27,993 results match your criteria Chemoprevention Strategies in Head and Neck Cancer


Plant natural modulators in breast cancer prevention: status quo and future perspectives reinforced by predictive, preventive, and personalized medical approach.

EPMA J 2018 Dec 12;9(4):403-419. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Jessenius Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University in Bratislava, Martin, Slovakia.

In contrast to the genetic component in mammary carcinogenesis, epigenetic alterations are particularly important for the development of sporadic breast cancer (BC) comprising over 90% of all BC cases worldwide. Most of the DNA methylation processes are physiological and essential for human cellular and tissue homeostasis, playing an important role in a number of key mechanisms. However, if dysregulated, DNA methylation contributes to pathological processes such as cancer development and progression. Read More

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December 2018

Gossypin inhibits gastric cancer growth by direct targeting of AURKA and RSK2.

Phytother Res 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

China-US (Henan) Hormel Cancer Institute, Zhengzhou, Henan, China.

Gossypin is a flavone extracted from Hibiscus vitifolius, which has been reported to exhibit anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anticancer activities. However, the anticancer properties of gossypin and its molecular mechanism of action against gastric cancer have not been fully investigated. In the present study, we report that gossypin is an Aurora kinase A (AURKA) and RSK2 inhibitor that suppresses gastric cancer growth. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read
2.397 Impact Factor

Prevention of Wogonin on Colorectal Cancer Tumorigenesis by Regulating p53 Nuclear Translocation.

Front Pharmacol 2018 23;9:1356. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

International Institute for Translational Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, China.

The tumor suppressor protein p53 plays an important role in the development and progression of colon cancer, and the subcellular organelle localization directly affects its function. Wogonin (5,7-dihydroxy-8-methoxyflavone), a mono-flavonoid extracted from root of , possesses acceptable toxicity and has been used in colorectal cancer (CRC) chemoprevention in pre-clinical trials by oncologist. However, the underlying anti-colon cancer mechanisms of wogonin are not yet fully understood. Read More

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November 2018

Redox-responsive hyaluronic acid-functionalized graphene oxide nanosheets for targeted delivery of water-insoluble cancer drugs.

Int J Nanomedicine 2018 14;13:7457-7472. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Cancer Metastasis Alert and Prevention Center, and Biopharmaceutical Photocatalysis, State Key Laboratory of Photocatalysis on Energy and Environment, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002, China,

Background: Gefitinib (Gef), an important epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), is used to treat lung cancer, but low water solubility and poor bioavailability severely limit its application in cancer therapy.

Methods: In this study, nanographene oxide (NGO) was decorated with hyaluronic acid (HA) by a linker cystamine dihydrochloride containing disulfide bonds (-SS-), followed by the incorporation of gefitinib, thus, constructing a HA-functionalized GO-based gefitinib delivery system (NGO-SS-HA-Gef). Subsequently, studies of biological experiments in vitro and in vivo were performed to investigate the therapeutic effect of the system in lung cancer. Read More

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November 2018

Fucoxanthin potentiates anoikis in colon mucosa and prevents carcinogenesis in AOM/DSS model mice.

J Nutr Biochem 2018 Oct 25;64:198-205. Epub 2018 Oct 25.

Epidemiology and Preventions Group, Center for Public Health Sciences, National Cancer Center, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045, Japan.

Fucoxanthin (Fx) and its biotransformed fucoxanthinol (FxOH) present strong anti-cancer effects in vitro and in vivo, however, the underlying mechanisms are not well known. We recently demonstrated that FxOH could induce anoikis-like cells in human colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. Thus, we developed molecular hallmarks for anoikis in vitro, and to confirm induction of such molecular hallmarks in an azoxymethane/ dextran sodium sulfate carcinogenic model by Fx ingestion. Read More

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October 2018

Sulforaphane enriched transcriptome of lung mitochondrial energy metabolism and provided pulmonary injury protection via Nrf2 in mice.

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Immunity, Inflammation, and Disease Laboratory, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA.

Nrf2 is essential to antioxidant response element (ARE)-mediated host defense. Sulforaphane (SFN) is a phytochemical antioxidant known to affect multiple cellular targets including Nrf2-ARE pathway in chemoprevention. However, the role of SFN in non-malignant airway disorders remain unclear. Read More

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December 2018

Transgenic Adenocarcinoma of the Mouse Prostate (TRAMP) model: A good alternative to study PCa progression and chemoprevention approaches.

Life Sci 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Department of Structural and Functional Biology, University of Campinas, Bertrand Russel Av, Campinas, São Paulo 13083-865, Brazil.

The use of genetically modified animals has been studied in scientific research over time as a way to discover new treatments or even a cure for various diseases. Transgenic Adenocarcinoma of the Mouse Prostate (TRAMP) is a model for prostate cancer (PCa) that develops lesions that range from preneoplastic to metastasis. Its similarity to human PCa brings essential knowledge about disease development as well as making possible to investigate different degrees of the tumor profile. Read More

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December 2018

Beliefs About Medication and Uptake of Preventive Therapy in Women at Increased Risk of Breast Cancer: Results From a Multicenter Prospective Study.

Clin Breast Cancer 2018 Nov 22. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Leeds Institute of Health Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Introduction: Uptake of preventive therapies for breast cancer is low. We examined whether women at increased risk of breast cancer can be categorized into groups with similar medication beliefs, and whether belief group membership was prospectively associated with uptake of preventive therapy.

Patients And Methods: Women (n = 732) attending an appointment to discuss breast cancer risk were approached; 408 (55. Read More

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November 2018

The natural polyphenol curcumin induces apoptosis by suppressing STAT3 signaling in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

J Exp Clin Cancer Res 2018 Dec 5;37(1):303. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Pathophysiology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan, 450001, People's Republic of China.

Background: We and others have previously shown that the STAT3 signaling pathway is activated in some esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cells and is required for the survival and growth of these primary ESCC-derived xenografts. It has also been shown that the natural polyphenol curcumin is an effective anti-tumor agent.

Methods: Luciferase assay and immunoblotting were performed to examine whether curcumin suppressed STAT3 signaling. Read More

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December 2018

Essential oils: from prevention to treatment of skin cancer.

Drug Discov Today 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Biotechnology, Bhupat and Jyoti Mehta School of Biosciences, India; Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036, India. Electronic address:

The increasing incidence of cutaneous malignancies signifies the need for multiple treatment options. Several available reviews have emphasized the potential role of various botanical extracts and naturally occurring compounds as anti-skin-cancer agents. Few studies relate to the role of chemoprevention and therapeutic activity of essential oils (EOs) and EO components. Read More

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November 2018

Development of a Pigmented Facial Lesion Scale based on darkness and extent of lesions in older veterans.

J Invest Dermatol 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Center for Dermatoepidemiology, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Providence, Rhode Island, USA; Department of Dermatology, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, USA.

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November 2018

[Combined treatment with myo-inositol and luteolin selectively suppresses growth of human lung cancer A549 cells possibly by suppressing activation of PDK1 and Akt].

Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao 2018 Nov;38(11):1378-1383

School of Public Health, Bengbu Medical College, Bengbu 233030, China.

Objective: To study the effects of myo-inositol and luteolin on human lung cancer A549 cells and explore the possible mechanisms.

Methods: A549 cells were treated with different concentrations of myo-inositol and luteolin, either alone or in combination, and the cell viability was examined using MTT assay. A549 cells and human bronchial epithelial Beas-2B cells were treated for 48 h with 10 mmol/L myo-inositol and 20 μmol/L luteolin, alone or in combination, and the cell proliferation was detected using MTT assay; the colony formation and migration of the cells were examined with colony formation assay and wound healing assay, respectively. Read More

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November 2018

The ASAMET trial: a randomized, phase II, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter, 2 × 2 factorial biomarker study of tertiary prevention with low-dose aspirin and metformin in stage I-III colorectal cancer patients.

BMC Cancer 2018 Dec 4;18(1):1210. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Division of Medical Oncology, E.O. Ospedali Galliera, Mura delle Cappuccine 14, 16128, Genoa, Italy.

Background: Epidemiological studies and cardiovascular prevention trials have shown that low-dose aspirin can reduce colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality, including inhibition of distant metastases. Metformin has also been associated with decreased colon adenoma recurrence in clinical trials and lower CRC incidence and mortality in epidemiological studies in diabetics. While both drugs have been tested as single agents, their combination has not been tested in cancer prevention trials. Read More

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December 2018
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Risk prediction for estrogen receptor-specific breast cancers in two large prospective cohorts.

Breast Cancer Res 2018 Dec 3;20(1):147. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Nutritional Methodology and Biostatistics Group, Nutrition and Metabolism Section, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 cours Albert Thomas, 69372, Lyon Cedex 08, France.

Background: Few published breast cancer (BC) risk prediction models consider the heterogeneity of predictor variables between estrogen-receptor positive (ER+) and negative (ER-) tumors. Using data from two large cohorts, we examined whether modeling this heterogeneity could improve prediction.

Methods: We built two models, for ER+ (Model) and ER- tumors (Model), respectively, in 281,330 women (51% postmenopausal at recruitment) from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. Read More

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December 2018
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Effects of vitamin D and calcium on expression of MSH2 and transforming growth factors in normal-appearing colorectal mucosa of sporadic colorectal adenoma patients: a randomized clinical trial.

Mol Carcinog 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Epidemiology, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA.

Abnormal expression of the DNA mismatch repair protein MSH2 and autocrine/paracrine transforming growth factors TGFα (growth promoter) and TGFβ (growth inhibitor) is common during colorectal carcinogenesis. To estimate vitamin D and calcium effects on these biomarkers in the normal-appearing colorectal mucosa of sporadic colorectal adenoma patients, we conducted a pilot, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, modified 2 × 2 factorial chemoprevention clinical trial (N = 104) of supplemental vitamin D (1,000 IU daily) and calcium (1,200 mg daily), alone and in combination, versus placebo over one year. The expression of the three biomarkers and Ki-67/mib-1 in colorectal crypts in biopsies of normal-appearing rectal mucosa were detected using automated immunohistochemistry and quantified using image analysis. Read More

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November 2018
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Ethyl gallate as a novel ERK1/2 inhibitor suppresses patient-derived esophageal tumor growth.

Mol Carcinog 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

China-US (Henan) Hormel Cancer Institute, Henan, 450008, China.

Ethyl gallate (EG) is a phenolic compound that is isolated from walnut kernels, euphorbia fischeriana, and galla rhois. It has been reported to exhibit antioxidant and anticancer activities. However, EG's effects on esophageal cancer have not yet been investigated. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Orientin mitigates 1, 2-dimethylhydrazine induced lipid peroxidation, antioxidant and biotransforming bacterial enzyme alterations in experimental rats.

J Cancer Res Ther 2018 Oct-Dec;14(6):1379-1388

Department of Biochemistry, Periyar University, Salem, Tamil Nadu, India.

Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most diagnosed cancer often identified during the later stages of carcinogenesis. Orientin, a C-glycoside of luteolin, is well known for its versatile therapeutic action toward oxidative stress-induced cellular response may exert chemoprevention against CRC.

Materials And Methods: In our study, we investigated the modulatory effect of orientin on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant defense, and biotransforming bacterial enzymes in 1, 2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced male albino Wistar rats in a dose-dependent manner. Read More

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November 2018

Chemopreventive potential of vanillic acid against 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis.

J Cancer Res Ther 2018 Oct-Dec;14(6):1285-1290

Department of Biochemistry, Government Arts College for Women, Krishnagiri, Tamil Nadu, India.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemopreventive potential of vanillic acid against 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch oral carcinogenesis.

Materials And Methods: Determine the tumor incidence, tumor volume and burden, assessment of the status of Phase I and Phase II detoxification enzymes were measured in the liver and buccal mucosa of hamsters using specific colorimetric methods.

Results: One hundred percent tumor formation was observed in DMBA alone treated hamsters. Read More

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November 2018

Chemoprevention of Colorectal Cancer by Dietary Compounds.

Int J Mol Sci 2018 Nov 28;19(12). Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Biophysics, "Carol Davila" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 050474 Bucharest, Romania.

Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of death, and the third most diagnosed type of cancer, worldwide. It is most common amongst men and women over 50 years old. Risk factors include smoking, alcohol, diet, physical inactivity, genetics, alterations in gut microbiota, and associated pathologies (diabetes, obesity, chronic inflammatory bowel diseases). Read More

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November 2018
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Expression of Metallothionein after Administration of Aspirin, Vitamin C or Zinc Supplement in the DMH Induced Colon Carcinoma in Rat

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2018 Nov 29;19(11):3237-3244. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India. Email:

Background: Chemoprevention refers to the use of specificnatural or synthetic chemical agents to suppress the development and progression to carcinoma. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of aspirin, vitamin C or zinc on the metallothionein (MT) mRNA gene expression as well as MT protein content byimmunohistochemistry andradioimmunoassay (RIA) in 1, 2-dimethyl hydrazine (DMH) induced cancerous colonic tissuein rats. Methods: Rats were randomly divided into three groups, group 1 (aspirin), group 2 (vitamin C) group 3 (zinc), each of which was further sub divided into two groups and given subcutaneous injections of DMH (30 mg/kg body weight) twice a week for 3 months and sacrificed at either 4 months (A-precancer model) or at 6 months (B-cancer model). Read More

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November 2018
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Preventive Effects of Fermented Brown Rice and Rice Bran on Spontaneous Lymphomagenesis in AKR/NSlc Female Mice

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2018 Nov 29;19(11):3217-3223. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Experimental Pathology and Tumor Biology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Nagoya, Japan. Email:

Fermented brown rice and rice bran with Aspergillus oryzae (FBRA) is known to possess potentials to prevent chemical carcinogenesis in multiple organs of rodents. In the present study, possible chemopreventive effect of FBRA against spontaneous occurrence of lymphomas was examined using female AKR/NSlc mice. Four-week-old female AKR/ NSlc mice were divided into three groups, and fed diets containing FBRA for 26 weeks at a dose level 0% (Group 1), 5% (Group 2) or 10% (Group 3). Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Chemopreventive Effect of Rebamipide against Gastric Cancer in Patients who undergo Endoscopic Resection for Early Gastric Neoplasms: A Nationwide Claims Study.

Digestion 2018 Nov 28:1-8. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of

Background/aims: Previous studies have shown that rebamipide is potentially protective against gastric cancer; however, no epidemiologic studies of its chemopreventive effects in patients who have a high risk of gastric cancer have been performed. The aim of this study was to investigate whether rebamipide administration reduces the risk of gastric cancer.

Methods: We conducted a population-based cohort study using data retrospectively collected from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service database in Korea. Read More

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November 2018

Potential of curcumin and resveratrol as biochemical and biophysical modulators during lung cancer in rats.

Drug Chem Toxicol 2018 Nov 28:1-7. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

a Department of Respiratory Medicine Laboratory , Dezhou People's Hospital , Dezhou, China.

The present study explored chemopreventive aspects of curcumin and resveratrol in the experimental model of lung carcinogenesis in rats. The main aim was to establish efficacy of combined phytochemicals treatment over individual treatments in rat cancer model. The study was performed in terms of both biophysical and biochemical parameters. Read More

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November 2018
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Marasas et al. 1984 "Toxigenic Fusarium Species: Identity and Mycotoxicology" revisited.

Mycologia 2018 Nov 27:1-23. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

c Mycotoxicology and Chemoprevention Research Group, Institute of Biomedical and Microbial Biotechnology (IBMB), Cape Peninsula University of Technology , Bellville 7535 , South Africa.

This study was conducted to determine the species identity and mycotoxin potential of 158 Fusarium strains originally archived in the South African Medical Research Council's Mycotoxigenic Fungal Collection (MRC) that were reported to comprise 17 morphologically distinct species in the classic 1984 compilation by Marasas et al., Toxigenic Fusarium Species: Identity and Mycotoxicology. Maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony molecular phylogenetic analyses of single and multilocus DNA sequence data indicated that the strains represented 46 genealogically exclusive phylogenetically distinct species distributed among eight species complexes. Read More

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November 2018
7 Reads

Effect of Long-Term Mesalamine Therapy on Cancer-Associated Gene Expression in Colonic Mucosa of Patients with Ulcerative Colitis.

Dig Dis Sci 2018 Nov 26. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ, USA.

Background: The role of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA or mesalamine) in the prevention of colorectal cancer in ulcerative colitis (UC) patients was reported, but the effect on molecular targets in UC colon mucosa is unknown.

Aim: This observational study evaluates gene expression levels of 5-ASA targets using serial colon biopsy specimens from UC patients undergoing long-term 5-ASA therapy.

Methods: Transcript levels were compared between colonoscopic biopsy specimens collected from 62 patients at initial and final follow-up colonoscopy at 2-6 years. Read More

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November 2018
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Studies on combination of oxaliplatin and dendrosomal nanocurcumin on proliferation, apoptosis induction, and long non-coding RNA expression in ovarian cancer cells.

Cell Biol Toxicol 2018 Nov 26. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Gametogenesis Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Science, Kashan, Iran.

Drug resistance remains a major challenge in the treatment of patients with ovarian cancer. Therefore, the development of new anticancer drugs is a clinical priority to develop more effective therapies. New approaches to improve clinical outcomes and limit the toxicity of anticancer drugs focus on chemoprevention. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Acyclic retinoid and angiotensin-II receptor blocker exert a combined protective effect against diethylnitrosamine-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in diabetic OLETF rats.

BMC Cancer 2018 Nov 26;18(1):1164. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Third Department of Internal Medicine, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara, 634-8522, Japan.

Background: Insulin resistance (IR) is closely associated with the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Acyclic retinoid (ACR) targets retinoid X receptor α and reportedly prevents HCC recurrence in clinical practice. Angiotensin-II receptor blocker (ARB) can also inhibit experimental hepatocarcinogenesis and HCC development. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

Trends in use of bilateral prophylactic mastectomy vs high-risk surveillance in unaffected carriers of inherited breast cancer syndromes in the Inherited Cancer Registry (ICARE).

Breast Cancer Res Treat 2018 Nov 24. Epub 2018 Nov 24.

Department of Breast Oncology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, 10920 N. McKinley Drive, Tampa, FL, 33612, USA.

Purpose: Awareness of inherited breast cancer has increased bilateral prophylactic mastectomy (BPM) among unaffected genetic mutation carriers, yet many still choose surveillance. We aimed to identify differences among women electing BPM vs high-risk surveillance.

Methods: Participants from an IRB-approved database recruited from 11/2000 to 01/2017 with a deleterious/pathogenic, variant suspected deleterious, or likely pathogenic mutation in ≥ 1 of 11 genes with increased risk for breast cancer (per 2017 NCCN guidelines) were identified. Read More

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November 2018

Drug screening assay based on the interaction of intact Keap1 and Nrf2 proteins in cancer cells.

Bioorg Med Chem 2018 Nov 14. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USA. Electronic address:

Background: The Nrf2-Keap1 interaction is the major regulatory pathway for cytoprotective responses against oxidative and electrophilic stresses. Keap1, a substrate protein of a Cul3-dependent E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, is a negative regulator of Nrf2. The use of chemicals to regulate the interaction between Keap1 and Nrf2 has been proposed as a strategy for the chemoprevention of degenerative diseases and cancers. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

Non-aspirin non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in prevention of colorectal cancer in people aged 40 or older: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Cancer Epidemiol 2018 Nov 22;58:52-62. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, School of Medicine, Avenida de la Investigación, 60, 18071, Granada, Spain; Consortium for Biomedical Research in Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), 28029, Madrid, Spain; Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria ibs.GRANADA, Complejo Hospitales Universitarios de Granada/Universidad de Granada, 18071, Granada, Spain. Electronic address:

There is still insufficient data about the risk-benefit profile about recommending non-aspirin, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NA-NSAIDs) for colorectal cancer (CRC) prevention, especially in people aged 40 years or older. This study specifically addressed the association between regular NA-NSAIDs use and CRC risk in the population aged 40 years or older, performing a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis of all published studies on this topic until April 2018, by a search of PubMed, Scopus and Web of science databases and clinical trial registries. Two reviewers independently selected studies based on predefined inclusion criteria and assessed study quality using the Newcastle-Otawa scale. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

Eicosapentaenoic acid and aspirin, alone and in combination, for the prevention of colorectal adenomas (seAFOod Polyp Prevention trial): a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2 × 2 factorial trial.

Lancet 2018 Nov 19. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Nottingham Clinical Trials Unit, School of Medicine, University of Nottingham, Queen's Medical Centre, Nottingham, UK.

Background: The omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and aspirin both have proof of concept for colorectal cancer chemoprevention, aligned with an excellent safety profile. Therefore, we aimed to test the efficacy of EPA and aspirin, alone and in combination and compared with a placebo, in individuals with sporadic colorectal neoplasia detected at colonoscopy.

Methods: In a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2 × 2 factorial trial, patients aged 55-73 years who were identified during colonoscopy as being at high risk in the English Bowel Cancer Screening Programme (BCSP; ≥3 adenomas if at least one was ≥10 mm in diameter or ≥5 adenomas if these were <10 mm in diameter) were recruited from 53 BCSP endoscopy units in England, UK. Read More

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November 2018
13 Reads
45.217 Impact Factor

Skin Cancer and Immunosuppression.

Dermatol Clin 2019 Jan 1;37(1):83-94. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

Department of Dermatology, The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, 619 Northeast 13th Street, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA.

Immunosuppressed patients are at significantly increased risk of developing cutaneous malignancies. These malignancies are often more aggressive compared with the general population and require multidisciplinary care. This article highlights the incidence and risk factors of cutaneous malignancies in this cohort. Read More

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January 2019

Anti-inflammatory and Quinone Reductase-Inducing Compounds from Beilschmiedia mannii.

Planta Med 2018 Nov 22. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

School of pharmaceutical sciences, University of Geneva, University of Lausanne, Geneva, Switzerland.

Previous studies on the therapeutic potential of plant species found in the diet of chimpanzees living in Taï National Park have shown that they could be potential candidates for the search of new molecules useful for humans. Based on the screening of some of these plants, the fruits of , whose dichloromethane extract showed cancer chemopreventive properties, were selected. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the extract resulted in the isolation and identification of two -pyrones, including desmethoxydihydromethysticin (1: ), found in a natural source for the first time, and a new congener, beilschmiediapyrone (2: ), as well as five known alkamides (3:  - 7: ). Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads
2.152 Impact Factor

Impact of a change in duration of prophylactic antibiotics on infectious complications after radical cystectomy with a neobladder.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2018 Nov;97(47):e13196

Departments of Internal medicine.

A profound number of prophylactic antibiotics are used after radical cystectomy with an ileal orthotopic neobladder (RCIONB) despite a negative effect of infection control. We investigated the impact of short-term prophylactic antibiotic use on infectious complications after RCIONB.We retrospectively reviewed data from 287 patients who underwent RCIONB for bladder cancer between 2012 and 2016 at a tertiary hospital. Read More

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November 2018

Comparison of Effects of Diet on Mammary Cancer: Efficacy of Various Preventive Agents and Metabolomic Changes of Different Diets and Agents.

Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2018 Dec 20;11(12):831-840. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Department of Surgery, Chemoprevention Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama.

To determine the effects of diet, rats were placed on a standard diet (4% fat) or on a modified Western (high-fat diet, HFD) diet (21% fat) at 43 days of age (DOA) and administered methylnitrosourea (MNU) at 50 DOA. Rats were administered effective (tamoxifen, vorozole, and Targretin) or ineffective (metformin and Lipitor) chemopreventive agents either by daily gavage or in the diet beginning at 57 DOA and continuing until sacrifice (190 DOA). Latency period of the tumors was determined by palpation, and multiplicity and cancer weights per rat were determined at final sacrifice. Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

[Evaluation of surgical antibiotic prophylaxis in a Tunisian University Hospital].

Pan Afr Med J 2018 2;30:191. Epub 2018 Jul 2.

Direction Régionale de la Santé, Kairouan, Tunisie.

Antibiotic prophylaxis (ATBP) is one of the specific measures for the prevention of surgical site infections, whose impact has been quantified in clean or clean-contaminated surgery. Our study aims to evaluate the conformity of ATBP practices and the adherence to the prescribing protocols adopted in our Hospital. We conducted a clinical audit retrospective observational study, evaluating antibiotic prophylaxis practices in our Hospital in the month of March 2015. Read More

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December 2018
5 Reads

Antiproliferative, Proapoptotic, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Effects of Sinapis nigra L. and Sinapis alba L. Extracts.

Molecules 2018 Nov 16;23(11). Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Dipartimento di Scienza e Tecnologia del Farmaco, University of Turin, Via P. Giuria, 9, 10125 Turin, Italy.

High Brassicaceae consumption reduces the risk of developing several cancer types, probably due to high levels of glucosinolates. Extracts from Sinapis nigra L. (S. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Statin use and reduced risk of biliary tract cancers in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink.

Gut 2018 Nov 17. Epub 2018 Nov 17.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

Objective: To evaluate the association between statin use and risk of biliary tract cancers (BTC).

Design: This is a nested case-control study conducted in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink. We included cases diagnosed with incident primary BTCs, including cancers of the gall bladder, bile duct (ie, both intrahepatic and extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma), ampulla of Vater and mixed type, between 1990 and 2017. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Effect of long term aspirin use on the incidence of prostate cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 2018 Dec 29;132:66-75. Epub 2018 Sep 29.

Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, United States.

Background: Previous studies found divergent effects of aspirin use on prostate cancer incidence, potentially due to studies with short durations of aspirin use and insufficient adjustment for screening.

Methods: A systematic review on the association between aspirin use ≥3 years and incident prostate cancer was performed in accordance with the PRISMA and MOOSE criteria.

Results: In the cohort studies, aspirin use for at least 3 years was associated with a lower incidence rate of prostate cancer (Odds ratio (OR) 0. Read More

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December 2018

Lifestyle behaviours and health measures of women at increased risk of breast cancer taking chemoprevention.

Eur J Cancer Prev 2018 Nov 15. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Manchester Breast Centre, Manchester Cancer Research Centre, University of Manchester.

Women at increased breast cancer (BC) risk are eligible for chemoprevention. Healthy lifestyles are potentially important for these women to improve efficacy and minimise side effects of chemoprevention and reduce the risk of BC and other lifestyle-related conditions. We investigated whether women taking chemoprevention adhere to healthy lifestyle recommendations, how their lifestyle risk factors and health measures compare to women in the general population, and whether these change whilst taking chemoprevention. Read More

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November 2018
5 Reads

Potential of the Flavonoid Quercetin to Prevent and Treat Cancer - Current Status of Research.

Klin Onkol 2018 ;31(3):184-190

Naturally occurring bioactive compounds are promising candidates to prevent and treat cancer. Quercetin is a well-known plant flavonoid that is reported to have anticancer actions in vitro and in vivo. This review focuses on the molecular mechanisms underlying the chemopreventive effect of quercetin and its therapeutic potential in oncology. Read More

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January 2018
3 Reads

Sulforaphane from Cruciferous Vegetables: Recent Advances to Improve Glioblastoma Treatment.

Nutrients 2018 Nov 14;10(11). Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Department of Pharmacy and BioTechnology, Alma Mater Studiorum-University of Bologna, via Irnerio 48, 40126 Bologna, Italy.

Sulforaphane (SFN), an isothiocyanate (ITC) derived from cruciferous vegetables, particularly broccoli and broccoli sprouts, has been widely investigated due to its promising health-promoting properties in disease, and low toxicity in normal tissue. Although not yet fully understood, many mechanisms of anticancer activity at each step of cancer development have been attributed to this ITC. Given the promising data available regarding SFN, this review aimed to provide an overview on the potential activities of SFN related to the cellular mechanisms involved in glioblastoma (GBM) progression. Read More

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November 2018

Discovering proteins for chemoprevention and chemotherapy by curcumin in liver fluke infection-induced bile duct cancer.

PLoS One 2018 15;13(11):e0207405. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand.

Modulation or prevention of protein changes during the cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) process induced by Opisthorchis viverrini (Ov) infection may become a key strategy for prevention and treatment of CCA. Monitoring of such changes could lead to discovery of protein targets for CCA treatment. Curcumin exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-CCA activities partly through its protein-modulatory ability. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads
3.234 Impact Factor

Different regimens of penicillin antibiotics given to women routinely for preventing infection after cesarean section: A systematic review and meta analysis.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2018 Nov;97(46):e11889

Cochrane China, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Background: Varied regimens of penicillin antibiotics were given to women for preventing infection after cesarean section, but there is no study compares the effectiveness and safety of them.

Methods: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, CENTRAL, CNKI, Wanfang, VIP, and CBM Database, and contacted experts in the field and searched reference lists of retrieved studies. We included randomized controlled trials comparing different regimens of penicillin antibiotics given to women after cesarean section. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

High Expression of Glycolytic Genes in Cirrhosis Correlates With the Risk of Developing Liver Cancer.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2018 31;6:138. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

Division of Biosciences, Department of Life Sciences, College of Health and Life Sciences, Institute of Environment, Health and Societies, Brunel University London, Uxbridge, United Kingdom.

A marked increase in the rate of glycolysis is a key event in the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the main type of primary liver cancer. Liver cirrhosis is considered to be a key player in HCC pathogenesis as it precedes HCC in up to 90% of patients. Intriguingly, the biochemical events that underlie the progression of cirrhosis to HCC are not well understood. Read More

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October 2018
1 Read

Prevention Strategies in Endometrial Carcinoma.

Curr Oncol Rep 2018 Nov 13;20(12):101. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, St Mary's Hospital, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, UK.

Purpose Of The Review: To assess the most recent high-quality evidence for endometrial cancer prevention strategies.

Recent Findings: Obesity is an established risk factor for endometrial cancer. Weight cycling and weight gain in middle age are risk factors for endometrial cancer. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

A pH-responsive stellate mesoporous silica based nanophotosensitizer for in vivo cancer diagnosis and targeted photodynamic therapy.

Biomater Sci 2018 Nov 14. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

College of Chemistry, State Key Laboratory of Photocatalysis on Energy and Environment, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Cancer Metastasis Chemoprevention and Chemotherapy, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350116, China.

Development of a photosensitizer that can achieve tumor specificity, improve therapeutic efficacy, and reduce side effects remains a challenge for photodynamic therapy (PDT). In this work, a pH-sensitive activatable nanophotosensitizer (SMSN-ZnPc1) has been elaborately designed, which could be readily prepared by using a functionalized zinc(ii) phthalocyanine (ZnPc) to conjugate with stellate mesoporous silica nanoparticles (SMSNs) through an acid-sensitive hydrazone bond. Meanwhile, a non-activatable analogue SMSN-ZnPc2 has also been prepared as a negative control. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Curcumin gum formulation for prevention of oral cavity head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

Laryngoscope 2018 Nov 13. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Louisiana State University- Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, Louisiana, U.S.A.

Objectives/hypothesis: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma represents the sixth most common cancer. As a result of field cancerization, second primaries and recurrences are high. Hence, research has focused on chemoprevention. Read More

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November 2018
7 Reads
2.030 Impact Factor

Expression and Molecular Regulation of the Cox2 Gene in Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors and Antiproliferation of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs).

Med Sci Monit 2018 Nov 13;24:8125-8140. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Medical Department, Division of Hepatology and Gastroenterology (including Metabolic Diseases), Charité, Campus Mitte (CCM) and Campus Virchow-Klinikum (CVK), Berlin, Germany.

BACKGROUND Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs) has had a significant increase over the past 4 decades. The pathophysiological role of the cyclooxygenase-2 (cox-2) gene and factors responsible for the expression in GEP-NETs is of clinical value. Current study determined the expression of cox-2 gene in human GEP-NET tissues and corresponding cell lines, investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of cox-2 gene expression and assessed the effect of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on both anchorage-dependent and independent growth of GEP-NET cells. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

Meripilus giganteus ethanolic extract exhibits pro-apoptotic and anti-proliferative effects in leukemic cell lines.

BMC Complement Altern Med 2018 Nov 12;18(1):300. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Department for Life Quality Studies, University of Bologna, Corso d'Augusto 237, 47921, Rimini, Italy.

Background: The interest towards botanicals and plant extracts has strongly risen due to their numerous biological effects and ability to counteract chronic diseases development. Among these effects, chemoprevention which represents the possibility to counteract the cancerogenetic process is one of the most studied. The extracts of mushroom Meripilus giganteus (MG) (Phylum of Basidiomycota) showed to exert antimicrobic, antioxidant and antiproliferative effects. Read More

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November 2018