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    The Skin and the Eye - Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus in a Healthy 18-month-old Toddler.
    Folia Med (Plovdiv) 2018 Mar;60(1):170-174
    Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Medical University of Plovdiv, Plovdiv, Bulgaria.
    Herpes zoster, caused by reactivation of varicella-zoster virus, is uncommon in infancy. Even more uncommon is herpes zoster ophthalmicus, defined as herpes zoster of the ophthalmic branch of the fifth cranial nerve. Among healthy children, primary varicella-zoster virus infection during gestation as a result of maternal varicella or the first year of life is the major risk factor for development of herpes zoster in a relatively young age. Read More

    Severe Varicella Pneumonia in Adults: Seven Years' Single-center Experience from India.
    Indian J Crit Care Med 2018 Mar;22(3):162-167
    Department of Community Medicine, Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab, India.
    Context: Varicella pneumonia is a rare but a serious complication of chickenpox in adults. There is paucity of data on varicella pneumonia from India.

    Aims: The aim of this study is to describe the clinical manifestations, hospital course, treatment, and outcome of adult patients with severe varicella pneumonia. Read More

    Is varicella vaccination associated with pediatric arterial ischemic stroke? A population-based cohort study.
    Vaccine 2018 Apr 11. Epub 2018 Apr 11.
    University of Calgary, Cumming School of Medicine, 3330 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, AB T2N 4N1, Canada; Analytics and Performance Reporting, Alberta Health, P.O. Box 1360, Station Main, Edmonton, AB T5J 2N3, Canada; School of Public Health, University of Alberta, 3-300 Edmonton Clinic Health Academy, 11405- 87 Ave, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1C9, Canada; Division of Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, 13-103 Clinical Sciences Building, 11350-83 Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G3, Canada.
    Background And Purpose: Varicella disease is a risk factor for pediatric Arterial Ischemic Stroke (AIS). Isolated case reports have emerged suggesting that varicella vaccination may also pose a risk for AIS.

    Methods: This retrospective population-based cohort study assessed the risk of AIS in children who received a varicella-containing vaccine, as compared to those who did not. Read More

    Elderly-onset varicella pneumonia in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis taking tofacitinib.
    Arthritis Rheumatol 2018 Apr 12. Epub 2018 Apr 12.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Tomakomai City General Hospital, Tomakomai, Japan.
    A 68-year-old woman with rheumatoid arthritis, who was treated with tofacitinib, a type of Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitor, was admitted for dyspnea and generalized purpuric vesicular rash, following 3 days of fever and malaise. She developed hypoxia from respiratory insufficiency. On physical examination, the systemic eruptions had an erythematous base and were present in various stages, from maculopapular to vesicular and pustular, with crusting (left). Read More

    Granulysin as a novel factor for the prognosis of the clinical course of chickenpox.
    Epidemiol Infect 2018 Apr 10:1-4. Epub 2018 Apr 10.
    Burch University Sarajevo,Bosnia-Herzegovina.
    Granulysin is a recently discovered cytolytic protein of natural killer (NK) cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Studies of healthy and immunocompromised patients with primary or recurrent varicella-zoster infections demonstrate the importance of virus-specific cellular immunity in controlling viral replication, but also some studies presented granulysin as a molecule that can play a role in chickenpox immunopathogenesis. This study investigated possible correlation between serum granulysin levels and clinical course of chickenpox. Read More

    Classic paper: Are the chickenpox virus and the zoster virus identical?: HELMUT RUSKA.
    Rev Med Virol 2018 Apr 6:e1975. Epub 2018 Apr 6.
    Institute of Virology, University of Ulm Medical School, Ulm, Germany.
    As early as 1943, the German physician Helmut Ruska visualized the virus of varicella and zoster (at that time, he was not completely certain whether the virus was the same) by the newly developed electron microscope; he is regarded as the discoverer of this virus. Here, we present a translation of his classical paper into the English language. In our introduction and commentary to his paper, we discuss the significance of Helmut Ruska's work for the development of virology, his distinction between the varicella, zoster, and herpes virus group on one hand and poxviruses on the other, as well as the development of imaging techniques which have refined or substituted for electron microscopy of viruses and virus-infected cells. Read More

    Varicella-zoster virus necrotising retinitis, retinal vasculitis and panuveitis following uncomplicated chickenpox in an immunocompetent child.
    BMJ Case Rep 2018 Apr 5;2018. Epub 2018 Apr 5.
    Manchester Royal Eye Hospital, Manchester, UK.
    A 4-year-old girl presented with acute left visual loss 4 weeks after uneventful chickenpox. She was found to have left necrotising retinitis and profound retinal vasculitis and vitritis. Aqueous humour was PCR positive for varicella-zoster virus. Read More

    Maritime varicella illness and death reporting, U.S., 2010-2015.
    Travel Med Infect Dis 2018 Apr 2. Epub 2018 Apr 2.
    DGMQ, CDC, 1600 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30329-4018, United States. Electronic address:
    Background: Ships destined for, or departing from, U.S. ports of entry must report certain signs and symptoms of potentially communicable diseases of public health interest among travelers to the Division of Global Migration and Quarantine (DGMQ) at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Read More

    Vernet syndrome resulting from varicella zoster virus infection-a very rare clinical presentation of a common viral infection.
    J Neurovirol 2018 Mar 12. Epub 2018 Mar 12.
    Neurology, Department of Neurosciences and Mental Health, Hospital de Santa Maria, Centro Hospitalar de Lisboa Norte, Av. Prof. Egas Moniz, 1649-035, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Vernet syndrome is a unilateral palsy of glossopharyngeal, vagus, and accessory nerves. Varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection has rarely been described as a possible cause. A 76-year-old man presented with 1-week-long symptoms of dysphonia, dysphagia, and weakness of the right shoulder elevation, accompanied by a mild right temporal parietal headache with radiation to the ipsilateral ear. Read More

    Infections in Children: Report of Two Cases.
    Case Rep Pediatr 2018 21;2018:4158734. Epub 2018 Jan 21.
    Department of Microbiology, B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal.
    Introduction: primarily an environmental and agricultural organism has been reported as both commensal and pathogen of humans. We present two case reports of infections in children that involved the meninges and bloodstream.

    Case Presentations: A 6-month-old female baby, diagnosed as congenital hydrocephalus secondary to aqueduct stenosis with ventriculoperitoneal shunt in situ, operated 14 days back was brought to the pediatric emergency with a two-day history of high fever associated with vomiting, irritability, excessive crying, and decreased feeding. Read More

    The changing epidemiology of varicella and herpes zoster in Hong Kong before universal varicella vaccination in 2014.
    Epidemiol Infect 2018 Apr 12;146(6):723-734. Epub 2018 Mar 12.
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology,Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine,London,UK.
    In Hong Kong, universal varicella vaccination started in July 2014. Before this, children could receive varicella vaccine via the private market. We analysed the epidemiology of varicella and zoster before universal vaccination. Read More

    Incidence and mortality rates of varicella among end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients in Singapore General Hospital, a 12-year review.
    BMC Infect Dis 2018 03 7;18(1):118. Epub 2018 Mar 7.
    Department of Family Medicine and Continuing Care, Singapore General Hospital, Singapore, Singapore.
    Background: End stage renal disease (ESRD)/ end stage renal failure (ESRF) is on the rise globally and especially in Singapore. Varicella or chickenpox is not uncommon among adults especially ESRD/ESRF patients. It has been reported to cause complications and even death among immunocompetent adults. Read More

    [Varicella vaccination: scientific reasons for a different strategic approach].
    Epidemiol Prev 2018 Jan-Feb;42(1):65-70
    Cochrane Collaboration - revisioni sistematiche sull'efficacia e sicurezza dei vaccini.
    The Italian Parliament has recently introduced 10 mandatory immunisations, including the one against varicella. For this vaccination, the obligation starts with the birth cohort of 2017, but it is offered free of charge to subjects with a negative history and not previously vaccinated. This paper presents up-to-date evidence on this issue and illustrates a number of critical arguments that may question the opportunity of this choice. Read More

    Varicella-zoster-virus vaccination in immunosuppressed children with rheumatic diseases using a pre-vaccination check list.
    Pediatr Rheumatol Online J 2018 Mar 2;16(1):15. Epub 2018 Mar 2.
    German Center for Pediatric and Adolescent Rheumatology, Gehfeldstr. 24, 82467, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany.
    Background: The goal of this study was to apply the varicella zoster virus (VZV) vaccine to patients with pediatric rheumatic diseases (PRD) at risk for severe chickenpox, without interrupting their current immunosuppression, including biological agents, using an immunological-based pre-vaccination checklist to assure safety. A pre-vaccination checklist was implemented to ensure adequate immune competence prior to immunization.

    Methods: This prospective study included seronegative patients (VZV-IgG ≤200 mIU/ml) and patients who had previously received only a single dose of VZV vaccine. Read More

    Varicella-zoster virus infection: natural history, clinical manifestations, immunity and current and future vaccination strategies.
    New Microbiol 2018 Mar 2;41(1). Epub 2018 Mar 2.
    Virology Unit, Pisa University Hospital, Pisa, Italy.
    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is the etiologic agent of varicella (chicken pox), a childhood exanthematic disease that develops as a result of primary infection, and zoster (shingles), caused by reactivation of the virus persisting in a latent form in the dorsal sensory ganglia. Although varicella is generally a mild self-limiting illness, in immunocompromised subjects and adults it can have a serious clinical course that can lead to permanent damage of the central nervous system. In these and in most zoster cases, treatment with anti-herpetic drugs and/or immunotherapy is necessary. Read More

    Herpes zoster ophthalmicus with associated vasculopathy causing stroke.
    Dermatol Online J 2017 Jul 15;23(7). Epub 2017 Jul 15.
    University Of Cincinnati, Department of Dermatology, Cincinnati, Ohio.
    Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is an exclusively human, double-stranded DNA virus. Primary infection causes varicella (chickenpox); later the virus becomes dormant in the dorsal root, cranial nerve, and autonomic ganglia along the entire span of the nervous system, retaining the capacity to reactivate and cause a variety of dermal and neurological complications. Recently there has been increasing recognition, both clinically and epidemiologically, of the relationship between VZV and subsequent strokes. Read More

    [Varicella and herpes zoster: challenges for public health].
    Salud Publica Mex 2017 Nov-Dec;59(6):650-656
    MSD México. Ciudad de México, México.
    Objective: To evaluate the epidemiological behavior of varicella and herpes zoster (HZ) to determine the need of health policies to diminish prevalence and avoid complications.

    Materials And Methods: To assess frequency, we analyzed data from the National Information System for Epidemiological Surveillance (SUIVE) from 2000 to 2013; to assess the discharge data of varicella and HZ, we evaluated information from the National System of health information (Sinais).

    Results: The average annual cases of chickenpox were 296 733, 57% mostly children under 9 years, most of them from March to May. Read More

    Chickenpox outbreak in a tribal and industrial zone from the Union Territory of Dadra and Nagar Haveli, India.
    Epidemiol Infect 2018 Mar 13;146(4):476-480. Epub 2018 Feb 13.
    ICMR-National Institute of Virology,20-A Dr Ambedkar Road,Pune 411001,India.
    During 9th December 2016 and 12th February 2017, 149-chickenpox cases were reported in a tribal and industrial zone of Rakholi (n = 80) and Surangi (n = 69) villages from Union Territory of India. An epidemiological investigation was performed to assess the characteristics and determinants of the chickenpox outbreak. Overall, the attack rate per 100 population in Rakholi village (n = 1757) was 4. Read More

    Herpes Zoster and Postherpetic Neuralgia: Prevention and Management.
    Am Fam Physician 2017 Nov;96(10):656-663
    Nellis Family Medicine Residency, Mike O'Callaghan Federal Medical Center, Nellis Air Force Base, NV, USA.
    Herpes zoster, or shingles, is caused by reactivation of varicella zoster virus, which causes chickenpox. There are an estimated 1 million cases in the Unites States annually, with an individual lifetime risk of 30%. Patients with conditions that decrease cell-mediated immunity are 20 to 100 times more likely to develop herpes zoster. Read More

    The impact of immunization programs on 10 vaccine preventable diseases in Italy: 1900-2015.
    Vaccine 2018 03 7;36(11):1435-1443. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Istituto Superiore di Sanità (Italian National Institute of Health), Rome, Italy.
    Background: Vaccination has determined a dramatic decline in morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases over the last century. However, low perceived risk of the infectious threat and increased concern about vaccines' safety led to a reduction in vaccine coverage, with increased risk of disease outbreaks.

    Methods: Annual surveillance data of nationally communicable infectious diseases in Italy between 1900 and 2015 were used to derive trends in morbidity and mortality rates before and after vaccine introduction, focusing particularly on the effect of vaccination programs. Read More

    [Hope-Simpson and shingles].
    Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 2018 ;162(0):D2158
    Nederlands Huisartsen Genootschap, afd. Richtlijnontwikkeling en Wetenschap, Utrecht.
    Dr Robert Edgar Hope-Simpson (1908-2003) was a British general practitioner, who has laid the foundation for unravelling the pathogenesis of shingles. At the beginning of the 20th century, both conditions were known to be related, but the precise relationship was unclear. It was assumed that chickenpox could originate after infection by both a person with shingles or someone with chickenpox, but that both diseases were caused by different viruses. Read More

    Patient's experiences with the care for juvenile idiopathic arthritis across Europe.
    Pediatr Rheumatol Online J 2018 Feb 8;16(1):10. Epub 2018 Feb 8.
    Paediatric Rheumatology, Wilhelmina Children's Hospital, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Room KC.03.063.0, P.O. box 85090, 3508, AB, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Background: To assess the views of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) patients and their parents on the care and treatment they receive in referral pediatric rheumatology centers throughout Europe.

    Methods: In a collaboration between physicians and patient associations, a questionnaire was developed, covering various domains of JIA care, including demographics, diagnosis, referrals to various health care professionals, access to pain and fatigue management and support groups, information they received about the disease and awareness of and participation in research. The questionnaire was translated and distributed by parent associations and pediatric rheumatologists in 25 countries, 22 of which were European. Read More

    Chickenpox in Poland in 2015
    Przegl Epidemiol 2017 ;71(4):487-491
    National Institute of Public Health – National Institute of Hygiene in Warsaw, Department of Epidemiology
    Background: A large number of chickenpox cases, indicates the rationale for the use of chickenpox vaccinations. In Poland since 2002, chickenpox vaccination is included in the National Immunisation Programme as recommended.(1)

    Aim: To assess epidemiological situation of chickenpox in Poland in 2015 in comparison to previous years

    Methods: The descriptive analysis was based on based on the results of the analysis of aggregate data published in the annual bulletins “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2015” and “Vaccinations in Poland in 2015” (2,3). Read More

    Economic burden of varicella in children 1-12 years of age in Argentina, 2009-2014.
    J Med Econ 2018 Apr 7;21(4):416-424. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    d Merck & Co., Inc. , Kenilworth , NJ , USA.
    Background: In Argentina, varicella vaccination was included in the national schedule for mandatory immunizations in 2015. The vaccine has been shown to substantially reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with the virus. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical and economic burden associated with varicella in Argentina prior to vaccine introduction. Read More

    Epidemic Varicella Zoster Virus among University Students, India.
    Emerg Infect Dis 2018 Feb;24(2):366-369
    We investigated a yearlong varicella zoster virus outbreak in a highly susceptible young adult population at a large university in India. Outbreaks of varicella infection among adults are not well described in the literature. Infection control measures and vaccination policy for this age group and setting are needed. Read More

    Attenuation of Simian Varicella Virus Infection by Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein in Rhesus Macaques.
    J Virol 2018 04 14;92(7). Epub 2018 Mar 14.
    Division of Microbiology, Tulane University, Tulane National Primate Research Center, Covington, Louisiana, USA.
    Simian varicella virus (SVV), the primate counterpart of varicella-zoster virus, causes varicella (chickenpox), establishes latency in ganglia, and reactivates to produce zoster. We previously demonstrated that a recombinant SVV expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (rSVV.eGFP) is slightly attenuated both in culture and in infected monkeys. Read More

    Utility of ultra-deep sequencing for detection of varicella-zoster virus antiviral resistance mutations.
    Antiviral Res 2018 Mar 12;151:20-23. Epub 2018 Jan 12.
    Persistent Viral Infections Team, U1135, CR7, CIMI-UPMC and AP-HP, Hôpitaux Universitaires La Pitié Salpêtrière - Charles Foix, Service de Virologie, Paris, France. Electronic address:
    We report the first application of ultra-deep sequencing (UDS) to varicella-zoster virus (VZV) genotypic antiviral testing in a case of acyclovir-resistant VZV infection initially detected by Sanger sequencing within a deeply immunocompromised heart transplant recipient. As added-value compared to Sanger analysis, UDS revealed complex dynamics of viral population under antiviral pressure. Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a ubiquitous human herpesvirus affecting populations worldwide. Read More

    A New Combined Vaccine Against Measles, Mumps, Rubella and Varicella in India.
    Indian Pediatr 2017 12;54(12):1041-1046
    PD Hinduja National Hospital, and #GSK; Mumbai, India; and $GSK, Wavre, Belgium. Correspondence to: Dr Raunak Parikh,GSK, Dr Annie Besant Rd, 400030 Mumbai, India.
    A quadrivalent MMRV (measles-mumps-rubella-varicella) combination vaccine has recently been launched in India. This vaccine is highly immunogenic, with seroconversion rates against all antigens reaching 96.6-100% at 42 to 56 days after the second vaccine dose in unvaccinated children or in those previously vaccinated with MMR+/-V. Read More

    Influence of demographic changes on the impact of vaccination against varicella and herpes zoster in Germany - a mathematical modelling study.
    BMC Med 2018 01 9;16(1). Epub 2018 Jan 9.
    ESME - Epidemiological and Statistical Methods Research Group, Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany.
    Background: Epidemiological studies suggest that reduced exposure to varicella might lead to an increased risk for herpes zoster (HZ). Reduction of exposure to varicella is a consequence of varicella vaccination but also of demographic changes. We analyzed how the combination of vaccination programs and demographic dynamics will affect the epidemiology of varicella and HZ in Germany over the next 50 years. Read More

    Post-varicella Arterial Ischemic Stroke in Denmark 2010 to 2016.
    Pediatr Neurol 2018 Mar 1;80:42-50. Epub 2017 Dec 1.
    Department of Paediatric and Adolescent Medicine, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen Ø, Denmark.
    Background: Varicella, most often a benign disease of childhood, is associated with an increased risk of arterial ischemic stroke in children. The aim of the present study was to estimate the incidence of post-varicella arterial ischemic stroke in the Danish child population and describe clinical characteristics of children admitted with post-varicella arterial ischemic stroke.

    Methods: In the Danish National Patient Register, we identified inpatients 28 days to 16 years of age with a discharge diagnosis of stroke or cerebrovascular disease from 2010 to 2016. Read More

    Humoral immune response to measles and varicella vaccination in former very low birth weight preterm infants.
    Braz J Infect Dis 2018 Jan - Feb;22(1):41-46. Epub 2018 Jan 5.
    Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Departamento de Pediatria, São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Introduction: Immune response to vaccination in infants born prematurely may be lower than in infants born at full-term. Some clinical factors might be associated with humoral immune response.

    Objectives: The objectives of this study were to compare the immune response to measles and varicella vaccination in infants born prematurely with those born at full-term and to analyze factors associated with measles and varicella antibody levels. Read More

    Chickenpox and measles clusters among college students in Pune, Maharashtra.
    Virusdisease 2017 Sep 20;28(3):337-340. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    National Institute of Virology [NIV], Indian Council of Medical Research, 130/1, Sus Road, Pashan, Pune, 411021 India.
    Chickenpox and measles, both vaccine preventable febrile rash illnesses, present in a comparatively severe form among young adults/adults than among children. Immunity levels against chickenpox are not known in India and those against measles have been found variable across the country. Places where students or adults/young adults from various parts of the country come together pose a peculiar challenge in preventive policy making regarding these diseases. Read More

    Cost-effectiveness of Varicella Vaccination Program in Iran.
    Int J Prev Med 2017 5;8:103. Epub 2017 Dec 5.
    Department of Community Medicine, Preventive Medicine and Public Health Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Background: Varicella zoster virus is the etiologic agent of primary varicella (chickenpox) during childhood, and varicella vaccination has not been introduced in Iran. The aim of this study is to estimate cost-effectiveness of one- and two-dose Varicella Vaccination Program in Iran.

    Methods: A decision-tree model was conducted to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the Varicella Vaccination Program in a cohort of 12 months children in Iran. Read More

    Vaccination history in elementary school children enrolled in the varicella epidemic investigations held in Jeju-si, Korea in the first half of 2017.
    Epidemiol Health 2017 13;39:e2017053. Epub 2017 Nov 13.
    Department of Preventive Medicine, Jeju National University Scool of Medicine, Jeju, Korea.
    Objectives: The reported incidence rate of varicella infection in Jeju-do is higher compared with the national average. This study aimed to examine varicella vaccination history and evaluate clinical manifestation of varicella cases in Jeju-do.

    Methods: Based on the guideline suggested by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC), two epidemic investigations for varicella infection were conducted in the first half of 2017. Read More

    Chickenpox: an ageless disease.
    BMJ Case Rep 2017 Dec 22;2017. Epub 2017 Dec 22.
    Department of Geriatric Medicine, Princess Royal University Hospital, Orpington, UK.
    A 97-year-old woman presented with 4-day history of vesicular rash, initially at the feet but then spread up to the thighs bilaterally, abdomen and trunk. The initial differentials included bullous pemphigus and cellulitis by the emergency department. She was then managed as bullous pemphigus by the acute medical team and started on high-dose steroids, with no other differentials considered. Read More

    'Outbreak Gold Standard' selection to provide optimized threshold for infectious diseases early-alert based on China Infectious Disease Automated-alert and Response System.
    J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci 2017 Dec 21;37(6):833-841. Epub 2017 Dec 21.
    Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, 30329-4027, USA.
    The China Infectious Disease Automated-alert and Response System (CIDARS) was successfully implemented and became operational nationwide in 2008. The CIDARS plays an important role in and has been integrated into the routine outbreak monitoring efforts of the Center for Disease Control (CDC) at all levels in China. In the CIDARS, thresholds are determined using the "Mean+2SD‟ in the early stage which have limitations. Read More

    BET 2: NSAIs and chickenpox.
    Emerg Med J 2018 Jan;35(1):66-68
    Gloucester Royal Hospital, Gloucester UK and John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK.
    A shortcut review was carried out to establish whether non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is safe to prescribe in patients with chicken pox. 66 unique papers were found in CINAHL, Medline, Embase and Cochrane using the reported searches of which 6 presented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The author, date and country of publication; patient group studied; study type; relevant outcomes; results and study weaknesses of these best papers are tabulated. Read More

    Vaccine-type mutations identified in Varicella zoster virus passaged in cell culture.
    Virus Res 2018 02 12;245:62-68. Epub 2017 Dec 12.
    Department of Microbiology, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, South Korea. Electronic address:
    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a causative agent for chickenpox and shingles. Comparative genomic sequence analysis of clinical and vaccine strains suggested potential sites responsible for attenuation. In this study, low and high passages of two VZV clinical strains cultured in human fibroblast cells were compared for genomic DNA sequences and growth characteristics. Read More

    Nursing management of childhood chickenpox infection.
    Emerg Nurse 2017 Dec;25(8):32-41
    Torbay Hospital, Torquay, England.
    Chickenpox is an extremely contagious infectious disease caused by varicella zoster virus (VZV). It is a common childhood illness characterised by an itchy vesicular rash and fever, which usually resolves spontaneously without medical intervention. Serious, and rarely fatal, complications can occur, including pneumonia, central nervous system infection, overwhelming secondary bacterial infections, especially with Group A streptococcus, and necrotising fasciitis. Read More

    QuickStats: Percentage of Children Aged 4-17 Years Who Had Ever Had Varicella (Chickenpox),* by Age Group - National Health Interview Survey, 2007-2016.
    • Authors:
    MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2017 Dec 8;66(48):1337. Epub 2017 Dec 8.
    During 2007-2016, the percentage of children aged 4-17 years who had ever had chickenpox decreased among both younger children (aged 4-11 years) and older children (aged 12-17 years). Among younger children, the percentage of children who had ever had chickenpox declined by 73.9%, from 16. Read More

    Early impact of universal varicella vaccination on childhood varicella and herpes zoster hospitalizations in Brazil.
    Vaccine 2018 01 1;36(2):280-284. Epub 2017 Dec 1.
    Centro Infant, Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Avenida Ipiranga 6690, 2nd floor, ZIP-Code: 90610-000, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Introduction: The Brazilian childhood National Immunization Program (NIP) introduced live and attenuated varicella vaccination in a single dose, combined as tetraviral vaccine, at 15 months of age in the whole country, during September to December of 2013. The aim of this study was to report trends in incidence of childhood hospital admissions related to varicella and zoster in Brazil from 2003 to 2016, including the first three years after vaccine introduction.

    Methods: The number and incidence of hospital admission in patients aged less than 20 years in Brazilian public health system with an admission diagnosis of varicella and zoster from 2003 to 2016 were analyzed and pre (2003-2013) and post-vaccination periods (2014-2016) were compared. Read More

    Varicella Virus Vaccination in the United States.
    Viral Immunol 2018 03 27;31(2):96-103. Epub 2017 Nov 27.
    2 Department of Pediatrics, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons , New York, New York.
    Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is the cause of chickenpox (varicella) and shingles (zoster), and was once responsible for over 4 million infections in the United States annually. The development of a live attenuated VZV vaccine was initially viewed with extreme skepticism. Nonetheless, a VZV vaccine was developed in the 1970s by Takahashi and his colleagues in Japan and was eventually licensed in the US. Read More

    An outbreak of chickenpox in an asylum seeker centre in Italy: outbreak investigation and validity of reported chickenpox history, December 2015-May 2016.
    Euro Surveill 2017 11;22(46)
    The members of the Outbreak Investigation Group are listed at the end of the article.
    An outbreak of chickenpox occurred between December 2015 and May 2016 among asylum seekers in a reception centre in Latium, Italy. We describe the epidemiological and laboratory investigations, control measures and validity of reported history of chickenpox infection. Serological screening of all residents and incoming asylum seekers was performed, followed by vaccine offer to all susceptible individuals without contraindication. Read More

    A Unique Case of Acute Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis Secondary to Primary Varicella Zoster Virus Infection.
    Cureus 2017 Sep 16;9(9):e1693. Epub 2017 Sep 16.
    Medicine, Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Primary varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection, predominantly in the pediatric population, presents with pyrexia and a classic pruritic vesicular rash. In adults, although less common, it is more severe and linked to more complications. Neurological complications, which account for less than 1% of all VZV complications, include meningitis, encephalitis, arterial vasculopathy, and venous thrombosis. Read More

    Varicella zoster virus-associated morbidity and mortality in Africa - a systematic review.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 11 14;17(1):717. Epub 2017 Nov 14.
    Vaccines for Africa Initiative, Division of Medical Microbiology & Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Background: Varicella zoster virus (VZV) causes varicella and herpes zoster. These vaccine preventable diseases are common globally. Most available data on VZV epidemiology are from industrialised temperate countries and cannot be used to guide decisions on the immunization policy against VZV in Africa. Read More

    Varicella-zoster virus ORF7 interacts with ORF53 and plays a role in its trans-Golgi network localization.
    Virol Sin 2017 Oct 30;32(5):387-395. Epub 2017 Oct 30.
    State Key Laboratory of Molecular Vaccinology and Molecular Diagnostics, National Institute of Diagnostics and Vaccine Development in Infectious Diseases, School of Public Health, Xiamen University, Xiamen, 361102, China.
    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a neurotropic alphaherpesvirus that causes chickenpox and shingles. ORF7 is an important virulence determinant of VZV in both human skin and nerve tissues, however, its specific function and involved molecular mechanism in VZV pathogenesis remain largely elusive. Previous yeast two-hybrid studies on intraviral protein-protein interaction network in herpesviruses have revealed that VZV ORF7 may interact with ORF53, which is a virtually unstudied but essential viral protein. Read More

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