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    Role of JNK pathway in varicella-zoster virus lytic infection and reactivation.
    J Virol 2017 Jun 21. Epub 2017 Jun 21.
    Division of Neuroimmunology and Neuroinfectious Diseases, Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD
    Mechanisms of neuronal infection by varicella-zoster virus (VZV) have been challenging to study due to the relatively strict human tropism of the virus and the paucity of tractable experimental models. Cellular mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) have been shown to play a role in VZV infection of non-neuronal cells, with distinct consequences on infectivity in differing cell types. Here, we utilize several human neuronal culture systems to investigate the role of one such MAPK, the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), in VZV lytic infection and reactivation. Read More

    Increasing prevalence of infectious diseases in asylum seekers at a tertiary care hospital in Switzerland.
    PLoS One 2017 15;12(6):e0179537. Epub 2017 Jun 15.
    Division of Infectious Diseases & Hospital Epidemiology, University Hospital Basel, University Basel, Basel, Switzerland.
    Objective: The increasing number of refugees seeking asylum in Europe in recent years poses new challenges for the healthcare systems in the destination countries. The goal of the study was to describe the evolution of medical problems of asylum seekers at a tertiary care centre in Switzerland.

    Methods: At the University Hospital Basel, we compared all asylum seekers during two 1-year time periods in 2004/05 and 2014/15 concerning demographic characteristics and reasons for referrals and hospitalizations. Read More

    How to select a proper early warning threshold to detect infectious disease outbreaks based on the China infectious disease automated alert and response system (CIDARS).
    BMC Public Health 2017 Jun 12;17(1):570. Epub 2017 Jun 12.
    School of Public Health, Fudan University, NO. 130 Dong-An Road, Shanghai, 200032, China.
    Background: China Centre for Diseases Control and Prevention (CDC) developed the China Infectious Disease Automated Alert and Response System (CIDARS) in 2005. The CIDARS was used to strengthen infectious disease surveillance and aid in the early warning of outbreak. The CIDARS has been integrated into the routine outbreak monitoring efforts of the CDC at all levels in China. Read More

    Managing varicella zoster virus contact and infection in patients on anti-rheumatic therapy.
    Rheumatology (Oxford) 2017 May 29. Epub 2017 May 29.
    Department of Rheumatology, King's College London, London, UK.
    Chickenpox and shingles can be more severe and occasionally life threatening in immunosuppressed patients. As such, some groups warrant a more detailed history, serological testing and consideration of prophylaxis following contact with the virus. Active disease may also require more aggressive treatment with antivirals. Read More

    Modelling the transmission and control strategies of varicella among school children in Shenzhen, China.
    PLoS One 2017 18;12(5):e0177514. Epub 2017 May 18.
    Department of Applied Mathematics, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, China.
    Objectives: Varicella (chickenpox) is a highly transmissible childhood disease. Between 2010 and 2015, it displayed two epidemic waves annually among school populations in Shenzhen, China. However, their transmission dynamics remain unclear and there is no school-based vaccination programme in Shenzhen to-date. Read More

    Varicella-zoster virus seroprevalence in children and adolescents in the pre-varicella vaccine era, Germany.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 May 19;17(1):356. Epub 2017 May 19.
    Department of Epidemiology and Health Monitoring, Robert Koch Institute, Berlin, Germany.
    Background: In 2004, universal childhood varicella vaccination was introduced in Germany. We aimed to determine the age-specific prevalence of anti-varicella zoster virus (VZV) IgG-antibodies among children in the pre-varicella vaccine era in Germany, to identify factors associated with VZV seropositivity, and to assess the suitability of a commercially available ELISA for VZV seroepidemiological studies by comparing it with an in-house fluorescent antibody to membrane antigen test (FAMA) as the gold standard.

    Methods: Serum samples of 13,433 children and adolescents aged 1-17 years included in the population-based German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS; conducted 2003-2006) were tested for anti-VZV IgG by ELISA. Read More

    Calcification of the submandibular gland in a patient with chickenpox.
    Indian J Radiol Imaging 2017 Jan-Mar;27(1):49-51
    Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Faculty of Dentistry, Ondokuz Mayis University, Samsun, Turkey.
    The pneumonia virus of chickenpox is now known to cause scattered calcified foci in the lungs, however to our knowledge, recent literature has not discussed calcification in the salivary glands. A 15-year-old boy consulted the department of radiology because of a swelling on the right side of the submandibular area. Radiological assessment included an ultrasonography and computerized tomography scan of the neck area, which demonstrated intraparenchymal amorph calcification, with approximately 13 mm diameter in the right submandibular gland. Read More

    Sex differences underlying orofacial varicella zoster associated pain in rats.
    BMC Neurol 2017 May 17;17(1):95. Epub 2017 May 17.
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University College of Dentistry, 3302 Gaston Avenue, Dallas, TX, 75246, USA.
    Background: Most people are initially infected with varicella zoster virus (VZV) at a young age and this infection results in chickenpox. VZV then becomes latent and reactivates later in life resulting in herpes zoster (HZ) or "shingles". Often VZV infects neurons of the trigeminal ganglia to cause ocular problems, orofacial disease and occasionally a chronic pain condition termed post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN). Read More

    Safety and immunogenicity of Bio Pox™, a live varicella vaccine (Oka strain) in Indian children: A comparative multicentric, randomized phase II/III clinical trial.
    Hum Vaccin Immunother 2017 May 16:1-6. Epub 2017 May 16.
    a Department of Pediatrics , Maulana Azad Medical College , New Delhi , India.
    Varicella or chickenpox is a highly contagious disease with a high secondary attack rate. Almost 30% of Indian adolescents lack protective antibodies against varicella, emphasizing the need of routine varicella immunization. The Oka VZV is a well-established, safe and efficacious vaccine strain that is highly immunogenic and produces lifelong protective immunity. Read More

    Varicella Zoster Virus-Associated Necrotizing Retinitis after Chickenpox in a 10-Year-Old Female: A Case Report.
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 2017 May 11. Epub 2017 May 11.
    1Department of Ophthalmology, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea 2Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea 3Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.
    A necrotizing retinitis in children is a rare but vision threatening ocular complication of chickenpox. We report a 10-year-old girl who developed chickenpox one month before presenting with panuveitis and necrotizing retinitis. After prompt antiviral treatment, her inflammatory signs were resolved. Read More

    Assessing varicella vaccine effectiveness and its influencing factors using health insurance claims data, Germany, 2006 to 2015.
    Euro Surveill 2017 Apr;22(17)
    Robert Koch Institute, Department for Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Berlin, Germany.
    In Germany, routine childhood varicella vaccination was implemented in 2004 with two doses recommended since 2009. We used an immunisation information system based on countrywide health insurance claims data to analyse vaccine effectiveness (VE) and factors influencing VE. We applied proportional hazard models to estimate VE under various conditions and compared the risk of acquiring varicella among unvaccinated children in regions with high vs low vaccination coverage (VC). Read More

    T-lymphocyte Subsets as a Prognostic Factor in a Clinical Course of Chickenpox.
    Mater Sociomed 2017 Mar;29(1):14-16
    Burch International University, Sarajevo, Bosnia-Herzegovina.
    Objective: To investigate possible prognostic values of CD4+, CD8+ T-lymphocytes, CD4/CD8 ratio to clinical course of chickenpox in immunocompetent hosts.

    Materials And Methods: We performed a prospective study which included 69 immunocompetent patients with chickenpox who were addmited to Clinic for infectious disease, Clinical Center University of Sarajevo, in a 18 month period. All patients were divided into two groups depending on clinical presentation on admission. Read More

    Herpes zoster vaccine: A health economic evaluation for Switzerland.
    Hum Vaccin Immunother 2017 May 8:1-10. Epub 2017 May 8.
    a University of Basel, Institute of Pharmaceutical Medicine (ECPM) , Basel , Switzerland.
    Herpes zoster (HZ) or "shingles" results from a reactivation of the varicella zoster virus (VZV) acquired during primary infection (chickenpox) and surviving in the dorsal root ganglia. In about 20% of cases, a complication occurs, known as post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN). A live attenuated vaccine against VZV is available for the prevention of HZ and subsequent PHN. Read More

    Cost-effectiveness analysis of vaccinations and decision makings on vaccination programmes in Hong Kong: A systematic review.
    Vaccine 2017 May 2;35(24):3153-3161. Epub 2017 May 2.
    Department of Family Medicine and Primary Care, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
    Objectives: To describe and systematically review the modelling and reporting of cost-effectiveness analysis of vaccination in Hong Kong, and to identify areas for quality enhancement in future cost-effectiveness analyses.

    Methods: We conducted a comprehensive and systematic review of cost-effectiveness studies related to vaccination and government immunisation programmes in Hong Kong published from 1990 to 2015, through database search of Pubmed, Web of Science, Embase, and OVID Medline. Methodological quality of selected studies was assessed using Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards checklist (CHEERS). Read More

    [ACTION OF L-CARNITINE, CORVITIN AND THEIR COMBINATION ON FUNCTIONAL STATE OF LIVER IN EXPERIMENTAL MODEL OF REYE SYNDROME IN RATS].
    Georgian Med News 2017 Feb(263):105-111
    Tbilisi State Medical University, Department of Pharmacotherapy; JSC "Curatio", Tbilisi, Georgia.
    Administration of Aacetylsalicylic acid in children with viral infections (influence B, chickenpox) can be related with development of Reye syndrome - severe encephalopathy and liver insufficiency with mortality in 50% of cases. During Reye syndrome most important is deficiency of carnitine and hepatocyte damage. Decreased amount of carnitine impairs the energy function of mitochondria and gluconeogenesis as well as production of urea. Read More

    Multidisciplinary study of the secondary immune response in grandparents re-exposed to chickenpox.
    Sci Rep 2017 Apr 24;7(1):1077. Epub 2017 Apr 24.
    Centre for Health Economics Research & Modeling Infectious Diseases (CHERMID), Vaccine & Infectious Disease Institute (VAXINFECTIO), University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.
    Re-exposure to chickenpox may boost varicella-zoster virus (VZV) immunity in the elderly. This secondary immune response is hypothesized to confer protection against herpes zoster. We longitudinally sampled 36 adults over the course of one year after re-exposure to chickenpox. Read More

    [Decrease in the incidence of chickenpox in the Community of Madrid after universal childhood immunization. Years 2001-2015].
    Aten Primaria 2017 Apr 19. Epub 2017 Apr 19.
    Servicio de Epidemiología, Subdirección de Epidemiología, Dirección General de Salud Pública, Consejería de Sanidad, Comunidad de Madrid, Madrid, España.
    Objective: Varicella vaccine was recommended in the Community of Madrid (CM) at 15months of age between November 2006 and December 2013. The objective was to describe the impact of vaccination on the incidence of varicella in the CM during the period 2001-2015.

    Design: A descriptive study of cases of varicella reported to the Sentinel Physician Network of the CM and the cases recorded in the Minimum Basic Data Set at hospital discharge was carried out. Read More

    Inhibition of varicella‑zoster virus replication by an ethanol extract of Lysimachia mauritiana.
    Mol Med Rep 2017 Jun 7;15(6):3847-3851. Epub 2017 Apr 7.
    Department of Life Science, Gachon University, Seongnam‑Si, Kyeonggi‑Do 461‑701, Republic of Korea.
    Varicella‑zoster virus (VZV), a ubiquitous human α‑herpesvirus, is the causative agent of chickenpox and shingles. In the present study, we investigated the antiviral activity of a 70% ethanol extract of Lysimachia mauritiana (LME) against VZV. LME strongly interfered with the replication of both laboratory and clinical strains of VZV without affecting the viability of MRC‑5 cells. Read More

    Varicella zoster virus infection after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation in children using a relatively short duration of acyclovir prophylaxis: A retrospective study.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2017 Apr;96(14):e6546
    aDepartment of Pediatrics bThe Vaccine Bio Research Institute cThe Catholic Blood and Marrow Transplantation Center dDivision of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
    Although acyclovir prophylaxis against varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection for ≥1 year is recommended after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), the emergence of acyclovir-resistant viruses and adverse drug effects cannot be ignored. We investigated the cumulative incidence of VZV infection after allogeneic HCT in children receiving a shorter duration of acyclovir prophylaxis than recommended and evaluated the appropriateness of the short duration of acyclovir prophylaxis.Medical records of 217 children who received allogeneic HCT were retrospectively reviewed until a median of 25 months (range = 1-59 months) after HCT. Read More

    Vaccination campaign at a temporary camp for victims of the earthquake in Lorca (Spain).
    Hum Vaccin Immunother 2017 Mar 31:1-8. Epub 2017 Mar 31.
    a Health Department , Vaccinations Programme , Region of Murcia , Spain.
    Outbreaks in temporary camps are an important risk for the health of the displaced population. The town of Lorca (Murcia, Spain) suffered 2 earthquakes on May 2011 that required the re-housing of 1,424 victims in a temporary camp. Following 4 cases of chickenpox control measures were adopted among the displaced population. Read More

    Varicella seroepidemiology in United States air force recruits: A retrospective cohort study comparing immunogenicity of varicella vaccination and natural infection.
    Vaccine 2017 Apr 27;35(18):2351-2357. Epub 2017 Mar 27.
    Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Rd, Building A, Room 1040A, Bethesda, MD, USA.
    Background/objectives: Infection with varicella zoster virus (VZV) produces lifelong immunity, but duration of post-vaccination immunity has not been established. The purpose of this study is to determine if a difference exists in the long-term seropositivity of anti-VZV antibodies in a cohort of young adults who were vaccinated against varicella as compared to a similar cohort with a history of chickenpox disease, and to determine which variables best predict waning seropositivity following varicella vaccination.

    Methods: This retrospective cohort study captures immunization and serology data from approximately 10,000 recruits who entered basic military training between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2015, and who have childhood immunization records in the Air Force Aeromedical Services Information Management System. Read More

    ORF7 of Varicella-Zoster Virus Is Required for Viral Cytoplasmic Envelopment in Differentiated Neuronal Cells.
    J Virol 2017 Jun 26;91(12). Epub 2017 May 26.
    State Key Laboratory of Virology, CAS Center for Excellence in Brain Science, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China
    Although a varicella-zoster virus (VZV) vaccine has been used for many years, the neuropathy caused by VZV infection is still a major health concern. Open reading frame 7 (ORF7) of VZV has been recognized as a neurotropic gene in vivo, but its neurovirulent role remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effect of ORF7 deletion on VZV replication cycle at virus entry, genome replication, gene expression, capsid assembly and cytoplasmic envelopment, and transcellular transmission in differentiated neural progenitor cells (dNPCs) and neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y (dSY5Y) cells. Read More

    Epidemiology of varicella in Haidian district, Beijing, China-2007-2015.
    Vaccine 2017 Apr 23;35(18):2365-2371. Epub 2017 Mar 23.
    Beijing Haidian District Center for Diseases Control and Prevention, People's Republic of China.
    Background: 1-Dose varicella vaccination was recommended for children in Beijing before November 2012. To further control school-based outbreaks and decrease incidence, a 2-dose vaccination was implemented in 2013. We described the varicella epidemiology and assessed impact of the 2-dose vaccination in Haidian district, Beijing, 2007-2015. Read More

    Isolated lower limb hypoplasia secondary to congenital varicella syndrome: a rare occurrence and management of its complications.
    BMJ Case Rep 2017 Mar 22;2017. Epub 2017 Mar 22.
    West Suffolk Hospitals NHS Trust, Bury Saint Edmunds, UK.
    Isolated lower limb hypoplasia is a rare consequence of maternal congenital varicella syndrome (CVS). The hypoplastic limb is susceptible to multiple injuries, including fractures, especially if there is associated muscle weakness and lack of sensation. We describe a unique index case of a woman aged 26 years with a background of CVS who presented with a distal femur fracture following a fall onto her insensate, hypoplastic right leg. Read More

    Localization of VZV in saliva of zoster patients.
    J Med Virol 2017 Mar 11. Epub 2017 Mar 11.
    NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas.
    Varicella zoster virus (VZV) in saliva from six herpes zoster patients and one chickenpox patient was found to be exclusively associated with epithelial cells by confocal microscopy. VZV localization with antibody specific to the VZV glycoprotein E was detected primarily on the membrane but was also inside the cell. Epithelial cells with VZV were still present in saliva in one out of two tested zoster patients after 10 months of recovery. Read More

    Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance inaugural annual report, 2014.
    Commun Dis Intell Q Rep 2016 Sep 30;40(3):E391-E400. Epub 2016 Sep 30.
    Deputy Director, National Centre for Immunisation Research and Surveillance of Vaccine Preventable Diseases, Kids Research Institute, The Children's Hospital at Westmead; New South Wales.
    Introduction: The Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance (PAEDS) network is a hospital-based active surveillance system employing prospective case ascertainment of selected uncommon vaccine preventable diseases and potential adverse events following immunisation (AEFI). PAEDS enhances other Australian surveillance systems by providing prospective detailed clinical and laboratory data for the same child.

    Methods: Specialist surveillance nurses screen hospital admissions, emergency department records, laboratory and other data, to prospectively identify hospitalised children aged under 15 years in 5 paediatric tertiary referral hospitals in New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia, Western Australia and Queensland. Read More

    Severe varicella in persons vaccinated with varicella vaccine (breakthrough varicella): a systematic literature review.
    Expert Rev Vaccines 2017 Apr 28;16(4):391-400. Epub 2017 Feb 28.
    a Epidemiology Branch, Division of Viral Diseases , National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , Atlanta , GA , USA.
    Introduction: Varicella vaccines are highly effective at preventing disease, but varicella may occur among vaccinated persons (termed breakthrough varicella). Breakthrough varicella is generally mild, but severe cases have been reported. The objective of this review is to describe severe breakthrough varicella. Read More

    The epidemiological situation of chickenpox in the Silesian voivodeship in the years 2011-2015 in view of data of the situation in Poland
    Przegl Epidemiol 2016;70(4):555-562
    Provincial Sanitary and Epidemiological Station in Katowice
    Introduction: Despite the availability of preventive vaccination against chickenpox, this form of prevention is rarely used and is not available to the entire population of children. In order to evaluate an acquired immunity against the virus Varicella-Zoster examining of the presence of specific IgG antibodies to VZV in serum or plasma is required. The aim of this study was to assess the epidemiological situation of chickenpox in Śląskie Voivodeship in 2011-2015. Read More

    Outcome of Dermal Grafting in the Management of Atrophic Facial Scars.
    J Cutan Aesthet Surg 2016 Oct-Dec;9(4):244-248
    Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology, Bengaluru Medical College and Research Institute, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.
    Background: Scars over the face are cosmetically and psychologically disturbing. Various techniques have been described and are being practiced in the management of these scars.

    Aims And Objectives: This study was undertaken to study the safety, effectiveness of using dermal grafts as fillers in the management of facial scars due to acne, chickenpox, trauma or any others. Read More

    Lakartidningen 2017 Jan 16;114. Epub 2017 Jan 16.
    Astrid Lindgrens Barnsjukhus - Stockholm, Sweden Karolinska Institut - Pediatrics Stockholm, Sweden.
    The national Swedish immunisation programme includes vaccine against diphtheria, tetanus, polio, pertussis, Haemophilus influenzae type B, Pneumococcus as well as measles, mumps and rubella. Data were collected on hospital admissions for children 0- 17 years of age of vaccine-preventable diseases during 2008-2013 at Astrid Lindgren Children's Hospital, Stockholm. Patients were identified by discharge diagnosis codes as well as from the clinical microbiology laboratory. Read More

    Social Phobia Is Associated with Delayed Onset of Chickenpox, Measles, and Mumps Infections.
    Front Psychiatry 2016 27;7:203. Epub 2016 Dec 27.
    Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital of Lausanne , Lausanne , Switzerland.
    Objective: Evidence showing that infectious diseases in childhood play an important role in the etiopathogenesis of neurodevelopmental and other mental disorders is growing. The aim of this study was to explore the timing of common childhood diseases in early-onset anxiety disorders.

    Materials And Methods: We analyzed data from PsyCoLaus, a large Swiss Population Cohort Study (N = 3720). Read More

    ACG Clinical Guideline: Preventive Care in Inflammatory Bowel Disease.
    Am J Gastroenterol 2017 Feb 10;112(2):241-258. Epub 2017 Jan 10.
    Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.
    Recent data suggest that inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients do not receive preventive services at the same rate as general medical patients. Patients with IBD often consider their gastroenterologist to be the primary provider of care. To improve the care delivered to IBD patients, health maintenance issues need to be co-managed by both the gastroenterologist and primary care team. Read More

    The "Pearls" of Multidisciplinary Team: Conquering the Uncommon Rosette Rash.
    Case Rep Pediatr 2016 13;2016:5328603. Epub 2016 Dec 13.
    Department of Paediatric Dermatology, Darlington Memorial Hospital, County Durham and Darlington NHS Foundation Trust, Darlington, UK.
    Linear IgA disease of childhood (LAD) also known as chronic bullous disease of childhood is an autoimmune disease with IgA deposition at the basement membrane zone leading to a vesiculobullous rash. It has a clinical appearance which frequently is described as resembling "strings of pearls" or rosette-like. Diagnosis is usually clinical but sometimes biopsy is required. Read More

    Prevalence of Molar Incisor Hypomineralization in Mexican Children.
    J Clin Pediatr Dent 2017;41(1):18-21
    Objective: To determine the prevalence of and factors associated with molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) in schoolchildren aged 6-12 years.

    Study Design: This study included 1156 schoolchildren aged 6-12 years, living in Mexico City. A previously standardised examiner (k = 0. Read More

    The influence of maternal exposure history to virus and medicine during pregnancy on congenital heart defects of fetus.
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2017 Feb 30;24(6):5628-5632. Epub 2016 Dec 30.
    Guangzhou Huayin Medical Laboratory Center. CO. Ltd, Guangzhou, 510663, China.
    Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common birth defect. It is due to dysfunction of the heart and great vessels during embryo development stage, or the channel was not closed after birth. This study focuses on investigating the influence of virus infection and medicine history during pregnancy on the incidence rate of CHD of fetus. Read More

    Has VZV epidemiology changed in Italy? Results of a seroprevalence study.
    Hum Vaccin Immunother 2017 Feb 27;13(2):385-390. Epub 2016 Dec 27.
    b University of Ferrara , Ferrara , Italy.
    The aim of the study was to evaluate if and how varicella prevalence has changed in Italy. In particular a seroprevalence study was performed, comparing it to similar surveys conducted in pre-immunization era. During 2013-2014, sera obtained from blood samples taken for diagnostic purposes or routine investigations were collected in collaboration with at least one laboratory/center for each region, following the approval of the Ethics Committee. Read More

    Incidence of serum antibody titers against varicella zoster virus in Japanese patients with herpes zoster.
    J Dermatol 2017 Jun 24;44(6):656-659. Epub 2016 Dec 24.
    Department of Dermatology, Fukuoka University Faculty of Medicine, Fukuoka, Japan.
    Herpes zoster is an internal reactivation of varicella zoster virus following establishment of latent infection in the dorsal root ganglia during primary infection, which presents as chickenpox. Therefore, serologically, herpes zoster patients already have anti-varicella zoster virus immunoglobulin G at the onset of disease. Hence, positive serum antibody does not confirm the diagnosis of herpes zoster. Read More

    Laboratory Diagnosis of Breakthrough Varicella in Children.
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 2017 Jun;36(6):560-563
    From the *Suzuka Pediatrics, Suzuka, Mie, Japan; †Ochiai Children Clinic, Kameyama, Mie, Japan; ‡Biwako Gakuen Yasu Medical and Welfare motor and Intellectual Disabilities Yasu, Yasu, Shiga, Japan; and §Mie National Hospital, Tsu, Mie, Japan.
    Background: Breakthrough varicella (BV) develops in vaccinated persons as a result of infection by wild-type varicella-zoster virus more than 42 days after varicella vaccination. The clinical symptoms are atypical, and clinical diagnosis can be difficult. We investigated laboratory-based diagnostic methods that are relatively simple and highly precise to conduct accurate surveillance. Read More

    How often people google for vaccination: Qualitative and quantitative insights from a systematic search of the web-based activities using Google Trends.
    Hum Vaccin Immunother 2017 Feb 16;13(2):464-469. Epub 2016 Dec 16.
    g Department of Health Sciences , Section of History of Medicine and Ethics, University of Genoa , Genoa , Italy.
    Nowadays, more and more people surf the Internet seeking health-related information. Information and communication technologies (ICTs) can represent an important opportunities in the field of Public Health and vaccinology. The aim of our current research was to investigate a) how often people search the Internet for vaccination-related information, b) if this search is spontaneous or induced by media, and c) which kind of information is in particular searched. Read More

    Ocular involvement associated with varicella in adults.
    J Ophthalmic Inflamm Infect 2016 Dec 28;6(1):47. Epub 2016 Nov 28.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Fattouma Bourguiba University Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, University of Monastir, Monastir, Tunisia.
    Background: Varicella is a common infectious disease primarily of childhood that is usually benign and self-limited. It is, however, increasingly seen in adults who are at a higher risk of severe infection. Ocular complications of varicella are relatively uncommon and have been rarely described in adults. Read More

    Predicting risk factors for varicella zoster virus infection and postherpetic neuralgia after hematopoietic cell transplantation using ordered logistic regression analysis.
    Ann Hematol 2017 Feb 28;96(2):311-315. Epub 2016 Nov 28.
    Department of Hematology, Aiseikai Yamashina Hospital, Kyoto, Japan.
    To identify risk factors for varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection and postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), we conducted a retrospective chart review of 163 consecutive patients who underwent HCT between November 2004 and July 2014. Overall, the male/female (M/F) ratio was 80/83, median age at HCT was 54 (range 15-69) years, and autologous/allogeneic HCT (auto/allo-HCT) ratio was 71/92. Forty-four patients [M/F, 25/19; median age, 57 (range: 16-68) years; auto/allo-HCT, 26/18] developed VZV infection after HCT. Read More

    Vaccine-Preventable Diseases In Pediatric Patients: A Review Of Measles, Mumps, Rubella, And Varicella.
    Pediatr Emerg Med Pract 2016 Dec 2;13(12):1-20. Epub 2016 Dec 2.
    Clinical Associate Professor of Emergency Medicine and Pediatrics, New York University School of Medicine, Bellevue Hospital Center, New York, NY.
    Vaccine-preventable diseases such as measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella continue to plague children and adults worldwide. Although public health programs have helped decrease the prevalence and sequelae of these diseases, outbreaks still occur. To limit the spread of these diseases, emergency clinicians must be able to readily identify the characteristic presentations of the rashes associated with measles, rubella, and varicella, as well as the common presenting features associated with mumps. Read More

    A Case of Transverse Myelitis Caused by Varicella Zoster Virus in an Immunocompetent Older Patient.
    Infect Chemother 2016 Dec 11;48(4):334-337. Epub 2016 Nov 11.
    Deparment of Internal Medicine, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Medical Research Institute, Pusan National University Hospital, Busan, Korea.
    Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is a human neurotropic alphaherpesvirus that causes chickenpox (varicella) in children. VZV reactivation may lead to neurological complications, including transverse myelitis. However, transverse myelitis caused by VZV reactivation is rare in immunocompetent patients. Read More

    Fatal varicella pneumonia in an unvaccinated child with Down Syndrome: a case report.
    Ital J Pediatr 2016 Nov 17;42(1):99. Epub 2016 Nov 17.
    Pediatric and Infectious Disease Unit, Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital, IRCCS, Rome, Italy.
    Background: Varicella is an acute infectious disease common during childhood. It has mostly an uncomplicated course in early childhood. Neverthless, it may result in severe complications, especially in particular age groups and clinical conditions. Read More


    The burden of chickenpox disease in Sweden.
    BMC Infect Dis 2016 Nov 10;16(1):666. Epub 2016 Nov 10.
    Department of Monitoring and Evaluation, The Public Health Agency of Sweden, Solna, Sweden.
    Background: Chickenpox vaccine is not included in the routine childhood vaccination programme in Sweden. The aim of this study was to estimate the baseline of national chickenpox disease burden, as comprehensive studies, required for an assessment regarding vaccine introduction, are lacking.

    Methods: We used available health care registers and databases; the death register, hospitalisations register, communicable disease notifications database, Stockholm County registers on consultations in specialist and primary care, temporary parental benefit to care for a sick child, and searches on the health care system's website. Read More

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