1,173 results match your criteria Chemical Restraint


Syndrome-Based Prescription to Optimize Psychotropics: Are CHROME Criteria a Game Changer?

Front Psychiatry 2021 22;12:662228. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Maria Wolff Foundation, Madrid, Spain.

A variety of medical and social factors have contributed over the last decades to the overuse of psychotropic drugs in people with dementia. One social factor is probably the frequent failure to provide adequate person-centered care, be it in the community or in institutional settings. This unfortunate reality has been reacted upon with numerous guidelines to reduce prescriptions of the most dangerous drugs (e. Read More

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Who Should Implement Force When It's Needed and How Should It Be Done Compassionately?

Authors:
Matthew Lin

AMA J Ethics 2021 Apr 1;23(4):E311-317. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Second-year neonatal-perinatal medicine fellow at Boston Children's Hospital in Massachusetts.

This case questions the comparative moral permissibility of 2 different uses of force-actions done against a patient's will-in the course of that patient's care: covert medication administration and use of physical or chemical restraint. The commentary considers what constitutes the most compassionate use of force for this patient and how it should be implemented. Read More

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A replica exchange umbrella sampling (REUS) approach to predict host-guest binding free energies in SAMPL8 challenge.

J Comput Aided Mol Des 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Laboratory of Computational Biology, National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, 20892, USA.

In this study, we report binding free energy calculations of various drugs-of-abuse to Cucurbit-[8]-uril as part of the SAMPL8 blind challenge. Force-field parameters were obtained from force-matching with different quantum mechanical levels of theory. The Replica Exchange Umbrella Sampling (REUS) approach was used with a cylindrical restraint to enhance the sampling of host-guest binding. Read More

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Dynamics of collective action to conserve a large common-pool resource.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 28;11(1):9208. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Chemical Physics Division, Department of Physics, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.

A pressing challenge for coming decades is sustainable and just management of large-scale common-pool resources including the atmosphere, biodiversity and public services. This poses a difficult collective action problem because such resources may not show signs that usage restraint is needed until tragedy is almost inevitable. To solve this problem, a sufficient level of cooperation with a pro-conservation behavioural norm must be achieved, within the prevailing sociopolitical environment, in time for the action taken to be effective. Read More

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A general chemical crosslinking strategy for structural analyses of weakly interacting proteins applied to preTCR-pMHC complexes.

J Biol Chem 2021 Jan 8;296:100255. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Laboratory of Immunobiology, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts, USA; Department of Medical Oncology, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts, USA; Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA; Department of Dermatology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. Electronic address:

T lymphocytes discriminate between healthy and infected or cancerous cells via T-cell receptor-mediated recognition of peptides bound and presented by cell-surface-expressed major histocompatibility complex molecules (MHCs). Pre-T-cell receptors (preTCRs) on thymocytes foster development of αβT lymphocytes through their β chain interaction with MHC displaying self-peptides on thymic epithelia. The specific binding of a preTCR with a peptide-MHC complex (pMHC) has been identified previously as forming a weak affinity complex with a distinct interface from that of mature αβTCR. Read More

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January 2021

Definition and Measurement of Physical and Chemical Restraint in Long-Term Care: A Systematic Review.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 03 31;18(7). Epub 2021 Mar 31.

School of Primary and Allied Health Care & National Centre for Healthy Ageing, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, Monash University, Moorooduc Highway, Frankston, VIC 3199, Australia.

This systematic review aimed to identify thematic elements within definitions of physical and chemical restraint, compare explicit and implicit definitions, and synthesize reliability and validity of studies examining physical and/or chemical restraint use in long-term care. Studies were included that measured prevalence of physical and/or chemical restraint use, or evaluated an intervention to reduce restraint use in long-term care. 86 papers were included in this review, all discussed physical restraint use and 20 also discussed chemical restraint use. Read More

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Promotes Tonic-Clonic Seizures, an Effect Modified by Familial Alzheimer's Disease Mutations.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 16;9:656521. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, College of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States.

Seizures are emerging as a common symptom in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, often attributed to high levels of amyloid β (Aβ). However, the extent that AD disease risk factors modulate seizure activity in aging and AD-relevant contexts is unclear. is the greatest genetic risk factor for AD and has been linked to seizures independent of AD and Aβ. Read More

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Particle size-dependent biomolecular footprints of interactive microplastics in maize.

Environ Pollut 2021 May 22;277:116772. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Vocational School of Technical Sciences, Recep Tayyip Erdogan University, Rize, Turkey.

The world is dealing with the mismanaged plastic waste found even in the Arctic. The crisis is being tried to solve with the plastivor bugs or bio-plastics, and the marine pollution profiles become priority however, putative phytotoxicity on terrestrial farming have not received significant attention. Hence, morpho-physiological and molecular response in maize seedlings exposed to the most prevalent microplastic (MP) types (PP, PET, PVC, PS, PE) differing in their particle size (75-150 μm and 150-212 μm) and combinations (PP + PET + PVC + PS + PE mix) was analyzed here for a predictive holistic model. Read More

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Altered hippocampal function and cytokine levels in a rat model of Gulf War illness.

Life Sci 2021 Jun 8;274:119333. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Naval Medical Research Unit Dayton, 2728 Q Street, Area B, Building 837, WPAFB, OH 45433, USA. Electronic address:

Aims: Gulf War illness (GWI) is a disorder affecting military personnel deployed in the Gulf War (GW) from 1990 to 1991. Here, we will use a rat model of GWI to evaluate hippocampal function and cytokine levels.

Materials And Methods: Rats were exposed to diethyltoluamide and permethrin via dermal absorption and pyridostigmine bromide via gavage with or without a 5-min restraint for 28 days. Read More

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Patient Outcomes Following Ketamine Administration for Acute Agitation with a Decreased Dosing Protocol in the Prehospital Setting.

Prehosp Disaster Med 2021 Jun 8;36(3):276-282. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MassachusettsUSA.

Background: Agitated behaviors are frequently encountered in the prehospital setting and require emergent treatment to prevent harm to patients and prehospital personnel. Chemical sedation with ketamine works faster than traditional pharmacologic agents, though it has a higher incidence of adverse events, including intubation. Outcomes following varying initial doses of prehospital intramuscular (IM) ketamine use have been incompletely described. Read More

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A diazene-bridged diruthenium complex with structural restraint defined by single meta-diphosphinobenzene.

Dalton Trans 2021 Apr 24;50(14):4789-4795. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Department of Chemical Science and Engineering, School of Materials and Chemical Technology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 E4-1 O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552, Japan.

Creation of confined coordination spaces with controlled flexibility is of importance in mimicking enzymatic reactions. We found that a simple, non-chelating 1,3-bis(diphenylphosphino)benzene (DPPBz) assembled two Cp*Ru units to give a dinuclear complex, wherein only one DPPBz supports an open framework without metal-metal bonding. Subsequent treatment with an excess of hydrazine resulted in formal 2e/2H transfer from hydrazine to afford a diazene-bridged complex featuring intramolecular NHCl hydrogen bonds. Read More

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Chemical restraint: A qualitative synthesis review of adult service user and staff experiences in mental health settings.

Nurs Health Sci 2021 Feb 18. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

College of Nursing & Health Sciences, Flinders University, Adelaide, Australia.

With an imperative to reduce or eliminate the use of coercive practices in mental health care it is important to understand the experience of service users and staff. This review aimed to synthesize qualitative studies, published between 1996 and 2020, reporting on mental health service users' and staff's experiences of chemical restraint. The databases PsycINFO, CINAHL, MEDLINE, Embase, Emcare, Web of Science, and Scopus were searched. Read More

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February 2021

Prevalence and variability in use of physical and chemical restraints in residential aged care facilities: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Int J Nurs Stud 2020 Dec 14;117:103856. Epub 2020 Dec 14.

School of Primary and Allied Health Care, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, Monash University, Moorooduc Highway, Frankston, VIC 3199, Australia.

Background: Use of physical and chemical restraints are common in residential aged care facilities worldwide. Restraint use can pose harm to residents even causing deaths.

Objective: To synthesize the prevalence and variability in physical and chemical restraint use, and examine factors that may contribute to this variability of prevalence rates. Read More

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December 2020

Xylazine or detomidine in dairy calves: a comparison of clinically relevant pharmacodynamic parameters under sedation.

Tierarztl Prax Ausg G Grosstiere Nutztiere 2021 Feb 15;49(1):21-29. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Department of Small Animal Medicine, University of Leipzig.

Objective: Chemical restraint in dairy calves is necessary to enable diagnostic and surgical procedures. It is unclear whether xylazine or detomidine differ with regard to desirable and unwanted effects.

Material And Methods: In a prospective randomized interventional study, 10 healthy Holstein-Friesian calves (age range 3-6 month) were sedated with either xylazine (0. Read More

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February 2021

Apomorphine-induced sensitization in rats exposed to restraint stress: Relationship with adaptation to stress.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2020 Jul;33(4):1577-1583

Neurochemistry and Biochemical Neuropharmacology Research Unit, Department of Biochemistry, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan/Neuroscience Research Laboratory, Dr. Panjwani Center for Molecular Medicine and Drug Research, International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan.

Drug abuse and impaired adaptation to stress are inter-related. Drug abuse is more potentiated upon exposure to stress and an impairment to cope with stress may lead to depression. On the other hand, use of addictive compounds increase the vulnerability to depression by inhibiting the adaptation to stress. Read More

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[Freedom and constraint of the ambulatory patient].

Soins Gerontol 2021 Jan-Feb;26(147):40-44. Epub 2020 Nov 3.

Service de médecine interne polyvalente, hôpital Saint-Julien, centre hospitalier universitaire de Rouen, 2 rue Guillaume-Lecointe, 76140 Le Petit Quevilly, France. Electronic address:

The use of physical, as well as chemical, restraints is subject to a medical prescription. It is a medical decision, most often fortunately made as a team. Responsibilities are involved when it is implemented. Read More

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February 2021

Involvement of the microbiota-gut-brain axis in chronic restraint stress: disturbances of the kynurenine metabolic pathway in both the gut and brain.

Gut Microbes 2021 Jan-Dec;13(1):1-16

Department of Hygienic Analysis and Detection, The Key Laboratory of Modern Toxicology of Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University , Nanjing China.

Emerging evidence suggests that the gut microbiota may interact with the host brain and play pivotal roles in the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, the mechanism underlying reciprocal interactions along the microbiota-gut-brain axis in depression remains unclear. In this study, a murine model of chronic restraint stress (CRS) was established to investigate the metabolic signaling of tryptophan (Trp) neurotransmission at the intestinal and central levels in depression. Read More

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February 2021

SEDATIVE AND CARDIORESPIRATORY EFFECTS OF INTRAMUSCULAR ALFAXALONE AND BUTORPHANOL AT TWO DOSAGES IN FERRETS ().

J Zoo Wildl Med 2021 Jan;51(4):841-847

Department of Molecular Biomedical Sciences, North Carolina State University, College of Veterinary Medicine, Raleigh, North Carolina 27606, USA,

Veterinary care of ferrets often requires chemical restraint. This study hypothesized that IM alfaxalone and butorphanol would result in clinically useful sedation without clinically relevant cardiorespiratory effects. Twelve healthy 15-mo-old ferrets of equal sexes weighing 0. Read More

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January 2021

Reducing restrictive practice: a pertinent issue for children's services.

Br J Nurs 2021 Jan;30(1):70-73

Senior Teaching Fellow, Florence Nightingale Faculty of Nursing, Midwifery and Palliative Care, King's College London.

The reduction of restrictive practice has gained momentum in mental health services and it is now becoming evident in mainstream adult services. There remains confusion as to the definition of 'restrictive practices' across all sectors of health care, including the difference between 'restrictive practices' (such as attitudes of control, limit setting and unnecessary ward rules) and 'restrictive interventions' (including physical, chemical or mechanical restraint). This article highlights the relevance of restrictive practice to children's nursing and argues that the principles apply across all health provision. Read More

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January 2021

Does lunar synodic cycle affect the rates of psychiatric hospitalizations and sentinel events?

Chronobiol Int 2021 Mar 12;38(3):360-366. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Department of Psychiatry, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, India.

The lunar synodic cycle is often believed to be associated with psychiatric emergencies and exacerbation in various countries, including India. However, the scientific literature regarding this matter is inconclusive. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between lunar cycle phase and admission rates plus occurrence of sentinel events in the psychiatric ward of a tertiary care general hospital in India. Read More

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Bioactive Fractions from the Chinese Caterpillar Mushroom, Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Ascomycetes), Elucidate Adaptogenic Role against Hypoxia Stress.

Int J Med Mushrooms 2020 ;22(11):1121-1133

Defence Institute of Physiology and Allied Sciences, Lucknow Road, Timarpur, Delhi 110054, India; Defence Institute of Bio-Energy Research, Haldwani 263139, India.

Ophiocordyceps sinensis, a high-altitude medicinal mushroom, is widely revered in traditional medicine for its antiproliferative, antihypercholesterolemic, energy enhancement, etc. properties. These properties are attributed to the presence of steroids, terpenoids, polyphenolics, glycosides, and glycoproteins in it. Read More

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January 2020

Gender, Trauma and the Regulation of the Use of Restraint on Women in Australian Mental Health Services.

Authors:
Yvette Maker

J Law Med 2020 Dec;28(1):68-74

Senior Research Associate, Melbourne Social Equity Institute, University of Melbourne.

The use of physical, mechanical and/or chemical restraint is authorised by mental health legislation in most Australian jurisdictions. Research indicates that women have different experiences and needs in relation to the use of restraint, but legislation does not mention sex or gender as relevant considerations in the authorisation, use or monitoring of these practices. This is especially problematic in light of the potential for restraint use to traumatise, or retraumatise, women service users. Read More

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December 2020

A general chemical crosslinking strategy for structural analyses of weakly interacting proteins applied to preTCR-pMHC complexes.

J Biol Chem 2021 Jan 4. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

Medical Oncology, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, United States.

T lymphocytes discriminate between healthy versus infected or cancerous cells via T-cell receptor mediated recognition of peptides bound and presented by cell-surface-expressed major histocompatibility complex molecules (MHCs). Pre-T cell receptors (preTCRs) on thymocytes foster development of αβT lymphocytes through their β chain interaction with MHC displaying self-peptides on thymic epithelia. The specific binding of a preTCR with a peptide-MHC complex (pMHC) has been identified previously as forming a weak affinity complex with a distinct interface from that of mature αβTCR. Read More

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January 2021

Managing behaviour that challenges in people with dementia in the emergency department.

Authors:
Sera Nia Manning

Emerg Nurse 2021 May 30;29(3):34-40. Epub 2020 Dec 30.

Nursing, University of the West of England, Bristol, England.

Dementia symptoms can manifest in a variety of ways, such as anxiety, agitation and an inability to communicate unmet needs. In emergency departments (EDs), these symptoms, as well as various environmental factors, can lead to behaviour that challenges in people with dementia. Therefore, ED staff must be skilled in screening, assessing and managing this patient group effectively. Read More

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Antidepressant-relevant behavioral and synaptic molecular effects of long-term fasudil treatment in chronically stressed male rats.

Neurobiol Stress 2020 Nov 13;13:100234. Epub 2020 Jun 13.

Laboratory of Neuroplasticity and Neurogenetics, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile.

Several lines of evidence suggest that antidepressant drugs may act by modulating neuroplasticity pathways in key brain areas like the hippocampus. We have reported that chronic treatment with fasudil, a Rho-associated protein kinase inhibitor, prevents both chronic stress-induced depressive-like behavior and morphological changes in CA1 area. Here, we examined the ability of fasudil to (i) prevent stress-altered behaviors, (ii) influence the levels/phosphorylation of glutamatergic receptors and (iii) modulate signaling pathways relevant to antidepressant actions. Read More

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November 2020

Social Transmission and Buffering of Hippocampal Metaplasticity after Stress in Mice.

J Neurosci 2021 02 11;41(6):1317-1330. Epub 2020 Dec 11.

Department of Pharmacology, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan

In social animals, the behavioral and hormonal responses to stress can be transmitted from one individual to another through a social transmission process, and, conversely, social support ameliorates stress responses, a phenomenon referred to as social buffering. Metaplasticity represents activity-dependent synaptic changes that modulate the ability to elicit subsequent synaptic plasticity. Authentic stress can induce hippocampal metaplasticity, but whether transmitted stress has the same ability remains unknown. Read More

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February 2021

Arginine off-kilter: guanidinium is not as planar as restraints denote.

Acta Crystallogr D Struct Biol 2020 Dec 24;76(Pt 12):1159-1166. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Molecular Biosciences and Integrated Bioimaging, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.

Crystallographic refinement of macromolecular structures relies on stereochemical restraints to mitigate the typically poor data-to-parameter ratio. For proteins, each amino acid has a unique set of geometry restraints which represent stereochemical information such as bond lengths, valence angles, torsion angles, dihedrals and planes. It has been shown that the geometry in refined structures can differ significantly from that present in libraries; for example, it was recently reported that the guanidinium moiety in arginine is not symmetric. Read More

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December 2020

Modulation of NLRP3 Inflammasome Attenuated Inflammatory Response Associated to Diarrhea-Predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

Biomedicines 2020 Nov 20;8(11). Epub 2020 Nov 20.

Department of Chemical, Biological, Pharmaceutical and Environmental Sciences, University of Messina, Viale Ferdinando Stagno D' Alcontres, 31-98166 Messina, Italy.

Diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) is a multifactorial chronic gastrointestinal disorder characterized by inflammation and immune response. In this context, NLRP3 over-activation is associated with a breakdown of enteric-immune balance related to IBS-D. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the inflammasome inhibitor, BAY 11-7082, in a rat model of IBS-D. Read More

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November 2020

Evaluation of chemical restraint, isoflurane anesthesia and methadone or tramadol as preventive analgesia in spotted pacas (Cuniculus paca) subjected to laparoscopy.

Vet Anaesth Analg 2021 Jan 21;48(1):82-91. Epub 2020 Sep 21.

Department of Veterinary Pathobiology and Theriogenology, São Paulo State University (Unesp), "Julio de Mesquita Filho", Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil.

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and cardiopulmonary effects of ketamine-midazolam for chemical restraint, isoflurane anesthesia and tramadol or methadone as preventive analgesia in spotted pacas subjected to laparoscopy.

Study Design: Prospective placebo-controlled blinded trial.

Animals: A total of eight captive female Cuniculus paca weighing 9. Read More

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January 2021

Side-chain fluorotelomer-based polymers in children car seats.

Environ Pollut 2021 Jan 22;268(Pt B):115477. Epub 2020 Aug 22.

O'Neill School of Public and Environmental Affairs, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, 47405, United States. Electronic address:

Fabric and foam samples from popular children car seats marketed in the United States during 2018 were tested for fluorine content by particle-included gamma ray emission spectroscopy (PIGE, n = 93) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, n = 36), as well as for per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) by liquid and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS and GC/MS, n = 36). PFAS were detected in 97% of the car seat samples analyzed with MS, with total concentrations of 43 PFAS (∑PFAS) up to 268 ng/g. Fabric samples generally had greater ∑PFAS levels than foam and laminated composites of foam and fabric. Read More

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January 2021