1,242 results match your criteria Chemical Restraint

Discovery of GSK3β Inhibitors through In Silico Prediction-and-Experiment Cycling Strategy, and Biological Evaluation.

Molecules 2022 Jun 14;27(12). Epub 2022 Jun 14.

Therapeutics & Biotechnology Division, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, 141 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34114, Korea.

Direct inhibitors of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) have been investigated and reported for the past 20 years. In the search for novel scaffold inhibitors, 3000 compounds were selected through structure-based virtual screening (SBVS), and then high-throughput enzyme screening was performed. Among the active hit compounds, pyrazolo [1,5-a]pyrimidin-7-amine derivatives showed strong inhibitory potencies on the GSK3β enzyme and markedly activated Wnt signaling. Read More

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Exploring the complexity of acute inpatient mental health nurses experience of chemical restraint interventions: Implications on policy, practice and education.

Michelle C Danda

Arch Psychiatr Nurs 2022 Aug 15;39:28-36. Epub 2022 Mar 15.

Brandon University, University of Alberta, Canada. Electronic address:

Chemical restraint research is growing with multiple healthcare disciplines increasing focused on understanding uses, harms of restraint and restraint reduction in inpatient mental health settings. Despite increased restraint research relatively little is known about nurses' experiences of administering chemical restraint. The research question guiding this study was: what are mental health nurses' experiences of using chemical restraint interventions in times of behavioural emergency on adult inpatient acute mental health units? The purpose of the research was to understand direct care nurses' first-hand experiences in use of chemical restraint interventions. Read More

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Droplets in underlying chemical communication recreate cell interaction behaviors.

Nat Commun 2022 Jun 1;13(1):3047. Epub 2022 Jun 1.

Instituto de Nanociencia y Nanotecnología (CNEA-CONICET), Av. Gral. Paz 1499, San Martín, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

The sensory-motor interaction is a hallmark of living systems. However, developing inanimate systems with "recognize and attack" abilities remains challenging. On the other hand, controlling the inter-droplet dynamics on surfaces is key in microengineering and biomedical applications. Read More

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Antidepressant-Like Effect of a Selenoindolizine in Mice: In Vivo and In Silico Evidence for the Involvement of the Serotonergic 5-HT Receptors.

ACS Chem Neurosci 2022 Jun 23;13(12):1746-1755. Epub 2022 May 23.

Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Neuropharmacology (LABIONEM), Postgraduate Program in Biochemistry and Bioprospecting (PPGBBio), Center of Chemical, Pharmaceutical and Food Sciences (CCQFA), Federal University of Pelotas (UFPel), P.O. Box, 354, Pelotas, 96010-900 RS, Brazil.

The monoaminergic dysfunction plays a central role in major depressive disorder (MDD), a mental disturbance associated with constant feeling of sadness and lack of interest. The available treatments do not present a desirable efficacy and some of them provoke several adverse effects. In this context, organoselenium compounds and molecules containing the indolizine nucleus have demonstrated interesting pharmacological properties, including antidepressant-like effects. Read More

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Rapid Test Method for Evaluating Inhibiting Effectiveness of Supplementary Cementitious Materials on Alkali-Silica Reaction Expansion of Concrete.

Materials (Basel) 2022 Apr 28;15(9). Epub 2022 Apr 28.

College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 211800, China.

At present, there are many problems in various tests when judging the alkali activity of aggregates. The most practical engineering concrete prism test (CPT) takes one year, and the concrete suppression method needs two years. The aim of this paper is to discuss inhibiting effectiveness of supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) on alkali-silica reaction (ASR) expansion of concrete and evaluate this rapid test method. Read More

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Confining ZnS/SnS Ultrathin Heterostructured Nanosheets in Hollow N-Doped Carbon Nanocubes as Novel Sulfur Host for Advanced Li-S Batteries.

Small 2022 Jun 17;18(24):e2107727. Epub 2022 May 17.

Collaborative Innovation Center for Microgrid of New Energy, College of Electrical Engineering & New Energy, China Three Gorges University, Yichang, 443002, P. R. China.

Hollow nanostructured hosts are important scaffolds to achieve high sulfur loading, fast charge transfer, and conspicuous restraint of lithium polysulfides (LiPSs) shuttling in lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries. However, developing high-efficiency hollow hosts for improving utilization and conversion of aggregated sulfur in the hollow chamber remains a longstanding challenge. Herein, hollow N-doped carbon nanocubes confined petal-like ZnS/SnS heterostructures (ZnS/SnS @NC) as a conceptually novel host for Li-S batteries are reported. Read More

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Gene Expression Profiling of the Habenula in Rats Exposed to Chronic Restraint Stress.

Mol Cells 2022 May;45(5):306-316

Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul 02841, Korea.

Chronic stress contributes to the risk of developing depression; the habenula, a nucleus in epithalamus, is associated with many neuropsychiatric disorders. Using genome-wide gene expression analysis, we analyzed the transcriptome of the habenula in rats exposed to chronic restraint stress for 14 days. We identified 379 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) that were affected by chronic stress. Read More

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[Comprehensive evaluation system for quality of Chinese medicinal decoction pieces based on "experience-ingredients-activity-electronic sensing"].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2022 Apr;47(8):1995-2007

Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences Beijing 100700, China.

Quality evaluation of Chinese medicinal decoction pieces is vital for the development of the downstream industries, and is an important channel for implementing the strategy of "higher quality, higher price, and priority for the high quality" for traditional Chinese medicine. At the moment, the quality of Chinese medicinal decoction pieces is mainly evaluated based on chemical component examination. Considering the weak preliminary research foundation and poor research conditions, traditional experience-based evaluation is undervalued in the quality rating of Chinese medicinal decoction pieces. Read More

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The use of coercive measures in a high security setting in Belgium: Prevalence and risk factors.

Int J Law Psychiatry 2022 May-Jun;82:101792. Epub 2022 Apr 16.

Forensic Psychiatric Center, Beatrijslaan 96, 2050 Antwerp, Belgium; KU Leuven, Belgium. Electronic address:

Coercive measures are often used in forensic psychiatric settings as a strategy to manage violent and other problematic behavior. Few studies have been published regarding the use of coercive measures in high security populations. This is the first empirical study on this subject in Belgium. Read More

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Electrochemical and quantum chemical studies on the corrosion inhibition of 1037 carbon steel by different types of surfactants.

RSC Adv 2022 Jan 24;12(6):3253-3273. Epub 2022 Jan 24.

Chemistry and Earth Science Department, Qatar University Doha-2713 Qatar.

In this work, three different types of surfactants, namely, dodecyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (DTAC, CHN (CH)Cl), octyl phenol poly(ethylene glycol ether) (TX-100, CHO for = 10) and dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate (AOT-100, CHONaS) with corrosion restraint were utilized as corrosion inhibitors for 1037 CS in 0.5 M HCl. The protection efficacy (% IE) was indicated by weight loss and electrochemical measurements. Read More

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January 2022

Histological and chemical diagnosis of a combat lesion in Triceratops.

Sci Rep 2022 04 7;12(1):3941. Epub 2022 Apr 7.

Department of Medicine and Aging Science, 'G. D'Annunzio' University of Chieti-Pescara, Chieti, Italy.

In the collective imagination derived from scientific and popular literature, Triceratops often faced each other in combat. Thus, from the second half of the twentieth century, these ceratopsids were described as pugnacious animals. This arises primarily from the interpretation of extracranial fenestrae in ceratopsids being the result of combat trauma. Read More

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J Zoo Wildl Med 2022 Mar;53(1):116-125

Centre québécois sur la santé des animaux sauvages/Canadian Wildlife Health Cooperative, Faculté de médecine vétérinaire, Université de Montréal, Saint Hyacinthe, Quebec J2S 2M2, Canada,

Chemical sedation of fish is often used during scientific research to reduce stress and risk of injury. Electric fish handling gloves (EFHG) have been proposed as a no-residue alternative to chemical immobilization. However, the impact of handling fish with EFHG on their physiology remains relatively poorly studied. Read More

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Determination of the effective dosage of tiletamine-zolazepam-ketamine-xylazine, with or without methadone, in dogs.

Vet Anaesth Analg 2022 May 3;49(3):304-307. Epub 2022 Mar 3.

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.

Objective: To determine the effective dosage of the combination tiletamine-zolazepam-ketamine-xylazine (TKX), with or without methadone, in dogs.

Study Design: Prospective, randomized, experimental study.

Animals: A total of 29 dogs. Read More

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Impacts of a perinatal exposure to manganese coupled with maternal stress in rats: Tests of untrained behaviors.

Neurotoxicol Teratol 2022 May-Jun;91:107088. Epub 2022 Mar 10.

Neurological & Endocrine Toxicology Branch, Public Health & Integrated Toxicology Division, Center for Public Health and Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711, United States of America.

Manganese (Mn), an element that naturally occurs in the environment, has been shown to produce neurotoxic effects on the developing young when levels exceed physiological requirements. To evaluate the effects of this chemical in combination with non-chemical factors pregnant Long-Evans rats were treated with 0, 2, or 4 mg/mL Mn in their drinking water from gestational day (GD) 7 to postnatal day (PND) 22. Half of the dams received a variable stress protocol from GD13 to PND9, that included restraint, small cage with reduced bedding, exposure to predator odor, intermittent intervals of white noise, lights on for 24 h, intermittent intervals of lights on during dark cycle and cages with grid floors and reduced bedding. Read More

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Chronic restraint stress produces sex-specific behavioral and molecular outcomes in the dorsal and ventral rat hippocampus.

Neurobiol Stress 2022 Mar 25;17:100440. Epub 2022 Feb 25.

Laboratory of Neuroplasticity and Neurogenetics. Faculty of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences. Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. Universidad de Chile, Independencia, 8380492, Santiago, Chile.

Stress-related disorders display differences at multiple levels according to sex. While most studies have been conducted in male rodents, less is known about comparable outcomes in females. In this study, we found that the chronic restraint stress model (2. Read More

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Salmon Calcitonin Exerts an Antidepressant Effect by Activating Amylin Receptors.

Front Pharmacol 2022 14;13:826055. Epub 2022 Feb 14.

Tomas Lindahl Nobel Laureate Laboratory, The Seventh Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Shenzhen, China.

Depressive disorder is defined as a psychiatric disease characterized by the core symptoms of anhedonia and learned helplessness. Currently, the treatment of depression still calls for medications with high effectiveness, rapid action, and few side effects, although many drugs, including fluoxetine and ketamine, have been approved for clinical usage by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). In this study, we focused on calcitonin as an amylin receptor polypeptide, of which the antidepressant effect has not been reported, even if calcitonin gene-related peptides have been previously demonstrated to improve depressive-like behaviors in rodents. Read More

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February 2022

Flower essential oil of Tagetes minuta mitigates oxidative stress and restores BDNF-Akt/ERK2 signaling attenuating inflammation- and stress-induced depressive-like behavior in mice.

Brain Res 2022 06 25;1784:147845. Epub 2022 Feb 25.

Laboratory of Clean Organic Synthesis, Center of Chemical, Pharmaceutical and Food Sciences, Federal University of Pelotas, Pelotas, RS, Brazil. Electronic address:

Essential oils (EO) are plant extracts widely used for various pharmacological applications and their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects have received a lot of attention because they hold the potential to reduce oxidative stress, and neuroinflammation, alterations involved in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder. This study examined the benefits of administration of flower EO of the Tagetes minuta (10 and 50 mg/kg, intragastric route) in attenuating behavioral, neurochemical, and neuroendocrine changes in animal models of depressive-like behavior induced by acute restraint stress and lipopolysaccharide (0.83 mg/kg, intraperitoneally). Read More

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Efficacy of a Product Containing Xyloglucan and Pea Protein on Intestinal Barrier Function in a Partial Restraint Stress Animal Model.

Int J Mol Sci 2022 Feb 18;23(4). Epub 2022 Feb 18.

Department of Chemical, Biological, Pharmaceutical and Environmental Sciences, University of Messina, Viale Ferdinando Stagno D'Alcontres, 31-98166 Messina, Italy.

Functional abdominal bloating and distension (FABD) are common and frequent symptoms in patients with pre-existing gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. FABD is characterized by recurrent abdominal fullness and bloating. The pathophysiology of FABD is still unclear. Read More

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February 2022

Anxiolytic and antidepressant-like activities of aqueous extract of A. Juss. flower in the stressed rats.

Heliyon 2022 Feb 3;8(2):e08881. Epub 2022 Feb 3.

School of Science, Mae Fah Luang University, Muang, Chiang Rai, 57100, Thailand.

The aim of this study was to evaluate whether an aqueous extract of A. Juss. () flower had anxiolytic and antidepressant-like effects in the stressed rats. Read More

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February 2022

Comparison of point-of-care NOVA CCX blood gas analyzer to laboratory analyzer in a population of healthy adult cats.

J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) 2022 Mar 15;32(2):173-180. Epub 2022 Feb 15.

Department of Veterinary Medicine and Surgery, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri, USA.

Objective: To compare the level of agreement of measurement of analytes (sodium, chloride, potassium, urea nitrogen [UN], creatinine, glucose) in a population of healthy adult cats between the point-of-care (POC) analyzer and laboratory analyzer. To establish reference intervals for the POC analyzer in healthy adult cats.

Design: Prospective observational study. Read More

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Omeprazole prevents stress induced gastric ulcer by direct inhibition of MMP-2/TIMP-3 interactions.

Free Radic Biol Med 2022 03 10;181:221-234. Epub 2022 Feb 10.

Infectious Diseases & Immunology, CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Biology, 4 Raja S. C. Mullick Road, Jadavpur, Kolkata, 700032, India. Electronic address:

The healing of damaged tissues in gastric tract starts with the extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling by the action of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Particularly, MMP-2 (gelatinase-A) maintains ECM structure and function by degrading type IV collagen, the major component of basement membranes and by clearing denatured collagen. The proteolytic activities of MMPs are critically balanced by endogenous tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) and disruption of this balance results in several diseases. Read More

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Risk factors, time to onset and recurrence of delirium in a mixed medical-surgical ICU population: A secondary analysis using Cox and CHAID decision tree modeling.

EXCLI J 2022 4;21:30-46. Epub 2022 Jan 4.

Biotechnology Research Center, Pharmaceutical Technology Institute, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad 9177948564, Iran.

A retrospective secondary analysis of 4,200 patients was collected from two academic medical centers. Delirium was assessed using the Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit (CAM-ICU) in all patients. Univariate and multivariate Cox models, logistic regression analysis, and Chi-square Automatic Interaction Detector (CHAID) decision tree modeling were used to explore delirium risk factors. Read More

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January 2022

Ameliorated Effect of Ascorbic Acid and Selenium against the Stress Effect on Sperm Quality of Rats.

Arch Razi Inst 2021 10 31;76(4):1137-1142. Epub 2021 Oct 31.

College of Pharmacy, Islamic University, Najaf, Iraq.

Stress is defined as physical and/or psychological modifications that disrupt homeostasis in living organisms. The stimuli that confront homeostasis are determined as stressors; these external factors may be physical, chemical, psychological, and environmental. The results of some studies have shown that ascorbic acid is related to fertility and has an evolutionary significant role as an essential nutrient for humans and other animal species. Read More

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October 2021

Sustainable and efficient control of sunflower downy mildew by means of genetic resistance: a review.

L Molinero-Ruiz

Theor Appl Genet 2022 Jan 27. Epub 2022 Jan 27.

Institute for Sustainable Agriculture (IAS), Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), Alameda del Obispo s/n, 14004, Córdoba, Spain.

The breeding of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) for resistance to downy mildew (caused by the oomycete Plasmopara halstedii Farl. Berl. Read More

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January 2022

Physical Restraint in the Critical Care Unit: A Narrative Review.

New Bioeth 2022 Mar 27;28(1):68-82. Epub 2022 Jan 27.

Medical School, King's College London School of Medical Education, London, UK.

Restraint has been used within health care settings for many centuries. Initially physical restraint (PR) was the method of choice, in present times. Within critical care units PR and chemical restraint are used, frequently in tandem. Read More

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Control Strategies to Cope with Late Wilt of Maize.

Ofir Degani

Pathogens 2021 Dec 23;11(1). Epub 2021 Dec 23.

Plant Sciences Department, MIGAL-Galilee Research Institute, Tarshish 2, Kiryat Shmona 11016, Israel.

Control of maize late wilt disease (LWD) has been at the forefront of research efforts since the discovery of the disease in the 1960s. The disease has become a major economic restraint in highly affected areas such as Egypt and Israel, and is of constant concern in other counties. LWD causes dehydration and collapsing at a late stage of maize cultivation, starting from the male flowering phase. Read More

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December 2021

Mesenchyme homeobox 2 has a cancer-inhibiting function in breast carcinoma via affection of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR and ERK1/2 pathways.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2022 02 7;593:20-27. Epub 2022 Jan 7.

Department of Breast Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi, 710061, China.

A cancer-inhibiting role of mesenchyme homeobox 2 (MEOX2) has been observed in several malignancies. However, the association between MEOX2 and breast carcinoma has not been addressed. This research focused on investigating the possible relevance of MEOX2 in breast carcinoma. Read More

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February 2022

Acute restraint stress redirects prefrontal cortex circuit function through mGlu receptor plasticity on somatostatin-expressing interneurons.

Neuron 2022 03 18;110(6):1068-1083.e5. Epub 2022 Jan 18.

Department of Pharmacology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232, USA; Warren Center for Neuroscience Drug Discovery, Nashville, TN, USA; Vanderbilt Center for Addiction Research, Nashville, TN, USA; Vanderbilt Brain Institute, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA; Vanderbilt Kennedy Center, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA. Electronic address:

Inhibitory interneurons orchestrate prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity, but we have a limited understanding of the molecular and experience-dependent mechanisms that regulate synaptic plasticity across PFC microcircuits. We discovered that mGlu receptor activation facilitates long-term potentiation at synapses from the basolateral amygdala (BLA) onto somatostatin-expressing interneurons (SST-INs) in mice. This plasticity appeared to be recruited during acute restraint stress, which induced intracellular calcium mobilization within SST-INs and rapidly potentiated postsynaptic strength onto SST-INs. Read More

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The impact of twisting on the intersystem crossing in acenes: an experimental and computational study.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2022 Jan 26;24(4):2357-2362. Epub 2022 Jan 26.

Institute of Chemistry, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel.

Due to their unique excited state dynamics, acenes play a dominant role in optoelectronic and light-harvesting applications. Their optical and electronic properties are typically tailored by side-group engineering, which often result in distortion of the acene core from planarity. However, the effect of such distortion on their excited state dynamics is not clear. Read More

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January 2022