4,367 results match your criteria Chemical Society Reviews[Journal]


How to make C-N bonds using boronic acids and their derivatives without transition metals.

Chem Soc Rev 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Instituto Pluridisciplinar, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Paseo de Juan XXIII, 1, 28040 Madrid, Spain.

This tutorial review describes recent developments in carbon-nitrogen bond-forming reactions (amination, amidation, nitration and nitrosation) that involve the use of boronic acids and some of their derivatives as carbon-nucleophiles in the absence of transition-metals. Issues pertaining to reagents and mechanisms are discussed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9cs00735kDOI Listing

Chemical sensing platforms for detecting trace-level Alzheimer's core biomarkers.

Chem Soc Rev 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 335 Science Road, Daejeon 305-701, Republic of Korea.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent neurodegenerative disorder and affects more than 10% of the population aged over 65 worldwide. Despite considerable global efforts, AD patients can only be diagnosed after the onset of symptoms based on neuropsychological tests and neuroimaging. Because the changes in the levels of biomarkers associated with Aβ deposits and tau tangles precede the appearance of the first cognitive symptoms, accurate measurements of AD core biomarkers is critical for identifying asymptomatic AD patients and predicting disease progression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0cs00107dDOI Listing

Endoplasmic reticulum stress: an arising target for metal-based anticancer agents.

Chem Soc Rev 2020 Jun 29. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA.

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has recently emerged as a promising target for anticancer agents. Cytotoxic compounds that target the ER often exhibit selectivity for cancer cells over non-cancer cells. Furthermore, the induction of ER stress often leads to immunogenic cell death, providing another factor that contributes to the clinical efficacy of drugs that target this organelle. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0cs00259cDOI Listing

How to use X-ray diffraction to elucidate 2D polymerization propagation in single crystals.

Chem Soc Rev 2020 Jun 29. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

X-ray Platform, Department of Materials, ETH Zürich, Vladimir-Prelog-Weg 5-10, 8093 Zürich, Switzerland.

Covalent long-range ordered (crystalline) sheets called 2D polymers have recently been synthesized by irradiating single crystals of suitably packed monomers. To have such an action proceed successfully, billions of bond formation processes have to be mastered exclusively in two dimensions within 3D crystals. This raises questions as to how to elucidate the mechanism of these unusual polymerizations as well as their entire strain management. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0cs00176gDOI Listing

Confined growth of ordered organic frameworks at an interface.

Chem Soc Rev 2020 Jun 29. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of Chemistry, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309, USA.

Given their modular synthesis, unique structural features and rich functionality, structurally ordered covalent organic frameworks (COFs) and covalent monolayers have shown great potential in a broad range of applications, such as catalysis, molecular separation, energy storage, light harvesting, etc. The synthesis of COF thin films and covalent monolayers mainly utilizes dynamic covalent chemistry (DCvC), which relies on the reversible formation and breaking of rather strong covalent bonds within molecules under certain external stimuli. Such reversible reaction conditions enable a self-correction mechanism, which can selectively resolve defect sites leading to the formation of highly ordered COF films under thermodynamic control. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9cs00879aDOI Listing

Medical micro/nanorobots in complex media.

Chem Soc Rev 2020 Jun 29. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Andrew and Peggy Cherng Department of Medical Engineering, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA.

Medical micro/nanorobots have received tremendous attention over the past decades owing to their potential to be navigated into hard-to-reach tissues for a number of biomedical applications ranging from targeted drug/gene delivery, bio-isolation, detoxification, to nanosurgery. Despite the great promise, the majority of the past demonstrations are primarily under benchtop or in vitro conditions. Many developed micro/nanoscale propulsion mechanisms are based on the assumption of a homogeneous, Newtonian environment, while realistic biological environments are substantially more complex. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0cs00309cDOI Listing

Energy-efficient separation alternatives: metal-organic frameworks and membranes for hydrocarbon separation.

Chem Soc Rev 2020 Jun 24. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Key Laboratory of Biomass Chemical Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China. and Institute of Zhejiang University - Quzhou, 78 Jiuhua Boulevard North, Quzhou 324000, China.

Hydrocarbon separation is one of the most critically important and complex industrial separation processes, offering versatile bulk chemicals and vital support to the national economy. Traditional separation technologies, such as cryogenic distillation and solvent extraction, are energy-intensive and cause serious environmental stress. Moreover, the growth of industries and technologies and the greater requirements for products (e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9cs00756cDOI Listing

Ring opening polymerization of α-amino acids: advances in synthesis, architecture and applications of polypeptides and their hybrids.

Chem Soc Rev 2020 Jun 23. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Polymer Science Group, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3010, Australia.

Polypeptides have attracted considerable attention in recent decades due to their inherent biodegradability and tunable cytocompatibility. Macromolecular design in conjunction with rational monomer composition can direct architecture, self-assembly and chemical behavior, ultimately guiding the choice of appropriate application within the biomedical field. This review focuses on the applications of polypeptides alongside the synthetic advances in the ring opening polymerization of α-amino acid N-carboxyanhydrides achieved in the past five years. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9cs00738eDOI Listing

Iron- and cobalt-catalyzed C(sp)-H bond functionalization reactions and their application in organic synthesis.

Chem Soc Rev 2020 Jun 22. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Department of Chemistry, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen, Guangdong 518055, P. R. China. and Department of Chemistry, State Key Laboratory of Synthetic Chemistry, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, P. R. China and HKU Shenzhen Institute of Research and Innovation, Shenzhen, Guangdong 518057, P. R. China.

Direct C-H bond functionalization catalyzed by non-precious transition metals is an attractive strategy in synthetic chemistry. Compared with the precious metals rhodium, palladium, ruthenium, and iridium commonly used in this field, catalysis based on non-precious metals, especially the earth-abundant ones, is appealing due to the increasing demand for environmentally benign and sustainable chemical processes. Herein, developments in iron- and cobalt-catalyzed C(sp3)-H bond functionalization reactions are described, with an emphasis on their applications in organic synthesis, i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0cs00340aDOI Listing

Emerging combination strategies with phototherapy in cancer nanomedicine.

Chem Soc Rev 2020 Jun 22. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Department of Chemistry, Korea University, Seoul 02841, Korea.

Optical techniques using developed laser and optical devices have made a profound impact on modern medicine, with "biomedical optics" becoming an emerging field. Sophisticated technologies have been developed in cancer nanomedicine, such as photothermal therapy and photodynamic therapy, among others. However, single-mode phototherapy cannot completely treat persistent tumors, with the challenges of relapse or metastasis remaining; therefore, combinatorial strategies are being developed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0cs00215aDOI Listing

Harnessing the surface structure to enable high-performance cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries.

Chem Soc Rev 2020 Jun 22. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

School of Advanced Materials, Peking University Shenzhen Graduate School, Shenzhen 518055, China.

The ever-increasing demand for high-performance batteries has been driving the fundamental understanding of the crystal/surface structural and electrochemical properties of intercalation cathode materials, among which the olivine-type, spinel, and layered lithium transition metal oxide materials have received particular attention in the past decade due to their successful commercialization. While the most current studies focus on the macroscopic and bulk crystal structure of these materials, our previous work suggests that, as a confined region wherein charge transfer takes place, the electrochemical performances of the interfacial structures of cathode materials are largely dictated by the break in the structural symmetry from 3D (bulk) to 2D (surface), which leads to reconstructions under different chemical/electrochemical conditions. By summarizing various works in this subject and offering our perspectives, this tutorial review will reveal for the first time the correlation between the surface structure and interface reconstruction at atomic/molecular scales and their direct impact on the corresponding electrochemical performances. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0cs00137fDOI Listing

Tools and strategies of systems metabolic engineering for the development of microbial cell factories for chemical production.

Chem Soc Rev 2020 Jun 22. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Metabolic and Biomolecular Engineering National Research Laboratory, Systems Metabolic Engineering and Systems Healthcare (SMESH) Cross-Generation Collaborative Laboratory, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering (BK21 Plus Program), Institute for the BioCentury, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 34141, Republic of Korea. and Bioinformatics Research Center, KAIST, 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 34141, Republic of Korea and BioProcess Engineering Research Center, KAIST, 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 34141, Republic of Korea.

Sustainable production of chemicals from renewable non-food biomass has become a promising alternative to overcome environmental issues caused by our heavy dependence on fossil resources. Systems metabolic engineering, which integrates traditional metabolic engineering with systems biology, synthetic biology, and evolutionary engineering, is enabling the development of microbial cell factories capable of efficiently producing a myriad of chemicals and materials including biofuels, bulk and fine chemicals, polymers, amino acids, natural products and drugs. In this paper, many tools and strategies of systems metabolic engineering, including in silico genome-scale metabolic simulation, sophisticated enzyme engineering, optimal gene expression modulation, in vivo biosensors, de novo pathway design, and genomic engineering, employed for developing microbial cell factories are reviewed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0cs00155dDOI Listing

Gas hydrates in sustainable chemistry.

Chem Soc Rev 2020 Jun 22. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Hydrates, Flow Assurance & Phase Equilibria Research Group, Institute of GeoEnergy Engineering, School of Energy, Geoscience, Infrastructure and Society, Heriot-Watt University, Riccarton, Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK.

Gas hydrates have received considerable attention due to their important role in flow assurance for the oil and gas industry, their extensive natural occurrence on Earth and extraterrestrial planets, and their significant applications in sustainable technologies including but not limited to gas and energy storage, gas separation, and water desalination. Given not only their inherent structural flexibility depending on the type of guest gas molecules and formation conditions, but also the synthetic effects of a wide range of chemical additives on their properties, these variabilities could be exploited to optimise the role of gas hydrates. This includes increasing their industrial applications, understanding and utilising their role in Nature, identifying potential methods for safely extracting natural gases stored in naturally occurring hydrates within the Earth, and for developing green technologies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c8cs00989aDOI Listing

Self-assembly of block copolymers towards mesoporous materials for energy storage and conversion systems.

Chem Soc Rev 2020 Jun 15. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Frontiers Science Center for Transformative Molecules, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Thermal Ageing, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200242, China.

Self-assembly of block copolymers (BCPs) provides a versatile strategy for controllable preparation of a broad range of functional materials with different ordered structures. In recent decades, this soft-templating strategy has been widely utilized for preparing a wide range of mesoporous materials. These porous materials have attracted tremendous interest in energy storage and conversion (ESC) applications in view of their ability to absorb, store, and interact with guest species on their exterior/interior surfaces and in the pore space. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0cs00021cDOI Listing

Semi-biological approaches to solar-to-chemical conversion.

Chem Soc Rev 2020 Jun 15. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, Lensfield Road, Cambridge CB2 1EW, UK.

This review presents a comprehensive summary of the recent development in semi-artificial photosynthesis, a biological-material hybrid approach to solar-to-chemical conversion that provides new concepts to shape a sustainable future fuelled by solar energy. We begin with a brief introduction to natural and artificial photosynthesis, followed by a discussion of the motivation and rationale behind semi-artificial photosynthesis. Then, we summarise how various enzymes can be combined with synthetic materials for light-driven water oxidation, H2 evolution, CO2 reduction, and chemical synthesis more broadly. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9cs00496cDOI Listing

Molecular and cellular cues governing nanomaterial-mucosae interactions: from nanomedicine to nanotoxicology.

Chem Soc Rev 2020 Jun 15. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Nanomaterials Science, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, De-Jur Building, Office 607, Haifa, 3200003, Israel.

Mucosal tissues constitute the largest interface between the body and the surrounding environment and they regulate the access of molecules, supramolecular structures, particulate matter, and pathogens into it. All mucosae are characterized by an outer mucus layer that protects the underlying cells from physicochemical, biological and mechanical insults, a mono-layered or stratified epithelium that forms tight junctions and controls the selective transport of solutes across it and associated lymphoid tissues that play a sentinel role. Mucus is a gel-like material comprised mainly of the glycoprotein mucin and water and it displays both hydrophilic and hydrophobic domains, a net negative charge, and high porosity and pore interconnectivity, providing an efficient barrier for the absorption of therapeutic agents. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c8cs00948aDOI Listing

Single-molecule methods in structural DNA nanotechnology.

Chem Soc Rev 2020 Jul;49(13):4220-4233

Department of Chemistry, McGill University, 801 Sherbrooke St. W, Montreal, Quebec H3A 0B8, Canada.

Single molecules can now be visualised with unprecedented precision. As the resolution of single-molecule experiments improves, so too does the breadth, quantity and quality of information that can be extracted using these methodologies. In the field of DNA nanotechnology, we use programmable interactions between nucleic acids to generate complex, multidimensional structures. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9cs00776hDOI Listing

Doping and ion substitution in colloidal metal halide perovskite nanocrystals.

Chem Soc Rev 2020 Jun 15. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA.

The past decade has witnessed tremendous advances in synthesis of metal halide perovskites and their use for a rich variety of optoelectronics applications. Metal halide perovskite has the general formula ABX3, where A is a monovalent cation (which can be either organic (e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9cs00790cDOI Listing

Nanotechnology for angiogenesis: opportunities and challenges.

Chem Soc Rev 2020 Jun 15. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Department of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, Faculty of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Angiogenesis plays a critical role within the human body, from the early stages of life (i.e., embryonic development) to life-threatening diseases (e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c8cs01021hDOI Listing

Iron catalysts with N-ligands for carbene transfer of diazo reagents.

Chem Soc Rev 2020 Jun 12. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Department of Chemistry, University of Milan, Via Golgi 19, 20133 Milan, Italy.

Transition-metal-catalyzed carbene transfer reactions, involving diazo compounds and their precursors, are powerful tools for creating new C-C bonds. Depending on the involved catalytic system, the carbene insertion can efficiently be driven towards a specific functional group for the synthesis of a wide portfolio of fine chemicals. The present report is focused on the catalytic activity of iron catalysts in promoting alkene cyclopropanations, C-H and X-H (X = N, O, S, Se, Si, Sn, Ge) functionalizations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0cs00221fDOI Listing

Transition metal chelators, pro-chelators, and ionophores as small molecule cancer chemotherapeutic agents.

Chem Soc Rev 2020 Jun;49(12):3726-3747

Department of Chemistry, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712-1224, USA.

Cancer is among the leading causes of death worldwide. Although a number of new treatment options have been developed in recent years, there remains a need for improved chemotherapies. The primary challenges facing new cancer drugs include: (1) improving patient quality of life, (2) overcoming drug resistance and (3) lowering reoccurrence rates. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9cs00373hDOI Listing

Fluorinated carbohydrates as chemical probes for molecular recognition studies. Current status and perspectives.

Chem Soc Rev 2020 Jun;49(12):3863-3888

CIC bioGUNE, Basque Research and Technology Alliance (BRTA), 48160 Derio, Spain. and Ikerbasque, Basque Foundation for Science, Maria Diaz de Haro 3, 48013 Bilbao, Spain and Department of Organic Chemistry II, Faculty of Science and Technology, UPV/EHU, 48940 Leioa, Spain.

This review provides an extensive summary of the effects of carbohydrate fluorination with regard to changes in physical, chemical and biological properties with respect to regular saccharides. The specific structural, conformational, stability, reactivity and interaction features of fluorinated sugars are described, as well as their applications as probes and in chemical biology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9cs00099bDOI Listing

On-surface chemical reactions characterised by ultra-high resolution scanning probe microscopy.

Chem Soc Rev 2020 Jul;49(13):4189-4202

School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2RD, UK.

In the last decade it has become possible to resolve the geometric structure of organic molecules with intramolecular resolution using high resolution scanning probe microscopy (SPM), and specifically using the subset of SPM known as noncontact atomic force microscopy (ncAFM). In world leading groups it has become routine not only to perform sub-molecular imaging of the chemical, electronic, and electrostatic properties of single molecules, but also to use this technique to track complex on-surface chemical reactions, investigate novel reaction products, and even synthesise new molecular structures one bond at a time. These developments represent the cutting edge of characterisation at the single chemical bond level, and have revolutionised our understanding of surface-based chemical processes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0cs00166jDOI Listing

Carbon-fluorine bond cleavage mediated by metalloenzymes.

Chem Soc Rev 2020 Jun 8. Epub 2020 Jun 8.

Department of Chemistry, University of Texas at San Antonio, 1 UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249, USA.

Fluorochemicals are a widely distributed class of compounds and have been utilized across a wide range of industries for decades. Given the environmental toxicity and adverse health threats of some fluorochemicals, the development of new methods for their decomposition is significant to public health. However, the carbon-fluorine (C-F) bond is among the most chemically robust bonds; consequently, the degradation of fluorinated hydrocarbons is exceptionally difficult. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9cs00740gDOI Listing

Upgrading of marine (fish and crustaceans) biowaste for high added-value molecules and bio(nano)-materials.

Chem Soc Rev 2020 Jun 8. Epub 2020 Jun 8.

Dipartimento di Scienze Molecolari e Nanosistemi, Università Ca' Foscari Venezia, Via Torino, 155 - 30175 - Venezia Mestre, Italy.

Currently, the Earth is subjected to environmental pressure of unprecedented proportions in the history of mankind. The inexorable growth of the global population and the establishment of large urban areas with increasingly higher expectations regarding the quality of life are issues demanding radically new strategies aimed to change the current model, which is still mostly based on linear economy approaches and fossil resources towards innovative standards, where both energy and daily use products and materials should be of renewable origin and 'made to be made again'. These concepts have inspired the circular economy vision, which redefines growth through the continuous valorisation of waste generated by any production or activity in a virtuous cycle. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9cs00653bDOI Listing

Advances towards programmable droplet transport on solid surfaces and its applications.

Chem Soc Rev 2020 Jun 5. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Department of Chemistry, University College London, 20 Gordon Street, WC1H 0AJ London, UK.

Droplets moving on solid surfaces are at the heart of many phenomena of fundamental and applied interest in chemistry, physics and materials science. On the fundamental side, as they are often subject to evaporation, these droplets are a beautiful and complex example of non-equilibrium physical chemistry, whose explanation and understanding still capture the imagination of multiple researchers around the world. In technology, droplets on solid surfaces are of widespread use for handling small amounts of matter, for harvesting energy, for manufacturing materials and for sensing chemical and biological analytes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0cs00268bDOI Listing

Intramolecular (directed) electrophilic C-H borylation.

Chem Soc Rev 2020 Jun 4. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

EastCHEM School of Chemistry, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH9 3FJ, UK.

The intramolecular C-H borylation of (hetero)arenes and alkenes using electrophilic boranes is a powerful transition metal free methodology for forming C-B bonds. These C-H borylation reactions are preceded by intermolecular bond (both dative and covalent) formation, with examples proceeding via initial C-B and N-B bond formation dominating this field thus both are discussed in depth herein. Less prevalent intramolecular electrophilic C-H borylation reactions that proceed by intermolecular O-B, S-B and P-B bond formation are also summarised. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9cs00763fDOI Listing

Molecular materials as interfacial layers and additives in perovskite solar cells.

Chem Soc Rev 2020 Jul;49(13):4496-4526

Institute of Chemical Sciences and Engineering, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Rue de l'Industrie 17, CH-1951 Sion, Switzerland.

Solar cells based on organo-metal halide perovskites have gained unprecedented research interest over the last few years due to their low-cost solution processability, high power conversion efficiency, which has recently reached a certified value of 25.2%, and abundance of raw materials. Nevertheless, the best efficiencies remain below the Shockley-Queisser theoretical limit of 32. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9cs00733dDOI Listing

Function-oriented synthesis of two-dimensional (2D) covalent organic frameworks - from 3D solids to 2D sheets.

Chem Soc Rev 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Chemistry, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117543, Singapore.

Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) are constructed from the precise integration of small organic blocks into an extended, porous framework via covalent linkages. COFs can also be viewed as an organic solid consisting of a periodic array of one dimensional (1-D) channels. Although a wide range of applications have been envisioned for COFs, understanding the structure-property correlation at the level of chemical linkages, topology, pore size and functionality is needed to unlock the potential of these materials. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0cs00236dDOI Listing

Stretchable electrochemical energy storage devices.

Chem Soc Rev 2020 Jul;49(13):4466-4495

Department of Chemical Engineering, Stanford University, Shriram Center, 443 Via Ortega, Room 307, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.

The increasingly intimate contact between electronics and the human body necessitates the development of stretchable energy storage devices that can conform and adapt to the skin. As such, the development of stretchable batteries and supercapacitors has received significant attention in recent years. This review provides an overview of the general operating principles of batteries and supercapacitors and the requirements to make these devices stretchable. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0cs00035cDOI Listing

A review on energy chemistry of fast-charging anodes.

Chem Soc Rev 2020 Jun 1;49(12):3806-3833. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Green Chemical Reaction Engineering and Technology Department of Chemical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China.

With the impetus to accelerate worldwide market adoption of electrical vehicles and afford consumer electronics with better user experience, advancing fast-charging technology is an inevitable trend. However, current high-energy lithium-ion batteries are unable to support ultrafast power input without any adverse consequences, with the capacity fade and safety concerns of the mainstream graphite-based anodes being the key technological barrier. The aim of this review is to summarise the fundamentals, challenges, and solutions to enable graphite anodes that are capable of high-rate charging. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9cs00728hDOI Listing

Materials chemistry for rechargeable zinc-ion batteries.

Chem Soc Rev 2020 Jul;49(13):4203-4219

Renewable Energy Conversion and Storage Center, Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Materials Chemistry (Ministry of Education), College of Chemistry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, China.

Rechargeable zinc-ion batteries (ZIBs) are promising for large scale energy storage and portable electronic applications due to their low cost, material abundance, high safety, acceptable energy density and environmental friendliness. This tutorial review presents an introduction to the fundamentals, challenges, recent advances and prospects related to ZIBs. Firstly, the intrinsic chemical properties, challenges and strategies of metallic zinc anodes are underscored. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9cs00349eDOI Listing

Outstanding Reviewers for Chemical Society Reviews in 2019.

Authors:

Chem Soc Rev 2020 Jun 1;49(11):3243. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0cs90047hDOI Listing

Combining theories and experiments to understand the sodium nucleation behavior towards safe sodium metal batteries.

Chem Soc Rev 2020 Jun 29;49(12):3783-3805. Epub 2020 May 29.

Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755, USA.

Rechargeable sodium (Na) based batteries have gained tremendous research interest because of the high natural abundance and low cost of Na resources, as well as electrochemical similarities with lithium (Li) based batteries. However, despite the great potential as a candidate for next-generation grid-scale energy storage, the implementation of the Na metal anode has been primarily hindered by dendritic and "dead" Na formation that leads to low Coulombic efficiency, short lifespan and even safety concerns. Na dendrite formation mainly originates from the uncontrolled Na deposition behavior in the absence of nucleation site regulation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0cs00033gDOI Listing

Biomass valorisation over metal-based solid catalysts from nanoparticles to single atoms.

Chem Soc Rev 2020 Jun 27;49(12):3764-3782. Epub 2020 May 27.

Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, ETH Zurich, Vladimir-Prelog-Weg 1, 8093 Zürich, Switzerland.

Heterogeneous catalysts are vital to unlock superior efficiency, atom economy, and environmental friendliness in chemical conversions, with the size and speciation of the contained metals often playing a decisive role in the activity, selectivity and stability. This tutorial review analyses the impact of these catalyst parameters on the valorisation of biomass through hydrogenation and hydrodeoxygenation, oxidation, reforming and acid-catalysed reactions, spanning a broad spectrum of substrates including sugars and platform compounds obtained from (hemi)cellulose and lignin derivatives. It outlines multiple examples of classical structure sensitivity on nanoparticle-based materials with significant implications for the product distribution. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0cs00130aDOI Listing

Emerging trends in porous materials for CO capture and conversion.

Chem Soc Rev 2020 Jul;49(13):4360-4404

Global Innovative Centre for Advanced Nanomaterials, Faculty of Engineering & Built Environment, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, 2308, Australia.

The presence of an excessive concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere needs to be curbed with suitable measures including the reduction of CO2 emissions at stationary point sources such as power plants through carbon capture technologies and subsequent conversion of the captured CO2 into non-polluting clean fuels/chemicals using photo and/or electrocatalytic pathways. Porous materials have attracted much attention for carbon capture and in the recent past; they have witnessed significant advancements in their design and implementation for CO2 capture and conversion. In this context, the emerging trends in major porous adsorbents such as MOFs, zeolites, POPs, porous carbons, and mesoporous materials for CO2 capture and conversion are discussed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0cs00075bDOI Listing

3d metallaelectrocatalysis for resource economical syntheses.

Chem Soc Rev 2020 Jul;49(13):4254-4272

Institut für Organische und Biomolekulare Chemie, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Tammannstraße 2, 37077 Göttingen, Germany. and Woehler Research Institute for Sustainable Chemistry (WISCh), Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Tammannstraße 2, 37077 Göttingen, Germany and Department of Chemistry, University of Pavia, Viale Taramelli 10, 27100 Pavia, Italy.

Resource economy constitutes one of the key challenges for researchers and practitioners in academia and industries, in terms of rising demand for sustainable and green synthetic methodology. To achieve ideal levels of resource economy in molecular syntheses, novel avenues are required, which include, but are not limited to the use of naturally abundant, renewable feedstocks, solvents, metal catalysts, energy, and redox reagents. In this context, electrosyntheses create the unique possibility to replace stoichiometric amounts of oxidizing or reducing reagents as well as electron transfer events by electric current. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0cs00149jDOI Listing

Heteroatom-participated lignin cleavage to functionalized aromatics.

Chem Soc Rev 2020 Jun;49(12):3748-3763

State Key Laboratory of Catalysis (SKLC), Dalian National Laboratory for Clean Energy (DNL), Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics (DICP), Dalian 116023, China.

Lignin, the most abundant aromatic polymer in nature, enables sustainable supply of miscellaneous aromatics as green fuels and chemicals. Obtaining the value-added aromatics from lignin, though subjected to enormous research efforts, mainly relies on depolymerization induced by activated hydrogen species or oxygen species, delivering hydrocarbons and oxygenates. The future bio-refinery demands a broad spectrum of fine chemicals, especially those containing elements other than C, H and O. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0cs00078gDOI Listing

Conformationally adaptive macrocycles with flipping aromatic sidewalls.

Chem Soc Rev 2020 Jul;49(13):4176-4188

Shenzhen Grubbs Institute, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Catalysis, and Department of Chemistry, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen, 518055, China.

Conformationally adaptive macrocycles possess multiple well-defined conformations through quickly flipping their aromatic sidewalls. The macrocycles combine the binding power of all the conformations. Upon binding a guest, one or a combination of conformations are selected to achieve the maximized binding affinity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0cs00341gDOI Listing

Transition-metal mediated carbon-sulfur bond activation and transformations: an update.

Chem Soc Rev 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116023, P. R. China. and State Key Laboratory of Organometallic Chemistry, Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 354 Fenglin Road, Shanghai 200032, P. R. China.

Carbon-sulfur bond cross-coupling has become more and more attractive as an alternative protocol to establish carbon-carbon and carbon-heteroatom bonds. Diverse transformations through transition-metal-catalyzed C-S bond activation and cleavage have recently been developed. This review summarizes the advances in transition-metal-catalyzed cross-coupling via carbon-sulfur bond activation and cleavage since late 2012 as an update of the critical review on the same topic published in early 2013 (Chem. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9cs00837cDOI Listing

C-C and C-X coupling reactions of unactivated alkyl electrophiles using copper catalysis.

Chem Soc Rev 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Chicago, 845 West Taylor Street, Chicago, Illinois 60607, USA.

Transition metal-catalysed cross-coupling reactions are widely used for construction of carbon-carbon and carbon-heteroatom bonds. However, compared to aryl or alkenyl electrophiles, the cross-coupling of unactivated alkyl electrophiles containing β hydrogens remains a challenge. Over the past few years, the use of suitable ligands such as bulky phosphines or N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) has enabled reactions of unactivated alkyl electrophiles not only limited to the traditional cross-coupling with Grignard reagents, but also including a diverse range of organic transformations via either SN2 or radical pathways. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0cs00316fDOI Listing

Recent advances in solid-contact ion-selective electrodes: functional materials, transduction mechanisms, and development trends.

Chem Soc Rev 2020 Jul;49(13):4405-4465

Laboratory of Agricultural Information Intelligent Sensing, School of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058, China.

From environmental monitoring to point-of-care biofluid analysis, rapid ion determination requires robust analytical tools. In recent years, driven by the development of materials science and processing technology, solid-contact ion-selective electrodes (SC-ISEs) with high-performance functional materials and creative structures have shown great potential for routine and portable ion detection. In particular, the introduction of nanomaterials as ion-to-electron transducers and the adoption of different performance enhancement strategies have significantly promoted the development of SC-ISEs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9cs00587kDOI Listing

Recent catalytic routes for the preparation and the upgrading of biomass derived furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural.

Chem Soc Rev 2020 Jul;49(13):4273-4306

Dipartimento DICEAM, Università Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Loc. Feo di Vito, I-89122 Reggio Calabria, Italy.

Furans represent one of the most important classes of intermediates in the conversion of non-edible lignocellulosic biomass into bio-based chemicals and fuels. At present, bio-furan derivatives are generally obtained from cellulose and hemicellulose fractions of biomass via the acid-catalyzed dehydration of their relative C6-C5 sugars and then converted into a wide range of products. Furfural (FUR) and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) are surely the most used furan-based feedstocks since their chemical structure allows the preparation of various high-value-added chemicals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0cs00041hDOI Listing

Direct synthesis of metastable phases of 2D transition metal dichalcogenides.

Chem Soc Rev 2020 Jun 26;49(12):3952-3980. Epub 2020 May 26.

Department of Materials, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ, UK.

The different polymorphic phases of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have attracted enormous interest in the last decade. The metastable metallic and small band gap phases of group VI TMDs displayed leading performance for electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution, high volumetric capacitance and some of them exhibit large gap quantum spin Hall (QSH) insulating behaviour. Metastable 1T(1T') phases require higher formation energy, as compared to the thermodynamically stable 2H phase, thus in standard chemical vapour deposition and vapour transport processes the materials normally grow in the 2H phases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0cs00143kDOI Listing

Molecular and nanoengineering approaches towards activatable cancer immunotherapy.

Authors:
Chi Zhang Kanyi Pu

Chem Soc Rev 2020 Jul;49(13):4234-4253

School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 70 Nanyang Drive, 637457, Singapore.

Cancer immunotherapy is an emerging treatment strategy that modulates the immune system to fight against cancer. Although several immunotherapeutic agents have been utilized in the clinic for cancer treatment, low patient response rates and potential immune-related adverse events remain two major challenges. With the merits of delivery controllability and modular flexibility, nanomedicines provide opportunities to facilitate immunotherapies for clinical translation in a safe and effective manner. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9cs00773cDOI Listing

Correction: QSAR without borders.

Chem Soc Rev 2020 Jun;49(11):3716

UNC Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

Correction for 'QSAR without borders' by Eugene N. Muratov et al., Chem. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0cs90041aDOI Listing

Two-dimensional covalent organic frameworks with hierarchical porosity.

Chem Soc Rev 2020 Jun 19;49(12):3920-3951. Epub 2020 May 19.

Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Self-Assembly Chemistry for Organic Functional Molecules, Center for Excellence in Molecular Synthesis, Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 345 Lingling Road, Shanghai 200032, China.

Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) are a class of crystalline porous organic polymers assembled by connecting organic building units via covalent bonds. They are characterized as extended two-dimensional (2D) or three-dimensional (3D) frameworks with precise spatial structures and building block distribution. A key feature of COFs is their inherent porosity originating from their well-ordered nanopores which are designable, tunable and modifiable through pore engineering. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0cs00049cDOI Listing

Organic field-effect transistor-based flexible sensors.

Chem Soc Rev 2020 Jun 19;49(11):3423-3460. Epub 2020 May 19.

Sensors Lab, Advanced Membranes and Porous Materials Center, Computer, Electrical and Mathematical Science and Engineering Division, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Saudi Arabia.

Flexible electronic devices have attracted a great deal of attention in recent years due to their flexibility, reduced complexity and lightweight. Such devices can conformably attach themselves to any bendable surface and can possess diverse transduction mechanisms. Consequently, with continued emphasis on innovation and development, major technological breakthroughs have been achieved in this area. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9cs00811jDOI Listing

Infrared and Raman chemical imaging and spectroscopy at the nanoscale.

Chem Soc Rev 2020 Jun 19;49(11):3315-3347. Epub 2020 May 19.

Department Biochemistry and Biophysics, Texas A&M University, 2128 TAMU, College Station, TX 77843, USA.

The advent of nanotechnology, and the need to understand the chemical composition at the nanoscale, has stimulated the convergence of IR and Raman spectroscopy with scanning probe methods, resulting in new nanospectroscopy paradigms. Here we review two such methods, namely photothermal induced resonance (PTIR), also known as AFM-IR and tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS). AFM-IR and TERS fundamentals will be reviewed in detail together with their recent crucial advances. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c8cs00916cDOI Listing

Covalent organic framework photocatalysts: structures and applications.

Chem Soc Rev 2020 Jun 18;49(12):4135-4165. Epub 2020 May 18.

College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University and Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082, P. R. China.

In the light of increasing energy demand and environmental pollution, it is urgently required to find a clean and renewable energy source. In these years, photocatalysis that uses solar energy for either fuel production, such as hydrogen evolution and hydrocarbon production, or environmental pollutant degradation, has shown great potential to achieve this goal. Among the various photocatalysts, covalent organic frameworks (COFs) are very attractive due to their excellent structural regularity, robust framework, inherent porosity and good activity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0cs00278jDOI Listing