in children. The aim of the present study was to estimate the incidence of post-varicella arterial ischemic stroke in the Danish child population and describe clinical characteristics of children admitted with post-varicella arterial ischemic stroke.

    Methods: In the Danish National Patient Register, we identified inpatients 28 days to 16 years of age with a discharge diagnosis of stroke or cerebrovascular disease from 2010 to 2016. Read More

    Chickenpox and measles clusters among college students in Pune, Maharashtra.
    Virusdisease 2017 Sep 20;28(3):337-340. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    National Institute of Virology [NIV], Indian Council of Medical Research, 130/1, Sus Road, Pashan, Pune, 411021 India.
    Chickenpox and measles, both vaccine preventable febrile rash illnesses, present in a comparatively severe form among young adults/adults than among children. Immunity levels against chickenpox are not known in India and those against measles have been found variable across the country. Places where students or adults/young adults from various parts of the country come together pose a peculiar challenge in preventive policy making regarding these diseases. Read More

    Cost-effectiveness of Varicella Vaccination Program in Iran.
    Int J Prev Med 2017 5;8:103. Epub 2017 Dec 5.
    Department of Community Medicine, Preventive Medicine and Public Health Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Background: Varicella zoster virus is the etiologic agent of primary varicella (chickenpox) during childhood, and varicella vaccination has not been introduced in Iran. The aim of this study is to estimate cost-effectiveness of one- and two-dose Varicella Vaccination Program in Iran.

    Methods: A decision-tree model was conducted to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the Varicella Vaccination Program in a cohort of 12 months children in Iran. Read More

    Vaccination marketing by private healthcare sector: glaring malpractices.
    Indian J Med Ethics 2017 Dec 21;-(-). Epub 2017 Dec 21.
    Consultant Pediatrician, Mangla Hospital and Research Center, Shakti Chowk, Bijnor-246 701, Uttar Pradesh, India.,
    The editorial by Jesani and Johari in this journal raises some contentious yet relevant ethical issues pertaining to vaccination practices in India. Vaccination is one of the most important preventive measures against infectious diseases. The eradication of smallpox in the 70s and near eradication of polio are testimony to this. Read More

    Vaccination history in elementary school children enrolled in the varicella epidemic investigations held in Jeju-si, Korea in the first half of 2017.
    Epidemiol Health 2017 13;39:e2017053. Epub 2017 Nov 13.
    Department of Preventive Medicine, Jeju National University Scool of Medicine, Jeju, Korea.
    Objectives: The reported incidence rate of varicella infection in Jeju-do is higher compared with the national average. This study aimed to examine varicella vaccination history and evaluate clinical manifestation of varicella cases in Jeju-do.

    Methods: Based on the guideline suggested by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC), two epidemic investigations for varicella infection were conducted in the first half of 2017. Read More

    Chickenpox: an ageless disease.
    BMJ Case Rep 2017 Dec 22;2017. Epub 2017 Dec 22.
    Department of Geriatric Medicine, Princess Royal University Hospital, Orpington, UK.
    A 97-year-old woman presented with 4-day history of vesicular rash, initially at the feet but then spread up to the thighs bilaterally, abdomen and trunk. The initial differentials included bullous pemphigus and cellulitis by the emergency department. She was then managed as bullous pemphigus by the acute medical team and started on high-dose steroids, with no other differentials considered. Read More

    'Outbreak Gold Standard' selection to provide optimized threshold for infectious diseases early-alert based on China Infectious Disease Automated-alert and Response System.
    J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci 2017 Dec 21;37(6):833-841. Epub 2017 Dec 21.
    Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, 30329-4027, USA.
    The China Infectious Disease Automated-alert and Response System (CIDARS) was successfully implemented and became operational nationwide in 2008. The CIDARS plays an important role in and has been integrated into the routine outbreak monitoring efforts of the Center for Disease Control (CDC) at all levels in China. In the CIDARS, thresholds are determined using the "Mean+2SD‟ in the early stage which have limitations. Read More

    BET 2: NSAIs and chickenpox.
    Emerg Med J 2018 Jan;35(1):66-68
    Gloucester Royal Hospital, Gloucester UK and John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK.
    A shortcut review was carried out to establish whether non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is safe to prescribe in patients with chicken pox. 66 unique papers were found in CINAHL, Medline, Embase and Cochrane using the reported searches of which 6 presented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The author, date and country of publication; patient group studied; study type; relevant outcomes; results and study weaknesses of these best papers are tabulated. Read More

    Vaccine-type mutations identified in Varicella zoster virus passaged in cell culture.
    Virus Res 2018 Feb 12;245:62-68. Epub 2017 Dec 12.
    Department of Microbiology, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, South Korea. Electronic address:
    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a causative agent for chickenpox and shingles. Comparative genomic sequence analysis of clinical and vaccine strains suggested potential sites responsible for attenuation. In this study, low and high passages of two VZV clinical strains cultured in human fibroblast cells were compared for genomic DNA sequences and growth characteristics. Read More

    Nursing management of childhood chickenpox infection.
    Emerg Nurse 2017 Dec;25(8):32-41
    Torbay Hospital, Torquay, England.
    Chickenpox is an extremely contagious infectious disease caused by varicella zoster virus (VZV). It is a common childhood illness characterised by an itchy vesicular rash and fever, which usually resolves spontaneously without medical intervention. Serious, and rarely fatal, complications can occur, including pneumonia, central nervous system infection, overwhelming secondary bacterial infections, especially with Group A streptococcus, and necrotising fasciitis. Read More

    QuickStats: Percentage of Children Aged 4-17 Years Who Had Ever Had Varicella (Chickenpox),* by Age Group - National Health Interview Survey, 2007-2016.
    • Authors:
    MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2017 Dec 8;66(48):1337. Epub 2017 Dec 8.
    During 2007-2016, the percentage of children aged 4-17 years who had ever had chickenpox decreased among both younger children (aged 4-11 years) and older children (aged 12-17 years). Among younger children, the percentage of children who had ever had chickenpox declined by 73.9%, from 16. Read More

    Early impact of universal varicella vaccination on childhood varicella and herpes zoster hospitalizations in Brazil.
    Vaccine 2018 Jan 1;36(2):280-284. Epub 2017 Dec 1.
    Centro Infant, Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Avenida Ipiranga 6690, 2nd floor, ZIP-Code: 90610-000, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Introduction: The Brazilian childhood National Immunization Program (NIP) introduced live and attenuated varicella vaccination in a single dose, combined as tetraviral vaccine, at 15 months of age in the whole country, during September to December of 2013. The aim of this study was to report trends in incidence of childhood hospital admissions related to varicella and zoster in Brazil from 2003 to 2016, including the first three years after vaccine introduction.

    Methods: The number and incidence of hospital admission in patients aged less than 20 years in Brazilian public health system with an admission diagnosis of varicella and zoster from 2003 to 2016 were analyzed and pre (2003-2013) and post-vaccination periods (2014-2016) were compared. Read More

    Varicella Virus Vaccination in the United States.
    Viral Immunol 2017 Nov 27. Epub 2017 Nov 27.
    2 Department of Pediatrics, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons , New York, New York.
    Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is the cause of chickenpox (varicella) and shingles (zoster), and was once responsible for over 4 million infections in the United States annually. The development of a live attenuated VZV vaccine was initially viewed with extreme skepticism. Nonetheless, a VZV vaccine was developed in the 1970s by Takahashi and his colleagues in Japan and was eventually licensed in the US. Read More

    An outbreak of chickenpox in an asylum seeker centre in Italy: outbreak investigation and validity of reported chickenpox history, December 2015-May 2016.
    Euro Surveill 2017 11;22(46)
    The members of the Outbreak Investigation Group are listed at the end of the article.
    An outbreak of chickenpox occurred between December 2015 and May 2016 among asylum seekers in a reception centre in Latium, Italy. We describe the epidemiological and laboratory investigations, control measures and validity of reported history of chickenpox infection. Serological screening of all residents and incoming asylum seekers was performed, followed by vaccine offer to all susceptible individuals without contraindication. Read More

    A Unique Case of Acute Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis Secondary to Primary Varicella Zoster Virus Infection.
    Cureus 2017 Sep 16;9(9):e1693. Epub 2017 Sep 16.
    Medicine, Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Primary varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection, predominantly in the pediatric population, presents with pyrexia and a classic pruritic vesicular rash. In adults, although less common, it is more severe and linked to more complications. Neurological complications, which account for less than 1% of all VZV complications, include meningitis, encephalitis, arterial vasculopathy, and venous thrombosis. Read More

    Varicella zoster virus-associated morbidity and mortality in Africa - a systematic review.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Nov 14;17(1):717. Epub 2017 Nov 14.
    Vaccines for Africa Initiative, Division of Medical Microbiology & Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Background: Varicella zoster virus (VZV) causes varicella and herpes zoster. These vaccine preventable diseases are common globally. Most available data on VZV epidemiology are from industrialised temperate countries and cannot be used to guide decisions on the immunization policy against VZV in Africa. Read More

    Varicella-zoster virus ORF7 interacts with ORF53 and plays a role in its trans-Golgi network localization.
    Virol Sin 2017 Oct 30;32(5):387-395. Epub 2017 Oct 30.
    State Key Laboratory of Molecular Vaccinology and Molecular Diagnostics, National Institute of Diagnostics and Vaccine Development in Infectious Diseases, School of Public Health, Xiamen University, Xiamen, 361102, China.
    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a neurotropic alphaherpesvirus that causes chickenpox and shingles. ORF7 is an important virulence determinant of VZV in both human skin and nerve tissues, however, its specific function and involved molecular mechanism in VZV pathogenesis remain largely elusive. Previous yeast two-hybrid studies on intraviral protein-protein interaction network in herpesviruses have revealed that VZV ORF7 may interact with ORF53, which is a virtually unstudied but essential viral protein. Read More

    How to hold an ethical pox party.
    J Med Ethics 2017 Oct 25. Epub 2017 Oct 25.
    Monash Bioethics Centre, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia.
    Pox parties are a controversial alternative to vaccination for diseases such as chickenpox. Such parties involve parents infecting non-immune children by exposing them to a contagious child. If successful, infection will usually lead to immunity, thus preventing infection later in life, which, for several vaccine-preventable diseases, is more severe than childhood infection. Read More

    Investigation of an outbreak of varicella in Chandigarh, North India, using a real-time polymerase chain reaction approach.
    Indian J Med Microbiol 2017 Jul-Sep;35(3):417-420
    Department of Virology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.
    Outbreaks of varicella are reported when susceptible population accumulates. This study reports a chickenpox outbreak in Burail in August 2014, wherein 20 laboratory-confirmed cases were identified by the detection of varicella zoster virus (VZV) DNA and VZV IgM antibodies. The viral load between vesicular swabs and serum samples from 8 patients with active lesions was found to have good correlation and further also related with disease severity. Read More

    [Epidemiological characteristics on temporal-spatial distribution of varicella in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, 2014-2016].
    Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 2017 Oct;38(10):1390-1393
    Information Management Section of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Nanning 530028, China.
    To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of temporal-spatial distribution on varicella in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region (Guangxi) during 2014 to 2016.Incidence data on varicella was collected from the National Notifiable Infectious Disease Reporting Information System (NNIDRIS) of the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) while geographic information data was from the national CDC. ArcGIS 10. Read More

    Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Neurons Are Highly Permissive for Varicella-Zoster Virus Lytic Infection.
    J Virol 2018 Jan 14;92(1). Epub 2017 Dec 14.
    Medical Virology Section, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is highly cell associated when grown in culture and has a much higher (4,000- to 20,000-fold increased) particle-to-PFU ratiothan herpes simplex virus (HSV). In contrast, VZV is highly infectiousby airborne transmission. Neurons are major targets for VZV; in neurons, the virus can establish latency and reactivate to produce infectious virus. Read More

    Post-herpetic neuralgia - a review of current management and future directions.
    Expert Opin Pharmacother 2017 Nov 26;18(16):1739-1750. Epub 2017 Oct 26.
    a Department of Anaesthesia , Critical Care and Pain Medicine, The Royal Marsden Hospital , London , UK.
    Introduction: Post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN) is common and treatment is often suboptimal with less than half of patients achieving adequate 50% pain relief. As an area of unmet clinical need and as an archetype of neuropathic pain, it deserves the attention of clinicians and researchers. Areas covered: This review summarises the epidemiology, pathophysiology, risk factors and clinical features of varicella infection. Read More

    Vaccination Coverage for Selected Vaccines, Exemption Rates, and Provisional Enrollment Among Children in Kindergarten - United States, 2016-17 School Year.
    MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2017 Oct 13;66(40):1073-1080. Epub 2017 Oct 13.
    State and local school vaccination requirements help protect students and communities against vaccine-preventable diseases (1). CDC reports vaccination coverage and exemption data for children attending kindergarten (kindergartners) collected by federally funded immunization programs in the United States.* The typical age range for kindergartners is 4-6 years. Read More

    Varicella infection in a non-universally vaccinated population: Actual epidemiology in Bulgaria (2013-2015).
    J Infect Public Health 2017 Oct 7. Epub 2017 Oct 7.
    Department of Preclinical and Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University of Varna, 3, Bregalniza Str., 9002 Varna, Bulgaria. Electronic address:
    Background: Varicella is a common and usually mild disease but it has great importance in regard to general infectious morbidity. The current study aimed to characterize possible risk factors of varicella epidemiology in Bulgaria, a country where infection follows its natural epidemiological pattern as no mandatory or recommended vaccine is currently applied.

    Methods: Administrative regions of Bulgaria were used as units of observation and a set of sociodemographic and economic determinants, as well as geographic location (south or north) were tested for associations with the mean 3-year varicella incidence rates (2013-2015). Read More

    Diskogenic Reactivation of Herpes Zoster.
    World Neurosurg 2018 Jan 27;109:138-139. Epub 2017 Sep 27.
    Department of Neurosurgery, St. Vincent's Hospital, Melbourne, Australia; Centre for Clinical Neuroscience and Neurological Research, Melbourne, Australia; Department of Surgery, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia.
    Varicella zoster virus remains dormant in the dorsal root ganglia after childhood exposure to chickenpox. Its reactivation results in herpes zoster, otherwise known as shingles, which is a painful vesicular rash in a dermatomal distribution. We present a case of foraminal disk extrusion that resulted in radicular pain in a dermatomal distribution. Read More

    Genome-wide association and HLA region fine-mapping studies identify susceptibility loci for multiple common infections.
    Nat Commun 2017 09 19;8(1):599. Epub 2017 Sep 19.
    23andMe, Mountain View, CA, 94041, USA.
    Infectious diseases have a profound impact on our health and many studies suggest that host genetics play a major role in the pathogenesis of most of them. We perform 23 genome-wide association studies for common infections and infection-associated procedures, including chickenpox, shingles, cold sores, mononucleosis, mumps, hepatitis B, plantar warts, positive tuberculosis test results, strep throat, scarlet fever, pneumonia, bacterial meningitis, yeast infections, urinary tract infections, tonsillectomy, childhood ear infections, myringotomy, measles, hepatitis A, rheumatic fever, common colds, rubella and chronic sinus infection, in over 200,000 individuals of European ancestry. We detect 59 genome-wide significant (P < 5 × 10) associations in genes with key roles in immunity and embryonic development. Read More

    Exposure rate of VZV among women attending antenatal care clinic in Sri Lanka - a cross sectional study.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 09 16;17(1):625. Epub 2017 Sep 16.
    Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka.
    Background: Varicella or chickenpox was not a notifiable disease until 2005 in Sri Lanka and only a few studies have been conducted on the epidemiology of VZV infection in the country. The anti-VZV IgG sero-prevalence among antenatal women is extremely limited and thus a selected group of antenatal clinic attendees were chosen to determine the exposure rate to VZV infection.

    Methods: Women attending the antenatal clinic at Teaching Hospital, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka were selected for the study and 3 mL of venous blood was collected from 181 participants and the demographic data was obtained through a pre-tested questionnaire. Read More

    Outer nuclear membrane fusion of adjacent nuclei in varicella-zoster virus-induced syncytia.
    Virology 2017 12 11;512:34-38. Epub 2017 Sep 11.
    Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers University, 225 Warren Street, Newark, NJ 070101, USA. Electronic address:
    Syncytia formation has been considered important for cell-to-cell spread and pathogenesis of many viruses. As a syncytium forms, individual nuclei often congregate together, allowing close contact of nuclear membranes and possibly fusion to occur. However, there is currently no reported evidence of nuclear membrane fusion between adjacent nuclei in wild-type virus-induced syncytia. Read More

    Appendicitis Caused by Primary Varicella Zoster Virus Infection in a Child with DiGeorge Syndrome.
    Case Rep Pediatr 2017 16;2017:6708046. Epub 2017 Aug 16.
    Department of Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Blegdamsvej 9, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Introduction: Chickenpox is caused by varicella zoster virus (VZV). Although predominantly a mild disease, it can cause considerable morbidity and in rare occasions even mortality in healthy children as well as increased morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. The aetiology of appendicitis is largely unknown but is thought to be multifactorial. Read More

    Prevalence of a history of prior varicella/herpes zoster infection in multiple sclerosis.
    J Neurovirol 2017 Dec 11;23(6):839-844. Epub 2017 Sep 11.
    Division of Clinical Neuroscience, Section of Clinical Neurology, University of Nottingham, Nottingham University Hospital NHS Trust, Queen's Medical Centre, C Floor S Block, Nottingham, NG7 2UH, UK.
    Varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection has been implicated in multiple sclerosis (MS), but direct causal involvement has been disputed. Nevertheless, knowledge of VZV exposure is important, given the risk of serious complications of first exposure while undergoing immunosuppressive treatment, in particular with fingolimod. We distributed questionnaires to MS clinic patients, requesting information about history of chickenpox, sibling/household/occupational exposure, history of zoster (shingles), and disease-modifying treatment. Read More

    Prevalence, comorbidities and mortality of toxic shock syndrome in children and adults in the USA.
    Microbiol Immunol 2017 Nov;61(11):463-473
    Departments of Dermatology, Preventive Medicine and Medical Social Sciences, Feinberg School of Medicine at Northwestern University, 676 N Saint Clair, St Suite 1600, Chicago, IL 60611, USA.
    Toxic Shock Syndrome (TSS), a superantigen-mediated illness, is characterized by rash, hypotension and multi-organ dysfunction. Predictors of TSS and related morbidity and mortality are poorly defined. In this study, data on 61,959,084 hospitalizations from the 2003-2012 Nationwide Inpatient Sample, a 20% stratified sample of US hospitalizations, were analyzed and ICD-9-CM coding used to identify 4491 hospitalizations with a diagnosis of TSS. Read More

    Trends in the burden of varicella in UK general practice.
    Epidemiol Infect 2017 10 30;145(13):2678-2682. Epub 2017 Aug 30.
    Faculty of Epidemiology & Population Health,London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine,Keppel Street,London WC1E 7HT,UK.
    Childhood varicella vaccination has not yet been introduced in the UK. To inform decision-making about future vaccine programmes, data on the burden of varicella in general practice over a 10-year period (01/01/2005-31/12/2014) was calculated by age and ethnicity, using anonymised data from >8 million individuals in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. Varicella consultations peaked at 20 603 in 2007, then decreased annually in all age groups to 11 243 in 2014. Read More

    National, Regional, State, and Selected Local Area Vaccination Coverage Among Adolescents Aged 13-17 Years - United States, 2016.
    MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2017 Aug 25;66(33):874-882. Epub 2017 Aug 25.
    The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends that adolescents routinely receive tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap), meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY), and human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine (1) at age 11-12 years. ACIP also recommends catch-up vaccination with hepatitis B vaccine, measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine, and varicella vaccine for adolescents who are not up to date with childhood vaccinations. ACIP recommends a booster dose of MenACWY at age 16 years (1). Read More

    Keratitis in association with herpes zoster and varicella vaccines.
    Drugs Today (Barc) 2017 Jul;53(7):393-397
    Department of Ophthalmology, Mason Eye Institute, University of Missouri School of Medicine, Columbia, Missouri, USA.
    The objective of this review was to collect reports of keratitis in association with herpes zoster virus (HZV) or varicella zoster virus (VZV) vaccines. HZV vaccination is intended for at-risk adult populations and VZV vaccination is intended for all pediatric patients. We reviewed the literature and reports of keratitis in association with herpes zoster or varicella vaccine from the National Registry of Drug-Induced Ocular Side Effects and the World Health Organization. Read More

    Low Varicella Zoster Virus Seroprevalence Among Young Children in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 2018 Feb;37(2):138-143
    Background: Varicella zoster virus (VZV) causes both varicella (chickenpox) and herpes zoster (shingles) and is associated with significant global morbidity. Most epidemiological data on VZV come from high-income countries, and to date there are limited data on the burden of VZV in Africa.

    Methods: We assessed the seroprevalence of VZV antibodies among children in the Democratic Republic of Congo in collaboration with the 2013-2014 Demographic and Health Survey. Read More

    A systematic review of varicella seroprevalence in European countries before universal childhood immunization: deriving incidence from seroprevalence data.
    Epidemiol Infect 2017 10 22;145(13):2666-2677. Epub 2017 Aug 22.
    Sanofi Pasteur MSD,162 avenue Jean Jaurès, Lyon 69007,France.
    Surveillance systems for varicella in Europe are highly heterogeneous or completely absent. We estimated the varicella incidence based on seroprevalence data, as these data are largely available and not biased by under-reporting or underascertainment. We conducted a systematic literature search for varicella serological data in Europe prior to introduction of universal varicella immunization. Read More

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