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    Mutagenicity, cytotoxic and antioxidant activities of Ricinus communis different parts.
    Chem Cent J 2018 Jan 19;12(1). Epub 2018 Jan 19.
    Department of Chemistry, The University of Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan.
    Ricinus communis (castor plant) is a potent medicinal plant, which is commonly used in the treatment of various ailments. The present study was conducted to appraise the cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of R. communis along with antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Read More

    Evaluation of water quality and human risk assessment due to heavy metals in groundwater around Muledane area of Vhembe District, Limpopo Province, South Africa.
    Chem Cent J 2018 Jan 12;12(1). Epub 2018 Jan 12.
    Department of Hydrology and Water Resources, University of Venda, Private Bag X5050, Thohoyandou, 0950, South Africa.
    Groundwater is considered as good alternative to potable water because of its low turbidity and perceived low contamination. The study assessed the physio-chemical and heavy metals concentrations in eight randomly selected boreholes water at Muledane village in Limpopo Province of South Africa and the results were compared with South African National standard permissible limit. The impacts of heavy metals on human health was further determined by performing quantitative risk assessment through ingestion and dermal adsorption of heavy metals separately for adults and children in order to estimate the magnitude of heavy metals in the borehole samples. Read More

    Synthesis, anti-microbial activity, cytotoxicity of some novel substituted (5-(3-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)-4-hydroxybenzyl)benzofuran-2-yl)(phenyl)methanone analogs.
    Chem Cent J 2018 Jan 9;12(1). Epub 2018 Jan 9.
    Molecular Modelling and Medicinal Chemistry Group, Department of Chemistry, Osmania University, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.
    Background: There is a dire need for the discovery and development of new antimicrobial agents after several experiments for a better resistance of microorganisms towards antimicrobial agents become a serious health problem for a few years in the past. As benzimidazole possess various types of biological activities, it has been synthesized, in the present study, a new series of (5-(3-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)-4-hydroxybenzyl)benzofuran-2-yl)(phenyl)methanone analogs by using the condensation and screened for its in vitro antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity.

    Results: The synthesized (5-(3-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)-4-hydroxybenzyl) benzofuran-2-yl)(phenyl)methanone analogs were confirmed by IR, 1H and 13C-NMR, MS spectra and HRMS spectral data. Read More

    Regioselective alkali metal reduction of dibenzocyclooctadiene lignan derivatives, demethoxylation followed by dehalogenation.
    Chem Cent J 2017 Dec 27;11(1):138. Epub 2017 Dec 27.
    State Key Laboratory of Functions and Applications of Medicinal Plants, Guizhou Medical University, 3491 Baijin Road, Guiyang, 550014, China.
    The regioselective demethoxylation and dehalogenation of dihalogenated dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans derivatives were realized in a one-step reaction with excellent yields in the sodium and t-butanol reaction system. Read More

    LC-MS/MS method for the quantification of masitinib in RLMs matrix and rat urine: application to metabolic stability and excretion rate.
    Chem Cent J 2017 Dec 22;11(1):136. Epub 2017 Dec 22.
    Analytical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Kasr El-Aini St., Cairo, 11562, Egypt.
    Masitinib (MST) is a selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Validated liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric method (LC-MS/MS) was developed for the quantification of MST in rat liver microsomes (RLMs) matrix. The developed method was applied to metabolic stability and excretion rate studies. Read More

    Synthesis, characterization, biological evaluation and molecular docking studies of 2-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-ylthio)-N-(substituted 4-oxothiazolidin-3-yl) acetamides.
    Chem Cent J 2017 Dec 22;11(1):137. Epub 2017 Dec 22.
    Integrative Pharmacogenomics Institute (iPROMISE), Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Puncak Alam Campus, 42300, Bandar Puncak Alam, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia.
    Background: A series of 2-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-ylthio)-N-(substituted 4-oxothiazolidin-3-yl) acetamides was synthesized and characterized by physicochemical and spectral means. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for their in vitro antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger by tube dilution method. The in vitro cytotoxicity study of the compounds was carried out against human colorectal (HCT116) cell line. Read More

    N-Benzoyl dithieno[3,2-b:2',3'-d]pyrrole-based hyperbranched polymers by direct arylation polymerization.
    Chem Cent J 2017 Dec 21;11(1):135. Epub 2017 Dec 21.
    Faculty of Materials Technology, Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology (HCMUT), Vietnam National University, 268 Ly Thuong Kiet, District 10, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
    Background: Although poly(N-acyl dithieno[3,2-b:2',3'-d]pyrrole)s have attracted great attention as a new class of conducting polymers with highly stabilized energy levels, hyperbranched polymers based on this monomer type have not yet been studied. Thus, this work aims at the synthesis of novel hyperbranched polymers containing N-benzoyl dithieno[3,23,2-b:2',3'-d]pyrrole acceptor unit and 3-hexylthiophene donor moiety via the direct arylation polymerization method. Their structures, molecular weights and thermal properties were characterized via 1H NMR and FTIR spectroscopies, GPC, TGA, DSC and XRD measurements, and the optical properties were investigated by UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopies. Read More

    Study of binding interaction of rivaroxaban with bovine serum albumin using multi-spectroscopic and molecular docking approach.
    Chem Cent J 2017 Dec 20;11(1):134. Epub 2017 Dec 20.
    Department of Biochemistry, College of Science, King Saud University, PO Box 22452, Riyadh, 11451, Saudi Arabia.
    Background: Rivaroxaban is a direct inhibitor of coagulation factor Xa and is used for venous thromboembolic disorders. The rivaroxaban interaction with BSA was studied to understand its PK and PD (pharmacokinetics and pharmacokinetics) properties. Multi-spectroscopic studies were used to study the interaction which included UV spectrophotometric, spectrofluorometric and three dimensional spectrofluorometric studies. Read More

    Comparative efficacy of locally isolated fungal strains for Pb(II) removal and recovery from water.
    Chem Cent J 2017 Dec 20;11(1):133. Epub 2017 Dec 20.
    Department of Chemistry, Government College Women University Faisalabad, P.O. Box 38000, Shafique Road, Madina Town, Faisalabad, Pakistan.
    The present investigation aimed to study and compare the efficiency of non-viable fungal isolates to remove divalent lead (Pb(II)) from aqueous streams. The selected fungal isolates showed identity with Aspergillus caespitosus, Aureobasidium sp. RBSS-303 and Aspergillus flavus HF5 as confirmed using gene sequencing of ITS regions of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA). Read More

    Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of antimalarial activity of new derivatives of 2,4,6-s-triazine.
    Chem Cent J 2017 Dec 19;11(1):132. Epub 2017 Dec 19.
    Department of Chemistry, University of Delhi, Delhi, 110007, India.
    Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) is an important enzyme for de novo synthesis of nucleotides in Plasmodium falciparum and it is essential for cell proliferation. DHFR is a well known antimalarial target for drugs like cycloguanil and pyrimethamine which target its inhibition for their pharmacological actions. However, the clinical efficacies of these antimalarial drugs have been compromising due to multiple mutations occurring in DHFR that lead to drug resistance. Read More

    Comprehensive survey of radionuclides in contemporary smokeless tobacco products.
    Chem Cent J 2017 Dec 19;11(1):131. Epub 2017 Dec 19.
    Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Louisville, 505 South Hancock Street, Louisville, KY, 40202, USA.
    There is considerable interest in the chemical composition of smokeless tobacco products (STPs), owing to health concerns associated with their use. Previous studies have documented levels of 210Po, 210Pb and uranium in STP samples. Here, the levels of 13 α-particle and 15 β-radiation emitting radionuclides have been measured in a broad and representative range of contemporary STPs commercially available in the United States and Sweden. Read More

    Biological potential of thiazolidinedione derivatives of synthetic origin.
    Chem Cent J 2017 Dec 8;11(1):130. Epub 2017 Dec 8.
    Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak, Haryana, 124001, India.
    Thiazolidinediones are sulfur containing pentacyclic compounds that are widely found throughout nature in various forms. Thiazolidinedione nucleus is present in numerous biological compounds, e.g. Read More

    Synthesis, structure and toxicity evaluation of ethanolamine nitro/chloronitrobenzoates: a combined experimental and theoretical study.
    Chem Cent J 2017 Dec 6;11(1):129. Epub 2017 Dec 6.
    Institute of Applied Physics, Academy of Sciences of Moldova, Academiei Street 5, 2028, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova.
    Background: Nitroaromatic and chloronitroaromatic compounds have been a subject of great interest in industry and recently in medical-pharmaceutic field. 2-Chloro-4-nitro/2-chloro-5-nitrobenzoic acids and 4-nitrobenzoic acid are promising new agents for the treatment of main infectious killing diseases in the world: immunodeficiency diseases and tuberculosis.

    Results: New ethanolamine nitro/chloronitrobenzoates were synthesized and characterized by X-ray crystallography, UV-vis, FT-IR and elementary analysis techniques. Read More

    Investigating and characterizing the binding activity of the immobilized calmodulin to calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I binding domain with atomic force microscopy.
    Chem Cent J 2017 Dec 6;11(1):128. Epub 2017 Dec 6.
    Key Laboratory of Mariculture and Enhancement of Zhejiang Province, Marine Fishery Institute of Zhejiang Province, Zhoushan, 316021, China.
    Protein-protein interactions are responsible for many biological processes, and the study of how proteins undergo a conformational change induced by other proteins in the immobilized state can help us to understand a protein's function and behavior, empower the current knowledge on molecular etiology of disease, as well as the discovery of putative protein targets of therapeutic interest. In this study, a bottom-up approach was utilized to fabricate micro/nanometer-scale protein patterns. One cysteine mutated calmodulin (CaM), as a model protein, was immobilized on thiol-terminated pattern surfaces. Read More

    Synthesis and analytical characterization of new thiazol-2-(3H)-ones as human neutrophil elastase (HNE) inhibitors.
    Chem Cent J 2017 Dec 6;11(1):127. Epub 2017 Dec 6.
    Sezione di Farmaceutica e Nutraceutica, NEUROFARBA, Università degli Studi di Firenze, Via Ugo Schiff 6, 50019, Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze, Italy.
    Human neutrophil elastase (HNE) is a potent serine protease belonging to the chymotrypsin family and is involved in a variety of pathologies affecting the respiratory system. Thus, compounds able to inhibit HNE proteolytic activity could represent effective therapeutics. We present here the synthesis of new thiazol-2-(3H)-ones as an elaboration of potent HNE inhibitors with an isoxazol-5-(2H)-one scaffold that we recently identified. Read More

    Development of new analytical methods for the determination of caffeine content in aqueous solution of green coffee beans.
    Chem Cent J 2017 Dec 5;11(1):126. Epub 2017 Dec 5.
    Department of Chemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    Background: This study was conducted to develop fast and cost effective methods for the determination of caffeine in green coffee beans. In the present work direct determination of caffeine in aqueous solution of green coffee bean was performed using FT-IR-ATR and fluorescence spectrophotometry. Caffeine was also directly determined in dimethylformamide solution using NIR spectroscopy with univariate calibration technique. Read More

    Structure-dependent optoelectronic properties of perylene, di-indenoperylene (DIP) isolated molecule and DIP molecular crystal.
    Chem Cent J 2017 Dec 2;11(1):125. Epub 2017 Dec 2.
    College of Science, Physics Department, Alfaisal University, P.O. Box 50927, Riyadh, 11533, Saudi Arabia.
    Theoretical simulations were designed by first principles approach of density functional theory to investigate the structural and optoelectronic properties of different structural classes of perylene; isolated perylene, diindeno[1,2,3-cd:1',2',3'-lm]perylene (DIP) molecule and DIP molecular crystal. The presence of molecular interactions in DIP crystal proved its structure-dependent behaviours. The herringbone molecular arrangement of DIP crystal has influenced the electronic properties by triggering the intermolecular interactions that reduced the energy gaps between HOMO and LUMO of the crystal. Read More

    An improved solvent-free synthesis of flunixin and 2-(arylamino) nicotinic acid derivatives using boric acid as catalyst.
    Chem Cent J 2017 Dec 1;11(1):124. Epub 2017 Dec 1.
    Heterocyclic Chemistry Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, 16846-13114, Iran.
    A simple solvent-free protocol for the preparation of flunixin, a potent non-narcotic, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is reported using boric acid as catalyst. Its salt, flunixin meglumine are then prepared under reflux in EtOH. This sustainable method are then extended for the synthesis of a series of 2-(arylamino) nicotinic acid derivatives. Read More

    Correction to: Synthesis, characterization and in vitro antimicrobial activity of novel fused pyrazolo[3,4-c]pyridazine, pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine, thieno[3,2-c] pyrazole and pyrazolo[3',4':4,5]thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidine derivatives.
    Chem Cent J 2017 Nov 30;11(1):123. Epub 2017 Nov 30.
    Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Arish University, Arish, 45511, Egypt.
    After the publication of this work [1] it was noticed that on page 3 of the article beginning in the paragraph-'Hydrazide 14 is used as a key producer…' the compound-"Not ethyl-N'-5-amino-1,3-diphenyl-1H-thieno[3,2-c]pyrazole-6-carbonylformohydrazonate" should be deleted. Also on page 10 of the PDF beginning in paragraph-'Synthesis of 5-amino-…' the compound-"Not ethyl-N'-5-amino-1,3-diphenyl-1H-thieno[3,2-c]pyrazole-6-carbonylformohydrazonate" should be deleted. We apologise for these errors. Read More

    Synthesis, anti-angiogenic and DNA cleavage studies of novel N-(4-methyl-3-((4-(pyridin-3-yl)pyrimidin-2-yl)amino)phenyl)piperidine-4-carboxamide derivatives.
    Chem Cent J 2017 Nov 30;11(1):122. Epub 2017 Nov 30.
    Department of Oncological Sciences, Mitchell Cancer Institute, USA Mitchell Cancer Institute, 1660 Springhill Avenue, Mobile, AL, 36604, USA.
    A series of novel N-(4-methyl-3-((4-(pyridin-3-yl)pyrimidin-2-yl)amino)phenyl)piperidine-4-carboxamide derivatives 10(a-f), 12(a-c) and 14(a-c) were synthesized and characterized by FTIR, 1H-NMR, mass spectral and elemental analysis. The efficacy of these derivatives to inhibit in vivo angiogenesis was evaluated using chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model and their DNA cleavage abilities were evaluated after incubating with calf thymus DNA followed by gel electrophoresis. These novel piperidine analogues efficiently blocked the formation of blood vessels in vivo in CAM model and exhibited differential migration and band intensities in DNA binding/cleavage assays. Read More

    Determination of lesinurad in rat plasma by a UHPLC-MS/MS assay.
    Chem Cent J 2017 Nov 28;11(1):121. Epub 2017 Nov 28.
    The MOH Key Laboratory of Geriatrics, Beijing Hospital, National Center of Gerontology, Beijing, 100730, People's Republic of China.
    Lesinurad is an oral inhibitor of urate-anion exchanger transporter 1 and has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for combination therapy with a xanthine oxidase inhibitor for the treatment of hyperuricemia associated with refractory gout. In the present study, a sensitive and specific ultra high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry assay was established and verified for the determination of lesinurad in rat plasma and was described in details for the first time. Chromatographic separation of lesinurad and diazepam (internal standard, IS) was performed on a Rapid Resolution HT C18 column (3. Read More

    Design, synthesis, in silico and in vitro antimicrobial screenings of novel 1,2,4-triazoles carrying 1,2,3-triazole scaffold with lipophilic side chain tether.
    Chem Cent J 2017 Nov 21;11(1):117. Epub 2017 Nov 21.
    Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Taibah University, Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah, 30002, Saudi Arabia.
    Background: 1,2,4-Triazoles and 1,2,3-triazoles have gained significant importance in medicinal chemistry.

    Results: This study describes a green, efficient and quick solvent free click synthesis of new 1,2,3-triazole-4,5-diesters carrying a lipophilic side chain via 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of diethylacetylene dicarboxylate with different surfactant azides. Further structural modifications of the resulting 1,2,3-triazole diesters to their corresponding 1,2,4-triazole-3-thiones via multi-step synthesis has been also investigated. Read More

    Polysaccharides from Dolichos biflorus Linn and Trachyspermum ammi Linn seeds: isolation, characterization and remarkable antimicrobial activity.
    Chem Cent J 2017 Nov 21;11(1):118. Epub 2017 Nov 21.
    Research & Education Development, Community Health Systems of South Texas, 3135 South Sugar Road, Edinburg, TX, 78539, USA.
    Polysaccharides are structurally complex and essential constituents of life, and therefore, studies directed to these kinds of molecules have received scientific attention. Despite an easy availability of Dolichos biflorus Linn and Trachyspermum ammi (Linn) seeds isolation, characterization and antimicrobial studies of polysaccharides derived from these two natural sources have not been investigated. Therefore, we report here isolation of polysaccharides, their purification and characterization from Dolichos biflorus Linn and Trachyspermum ammi (Linn) seeds. Read More

    Electrochemical behavior and in-vitro antimicrobial screening of some thienylazoaryls dyes.
    Chem Cent J 2017 Nov 21;11(1):119. Epub 2017 Nov 21.
    Department of Organic Chemistry, University of Yaounde I, P.O. Box 812, Yaounde, Republic of Cameroon.
    Background: A series of recently reported phenolic azo dyes 7a-e were prepared by coupling the thienyl diazonium sulfate of 3-Amino-4H-benzo[f]thieno[3,4-c](2H)chromen-4-one with selected diversely substituted phenolic and naphtholic derivatives. These compounds were evaluated for their antibacterial and antifungal activities. Furthermore their voltammetric behavior was compared at a glassy carbon electrode. Read More

    Phenolic constituents from Alisma plantago-aquatica Linnaeus and their anti-chronic prostatitis activity.
    Chem Cent J 2017 Nov 21;11(1):120. Epub 2017 Nov 21.
    Department of Urology, First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, 79 Qingchun Road, Hangzhou, 310003, China.
    Background: The plant Alisma plantago-aquatica Linnaeus, which is widely distributed in southwest of China, is the main material of traditional Chinese medicine "Zexie". It was used as folk medicine for immune-modulation, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial. Previous chemical studies on A. Read More

    Study on the interaction of paeoniflorin with human serum albumin (HSA) by spectroscopic and molecular docking techniques.
    Chem Cent J 2017 Nov 17;11(1):116. Epub 2017 Nov 17.
    School of Life Science, Liaoning University, Shenyang, 110036, People's Republic of China.
    The interaction of paeoniflorin with human serum albumin (HSA) was investigated using fluorescence, UV-vis absorption, circular dichroism (CD) spectra and molecular docking techniques under simulative physiological conditions. The results clarified that the fluorescence quenching of HSA by paeoniflorin was a static quenching process and energy transfer as a result of a newly formed complex (1:1). Paeoniflorin spontaneously bound to HSA in site I (subdomain IIA), which was primarily driven by hydrophobic forces and hydrogen bonds (ΔH° = - 9. Read More

    Design, synthesis, conformational and molecular docking study of some novel acyl hydrazone based molecular hybrids as antimalarial and antimicrobial agents.
    Chem Cent J 2017 Nov 14;11(1):115. Epub 2017 Nov 14.
    Department of Microbiology, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra, 136119, India.
    Background: Acyl hydrazones are an important class of heterocyclic compounds promising pharmacological characteristics. Malaria is a life-threatening mosquito-borne blood disease caused by a plasmodium parasite. In some places, malaria can be treated and controlled with early diagnosis. Read More

    Simultaneous determination of brazilin and protosappanin B in Caesalpinia sappan by ionic-liquid dispersive liquid-phase microextraction method combined with HPLC.
    Chem Cent J 2017 Nov 13;11(1):114. Epub 2017 Nov 13.
    Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, Henan University, Kaifeng, Henan, 475004, China.
    The conditions of heating, ionic liquid-based ultrasonic-assisted extraction combined with reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography were optimized to simultaneously isolate and determinate brazilin and protosappanin B in Caesalpinia sappan. Ionic liquids, including [BMIM]Br, [BMIM]BF4, [BMIM]PF6 and [HMIM]PF6, were selected as extraction solvents while methanol, acetone, acetonitrile, ethanol and water were selected as dispersants. The chromatographic column was Purospher star RP-C18 (250 mm × 4. Read More

    Antimicrobial and antioxidant potential of different solvent extracts of the medicinal plant Geum urbanum L.
    Chem Cent J 2017 Nov 7;11(1):113. Epub 2017 Nov 7.
    Department of Infectious Microbiology, The Stephan Angeloff Institute of Microbiology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str. Bl. 26, 1113, Sofia, Bulgaria.
    Many Geum species are known to be rich in biologically active compounds and therefore could be a source of new natural products with pharmacological potential. The medicinal plant Geum urbanum L. is widespread in Bulgaria and has been used in folk medicine. Read More

    Synthesis, characterization and in vitro antimicrobial activity of novel fused pyrazolo[3,4-c]pyridazine, pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine, thieno[3,2-c]pyrazole and pyrazolo[3',4':4,5]thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidine derivatives.
    Chem Cent J 2017 Nov 2;11(1):112. Epub 2017 Nov 2.
    Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Arish University, Arish, 45511, Egypt.
    Background: Some novel substituted pyrazolone, pyrazolo[3,4-c]pyridazine, pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine, pyrazolo[3,4-d]thiazolo[3,2-a]pyrimidinone, thieno[3,2-c]pyrazole and pyrazolo[3',4':4,5]thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidine derivatives have been reported to possess various pharmacological activities like antimicrobial, antitumor and anti-inflammatory.

    Results: A novel series of azoles and azines were designed and prepared via reaction of 1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazol-5(4H)-one with some electrophilic and nucleophilic reagents. The structures of target compounds were confirmed by elemental analyses and spectral data. Read More

    Aromatherapy: composition of the gaseous phase at equilibrium with liquid bergamot essential oil.
    Chem Cent J 2017 Nov 2;11(1):111. Epub 2017 Nov 2.
    Dipartimento di Farmacia e Scienze della Salute e della Nutrizione, Università della Calabria, Edificio Polifunzionale, 87036, Arcavacata di Rende, CS, Italy.
    This work compares the composition at different temperatures of gaseous phase of bergamot essential oil at equilibrium with the liquid phase. A new GC-MS methodology to determine quantitatively the volatile aroma compounds was developed. The adopted methodology involved the direct injection of headspace gas into injection port of GC-MS system and of known amounts of the corresponding authentic volatile compounds. Read More

    Bis-pyrimidine acetamides: design, synthesis and biological evaluation.
    Chem Cent J 2017 Aug 8;11(1):80. Epub 2017 Aug 8.
    Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak, 124001, India.
    Background: In the past few years, increased resistance of microorganisms towards antimicrobial agents become a serious health problem, so there is a need for the discovery of new antimicrobial agents. On the other hand, bis-pyrimidines possess various types of biological activity. In view of this, in the present study we have designed and synthesized a new series of bis-pyrimidine acetamides by Claisen-Schmidt condensation and screened for its in vitro antimicrobial and anticancer activities. Read More

    Synthesis and anticancer activity of novel quinazolinone-based rhodanines.
    Chem Cent J 2017 Oct 13;11(1):102. Epub 2017 Oct 13.
    Laboratory of Cell Proliferation and Ageing, Institute of Biosciences and Applications, National Centre of Scientific Research "Demokritos", Athens, Greece.
    Background: Rhodanines and quinazolinones have been reported to possess various pharmacological activities.

    Results: A novel series of twenty quinazolinone-based rhodanines were synthesized via Knoevenagel condensation between 4-[3-(substitutedphenyl)-3,4-dihydro-4-oxoquinazolin-2-yl)methoxy]substituted-benzaldehydes and rhodanine. Elemental and spectral analysis were used to confirm structures of the newly synthesized compounds. Read More

    Phenolic compounds, flavonoids, lipids and antioxidant potential of apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) pomace fermented by two filamentous fungal strains in solid state system.
    Chem Cent J 2017 Sep 21;11(1):92. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca, Cluj-Napoca, Romania.
    Background: The use of agricultural and food by-products is an economical solution to industrial biotechnology. The apricot press residues are abounding by-products from juice industry which can be used as substrates in solid state fermentation process (SSF), thus allowing a liberation and increase of content from various biomolecules with high added value.

    Methods: The evolutions of phenolic levels (by colorimetric assays and high performance liquid chromatography, HPLC-MS) and antioxidant activities (by DPPH assay) during SSF of apricot pomaces with Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oligosporus were investigated. Read More

    Characterization and quantification of flavonoids and saponins in adzuki bean (Vigna angularis L.) by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MSn analysis.
    Chem Cent J 2017 Sep 22;11(1):93. Epub 2017 Sep 22.
    Food Science and Technology Program, Beijing Normal University-Hong Kong Baptist University United International College, 28, Jinfeng Road, Tangjiawan, Zhuhai, 519085, Guangdong, China.
    Background: Bioactive activities of adzuki bean have been widely reported, however, the phytochemical information of adzuki bean is incomplete. The aim of this study was to characterize and quantify flavonoids and saponins in adzuki bean. High performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection and electro spray ionization-tandem multi-stage mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-MSn) were applied to do qualitative and quantitative analyses. Read More

    Antioxidant and antiproliferative activity of blue corn and tortilla from native maize.
    Chem Cent J 2017 Oct 30;11(1):110. Epub 2017 Oct 30.
    Instituto de Ciencias Básicas, Universidad Veracruzana, Av. Dr. Luis Castelazo Ayala s/n Col. Industrial Ánimas, 91190, Xalapa, Veracruz, Mexico.
    Background: Blue corn is a cereal rich in phenolic compounds used to make blue tortillas. Tortillas are an important part of the Mexican diet. Blue corn and tortilla represent an important source of the natural antioxidants anthocyanins. Read More

    Antimicrobial activity of thiophene derivatives derived from ethyl (E)-5-(3-(dimethylamino)acryloyl)-4-methyl-2-(phenylamino)thiophene-3-carboxylate.
    Chem Cent J 2017 Aug 3;11(1):75. Epub 2017 Aug 3.
    Departmentof Chemistry, The University of Jordan, Amman, 11942, Jordan.
    Background: The thiophene nucleus has been recognized as an important entity in the synthesis of heterocyclic compounds with promising pharmacological characteristics.

    Results: A number of new heterocyclic compounds incorporating thiophene species have been prepared from the titled enaminone via the reaction with different nucleophiles and electrophiles. The structure elucidation of the designed compounds was derived from their spectral information. Read More

    Effects of temperature, time, and solvent ratio on the extraction of phenolic compounds and the anti-radical activity of Clinacanthus nutans Lindau leaves by response surface methodology.
    Chem Cent J 2017 Jun 14;11(1):54. Epub 2017 Jun 14.
    Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.
    Background: Clinacanthus nutans Lindau is a well-known plant, native to tropical Asian countries. Reports on this plant that is rich in phenolic compounds have focused on its therapeutic anti-inflammatory, anti-herpes simplex, antioxidant, and anti-cancer characteristics. In this paper, the influence of the extraction parameters-temperatures (60-80 °C), times (80-120 min), and solvent ratios (70:30-90:10) of water:ethanol were investigated using response surface methodology in order to determine the optimum extraction conditions that could produce maximum extraction yields of the phenolic compounds and the highest anti-radical activity of the C. Read More

    The mechanism for enhanced oxidation degradation of dioxin-like PCBs (PCB-77) in the atmosphere by the solvation effect.
    Chem Cent J 2017 Jul 11;11(1):61. Epub 2017 Jul 11.
    College of Environmental Science and Engineering, North China Electric Power University, No. 2, Beinong Road, Beijing, 102206, China.
    The reaction pathways of PCB-77 in the atmosphere with ·OH, O2, NO x , and 1O2 were inferred based on density functional theory calculations with the 6-31G* basis set. The structures the reactants, transition states, intermediates, and products were optimized. The energy barriers and reaction heats were obtained to determine the energetically favorable reaction pathways. Read More

    Modification and comparison of three Gracilaria spp. agarose with methylation for promotion of its gelling properties.
    Chem Cent J 2017 Oct 16;11(1):104. Epub 2017 Oct 16.
    Department of Biology, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Marine Biotechnology, STU-UNIVPM Joint Algal Research Center, College of Science, Shantou University, Shantou, 515063, Guangdong, PR China.
    In order to improve the gelling properties of agarose, we modified it by methylation. The agarose was prepared from Gracilaria asiatica, G. bailinae, and G. Read More

    Synthesis and biological activity of myricetin derivatives containing 1,3,4-thiadiazole scaffold.
    Chem Cent J 2017 Oct 17;11(1):106. Epub 2017 Oct 17.
    State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Green Pesticide and Agricultural Bioengineering, Key Laboratory of Green Pesticide and Agricultural Bioengineering, Ministry of Education, Guizhou University, Guiyang, 550025, China.
    Background: Myricetin and 1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives were reported to exhibit favorable antiviral and antibacterial activities. Aiming to discover novel myricetin analogues with potent activities, a series of novel myricetin derivatives containing 1,3,4-thiadiazole moiety were synthesized, and their antibacterial and antiviral activities were evaluated.

    Result: Bioassay results indicated that some target compounds exhibited potential antibacterial and antiviral activities. Read More

    Two phenolic antioxidants in Suoyang enhance viability of •OH-damaged mesenchymal stem cells: comparison and mechanistic chemistry.
    Chem Cent J 2017 Aug 25;11(1):84. Epub 2017 Aug 25.
    School of Chinese Herbal Medicine, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Waihuan East Road No. 232, Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Center, Guangzhou, 510006, China.
    Background: Suoyang originates from a psammophyte named Cynomorium songaricum Rupr and has been known as a phenolic-antioxidant-enriched traditional Chinese herbal medicine. The present study attempted to investigate the protective effect of phenolic antioxidants in Suoyang towards •OH-mediated MSCs and then further discusses the chemical mechanisms.

    Methods: The lyophilized aqueous extract of Suoyang (LAS) was prepared and characterized using HPLC. Read More

    The development of an effective synthetic route of lesinurad (RDEA594).
    Chem Cent J 2017 Sep 5;11(1):86. Epub 2017 Sep 5.
    Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology (Ministry of Education), School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shandong University, No. 44 West Culture Road, Jinan, 250012, Shandong, People's Republic of China.
    Background: Lesinurad is a novel selective uric acid salt transport protein 1 (URAT1) inhibitor which is approved in the USA for the treatment of gout. However, there are some shortcomings among the reported synthetic routes, such as expensive materials, environmental pollution and poor yield.

    Results: In this study, an efficient, practical and environmentally-friendly synthetic route of lesinurad is reported. Read More

    Acidic and enzymatic saccharification of waste agricultural biomass for biotechnological production of xylitol.
    Chem Cent J 2017 Oct 2;11(1):97. Epub 2017 Oct 2.
    Industrial Biotechnology Division, National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (NIBGE), 577, Faisalabad, Pakistan.
    Background: The plant biomass and agro-industrial wastes show great potential for their use as attractive low cost substrates in biotechnological processes. Wheat straw and corn cob as hemicellulosic substrates were acid hydrolyzed and enzymatically saccharified for high xylose production. The hydrolysate was concentrated and fermented by using Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Kluyveromyces for production of xylitol. Read More

    Optimization of phenolics and flavonoids extraction conditions of Curcuma Zedoaria leaves using response surface methodology.
    Chem Cent J 2017 Oct 2;11(1):96. Epub 2017 Oct 2.
    Halal Products Research Institute, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.
    This study focused on maximizing the extraction yield of total phenolics and flavonoids from Curcuma Zedoaria leaves as a function of time (80-120 min), temperature (60-80 °C) and ethanol concentration (70-90 v/v%). The data were subjected to response surface methodology (RSM) and the results showed that the polynomial equations for all models were significant, did not show lack of fit, and presented adjusted determination coefficients (R2) above 99%, proving their suitability for prediction purposes. Using desirability function, the optimum operating conditions to attain a higher extraction of phenolics and flavonoids was found to be 75 °C, 92 min of extraction time and 90:10 of ethanol concentration ratios. Read More

    A review of phytochemistry, metabolite changes, and medicinal uses of the common sunflower seed and sprouts (Helianthus annuus L.).
    Chem Cent J 2017 Sep 29;11(1):95. Epub 2017 Sep 29.
    Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agro-Industry, Kasetsart University, Bangkok, 10900, Thailand.
    The sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seed and sprout is a ubiquitous crop with abundant nutrients and biological activities. This review summarizes the nutritional and medical importance currently recognized but under-researched concerning both seed and sprout highlighting the potential benefits of their phytochemical constituents including phenolic acids, flavonoids and tocopherols. Read More

    Nicotinamide-based diamides derivatives as potential cytotoxic agents: synthesis and biological evaluation.
    Chem Cent J 2017 Oct 24;11(1):109. Epub 2017 Oct 24.
    National Biopesticide Engineering Technology Research Center, Hubei Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Wuhan, 430064, China.
    A series of diamides derivatives containing nicotinamide unit were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their potential cytotoxic activities against human cancer cell lines. All the synthesized compounds were characterized using spectroscopic methods mainly including 1H NMR, 13C NMR and MS. The bio-evaluation results indicated that some of the obtained compounds (such as 4d, 4h, 4i) exhibited good to moderate cytotoxic effects on lung cancer cell lines (NCI-H460, A549, and NCI-H1975), especially, compound 4d exhibited the highly potential inhibitory activities against NCI-H460 cell line with the IC50 values of 4. Read More

    Simultaneous determination of cetirizine, phenyl propanolamine and nimesulide using third derivative spectrophotometry and high performance liquid chromatography in pharmaceutical preparations.
    Chem Cent J 2017 Oct 5;11(1):99. Epub 2017 Oct 5.
    Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Mansoura, Mansoura, 35516, Egypt.
    Background: The combination between cetirizine (CET), phenylpropanolamine (PPA) and nimesulide (NMS) under trade name Nemeriv Cp tablet is prescribed for nasal congestion, cold, sneezing, and allergy. Among all published methods for the three drugs; there is no reported method concerning estimation of CTZ, PPA and NMS simultaneously and this motivates us to develop new and simple methods for their assay in pure form and tablet preparations.

    Results: Two new methodologies were described for the simultaneous quantification of cetirizine (CTZ), PPA and NMS. Read More

    Steam distillation/drop-by-drop extraction with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for fast determination of volatile components in jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) extract.
    Chem Cent J 2017 Oct 13;11(1):101. Epub 2017 Oct 13.
    Center for Chinese Medicine Therapy and Systems Biology, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, 201203, Shanghai, China.
    Background: Jujube extract is commonly used as a food additive and flavoring. The unique jujube aroma and the mild sweet aroma of the extract are critical factors that determine product quality and affect consumer acceptability. The aroma changes with changes in the extraction condition, which is typically dependent on the characteristics of volatile oils in the extract. Read More

    Preparative HPLC for large scale isolation, and salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction based method for HPLC-DAD determination of khat (Catha edulis Forsk) alkaloids.
    Chem Cent J 2017 Oct 17;11(1):107. Epub 2017 Oct 17.
    Department of Chemistry, Addis Ababa University, P. O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    Background: Khat (Catha edulis Forsk) is an evergreen shrub of the Celastraceae family. It is widely cultivated in Yemen and East Africa, where its fresh leaves are habitually chewed for their momentary pleasures and stimulation as amphetamine-like effects. The main psychostimulant constituents of khat are the phenylpropylamino alkaloids: cathinone, cathine and norephedrine. Read More

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