9,305 results match your criteria Chickenpox

Simian Varicella Virus Pathogenesis in Skin during Varicella and Zoster.

Viruses 2022 May 27;14(6). Epub 2022 May 27.

Division of Microbiology, Tulane National Primate Research Center, Tulane University, Covington, LA 70433, USA.

Primary simian varicella virus (SVV) infection and reactivation in nonhuman primates is a valuable animal model in the study of varicella zoster virus disease [varicella (chickenpox) and herpes zoster (shingles)]. To understand SVV pathogenesis in skin, we inoculated 10 rhesus macaques with SVV, resulting in varicella rash. After the establishment of latency, eight of the monkeys were immunosuppressed using tacrolimus with or without irradiation and prednisone and two monkeys were not immunosuppressed. Read More

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Evaluation of Atopic Dermatitis and Cutaneous Infectious Disorders Using Sequential Pattern Mining: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study.

J Clin Med 2022 Jun 14;11(12). Epub 2022 Jun 14.

Department of Dermatology, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 06591, Korea.

According to previous studies, the increased risk of cutaneous infectious disorders in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) is related to impaired epidermal function, abnormal systemic immune function, and lower antimicrobial peptides. In this study, we analyzed the association between AD and cutaneous infectious disorders in the real world using sequential pattern mining (SPM). We analyzed National Health Insurance data from 2010-2013 using SPM to identify comorbid cutaneous infectious diseases and the onset durations of comorbidities. Read More

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Decreased Antibiotic Consumption Coincided with Reduction in Bacteremia Caused by Bacterial Species with Respiratory Transmission Potential during the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Antibiotics (Basel) 2022 May 31;11(6). Epub 2022 May 31.

Department of Microbiology, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.

Nonpharmaceutical interventions implemented during the COVID-19 pandemic (2020-2021) have provided a unique opportunity to understand their impact on the wholesale supply of antibiotics and incidences of infections represented by bacteremia due to common bacterial species in Hong Kong. The wholesale antibiotic supply data (surrogate indicator of antibiotic consumption) and notifications of scarlet fever, chickenpox, and tuberculosis collected by the Centre for Health Protection, and the data of blood cultures of patients admitted to public hospitals in Hong Kong collected by the Hospital Authority for the last 10 years, were tabulated and analyzed. A reduction in the wholesale supply of antibiotics was observed. Read More

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Antedating examples of "chickenpox".

BMJ 2022 Jun 23;377:o1523. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

Centre for Evidence Based Medicine, Nuffield Department of Primary Care Health Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

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[Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus presenting as acute headache].

Andes Pediatr 2022 Apr;93(2):270-275

Hospital Universitario Francisco de Borja, Valencia, España.

Herpes Zoster (HZ) is rare in childhood and is defined as the reactivation of the latent varicella-zoster virus in patients who have previously been infected with varicella. When the virus affects the ophthal mic nerve it is called herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO) and it can produce, among other symptoms, acute headache, so it must be considered as a differential diagnosis.

Objective: To describe a clinical case of HZO in a pediatric patient and to recognize its clinical manifestations and their importance in the differential diagnosis of acute headache in children. Read More

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Early childhood education staff are falling through a vaccination policy gap in New Zealand.

N Z Med J 2022 Jan 21;135(1548):96-102. Epub 2022 Jan 21.

Office of Early Childhood Education.

The recent COVID-19 vaccine mandate among early childhood education (ECE) staff highlights the important role ECE staff have in the transmission of infectious diseases. However, there are no data on general vaccine uptake for this group in New Zealand. Additionally, the importance of ECE staff vaccination as a strategy to prevent illness has been rarely promoted in the past, and recommendations for other vaccinations in this group are lacking. Read More

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January 2022

Estimated incubation period for monkeypox cases confirmed in the Netherlands, May 2022.

Euro Surveill 2022 Jun;27(24)

Department of Biomedical Data Sciences, Leiden University Medical Center (LUMC), Leiden, the Netherlands.

In May 2022, monkeypox outbreaks have been reported in countries not endemic for monkeypox. We estimated the monkeypox incubation period, using reported exposure and symptom-onset times for 18 cases detected and confirmed in the Netherlands up to 31 May 2022. Mean incubation period was 8. Read More

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COVID-19 cutaneous manifestations in children and adolescents: a systematic review.

Rev Paul Pediatr 2022 10;40:e2021134. Epub 2022 Jun 10.

Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, PR, Brazil.

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cutaneous manifestations described in pediatric patients and discuss their relevance for early diagnosis.

Data Source: The study consisted of a systematic review of original articles indexed in PubMed and Embase databases, as well as gray literature articles found through Google Scholar. A search strategy, based on PICO (Patient, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome) Tool, with the terms "child," "infant," "childhood," "adolescents," "teenagers," "COVID-19," "SARS-CoV-2," and "skin manifestations," was performed to optimize the findings. Read More

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The Italian Mandatory Notification System: An Important Public Health Tool For Continuous Monitoring Of Infectious Diseases.

New Microbiol 2022 04;45(2):115-123

Multi-Specialist Clinical Institute for Orthopaedic Trauma Care (COT), Messina, Italy

Infectious diseases still register significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Surveillance through a mandatory notification system allows the continuous analysis of the situation even at a local level and its importance has been highlighted by the recent COVID-19 pandemic. This paper aimed to outline the importance of the mandatory notification system as a Public Health tool in the continuous monitoring of infectious diseases. Read More

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Post-Varicella Neurological Complications: A Preliminary Observation from a Tertiary Care Centre of Eastern India.

Ann Indian Acad Neurol 2022 Mar-Apr;25(2):207-213. Epub 2022 Feb 8.

Department of Neuromedicine, Bangur Institute of Neurosciences, IPGMER and SSKM Hospital, Kolkata, West Bengal, India.

Objectives: The objective of this study is to analyse detailed clinical presentations, imaging findings, and outcome in a series of 17 cases ( = 17) with neurological complications following acute varicella infection.

Methods: It is an observational study on the patients who presented to the neurology outpatient department of our institute with neurological abnormalities following acute varicella infection within the last 3 months.

Results: Neuroimaging, either computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, cerebrospinal fluid analysis, electroencephalography and nerve conduction studies were performed in all the patients along with other specialized investigations as per clinical context. Read More

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February 2022

Chickenpox Associated Retinitis and Occlusive Vasculitis in a Vaccinated Child: A Case Report and Literature Review.

Beyoglu Eye J 2022 27;7(2):143-149. Epub 2022 May 27.

Department of Ophthalmology, Ankara University, Ankara, Turkey.

Either retinitis and occlusive vasculitis are rare but vision threatening ocular complications of chickenpox in children. In this case report a 13-year-old girl who developed chickenpox 2 days before complaining with visual loss in her right eye is presented. She was vaccinated one dose of varicella zoster virus (VZV) vaccine when she was 12 months old. Read More

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Impact of universal varicella vaccination on the use and cost of antibiotics and antivirals for varicella management in the United States.

PLoS One 2022 10;17(6):e0269916. Epub 2022 Jun 10.

School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America.

Background: Our objective was to estimate the impact of universal varicella vaccination (UVV) on the use and costs of antibiotics and antivirals for the management of varicella among children in the United States (US).

Methods: A decision tree model of varicella vaccination, infections and treatment decisions was developed. Results were extrapolated to the 2017 population of 73. Read More

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Zoster Meningitis in an Immunocompetent Child after COVID-19 Vaccination, California, USA.

Emerg Infect Dis 2022 Jul 9;28(7):1523-1524. Epub 2022 Jun 9.

Varicella zoster virus reactivation after COVID-19 vaccination has been reported in older or immunocompromised adults. We report zoster meningitis from live-attenuated varicella vaccine reactivation in an immunocompetent child after COVID-19 vaccination. This type of case is rare; COVID-19 and varicella vaccines remain safe and effective for appropriate recipients in the pediatric population. Read More

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Varicella-Zoster virus ORF9 is an antagonist of the DNA sensor cGAS.

EMBO J 2022 Jun 7:e109217. Epub 2022 Jun 7.

MRC Human Immunology Unit, MRC Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, Radcliffe Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Varicella-Zoster virus (VZV) causes chickenpox and shingles. Although the infection is associated with severe morbidity in some individuals, molecular mechanisms that determine innate immune responses remain poorly defined. We found that the cGAS/STING DNA sensing pathway was required for type I interferon (IFN) induction during VZV infection and that recognition of VZV by cGAS restricted its replication. Read More

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Comparison of performance of varicella vaccines via infectious disease modeling.

Vaccine 2022 Jun 31;40(29):3954-3962. Epub 2022 May 31.

Center for Observational and Real-World Evidence (CORE), Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Population-level infectious disease models for varicella require vaccine parameters, namely 'take' and 'duration of protection' (defined here as vaccine performance), to quantify the impact of vaccination. Current published models for varicella use vaccine parameters derived from various methodologies which does not allow for the direct comparison of different vaccines.

Methods: We estimated take and duration of protection using deterministic compartmental models to simulate clinical trials of one- or two-dose varicella vaccination using Varivax® (V-MSD) and Varilrix® (V-GSK). Read More

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Effectiveness of oral aciclovir in preventing maternal chickenpox: A comparison with VZIG.

J Infect 2022 Jun 1. Epub 2022 Jun 1.

Immunisation and Vaccine Preventable Diseases Division, UK Health Security Agency, United Kingdom.

Objectives: Although often presenting as a self-limiting childhood disease, chickenpox can have serious consequences if acquired in pregnancy. Until April 2022, the UK recommendations were that varicella immunoglobulin (VZIG) should be administered intramuscularly to susceptible pregnant women exposed to chickenpox prior to 20 weeks gestation. Oral aciclovir or VZIG was recommended if exposure occurred at 20+ weeks gestation. Read More

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Immunological characteristics of MAV/06 strain of varicella-zoster virus vaccine in an animal model.

BMC Immunol 2022 Jun 3;23(1):27. Epub 2022 Jun 3.

GC Biopharma Corp., 107, Ihyeon-ro 30beon-gil, Giheung-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea.

Background: Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a pathogen that causes chickenpox and shingles in humans. Different types of the varicella vaccines derived from the Oka and MAV/06 strains are commercially available worldwide. Although the MAV/06 vaccine was introduced in 1990s, little was known about immunological characteristics. Read More

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An Outbreak Investigation of Varicella Zoster among Male Military Personnel in a Military Training Centre.

JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc 2022 May 5;60(249):469-472. Epub 2022 May 5.

Department of Community Medicine, Nepalese Army Institute of Health Sciences, Sanobharyang, Kathmandu, Nepal.

Introduction: Chickenpox is an acute, highly infectious disease. Outbreaks can occur in adults in closed institutional settings like hostels and barracks. This study aims to report varicella zoster outbreak among male military personnel in a military training centre. Read More

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The Biology of Varicella-Zoster Virus Replication in the Skin.

Viruses 2022 05 6;14(5). Epub 2022 May 6.

Department of Infection, Institute of Child Health, University College London, London WC1N 1EH, UK.

The replication of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) in skin is critical to its pathogenesis and spread. Primary infection causes chickenpox, which is characterised by centrally distributed skin blistering lesions that are rich in infectious virus. Cell-free virus in the cutaneous blistering lesions not only spreads to cause further cases, but infects sensory nerve endings, leading to the establishment of lifelong latency in sensory and autonomic ganglia. Read More

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Can Individuals with Suboptimal Antibody Responses to Conventional Antiviral Vaccines Acquire Adequate Antibodies from SARS-CoV-2 mRNA Vaccination?

Viruses 2022 05 3;14(5). Epub 2022 May 3.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Kyorin University School of Medicine, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8611, Japan.

In Japan, healthcare workers (HCWs) are vaccinated against measles, rubella, chickenpox, mumps, and hepatitis B to prevent nosocomial infection; however, some do not produce sufficient antibodies ("suboptimal responders"). This study compared immune responses to a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2 mRNA) vaccine among HCWs with normal and suboptimal responses to conventional vaccines. In this prospective cohort study, 50 HCWs received two doses of BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine 3 weeks apart. Read More

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Fraternal Twins: The Enigmatic Role of the Immune System in Alphaherpesvirus Pathogenesis and Latency and Its Impacts on Vaccine Efficacy.

Viruses 2022 04 21;14(5). Epub 2022 Apr 21.

Independent Contract Consultant, Littleton, CO 80125, USA.

Although the establishment, maintenance and reactivation from alphaherpesvirus latency is far from fully understood, some things are now manifestly clear: Alphaherpesvirus latency occurs in neurons of the peripheral nervous system and control of the process is multifactorial and complex. This includes components of the immune system, contributions from non-neuronal cells surrounding neurons in ganglia, specialized nucleic acids and modifications to the viral DNA to name some of the most important. Efficacious vaccines have been developed to control both acute varicella and zoster, the outcome of reactivation, but despite considerable effort vaccines for acute herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection or reactivated lesions have thus far failed to materialize despite considerable effort. Read More

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Rational Design of a Skin- and Neuro-Attenuated Live Varicella Vaccine: A Review and Future Perspectives.

Viruses 2022 04 20;14(5). Epub 2022 Apr 20.

Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers University, Newark, NJ 070101, USA.

Primary varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection causes varicella, which remains a prominent public health concern in children. Current varicella vaccines adopt the live-attenuated Oka strain, vOka, which retains the ability to infect neurons, establish latency and reactivate, leading to vaccine-associated zoster in some vaccinees. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a safer next-generation varicella vaccine to help reduce vaccine hesitancy. Read More

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Comparative Analysis of the Simian Varicella Virus and Varicella Zoster Virus Genomes.

Wayne L Gray

Viruses 2022 04 19;14(5). Epub 2022 Apr 19.

Biology Department, University of Mississippi, Oxford, MS 38677, USA.

Varicella zoster virus (VZV) and simian varicella virus (SVV) cause varicella (chickenpox) in children and nonhuman primates, respectively. After resolution of acute disease, the viruses establish latent infection in neural ganglia, after which they may reactivate to cause a secondary disease, such as herpes zoster. SVV infection of nonhuman primates provides a model to investigate VZV pathogenesis and antiviral strategies. Read More

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A Deep Learning Approach to Estimate the Incidence of Infectious Disease Cases for Routinely Collected Ambulatory Records: The Example of Varicella-Zoster.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2022 05 13;19(10). Epub 2022 May 13.

Unit of Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Public Health, Department of Cardiac, Thoracic, Vascular Sciences and Public Health, University of Padova, Via Loredan, 18, 35131 Padova, Italy.

The burden of infectious diseases is crucial for both epidemiological surveillance and prompt public health response. A variety of data, including textual sources, can be fruitfully exploited. Dealing with unstructured data necessitates the use of methods for automatic data-driven variable construction and machine learning techniques (MLT) show promising results. Read More

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Knowledge, attitudes, and practices of the United Arab Emirates population towards Herpes Zoster vaccination: A cross-sectional study.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2022 May 27:2073752. Epub 2022 May 27.

Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Sharjah, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.

Herpes Zoster is a viral infection that occurs due to reactivation of the Varicella Zoster virus. A vaccine has been approved for adults aged 50 and above for the prevention of Herpes Zoster and its complications. This study aims to assess the at-risk population's awareness of the disease and its vaccine, and attitudes and practices toward the vaccine. Read More

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Transmission dynamics of varicella before, during and after the COVID-19 pandemic in Japan: a modelling study.

Math Biosci Eng 2022 Apr;19(6):5998-6012

School of Public Health, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

Public health and social measures (PHSMs) targeting the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic have potentially affected the epidemiological dynamics of endemic infectious diseases. In this study, we investigated the impact of PHSMs for COVID-19, with a particular focus on varicella dynamics in Japan. We adopted the susceptible-infectious-recovered type of mathematical model to reconstruct the epidemiological dynamics of varicella from Jan. Read More

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Effect of COVID-19 restrictions and border closures on vaccine preventable diseases in Victoria, Australia, 2020-2021.

Commun Dis Intell (2018) 2022 May 19;46. Epub 2022 May 19.

Department of Health, Victoria, Australia.

Background: In 2020, Victoria introduced multiple interventions aimed at containing the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We examine the effect of these restrictions on other vaccine preventable diseases (VPDs).

Methods: We analysed the mandatory reporting data, notified to the Victorian Department of Health, for VPDs from January 2015 to December 2021. Read More

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Immunodeficiency Should Be Excluded in Patients With Recurrent Viral Meningitis and Breakthrough COVID-19.

Josef Finsterer

J Korean Med Sci 2022 05 16;37(19):e161. Epub 2022 May 16.

Neurology & Neurophysiology Center, Vienna, Austria.

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Development of an Indirect ELISA Kit for Rapid Detection of Varicella-Zoster Virus Antibody by Glycoprotein E.

Front Microbiol 2022 27;13:897752. Epub 2022 Apr 27.

School of Life Sciences, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China.

Varicella-zoster virus (VZV), a highly infectious agent that causes varicella (chickenpox), can also cause zoster (shingles), a disorder that is frequently associated with severe neuralgia. A reliable serological VZV diagnostic assay would be useful for identifying unprotected individuals and for surveilling post-vaccination immunoprotection status. Toward this goal, VZV membrane glycoprotein E (gE), the immunodominant VZV protein, served as target antigen in an indirect ELISA kit developed here to detect anti-VZV antibodies in clinical samples. Read More

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Catch-up vaccination campaign in children between 6 and 8 years old during COVID-19 pandemic: The experience in a COVID hub in Milan, Italy.

Vaccine 2022 Jun 13;40(26):3664-3669. Epub 2022 May 13.

Dept. Biomedical Sciences for Health, University of Milan, 20133 Milan, Italy; IRCCS Fondazione Ca' Granda - Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, 20122 Milan, Italy. Electronic address:

Background: COVID-19 has led to disruption in routine immunization programs around the world. Effective strategies need to be developed to address the decline in vaccine coverage to avoid preventable disease outbreaks. Our study reports a 4-days campaign for the catching-up of missed vaccinations in children aged between 6 and 8 years, in Milan, Italy. Read More

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