2,129 results match your criteria Chemical Senses[Journal]


Temperature is sufficient to condition a flavor preference for a cold-paired solution in rats.

Chem Senses 2020 Jul 10. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Department of Psychology, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York, USA.

Increasing evidence suggests that stimulus temperature modifies taste signaling. However, understanding how temperature modifies taste-driven behavior is difficult to separate as we must first understand how temperature alone modifies behavior. Previous work has suggested that cold water is more rewarding and "satiating" than warm water, and water above orolingual temperature is avoided in brief-access testing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/chemse/bjaa050DOI Listing

Smell-based memory training: Evidence of olfactory learning and transfer to the visual domain.

Chem Senses 2020 Jul 9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Gösta Ekman Laboratory, Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.

Human and non-human animal research converge to suggest that the sense of smell, olfaction, has a high level of plasticity and is intimately associated with visual-spatial orientation and memory encoding networks. We investigated whether olfactory memory training would lead to transfer to an untrained visual memory task, as well as untrained olfactory tasks. We devised a memory intervention to compare transfer effects generated by olfactory and non-olfactory (visual) memory training. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/chemse/bjaa049DOI Listing

Olfactory Detection Thresholds for Primary Aliphatic Alcohols in Mice.

Chem Senses 2020 Jul 1. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Department of Psychology, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL.

Probing the neural mechanisms that underlie each sensory system requires the presentation of perceptually appropriate stimulus concentrations. This is particularly relevant in the olfactory system as additional odorant receptors typically respond with increasing stimulus concentrations. Thus, perceptual measures of olfactory sensitivity provide an important guide for functional experiments. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/chemse/bjaa045DOI Listing

Not all emotions are equal:Fear chemosignals lower awareness thresholds only for fearful faces.

Chem Senses 2020 Jun 30. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

William James Center for Research, ISPA - Instituto Universitário, Portugal.

Exposure to body odors (chemosignals) collected under different emotional states (i.e., emotional chemosignals) can modulate our visual system, biasing visual perception. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/chemse/bjaa047DOI Listing

Position Review: Functional Selectivity in Mammalian Olfactory Receptors.

Authors:
Barry W Ache

Chem Senses 2020 Jun 29. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Whitney Laboratory, Departments of Biology and Neuroscience, and Center for Smell and Taste, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL.

There is increasing appreciation that G protein coupled receptors can initiate diverse cellular responses by activating multiple G proteins, arrestins, and other biochemical effectors. Structurally different ligands targeting the same receptor are thought to stabilize the receptor in multiple distinct active conformations such that specific subsets of signaling effectors are engaged at the exclusion of others, creating bias towards a particular outcome, which has been referred to as ligand-induced selective signaling, biased agonism, ligand-directed signaling, and functional selectivity, among others. The potential involvement of functional selectivity in mammalian olfactory signal transduction has received little attention, notwithstanding the fact that mammalian olfactory receptors comprise the largest family of mammalian G protein coupled receptors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/chemse/bjaa046DOI Listing

Optogenetic activation of Type III taste cells modulates taste responses.

Chem Senses 2020 Jun 25. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Department of Otolaryngology, University of Colorado, Aurora, CO.

Studies have suggested that communication between taste cells shapes the gustatory signal before transmission to the brain. To further explore the possibility of intragemmal signal modulation, we adopted an optogenetic approach to stimulate sour-sensitive (Type III) taste cells using mice expressing Cre recombinase under a specific Type III cell promoter, Pkd2l1 (Polycystic kidney Disease-2-Like 1), crossed with mice expressing Cre-dependent Channelrhodopsin (ChR2). The application of blue light onto the tongue allowed for the specific stimulation of Type III cells and circumvented the non-specific effects of chemical stimulation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/chemse/bjaa044DOI Listing

Genetic Deletion of TrpV1 and TrpA1 Does not Alter Avoidance of or Patterns of Brainstem Activation to Citric Acid in Mice.

Chem Senses 2020 Jun 23. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Rocky Mountain Taste & Smell Center, Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO.

Exposure of the oral cavity to acidic solutions evokes not only a sensation of sour, but also of sharp or tangy. Acidic substances potentially stimulate both taste buds and acid-sensitive mucosal free nerve endings. Mice lacking taste function (P2X2/P2X3 double-KO mice) refuse acidic solutions similarly to wildtype mice and intraoral infusion of acidic solutions in these KO animals evokes substantial c-Fos activity within orosensory trigeminal nuclei as well as of the nucleus of the solitary tract (nTS) (Stratford et. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/chemse/bjaa043DOI Listing

More than smell - COVID-19 is associated with severe impairment of smell, taste, and chemesthesis.

Authors:
Valentina Parma Kathrin Ohla Maria G Veldhuizen Masha Y Niv Christine E Kelly Alyssa J Bakke Keiland W Cooper Cédric Bouysset Nicola Pirastu Michele Dibattista Rishemjit Kaur Marco Tullio Liuzza Marta Y Pepino Veronika Schöpf Veronica Pereda-Loth Shannon B Olsson Richard C Gerkin Paloma Rohlfs Domínguez Javier Albayay Michael C Farruggia Surabhi Bhutani Alexander W Fjaeldstad Ritesh Kumar Anna Menini Moustafa Bensafi Mari Sandell Iordanis Konstantinidis Antonella Di Pizio Federica Genovese Lina Öztürk Thierry Thomas-Danguin Johannes Frasnelli Sanne Boesveldt Özlem Saatci Luis R Saraiva Cailu Lin Jérôme Golebiowski Liang- Dar Hwang Mehmet Hakan Ozdener Maria Dolors Guàrdia Christophe Laudamiel Marina Ritchie Jan Havlícek Denis Pierron Eugeni Roura Marta Navarro Alissa A Nolden Juyun Lim K L Whitcroft Lauren R Colquitt Camille Ferdenzi Evelyn V Brindha Aytug Altundag Alberto Macchi Alexia Nunez-Parra Zara M Patel Sébastien Fiorucci Carl M Philpott Barry C Smith Johan N Lundström Carla Mucignat Jane K Parker Mirjam van den Brink Michael Schmuker Florian Ph S Fischmeister Thomas Heinbockel Vonnie D C Shields Farhoud Faraji Enrique Santamaría William E A Fredborg Gabriella Morini Jonas K Olofsson Maryam Jalessi Noam Karni Anna D'Errico Rafieh Alizadeh Robert Pellegrino Pablo Meyer Caroline Huart Ben Chen Graciela M Soler Mohammed K Alwashahi Antje Welge-Lüssen Jessica Freiherr Jasper H B de Groot Hadar Klein Masako Okamoto Preet Bano Singh Julien W Hsieh Danielle R Reed Thomas Hummel Steven D Munger John E Hayes

Chem Senses 2020 Jun 20. Epub 2020 Jun 20.

Department of Food Science, The Pennsylvania State University.

Recent anecdotal and scientific reports have provided evidence of a link between COVID-19 and chemosensory impairments such as anosmia. However, these reports have downplayed or failed to distinguish potential effects on taste, ignored chemesthesis, and generally lacked quantitative measurements. Here, we report the development, implementation and initial results of a multi-lingual, international questionnaire to assess self-reported quantity and quality of perception in three distinct chemosensory modalities (smell, taste, and chemesthesis) before and during COVID-19. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/chemse/bjaa041DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7337664PMC

Identifying treatments for taste and smell disorders: gaps and opportunities.

Chem Senses 2020 Jun 18. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Monell Chemical Senses Center, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

The chemical senses of taste and smell play a vital role in conveying information about ourselves and our environment. Tastes and smells can warn against danger, and also contribute to the daily enjoyment of food, friends and family, and our surroundings. Over 12% of the U. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/chemse/bjaa038DOI Listing

Anosmia in COVID-19: Mechanisms and Significance.

Chem Senses 2020 Jun 17. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

UCLA Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Los Angeles, CA.

The global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 remains a challenge for prevention due to asymptomatic or paucisymptomatic patients. Anecdotal and preliminary evidence from multiple institutions shows that these patients present with a sudden onset of anosmia without rhinitis. We aim to review the pathophysiology of anosmia related to viral upper respiratory infections and the prognostic implications. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/chemse/bjaa040DOI Listing

Transient effects of cyclophosphamide on basal cell proliferation of olfactory epithelia.

Chem Senses 2020 Jun 12. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Department of Biology and Vermont Chemosensory Group, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont, United States of America.

Cancer is often treated with broad-spectrum cytotoxic drugs that not only eradicate cancerous cells, but also have detrimental side effects. One of these side-effects, disruption of the olfactory system, impedes a patient's ability to smell, perceive flavor, and ultimately may interfere with their nutritional intake and recovery from cancer. Recent studies reported that the chemotherapy drug, cyclophosphamide (CYP), can damage gustatory epithelia and disrupt cell proliferation in olfactory epithelia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/chemse/bjaa039DOI Listing

Early parosmia signs and affective states predicts depression and anxiety symptoms six months after a mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

Chem Senses 2020 Jun 9. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Department of Psychology, University of Montréal, Montréal, Québec, Canada.

This longitudinal study aimed to evaluate qualitative (parosmia) and quantitative (hyposmia/anosmia) olfaction 2-4 weeks (baseline) and six months (follow-up) after a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). We further evaluated the predictive value of baseline depression, anxiety and olfaction scores on depression and anxiety at follow-up. At baseline, olfactory function and affective state were assessed in 107 participants (53 patients with mild TBI; 54 healthy controls). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/chemse/bjaa037DOI Listing

Studies of human twins reveal genetic variation that affects dietary fat perception.

Chem Senses 2020 Jun 9. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Monell Chemical Senses Center, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

To learn more about the mechanisms of human dietary fat perception, 398 human twins rated fattiness and liking for six types of potato chips that differed in triglyceride content (2.5, 5, 10, and 15% corn oil); reliability estimates were obtained from a subset (n = 50) who did the task twice. Some chips also had a saturated long-chain fatty acid (hexadecanoic acid, 16:0) added (0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/chemse/bjaa036DOI Listing

Assessing regional sensitivity and desensitization to capsaicin among oral cavity mucosae.

Chem Senses 2020 Jun 1. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Department of Food Science & Technology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

This study aimed to determine perceptual response differences and characterize desensitization to capsaicin over time across several oral cavity mucosae- the tongue, cheek, hard palate, and lip. For each region, subjects rated the intensity of capsaicin and a vehicle control over a 10-minute period. Following a rest period, capsaicin was reapplied on each pretreated area and subjects indicated which side felt more irritated then rated each side every 30 seconds, over 3. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/chemse/bjaa033DOI Listing

Relationship between odor intensity estimates and COVID-19 prevalence prediction in a Swedish population.

Chem Senses 2020 May 22. Epub 2020 May 22.

Monell Chemical Senses Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, countries have implemented various strategies to reduce and slow the spread of the disease in the general population. For countries that have implemented restrictions on its population in a step-wise manner, monitoring of COVID-19 prevalence is of importance to guide decision on when to impose new, or when to abolish old, restrictions. We are here determining whether measures of odor intensity in a large sample can serve as one such measure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/chemse/bjaa034DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7314115PMC

From the Editor-in-Chief.

Authors:
Steven D Munger

Chem Senses 2020 May;45(4):231

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/chemse/bjaa013DOI Listing

Mixture and concentration effects on odorant receptor response patterns in vivo.

Chem Senses 2020 May 19. Epub 2020 May 19.

Department of Biostatistics, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA.

Natural odors are mixtures of volatile chemicals (odorants). Odors are encoded as responses of distinct subsets of the hundreds of odorant receptors and trace amine-associated receptors expressed monogenically by olfactory sensory neurons. This is an elegantly simple mechanism for differentially encoding odors but it is susceptible to complex dose-response relationships and interactions between odorants at receptors, which may help explain olfactory phenomena such as mixture suppression, synthetic versus elemental odor processing, and poorly predictable perceptual outcomes of new odor mixtures. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/chemse/bjaa032DOI Listing

Corona Viruses and the Chemical Senses: Past, Present, and Future.

Chem Senses 2020 May 14. Epub 2020 May 14.

Temple University, Philadelphia (PA), USA.

A wealth of rapidly evolving reports suggests that olfaction and taste disturbances may be manifestations of the novel COVID-19 pandemic. While otolaryngological societies worldwide have started to consider chemosensory evaluation as a screening tool for COVID-19 infection, the true nature of the relationship between the changes in chemosensory ability and COVID-19 is unclear. Our goal with this review is to provide a brief overview of published and archived literature, as well as the anecdotal reports and social trends related to this topic up to April 29, 2020. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/chemse/bjaa031DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7239211PMC
May 2020
3.157 Impact Factor

Odor Sensitivity Versus Odor Identification in Older US Adults: Associations With Cognition, Age, Gender, and Race.

Chem Senses 2020 May;45(4):321-330

Section of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, The University of Chicago, Chicago, USA.

The ability to identify odors predicts morbidity, mortality, and quality of life. It varies by age, gender, and race and is used in the vast majority of survey and clinical literature. However, odor identification relies heavily on cognition. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/chemse/bjaa018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7320224PMC

ActivatIon of Calcium binding protein-ir neurons IN MEDIAL AMYGDALA during chemosignal processing.

Chem Senses 2020 May 9. Epub 2020 May 9.

Program in Neuroscience and Dept. Biological Science, Florida State University, Tallahassee FL.

The medial amygdala receives sensory input from chemical signals important in mammalian social communication. As measured by immediate early gene expression, its responses to different chemosignals differ in the spatial patterns of neuronal activation and in the types of cells activated. Medial amygdala projections to basal forebrain contibute to generation of appropriate behavioral responses and GABA neurons are important for these functions, both as interneurons and projection neurons. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/chemse/bjaa030DOI Listing

Predominant Qualities Evoked by Quinine, Sucrose, and Capsaicin Associate With PROP Bitterness, but not TAS2R38 Genotype.

Chem Senses 2020 May;45(5):383-390

Sensory Evaluation Center, College of Agricultural Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA.

Genetic variability in the ability to taste thiourea compounds has been studied for 80+ years. Over the last 3 decades, many studies have reported perceived intensity of concentrated propylthiouracil (PROP) associates with greater intensity from a broad range of stimuli, including nonbitter tastants, irritants, and retronasally delivered odorants. Thus, PROP phenotype has become a common measure of individual differences in orosensation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/chemse/bjaa028DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7320216PMC

IL-1Rahigh-IL-4low-IL-13low: A Novel Plasma Cytokine Signature Associated with Olfactory Dysfunction in Older US Adults.

Chem Senses 2020 May;45(5):407-414

Center on Demography and Aging, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.

Inflammation has been implicated in physical frailty, but its role in sensory impairment is unclear. Given that olfactory impairment predicts dementia and mortality, determining the role of the immune system in olfactory dysfunction would provide insights mechanisms of neurosensory decline. We analyzed data from the National Social Life, Health and Aging Project, a representative sample of home-dwelling older US adults. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/chemse/bjaa029DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7320218PMC

Renewal and Differentiation of GCD Necklace Olfactory Sensory Neurons.

Chem Senses 2020 May;45(5):333-346

Department of Neurobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Both canonical olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) and sensory neurons belonging to the guanylate cyclase D (GCD) "necklace" subsystem are housed in the main olfactory epithelium, which is continuously bombarded by toxins, pathogens, and debris from the outside world. Canonical OSNs address this challenge, in part, by undergoing renewal through neurogenesis; however, it is not clear whether GCD OSNs also continuously regenerate and, if so, whether newborn GCD precursors follow a similar developmental trajectory to that taken by canonical OSNs. Here, we demonstrate that GCD OSNs are born throughout adulthood and can persist in the epithelium for several months. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/chemse/bjaa027DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7320222PMC

Orthonasal, but not Retronasal Olfaction Is Specifically Impaired in Parkinson's Disease.

Chem Senses 2020 May;45(5):401-406

Department of Anatomy, Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières, Trois-Rivières, QC, Canada.

Olfactory dysfunction (OD) in Parkinson's disease (PD) appears several years before the presence of motor disturbance. Olfactory testing has the potential to serve as a tool for early detection of PD, but OD is not specific to PD as it affects up to 20% of the general population. Olfaction includes an orthonasal and a retronasal components; in some forms of OD, retronasal olfactory function is preserved. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/chemse/bjaa024DOI Listing

Superior Identification of Component Odors in a Mixture Is Linked to Autistic Traits in Children and Adults.

Chem Senses 2020 May;45(5):391-399

Research Centre for Brain and Behaviour, School of Natural Sciences and Psychology, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, UK.

Most familiar odors are complex mixtures of volatile molecules, which the olfactory system automatically synthesizes into a perceptual whole. However, odors are rarely encountered in isolation; thus, the brain must also separate distinct odor objects from complex and variable backgrounds. In vision, autistic traits are associated with superior performance in tasks that require focus on the local features of a perceptual scene. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/chemse/bjaa026DOI Listing

Are Predator Smell (TMT)-Induced Behavioral Alterations in Rats Able to Inhibit Seizures?

Chem Senses 2020 May;45(5):347-357

Neurosciences and Behavioral Sciences Departament, Ribeirão Preto School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil.

We aimed to evaluate the chemical and behavioral effects of 2,5-dihydro-2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline (TMT) after olfactory exposure and to verify their influence in the expression of acute audiogenic seizures in the Wistar Audiogenic Rat (WAR) strain. PROTOCOL 1: TMT gas chromatography was applied to define odor saturation in a chamber to different concentrations, time required for saturation and desaturation, and if saturation was homogeneous. Also, male Adult Wistar rats were exposed to saline (SAL) or to different TMT concentrations and their behaviors were evaluated (neuroethology). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/chemse/bjaa023DOI Listing

Experience Informs Consummatory Choices for Congruent and Incongruent Odor-Taste Mixtures in Rats.

Chem Senses 2020 May;45(5):371-382

Department of Anatomical Sciences and Neurobiology, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA.

Experience is an essential factor informing food choice. Eating food generates enduring odor-taste associations that link an odor with a taste's quality and hedonic value (pleasantness/unpleasantness) and creates the perception of a congruent odor-taste combination. Previous human psychophysical experiments demonstrate that experience with odor-taste mixtures shapes perceptual judgments related to the intensity, familiarity, and pleasantness of chemosensory stimuli. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/chemse/bjaa025DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7320223PMC

Masking the Detection of Taste Stimuli in Rats: NaCl and Sucrose.

Chem Senses 2020 May;45(5):359-370

Department of Psychology and Program in Neuroscience, Florida State University, 1107 W. Call St., Tallahassee, FL, USA.

While psychophysical and neurophysiological assessments of taste sensitivity to single chemical compounds have revealed some fundamental properties of gustatory processing, taste stimuli are rarely ingested in isolation. Arguably, the gustatory system was adapted to identify and report the presence of numerous chemicals ingested concurrently. To begin systematically exploring the detectability of a target stimulus in a background in rodents, we used a gustometer to train rats in a 2-response operant task to detect either NaCl (n = 8) or sucrose (n = 8) dissolved in water, and then tested the sensitivity of rats to the trained NaCl stimulus dissolved in a sucrose masker (0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/chemse/bjaa022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7320220PMC

The Mystery of "Metal Mouth" in Chemotherapy.

Chem Senses 2020 Mar;45(2):73-84

Crossmodal Research Laboratory, Department of Experimental Psychology, Oxford University, UK.

Of all the oral sensations that are experienced, "metallic" is one that is rarely reported in healthy participants. So why, then, do chemotherapy patients so frequently report that "metallic" sensations overpower and interfere with their enjoyment of food and drink? This side-effect of chemotherapy-often referred to (e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/chemse/bjz076DOI Listing

Pleasantness of Binary Odor Mixtures: Rules and Prediction.

Chem Senses 2020 May;45(4):303-311

School of Biotechnology, Jiangnan University, Jiangsu, People's Republic of China.

Pleasantness is a major dimension of odor percepts. While naturally encountered odors rely on mixtures of odorants, few studies have investigated the rules underlying the perceived pleasantness of odor mixtures. To address this issue, a set of 222 binary mixtures based on a set of 72 odorants were rated by a panel of 30 participants for odor intensity and pleasantness. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/chemse/bjaa020DOI Listing
May 2020
3.157 Impact Factor

Cortical Response to Fat Taste.

Chem Senses 2020 May;45(4):283-291

Department of Engineering, Aarhus University, Aarhus N, Denmark.

We sense fat by its texture and smell, but it is still unknown whether we also taste fat despite evidence of both candidate receptors and distinct fat taste sensations. One major reason fat is still not recognized as a basic taste quality is that we first need to demonstrate its underlying neural activity. To investigate such neural fat taste activation, we recorded evoked responses to commercial cow milk products with 0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/chemse/bjaa019DOI Listing

Effects of Olfactory Stimulation on Past and Future Thinking in Alzheimer's Disease.

Chem Senses 2020 May;45(4):313-320

Univ Nantes, Laboratoire de psychologie des Pays de la Loire, LPPL, Nantes, France.

Several studies have demonstrated that Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated not only with difficulty in remembering past events but also with a compromised ability to imagine future ones. Recent empirical research has also demonstrated that odor is an effective cue to alleviate difficulty in remembering past events in AD. We investigated whether odor exposure would help AD patients to imagine future events. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/chemse/bjaa016DOI Listing

Quantitative Analysis of Taste Bud Cell Numbers in the Circumvallate and Foliate Taste Buds of Mice.

Chem Senses 2020 May;45(4):261-273

Graduate School of Life Science and Systems Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Hibikino 2-4, Kitakyushu-shi, Japan.

A mouse single taste bud contains 10-100 taste bud cells (TBCs) in which the elongated TBCs are classified into 3 cell types (types I-III) equipped with different taste receptors. Accordingly, differences in the cell numbers and ratios of respective cell types per taste bud may affect taste-nerve responsiveness. Here, we examined the numbers of each immunoreactive cell for the type II (sweet, bitter, or umami receptor cells) and type III (sour and/or salt receptor cells) markers per taste bud in the circumvallate and foliate papillae and compared these numerical features of TBCs per taste bud to those in fungiform papilla and soft palate, which we previously reported. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/chemse/bjaa017DOI Listing

ENaC-Dependent Sodium Chloride Taste Responses in the Regenerated Rat Chorda Tympani Nerve After Lingual Gustatory Deafferentation Depend on the Taste Bud Field Reinnervated.

Chem Senses 2020 May;45(4):249-259

Department of Psychology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.

The chorda tympani (CT) nerve is exceptionally responsive to NaCl. Amiloride, an epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) blocker, consistently and significantly decreases the NaCl responsiveness of the CT but not the glossopharyngeal (GL) nerve in the rat. Here, we examined whether amiloride would suppress the NaCl responsiveness of the CT when it cross-reinnervated the posterior tongue (PT). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/chemse/bjaa015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7320219PMC

Sweetness Enhancement by Aromas: Measured by Descriptive Sensory Analysis and Relative to Reference Scaling.

Chem Senses 2020 May;45(4):293-301

Department of Food Science, Faculty of Technical Sciences, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.

Sweetness enhancement by aromas has been suggested as a strategy to mitigate sugar reduction in food products, but enhancement is dependent on type of aroma and sugar level. A careful screening of aromas across sugar levels is thus required. Screening results might, however, depend on the method employed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/chemse/bjaa012DOI Listing

Comparison of GABA, Somatostatin, and Corticotrophin-Releasing Hormone Expression in Axon Terminals That Target the Parabrachial Nucleus.

Authors:
Robert Lundy

Chem Senses 2020 May;45(4):275-282

Department of Anatomical Sciences and Neurobiology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, 500 South Preston St., HSC A, rm 1003, Louisville, KY, USA.

Several forebrain areas have been shown to project to the parabrachial nucleus (PBN) and exert inhibitory and excitatory influences on taste processing. Some sources of descending input such as the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) might utilize somatostatin (Sst) and/or corticotrophin-releasing hormone (Crh) to influence taste processing in the PBN (Panguluri S, Saggu S, Lundy R. 2009. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/chemse/bjaa010DOI Listing

Is the Amiloride-Sensitive Na+ Channel in Taste Cells Really ENaC?

Chem Senses 2020 May;45(4):233-234

Department of Otolaryngology and Rocky Mountain Taste and Smell Center, University of Colorado-Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, USA.

Among the 5 taste qualities, salt is the least understood. The receptors, their expression pattern in taste cells, and the transduction mechanisms for salt taste are still unclear. Previous studies have suggested that low concentrations of NaCl are detected by the amiloride-sensitive epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC), which in other systems requires assembly of 3 homologous subunits (α, β, and γ) to form a functional channel. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/chemse/bjaa011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7320221PMC

Sweet Thermal Taste: Perceptual Characteristics in Water and Dependence on TAS1R2/TAS1R3.

Chem Senses 2020 Apr;45(3):219-230

The John B. Pierce Laboratory, New Haven, CT, USA.

The initial objective of this study was to determine if activation of the sweet taste receptor TAS1R2/TAS1R3 is necessary for perception of sweet thermal taste (swTT). Our approach was to inhibit the receptor with the inverse agonist lactisole using a temperature-controlled flow gustometer. Because all prior studies of thermal taste (TT) used metal thermodes to heat the tongue tip, we first investigated whether it could be generated in heated water. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/chemse/bjaa009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7320217PMC

Visual Priming Influences Olfactomotor Response and Perceptual Experience of Smells.

Chem Senses 2020 Apr;45(3):211-218

Centre de Recherche en Neurosciences de Lyon, CNRS UMR5292, INSERM U1028, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Bron Cedex, France.

Whereas contextual influences in the visual and auditory domains have been largely documented, little is known about how chemical senses might be affected by our multisensory environment. In the present study, we aimed to better understand how a visual context can affect the perception of a rather pleasant (floral) and a rather unpleasant (damp) odor. To this end, 19 healthy participants performed a series of tasks including odor detection followed by perceptual evaluations of odor intensity, pleasantness, flowery, and damp characters of both odors presented at 2 different concentrations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/chemse/bjaa008DOI Listing

The Impact of Ovariectomy on Olfactory Neuron Regeneration in Mice.

Chem Senses 2020 Apr;45(3):203-209

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Kanazawa Medical University, Daigaku, Uchinada, Ishikawa, Japan.

Estrogen has been shown to affect differentiation and proliferation as a mitogen in various neural systems. Olfactory receptor cells are unique within the nervous system, and have the ability to regenerate even after an individual has reached maturity. Olfactory receptor cells also regenerate after experimentally induced degeneration. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/chemse/bjaa005DOI Listing

Neuropeptide S Displays as a Key Neuromodulator in Olfactory Spatial Memory.

Chem Senses 2020 Apr;45(3):195-202

Departments of Neuroscience, Anatomy, Histology, and Embryology, Key Laboratory of Preclinical Study for New Drugs of Gansu Province, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, PR China.

Neuropeptide S (NPS) is an endogenous peptide recently recognized to be presented in the brainstem and believed to play an important role in maintaining memory. The deletion of NPS or NPS receptor (NPSR) in mice shows a deficit in memory formation. Our recent studies have demonstrated that central administration of NPS facilitates olfactory function and ameliorates olfactory spatial memory impairment induced by muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonist and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/chemse/bjaa003DOI Listing

Segregated Expression of ENaC Subunits in Taste Cells.

Chem Senses 2020 May;45(4):235-248

Molecular Genetics, German Institute of Human Nutrition Potsdam-Rehbruecke, Arthur-Scheunert-Allee, Nuthetal, Germany.

Salt taste is one of the 5 basic taste qualities. Depending on the concentration, table salt is perceived either as appetitive or aversive, suggesting the contribution of several mechanisms to salt taste, distinguishable by their sensitivity to the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) blocker amiloride. A taste-specific knockout of the α-subunit of the ENaC revealed the relevance of this polypeptide for low-salt transduction, whereas the response to other taste qualities remained normal. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/chemse/bjaa004DOI Listing

Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Cytokine Expression in Taste Organoids.

Chem Senses 2020 Apr;45(3):187-194

Monell Chemical Senses Center, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Inflammatory cytokines are signaling molecules that regulate numerous physiological processes, from tissue homeostasis to metabolism and food intake. Expression of certain cytokines can be markedly induced in subsets of taste bud cells under acute and chronic inflammation. This may contribute to altered taste perception and preference associated with many diseases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/chemse/bjaa002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7320225PMC

Biosecurity Dogs Detect Live Insects after Training with Odor-Proxy Training Aids: Scent Extract and Dead Specimens.

Chem Senses 2020 Apr;45(3):179-186

Chemistry, School of Science and Technology, University of New England, Armidale, NSW, Australia.

Detector dogs could be trained to find invasive insect pests at borders before they establish in new areas. However, without access to the live insects themselves, odor training aids are needed to condition dogs to their scent. This proof-of-concept study assessed 2 potential training aids for insect detection: a scent extract and dead specimens of the target species. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/chemse/bjaa001DOI Listing

Relationship Between Olfactory Disturbance After Acute Ischemic Stroke and Latent Thalamic Hypoperfusion.

Chem Senses 2020 Mar;45(2):111-118

Department of Otolaryngology, Kanazawa Medical University, Uchinada, Japan.

Odor detection, recognition, and identification were assessed in 19 acute ischemic stroke patients who had no magnetic resonance imaging-detectable thalamic lesions but in whom technetium-99m ethyl cysteinate dimer single photon emission tomography revealed thalamic hypoperfusion. Although these patients were unaware of reduced olfactory function, they exhibited significantly lower scores in tests for odor identification and recognition threshold as compared with 9 ischemic stroke controls that had normal thalamic hypoperfusion. However, absolute odor detection thresholds were similar in the 2 groups. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/chemse/bjz077DOI Listing

Cyclophosphamide has Long-Term Effects on Proliferation in Olfactory Epithelia.

Chem Senses 2020 Mar;45(2):97-109

Neuroscience Program, Marsh Life Science, University of Vermont, Burlington, USA.

Chemotherapy patients often experience chemosensory changes during and after drug therapy. The chemotherapy drug, cyclophosphamide (CYP), has known cytotoxic effects on sensory and proliferating cells of the taste system. Like the taste system, cells in the olfactory epithelia undergo continuous renewal. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/chemse/bjz075DOI Listing

Parametric Characterization of a Taste Phenotype in Rats Selectively Bred for High Versus Low Saccharin Intake.

Chem Senses 2020 Mar;45(2):85-96

Department of Psychology, Occidental College, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Taste signals food quality and reflects energy status and associated processes. Occidental high- and low-saccharin consuming rats (HiS, LoS) have been selectively bred for nearly 60 generations on intake of 0.1% saccharin in a 23-h two-bottle test, as a tool for studying individual differences in taste and its correlates in the domains of feeding, defensive, and social behavior. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/chemse/bjz072DOI Listing

Metal-containing Particulate Matter and Associated Reduced Olfactory Identification Ability in Children from an Area of High Atmospheric Exposure in Mexico City.

Chem Senses 2020 Jan;45(1):45-58

Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City, Mexico.

Air pollution has been linked to poor olfactory function in human adults. Among pollutants, particulate matter (PM) is especially relevant, as it may contain toxic metal ions that can reach the brain via olfactory pathways. Our purpose was to investigate the relation between atmospheric PM and olfactory identification performance in children. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/chemse/bjz071DOI Listing
January 2020

Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorder Show Altered Event-Related Potentials in the Late Stages of Olfactory Processing.

Chem Senses 2020 Jan;45(1):37-44

Department of Applied Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

Atypical sensory reactivities are pervasive among people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). With respect to olfaction, most previous studies have used psychophysical or questionnaire-based methodologies; thus, the neural basis of olfactory processing in ASD remains unclear. This study aimed to determine the stages of olfactory processing that are altered in ASD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/chemse/bjz070DOI Listing
January 2020