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    O2 Reduction in Enzymatic Biofuel Cells.
    Chem Rev 2017 Sep 20. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    Aix Marseille Univ., CNRS, BIP , 31, chemin Aiguier, 13402 Marseille, France.
    Catalytic four-electron reduction of O2 to water is one of the most extensively studied electrochemical reactions due to O2 exceptional availability and high O2/H2O redox potential, which may in particular allow highly energetic reactions in fuel cells. To circumvent the use of expensive and inefficient Pt catalysts, multicopper oxidases (MCOs) have been envisioned because they provide efficient O2 reduction with almost no overpotential. MCOs have been used to elaborate enzymatic biofuel cells (EBFCs), a subclass of fuel cells in which enzymes replace the conventional catalysts. Read More

    What Can Be Learned from Nuclear Resonance Vibrational Spectroscopy: Vibrational Dynamics and Hemes.
    Chem Rev 2017 Sep 18. Epub 2017 Sep 18.
    Department of Physics and Center for Interdisciplinary Research on Complex Systems, Northeastern University , 120 Forsyth Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, United States.
    Nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS; also known as nuclear inelastic scattering, NIS) is a synchrotron-based method that reveals the full spectrum of vibrational dynamics for Mössbauer nuclei. Another major advantage, in addition to its completeness (no arbitrary optical selection rules), is the unique selectivity of NRVS. The basics of this recently developed technique are first introduced with descriptions of the experimental requirements and data analysis including the details of mode assignments. Read More

    Flow Electrolysis Cells for the Synthetic Organic Chemistry Laboratory.
    Chem Rev 2017 Sep 18. Epub 2017 Sep 18.
    Chemistry, University of Southampton , Southampton SO17 1BJ, U.K.
    Electrosynthesis has much to offer to the synthetic organic chemist. But in order to be widely accepted as a routine procedure in an organic synthesis laboratory, electrosynthesis needs to be presented in a much more user-friendly way. The literature is largely based on electrolysis in a glass beaker or H-cells that often give poor performance for synthesis with a very slow rate of conversion and, often, low selectivity and reproducibility. Read More

    Recent Advances in the Chemical Synthesis of C-Glycosides.
    Chem Rev 2017 Sep 15. Epub 2017 Sep 15.
    State Key Laboratory of Bio-organic and Natural Products Chemistry, Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences , 345 Lingling Road, Shanghai 200032, China.
    Advances in the chemical synthesis of C-pyranosides/furanosides are summarized, covering the literature from 2000 to 2016. The majority of the methods take advantage of the construction of the glycosidic C-C bond. These C-glycosylation methods are categorized herein in terms of the glycosyl donor precursors, which are commonly used in O-glycoside synthesis and are easily accessible to nonspecialists. Read More

    Acyclic Quaternary Carbon Stereocenters via Enantioselective Transition Metal Catalysis.
    Chem Rev 2017 Sep 14. Epub 2017 Sep 14.
    Department of Chemistry, Welch Hall (A5300), University of Texas at Austin , 105 East 24th Street, Austin, Texas 78712, United States.
    Whereas numerous asymmetric methods for formation of quaternary carbon stereocenters in cyclic systems have been documented, the construction of acyclic quaternary carbon stereocenters with control of absolute stereochemistry remains a formidable challenge. This Review summarizes enantioselective methods for the construction of acyclic quaternary carbon stereocenters from achiral or chiral racemic reactants via transition metal catalysis. Read More

    Concepts and Methods of Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy Applied to Biomembranes.
    Chem Rev 2017 Sep 14. Epub 2017 Sep 14.
    Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry and ‡Department of Physics, University of Arizona , Tucson, Arizona 85721, United States.
    Concepts of solid-state NMR spectroscopy and applications to fluid membranes are reviewed in this paper. Membrane lipids with (2)H-labeled acyl chains or polar head groups are studied using (2)H NMR to yield knowledge of their atomistic structures in relation to equilibrium properties. This review demonstrates the principles and applications of solid-state NMR by unifying dipolar and quadrupolar interactions and highlights the unique features offered by solid-state (2)H NMR with experimental illustrations. Read More

    Synthesis, Assembly, and Applications of Hybrid Nanostructures for Biosensing.
    Chem Rev 2017 Sep 13. Epub 2017 Sep 13.
    School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology , Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0245, United States.
    The robust, sensitive, and selective detection of targeted biomolecules in their native environment by prospective nanostructures holds much promise for real-time, accurate, and high throughput biosensing. However, in order to be competitive, current biosensor nanotechnologies need significant improvements, especially in specificity, integration, throughput rate, and long-term stability in complex bioenvironments. Advancing biosensing nanotechnologies in chemically "noisy" bioenvironments require careful engineering of nanoscale components that are highly sensitive, biorecognition ligands that are capable of exquisite selective binding, and seamless integration at a level current devices have yet to achieve. Read More

    Ligand-Targeted Drug Delivery.
    Chem Rev 2017 Sep 12. Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    Purdue Institute for Drug Discovery, Purdue University , West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, United States.
    Safety and efficacy constitute the major criteria governing regulatory approval of any new drug. The best method to maximize safety and efficacy is to deliver a proven therapeutic agent with a targeting ligand that exhibits little affinity for healthy cells but high affinity for pathologic cells. The probability of regulatory approval can conceivably be further enhanced by exploiting the same targeting ligand, conjugated to an imaging agent, to select patients whose diseased tissues display sufficient targeted receptors for therapeutic efficacy. Read More

    Applications of Flow Microreactors in Electrosynthetic Processes.
    Chem Rev 2017 Sep 8. Epub 2017 Sep 8.
    Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Yamagata University , Jonan 4-3-16, Yonezawa, Yamagata 992-8510, Japan.
    The fundamental advantages and potential benefits of flow microreactor technology include extremely large surface-to-volume ratios, precise control over temperature and residence time, extremely fast molecular diffusion, and increased safety during reactive processes. These advantages and benefits can be applied to a wide range of electrosynthetic techniques, and so the integration of flow microreactors with electrosynthesis has received significant research interest from both academia and industry. This review presents an up-to-date overview of electrosynthetic processes in continuous-flow microreactors. Read More

    Role of Biocatalysis in Sustainable Chemistry.
    Chem Rev 2017 Sep 6. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark , 2800 Lyngby, Denmark.
    Based on the principles and metrics of green chemistry and sustainable development, biocatalysis is both a green and sustainable technology. This is largely a result of the spectacular advances in molecular biology and biotechnology achieved in the past two decades. Protein engineering has enabled the optimization of existing enzymes and the invention of entirely new biocatalytic reactions that were previously unknown in Nature. Read More

    Recent Progress in Heterogeneous Asymmetric Hydrogenation of C═O and C═C Bonds on Supported Noble Metal Catalysts.
    Chem Rev 2017 Sep 5;117(17):11522-11569. Epub 2017 Sep 5.
    Institute for Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, ETH-Zurich, Hönggerberg, HCI , Vladimir Prelog Weg 1, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland.
    The ease of separation, simple regeneration, and the usually high stability of solid catalysts facilitating continuous production processes have stimulated the development of heterogeneous asymmetric hydrogenation catalysis. The simplest and so far most promising strategy to induce enantioselectivity to solid metal catalysts is their modification by chiral organic compounds, as most prominently represented by the cinchona-modified Pt and Pd catalysts for the asymmetric hydrogenation of activated C═O and C═C bonds. In this Review, we provide a systematic account of the research accomplished in the past decade on noble metal-based heterogeneous asymmetric hydrogenation of prochiral C═O and C═C bonds, including all important facets of these catalytic systems. Read More

    Form Follows Function: Nanoparticle Shape and Its Implications for Nanomedicine.
    Chem Rev 2017 Sep 1;117(17):11476-11521. Epub 2017 Sep 1.
    Bio21 Institute & School of Chemistry, University of Melbourne , Parkville 3010, Australia.
    This review is a comprehensive description of the past decade of research into understanding how the geometry and size of nanoparticles affect their interaction with biological systems: from single cells to whole organisms. Recently, there has been a great deal of effort to use both the shape and the size of nanoparticles to target specific cellular uptake mechanisms, biodistribution patterns, and pharmacokinetics. While the successes of spherical lipid-based nanoparticles have heralded marked changes in chemotherapy worldwide, the history of asbestos-induced lung disease casts a long shadow over fibrous materials to date. Read More

    Organometallic Neptunium Chemistry.
    Chem Rev 2017 Sep 30;117(17):11460-11475. Epub 2017 Aug 30.
    European Commission, DG Joint Research Centre, Directorate G-Nuclear Safety and Security, Advanced Nuclear Knowledge-G.I.5, Postfach 2340, D-76125, Karlsruhe, Germany.
    Fifty years have passed since the foundation of organometallic neptunium chemistry, and yet only a handful of complexes have been reported, and even fewer have been fully characterized. Yet, increasingly, combined synthetic/spectroscopic/computational studies are demonstrating how covalently bonding, soft, carbocyclic organometallic ligands provide an excellent platform for advancing the fundamental understanding of the differences in orbital contributions and covalency in f-block metal-ligand bonding. Understanding the subtleties is the key to the safe handling and separations of the highly radioactive nuclei. Read More

    Biointerface Structural Effects on the Properties and Applications of Bioinspired Peptide-Based Nanomaterials.
    Chem Rev 2017 Aug 29. Epub 2017 Aug 29.
    Department of Chemistry, University of Miami , 1301 Memorial Drive, Coral Gables, Florida 33146, United States.
    Peptide sequences are known to recognize and bind different nanomaterial surfaces, which has resulted in the screening and identification of hundreds of peptides with the ability to bind to a wide range of metallic, metal oxide, mineral, and polymer substrates. These biomolecules are able to bind to materials with relatively high affinity, resulting in the generation of a complex biointerface between the biotic and abiotic components. While the number of material-binding sequences is large, at present, quantitative materials-binding characterization of these peptides has been accomplished only for a relatively small number of sequences. Read More

    Structural and Chemical Biology of Terpenoid Cyclases.
    Chem Rev 2017 Sep 25;117(17):11570-11648. Epub 2017 Aug 25.
    Roy and Diana Vagelos Laboratories, Department of Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania , 231 South 34th Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104-6323, United States.
    The year 2017 marks the twentieth anniversary of terpenoid cyclase structural biology: a trio of terpenoid cyclase structures reported together in 1997 were the first to set the foundation for understanding the enzymes largely responsible for the exquisite chemodiversity of more than 80000 terpenoid natural products. Terpenoid cyclases catalyze the most complex chemical reactions in biology, in that more than half of the substrate carbon atoms undergo changes in bonding and hybridization during a single enzyme-catalyzed cyclization reaction. The past two decades have witnessed structural, functional, and computational studies illuminating the modes of substrate activation that initiate the cyclization cascade, the management and manipulation of high-energy carbocation intermediates that propagate the cyclization cascade, and the chemical strategies that terminate the cyclization cascade. Read More

    Surface-Sensitive and Surface-Specific Ultrafast Two-Dimensional Vibrational Spectroscopy.
    Chem Rev 2017 Aug 1;117(16):10623-10664. Epub 2016 Dec 1.
    Department of Chemistry, University of Zurich , Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Ultrafast two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy (2D IR) has been advanced in recent years toward measuring signals from only a monolayer of sample molecules at solid-liquid and solid-gas interfaces. A series of experimental methods has been introduced, which in the chronological order of development are 2D sum-frequency-generation (2D SFG), transmission 2D IR, and reflection 2D IR, the latter in either internal, attenuated total reflection (ATR), or external reflection configuration. The different variants of 2D vibrational spectroscopy are based on either the even-order or the odd-order nonlinear susceptibility, and all allow resolving similar molecular temporal and spectral information. Read More

    Enzymes Involved in AMPylation and deAMPylation.
    Chem Rev 2017 Aug 18. Epub 2017 Aug 18.
    Department of Molecular Biology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center , 6000 Harry Hines Boulevard NA5.120F, Dallas, Texas 75390-9148, United States.
    Posttranslational modifications are covalent changes made to proteins that typically alter the function or location of the protein. AMPylation is an emerging posttranslational modification that involves the addition of adenosine monophosphate (AMP) to a protein. Like other, more well-studied posttranslational modifications, AMPylation is predicted to regulate the activity of the modified target proteins. Read More

    Electronic Muscles and Skins: A Review of Soft Sensors and Actuators.
    Chem Rev 2017 Sep 17;117(17):11239-11268. Epub 2017 Aug 17.
    Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Henry Samueli School of Engineering and Applied Science, University of California at Los Angeles , Los Angeles, California 90095, United States.
    This article reviews several classes of compliant materials that can be utilized to fabricate electronic muscles and skins. Different classes of materials range from compliant conductors, semiconductors, to dielectrics, all of which play a vital and cohesive role in the development of next generation electronics. This paper covers recent advances in the development of new materials, as well as the engineering of well-characterized materials for the repurposing in applications of flexible and stretchable electronics. Read More

    Catalytic Asymmetric Oxygenations with the Environmentally Benign Oxidants H2O2 and O2.
    Chem Rev 2017 Sep 17;117(17):11406-11459. Epub 2017 Aug 17.
    Novosibirsk State University , Pirogova 2, Novosibirsk 630090, Russian Federation.
    The discovery of simple and efficient catalyst systems for the asymmetric oxofunctionalization of hydrocarbons is a challenging task of catalytic chemistry. In this paper, we give an overview of catalyst systems capable of conducting asymmetric oxygenative transformations of organic molecules and, in line with the major trend to sustainability, relying on green oxidants H2O2 and O2 as the ultimate oxygen source. The full historical period of asymmetric oxidation catalysis (1970 to the present day) is covered; both transition-metal-based and organocatalytic systems are considered. Read More

    Ultrafast Electron Dynamics in Solar Energy Conversion.
    Chem Rev 2017 Aug 14;117(16):10940-11024. Epub 2017 Aug 14.
    Division of Chemical Physics, Chemical Center, and ‡Theoretical Chemistry Division, Chemical Center, Lund University , Box 124, Lund SE-221 00, Sweden.
    Electrons are the workhorses of solar energy conversion. Conversion of the energy of light to electricity in photovoltaics, or to energy-rich molecules (solar fuel) through photocatalytic processes, invariably starts with photoinduced generation of energy-rich electrons. The harvesting of these electrons in practical devices rests on a series of electron transfer processes whose dynamics and efficiencies determine the function of materials and devices. Read More

    Chemical Synthesis of Oligosaccharides Related to the Cell Walls of Plants and Algae.
    Chem Rev 2017 Sep 9;117(17):11337-11405. Epub 2017 Aug 9.
    Center for Nanomedicine and Theranostics, Department of Chemistry, Technical University of Denmark , Kemitorvet, Building 207, 2800 Kongens Lyngby, Denmark.
    Plant cell walls are composed of an intricate network of polysaccharides and proteins that varies during the developmental stages of the cell. This makes it very challenging to address the functions of individual wall components in cells, especially for highly complex glycans. Fortunately, structurally defined oligosaccharides can be used as models for the glycans, to study processes such as cell wall biosynthesis, polysaccharide deposition, protein-carbohydrate interactions, and cell-cell adhesion. Read More

    Small-Molecule Modulation of Protein Homeostasis.
    Chem Rev 2017 Sep 4;117(17):11269-11301. Epub 2017 Aug 4.
    Departments of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, Chemistry, and Pharmacology, Yale University , 219 Prospect Street, New Haven, Connecticut 06511, United States.
    Control of protein levels by nucleic-acid-based technologies has proven to be a useful research tool but lacks the advantages of small molecules with respect to cell permeability, temporal control, and the potential generation of therapeutics. In this Review, we discuss the technologies available for the control of intracellular protein levels with small molecules and compare the various systems available. Read More

    Generation and Detection of Reactive Oxygen Species in Photocatalysis.
    Chem Rev 2017 Sep 4;117(17):11302-11336. Epub 2017 Aug 4.
    Department of Materials Science and Technology, Nagaoka University of Technology Nagaoka 940-2188, Japan.
    The detection methods and generation mechanisms of the intrinsic reactive oxygen species (ROS), i.e., superoxide anion radical ((•)O2(-)), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), singlet oxygen ((1)O2), and hydroxyl radical ((•)OH) in photocatalysis, were surveyed comprehensively. Read More

    Directing Stem Cell Fate: The Synthetic Natural Product Connection.
    Chem Rev 2017 Aug 3. Epub 2017 Aug 3.
    Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of California, San Diego , La Jolla, California 92093, United States.
    Stem cells possess remarkable potential for the treatment of a broad array of diseases including many that lack therapeutic options. However, the use of cell-based products derived from stem cells as therapeutics has limitations including rejection, sufficient availability, and lack of appropriate engraftment. Chemical control of stem cells provides potential solutions for overcoming many of the current limitations in cell-based therapeutics. Read More

    Continuous Hydrothermal Synthesis of Inorganic Nanoparticles: Applications and Future Directions.
    Chem Rev 2017 Sep 3;117(17):11125-11238. Epub 2017 Aug 3.
    Department of Environmental & Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University , 866 Yuhangtang Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058, People's Republic of China.
    Nanomaterials are at the leading edge of the emerging field of nanotechnology. Their unique and tunable size-dependent properties (in the range 1-100 nm) make these materials indispensable in many modern technological applications. In this Review, we summarize the state-of-art in the manufacture and applications of inorganic nanoparticles made using continuous hydrothermal flow synthesis (CHFS) processes. Read More

    Polymers for 3D Printing and Customized Additive Manufacturing.
    Chem Rev 2017 Aug 30;117(15):10212-10290. Epub 2017 Jul 30.
    Freiburg Materials Research Center (FMF) and Institute for Macromolecular Chemistry, Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg , Stefan-Meier-Straße 31, Freiburg D-79104, Germany.
    Additive manufacturing (AM) alias 3D printing translates computer-aided design (CAD) virtual 3D models into physical objects. By digital slicing of CAD, 3D scan, or tomography data, AM builds objects layer by layer without the need for molds or machining. AM enables decentralized fabrication of customized objects on demand by exploiting digital information storage and retrieval via the Internet. Read More

    Toward Safe Lithium Metal Anode in Rechargeable Batteries: A Review.
    Chem Rev 2017 Aug 28;117(15):10403-10473. Epub 2017 Jul 28.
    Beijing Key Laboratory of Green Chemical Reaction Engineering and Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering, Tsinghua University , Beijing 100084, China.
    The lithium metal battery is strongly considered to be one of the most promising candidates for high-energy-density energy storage devices in our modern and technology-based society. However, uncontrollable lithium dendrite growth induces poor cycling efficiency and severe safety concerns, dragging lithium metal batteries out of practical applications. This review presents a comprehensive overview of the lithium metal anode and its dendritic lithium growth. Read More

    Nanoparticle-Based Immunochemical Biosensors and Assays: Recent Advances and Challenges.
    Chem Rev 2017 Aug 28;117(15):9973-10042. Epub 2017 Jul 28.
    Central European Institute of Technology (CEITEC), ‡Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, and §Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University , Kamenice 5, 625 00 Brno, Czech Republic.
    We review the progress achieved during the recent five years in immunochemical biosensors (immunosensors) combined with nanoparticles for enhanced sensitivity. The initial part introduces antibodies as classic recognition elements. The optical sensing part describes fluorescent, luminescent, and surface plasmon resonance systems. Read More

    Bioinspired Polymer Systems with Stimuli-Responsive Mechanical Properties.
    Chem Rev 2017 Jul 28. Epub 2017 Jul 28.
    Adolphe Merkle Institute, University of Fribourg , Chemin des Verdiers 4, 1700 Fribourg, Switzerland.
    Materials with switchable mechanical properties are widespread in living organisms and endow many species with traits that are essential for their survival. Many of the mechanically morphing materials systems found in nature are based on hierarchical structures, which are the basis for mechanical robustness and often also the key to responsive behavior. Many "operating principles" involve cascades of events that translate cues from the environment into changes of the overall structure and/or the connectivity of the constituting building blocks at various levels. Read More

    Ionic Liquids as Tool to Improve Enzymatic Organic Synthesis.
    Chem Rev 2017 Aug 26;117(15):10567-10607. Epub 2017 Jul 26.
    Department of Chemistry and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering and ‡Center for Research on Green Sustainable Chemistry, Tottori University , 4-101 Koyama-minami, Tottori 680-8552, Japan.
    Ionic liquids (ILs) have now been acknowledged as reaction media for biotransformations. The first three examples were reported in this field in 2000, and since then, numerous applications have been reported for biocatalytic reactions using ILs. Two topics using ILs for enzymatic reactions have been reviewed from the standpoint of biocatalyst mediating organic synthesis; the first is "Biocatalysis in Ionic Liquids" which includes various types of biocatalytic reactions in ILs (section 2): (1) recent examples of lipase-mediated reactions using ILs as reaction media for biodiesel oil production and for sugar ester production, (2) oxidase-catalyzed reactions in ILs, (3) laccase-catalyzed reactions, (4) peroxidase-catalyzed reactions, (4) cytochrome-mediated reactions, (5) microbe-mediated hydrations, (6) protease-catalyzed reactions, (8) whole cell mediated asymmetric reduction of ketones, (10) acylase-catalyzed reactions, (11) glycosylation or cellulase-mediated hydrolysis of polysaccharides, (12) hydroxynitrile lyase-catalyzed reaction, (13) fluorinase or haloalkane dehydrogenase-catalyzed reaction, (14) luciferase-catalyzed reactions, and (15) biocatalytic promiscuity of enzymatic reactions for organic synthesis using ILs. Read More

    Spinels: Controlled Preparation, Oxygen Reduction/Evolution Reaction Application, and Beyond.
    Chem Rev 2017 Aug 26;117(15):10121-10211. Epub 2017 Jul 26.
    Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Materials Chemistry (Ministry of Education), Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering, College of Chemistry, Nankai University , Tianjin 300071, China.
    Spinels with the formula of AB2O4 (where A and B are metal ions) and the properties of magnetism, optics, electricity, and catalysis have taken significant roles in applications of data storage, biotechnology, electronics, laser, sensor, conversion reaction, and energy storage/conversion, which largely depend on their precise structures and compositions. In this review, various spinels with controlled preparations and their applications in oxygen reduction/evolution reaction (ORR/OER) and beyond are summarized. First, the composition and structure of spinels are introduced. Read More

    Solid-State Plasmonic Solar Cells.
    Chem Rev 2017 Jul 24. Epub 2017 Jul 24.
    Research Institute for Electronic Science, Hokkaido University , Sapporo 001-0021, Japan.
    Metallic nanoparticles such as silver and gold show localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs), which are associated with near-field enhancement effects in the vicinity of nanoparticles. Therefore, strong light-matter interaction is induced by the near-field enhancement effects of LSPRs. Because the resonant wavelength of LSPRs can be easily controlled by the size and shape of the metallic nanoparticles in the visible and near-infrared wavelength range, LSPRs have received considerable attention as optical antennae for light energy conversion systems such as solar cells. Read More

    The Metal Drives the Chemistry: Dual Functions of Acireductone Dioxygenase.
    Chem Rev 2017 Aug 21;117(15):10474-10501. Epub 2017 Jul 21.
    Departments of Biochemistry and ‡Chemistry and §the Rosenstiel Institute for Basic Biomedical Research, Brandeis University , Waltham, Massachusetts 02454, United States.
    Acireductone dioxygenase (ARD) from the methionine salvage pathway (MSP) is a unique enzyme that exhibits dual chemistry determined solely by the identity of the divalent transition-metal ion (Fe(2+) or Ni(2+)) in the active site. The Fe(2+)-containing isozyme catalyzes the on-pathway reaction using substrates 1,2-dihydroxy-3-keto-5-methylthiopent-1-ene (acireductone) and dioxygen to generate formate and the ketoacid precursor of methionine, 2-keto-4-methylthiobutyrate, whereas the Ni(2+)-containing isozyme catalyzes an off-pathway shunt with the same substrates, generating methylthiopropionate, carbon monoxide, and formate. The dual chemistry of ARD was originally discovered in the bacterium Klebsiella oxytoca, but it has recently been shown that mammalian ARD enzymes (mouse and human) are also capable of catalyzing metal-dependent dual chemistry in vitro. Read More

    Virus-Derived Peptides for Clinical Applications.
    Chem Rev 2017 Aug 19;117(15):10377-10402. Epub 2017 Jul 19.
    Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry, Stephenson Life Science Research Center, University of Oklahoma , 101 Stephenson Parkway, Norman, Oklahoma 73019, United States.
    Novel affinity agents with high specificity are needed to make progress in disease diagnosis and therapy. Over the last several years, peptides have been considered to have fundamental benefits over other affinity agents, such as antibodies, due to their fast blood clearance, low immunogenicity, rapid tissue penetration, and reproducible chemical synthesis. These features make peptides ideal affinity agents for applications in disease diagnostics and therapeutics for a wide variety of afflictions. Read More

    Artificial Metalloenzymes: Reaction Scope and Optimization Strategies.
    Chem Rev 2017 Jul 17. Epub 2017 Jul 17.
    Department of Chemistry, Spitalstrasse 51, University of Basel , CH-4056 Basel, Switzerland.
    The incorporation of a synthetic, catalytically competent metallocofactor into a protein scaffold to generate an artificial metalloenzyme (ArM) has been explored since the late 1970's. Progress in the ensuing years was limited by the tools available for both organometallic synthesis and protein engineering. Advances in both of these areas, combined with increased appreciation of the potential benefits of combining attractive features of both homogeneous catalysis and enzymatic catalysis, led to a resurgence of interest in ArMs starting in the early 2000's. Read More

    Chemistry and Enzymology of Disulfide Cross-Linking in Proteins.
    Chem Rev 2017 Jul 12. Epub 2017 Jul 12.
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Delaware , Newark, Delaware 19716, United States.
    Cysteine thiols are among the most reactive functional groups in proteins, and their pairing in disulfide linkages is a common post-translational modification in proteins entering the secretory pathway. This modest amino acid alteration, the mere removal of a pair of hydrogen atoms from juxtaposed cysteine residues, contrasts with the substantial changes that characterize most other post-translational reactions. However, the wide variety of proteins that contain disulfides, the profound impact of cross-linking on the behavior of the protein polymer, the numerous and diverse players in intracellular pathways for disulfide formation, and the distinct biological settings in which disulfide bond formation can take place belie the simplicity of the process. Read More

    Palladium-Catalyzed Transformations of Alkyl C-H Bonds.
    Chem Rev 2017 Jul 2;117(13):8754-8786. Epub 2016 Dec 2.
    Department of Chemistry, The Scripps Research Institute , 10550 N. Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, California 92037, United States.
    This Review summarizes the advancements in Pd-catalyzed C(sp(3))-H activation via various redox manifolds, including Pd(0)/Pd(II), Pd(II)/Pd(IV), and Pd(II)/Pd(0). While few examples have been reported in the activation of alkane C-H bonds, many C(sp(3))-H activation/C-C and C-heteroatom bond forming reactions have been developed by the use of directing group strategies to control regioselectivity and build structural patterns for synthetic chemistry. A number of mono- and bidentate ligands have also proven to be effective for accelerating C(sp(3))-H activation directed by weakly coordinating auxiliaries, which provides great opportunities to control reactivity and selectivity (including enantioselectivity) in Pd-catalyzed C-H functionalization reactions. Read More

    Organocatalysis in Inert C-H Bond Functionalization.
    Chem Rev 2017 Jul 13;117(13):9433-9520. Epub 2017 Feb 13.
    Key Laboratory for Molecular Recognition and Function, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences , Beijing 100190, China.
    As two coexisting and fast-growing research fields in modern synthetic chemistry, the merging of organocatalysis and C-H bond functionalization is well foreseeable, and the joint force along this line has been demonstrated to be a powerful approach in making inert C-H bond functionalization more viable, predictable, and selective. In this review, we provide a comprehensive summary of organocatalysis in inert C-H bond functionalization over the past two decades. The review is arranged by types of inert C-H bonds including alkane C-H, arene C-H, and vinyl C-H as well as those activated benzylic C-H, allylic C-H, and C-H bonds alpha to the heteroatom such as nitrogen and oxygen. Read More

    Photoinduced Structural Dynamics of Molecular Systems Mapped by Time-Resolved X-ray Methods.
    Chem Rev 2017 Aug 10;117(16):11025-11065. Epub 2017 Jul 10.
    Univ Rennes 1, CNRS, Institut de Physique de Rennes, UMR 6251, UBL , Rennes F-35042, France.
    We review the tremendous advances in ultrafast X-ray science, over the past 15 years, making the best use of new ultrashort X-ray sources including table-top or large-scale facilities. Different complementary X-ray-based techniques, including spectroscopy, scattering, and diffraction, are presented. The broad and expanding spectrum of these techniques in the ultrafast time domain is delivering new insight into the dynamics of molecular systems, of solutions, of solids, and of biosystems. Read More

    Ionic-Liquid-Based CO2 Capture Systems: Structure, Interaction and Process.
    Chem Rev 2017 Jul 7;117(14):9625-9673. Epub 2017 Jul 7.
    Beijing Key Laboratory of Ionic Liquids Clean Process, Key Laboratory of Green Process and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Complex Systems, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences , Beijing 100190, China.
    The inherent structure tunability, good affinity with CO2, and nonvolatility of ionic liquids (ILs) drive their exploration and exploitation in CO2 separation field, and has attracted remarkable interest from both industries and academia. The aim of this Review is to give a detailed overview on the recent advances on IL-based materials, including pure ILs, IL-based solvents, and IL-based membranes for CO2 capture and separation from the viewpoint of molecule to engineering. The effects of anions, cations and functional groups on CO2 solubility and selectivity of ILs, as well as the studies on degradability of ILs are reviewed, and the recent developments on functionalized ILs, IL-based solvents, and IL-based membranes are also discussed. Read More

    Aminooxylated Carbohydrates: Synthesis and Applications.
    Chem Rev 2017 Aug 6;117(15):9839-9873. Epub 2017 Jul 6.
    Université Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, DCM UMR 5250 , F-38000 Grenoble, France.
    Among other classes of biomolecules, carbohydrates and glycoconjugates are widely involved in numerous biological functions. In addition to addressing the related synthetic challenges, glycochemists have invested intense efforts in providing access to structures that can be used to study, activate, or inhibit these biological processes. Over the past few decades, aminooxylated carbohydrates have been found to be key building blocks for achieving these goals. Read More

    Epitaxial Growth of Two-Dimensional Layered Transition-Metal Dichalcogenides: Growth Mechanism, Controllability, and Scalability.
    Chem Rev 2017 Jul 6. Epub 2017 Jul 6.
    Physical Sciences and Engineering Division, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology , Thuwal 23955-6900, Saudi Arabia.
    Recently there have been many research breakthroughs in two-dimensional (2D) materials including graphene, boron nitride (h-BN), black phosphors (BPs), and transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs). The unique electrical, optical, and thermal properties in 2D materials are associated with their strictly defined low dimensionalities. These materials provide a wide range of basic building blocks for next-generation electronics. Read More

    Hydrogen Sulfide Capture: From Absorption in Polar Liquids to Oxide, Zeolite, and Metal-Organic Framework Adsorbents and Membranes.
    Chem Rev 2017 Jul 5;117(14):9755-9803. Epub 2017 Jul 5.
    Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Minnesota , 421 Washington Avenue SE, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455-0132, United States.
    Hydrogen sulfide removal is a long-standing economic and environmental challenge faced by the oil and gas industries. H2S separation processes using reactive and non-reactive absorption and adsorption, membranes, and cryogenic distillation are reviewed. A detailed discussion is presented on new developments in adsorbents, such as ionic liquids, metal oxides, metals, metal-organic frameworks, zeolites, carbon-based materials, and composite materials; and membrane technologies for H2S removal. Read More

    Organic and Polymeric Semiconductors Enhanced by Noncovalent Conformational Locks.
    Chem Rev 2017 Aug 3;117(15):10291-10318. Epub 2017 Jul 3.
    Department of Chemistry and Materials Research Center, Northwestern University , Evanston, Illinois 60208, United States.
    Constructing highly planar, extended π-electron systems is an important strategy for achieving high-mobility organic semiconductors. In general, there are two synthetic strategies for achieving π-conjugated systems with high planarity. The conventional strategy connects neighboring aromatic rings through covalent bonds to restrict the rotation about single bonds. Read More

    Anion Recognition Strategies Based on Combined Noncovalent Interactions.
    Chem Rev 2017 Aug 30;117(15):9907-9972. Epub 2017 Jun 30.
    Departamento de Química Orgánica, Universidad de Murcia , Campus de Espinardo, E-30100 Murcia, Spain.
    This review highlights the most significant examples of an emerging field in the design of highly selective anion receptors. To date, there has been remarkable progress in the binding and sensing of anions. This has been driven in part by the discovery of ways to construct effective anion binding receptors using the dominant N-H functional groups and neutral and cationic C-H hydrogen bond donors, as well as underexplored strong directional noncovalent interactions such as halogen-bonding and anion-π interactions. Read More

    Challenges in the Greener Production of Formates/Formic Acid, Methanol, and DME by Heterogeneously Catalyzed CO2 Hydrogenation Processes.
    Chem Rev 2017 Jul 28;117(14):9804-9838. Epub 2017 Jun 28.
    Catalysis Engineering, Chemical Engineering Department, Delft University of Technology , Van der Maasweg 9, 2629 HZ Delft, The Netherlands.
    The recent advances in the development of heterogeneous catalysts and processes for the direct hydrogenation of CO2 to formate/formic acid, methanol, and dimethyl ether are thoroughly reviewed, with special emphasis on thermodynamics and catalyst design considerations. After introducing the main motivation for the development of such processes, we first summarize the most important aspects of CO2 capture and green routes to produce H2. Once the scene in terms of feedstocks is introduced, we carefully summarize the state of the art in the development of heterogeneous catalysts for these important hydrogenation reactions. Read More

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