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    A novel classification system for the evaluation and reconstruction of oral defects following oncological surgery.
    Oncol Lett 2017 Dec 5;14(6):7049-7054. Epub 2017 Oct 5.
    Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Cancer Centre of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510060, P.R. China.
    Accurate evaluation of oral tissue defects following oncological surgery is necessary for the subsequent reconstruction. However, there is currently no effective classification system for oral defects in the clinical setting. The present study therefore developed a clinical classification system for the evaluation and reconstruction of oral defects. Read More

    Tripaddled Anterolateral Thigh Flap for the Reconstruction of Extensively Full-Thickness Cheek Defects by Stacking Two Skin Paddles as Kiss Pattern.
    J Craniofac Surg 2017 Dec 27. Epub 2017 Dec 27.
    Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.
    Extended anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap can provide a large amount of skin to reconstruct the extensively full-thickness defects of cheek. However when the width of 1 skin paddle exceeds 8 cm, it always results in that the donor site cannot be closed primarily and need to be covered by split-thickness skin grafting, which delivers lots of impacts on the functional and cosmetic outcome of the thigh. The aim of this study was to introduce the authors' modification of stacking 2 skin paddles of the tripaddled ALT flap to reconstruct the extensive full-thickness defects in the cheek after the radical ablasion of advanced buccal squamous cell carcinoma. Read More

    History and evolution of the use of oral mucosa for urethral reconstruction.
    Asian J Urol 2017 Apr 26;4(2):96-101. Epub 2016 Jun 26.
    Department of Urology, Istituto Clinico Humanitas IRCCS, Clinical and Research Hospital, Rozzano, Italy.
    We report here the history and evolution of the use of oral mucosa in reconstructive urethral surgery since it was first used for urethroplasty in 1894. Since that time, many authors have contributed to develop, improve and popularize the use of oral mucosa as a substitute material. Paediatric urologists should be considered pioneers on the use of oral mucosa as they used it to repair primary and failed hypospadias. Read More

    Erratum to "Reconstruction design before tumour resection: A new concept of through-and-through cheek defect reconstruction" [Oral Oncol. 74 (2017) 123-129].
    Oral Oncol 2018 Jan 24;76:69. Epub 2017 Nov 24.
    Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410011, China. Electronic address:

    Soft palate functional reconstruction with buccinator myomucosal island flaps.
    Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2017 Dec 7. Epub 2017 Dec 7.
    Maxillofacial Surgery Unit, University Hospital of Sassari, Sassari, Italy.
    Oropharyngeal reconstruction after ablative surgery is a challenge. The results of a retrospective study of 17 patients who underwent total or sub-total soft palate reconstruction with a buccinator myomucosal island flap, between 2008 and 2016, are reported herein. An analysis of flap type and size, harvesting time, and postoperative complications was performed. Read More

    Reconstruction of oral cavity defect using versatile buccinator myomucosal flaps in the treatment of cT2-3, N0 oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma: Feasibility, morbidity, and functional/oncological outcomes.
    Oral Oncol 2017 Dec 9;75:95-99. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Republic of Korea.
    Objectives: To evaluate the results of oral cavity reconstruction using various types of buccinator myomucosal flap (BMMF) for the treatment of cT2-3 oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC).

    Materials And Methods: Twenty-two consecutive patients who underwent surgical management for OCSCC and reconstruction using various types of BMMF were enrolled. Surgical results, complications, speech/swallowing outcomes, and recurrence were evaluated. Read More

    Reconstruction of full-thickness cheek defect with chimeric facial artery free flap: A case report.
    Microsurgery 2017 Dec 8. Epub 2017 Dec 8.
    Maxillofacial Surgery Unit, University Hospital of Sassari, Viale San Pietro 43/B, Sassari, 07100, Italy.
    Full-thickness cheek defects represent a difficult challenge for reconstructive surgeons. Multiple techniques have been described, including local, regional, and free flaps. In this report, the reconstruction of a through and through left cheek defect, resulting from a self-inflicted gunshot injury, with a chimeric facial artery free flap is presented. Read More

    Primary One Stage Reconstruction in Complex Facial Avulsion Injury.
    World J Plast Surg 2017 Sep;6(3):383-386
    Poona Hospital, Noble Hospital, Pune, India.
    Complex facial injuries with soft tissue degloving and bony avulsion are very devastating to the patient. Partial degloving injuries are described but hemifacial degloving with zygoma avulsion are rare. The author presents a case of post-traumatic degloving of the left upper lip, nose, part of forehead, upper and lower eyelids and cheek with avulsion of the left zygoma. Read More

    Total Cheek Reconstruction Using the Pre-Expanded Medial Arm Flap With Functional and Aesthetic Donor Site Closure.
    J Craniofac Surg 2017 Nov 20. Epub 2017 Nov 20.
    Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Plastic Surgery Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.
    This clinical study aimed at introducing a reconstructive method for total cheek soft tissue defects using the pre-expanded medial arm flap and to maximally reduce donor site morbidities simultaneously. A retrospective review of data was performed for 3 patients requiring the pre-expanded medial arm flap to reconstruct total cheek defects. The donor site in the medial arm was primarily closed using a pedicle parascapular or thoracodorsal artery perforator flap. Read More

    Sensory recovery of myomucosal flap oral cavity reconstructions.
    Head Neck 2017 Nov 11. Epub 2017 Nov 11.
    Operative Unit of Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Sassari Hospital, Sassari, Italy.
    Background: Sensory restoration of the oral cavity is a primary aim of reconstructive surgery in posttraumatic or postablative defects. Sensitivity plays a key role in oral function, whose impairment strongly affects the patient's quality of life. Cheek myomucosal flaps provide a reliable and tissue-like reconstruction of these regions but their sensitive recovery, which we still know little about, deserves thorough assessment. Read More

    Reconstruction design before tumour resection: A new concept of through-and-through cheek defect reconstruction.
    Oral Oncol 2017 Nov 9;74:123-129. Epub 2017 Oct 9.
    Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410011, China. Electronic address:
    Objective: To explore a new method of reconstruction of through-and-through cheek defects and to evaluate this method's efficacy and patient prognosis.

    Materials And Methods: This retrospective study included 70 patients who underwent reconstruction of through-and-through cheek defects. The surgical approach, design of facial skin incisions, selection and design of flaps, postoperative quality of life and prognosis of patients were recorded and reported. Read More

    Reconstruction of the Three-Dimensional Mandibulofacial Defects Using a Single Cutaneous Perforator-Based Fibula Osteocutaneous Flap.
    Arch Craniofac Surg 2017 Sep 26;18(3):214-217. Epub 2017 Sep 26.
    Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, St. Vincent's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea.
    The reconstruction of the mandibulofacial defects is a difficult task when there are full-thickness cheek defects involving mandible, inner mucosa and outer skin. There are several reconstructive options for the coverage of large defects, but most of the methods are complicated, and time- and effort-consuming. We hereby present a case of fibula osteocutaneous flap based on a single peroneal artery perforator in the reconstruction of a three-dimensional mandibulofacial defects. Read More

    Cervicofacial Flap: Can We Save Patient's Sideburns?
    Arch Craniofac Surg 2017 Sep 26;18(3):172-178. Epub 2017 Sep 26.
    Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju, Korea.
    Background: The conventional cervicofacial flap may cause the aesthetic problem of sideburns with a mismatched shape and arrangement. We developed a modified method with the goals of minimizing the destruction of the shape and arrangement of the sideburns and minimizing complications in comparison with the conventional method.

    Methods: The incision line was designed to descend just in front of the sideburns, without passing through them, and then to ascend with the sideburns posteriorly when a cervicofacial flap is performed, unlike the conventional method. Read More

    Facial Rejuvenation Enhancing Cheek Lift.
    Arch Plast Surg 2017 Nov 26;44(6):559-563. Epub 2017 Oct 26.
    Reconstructive and Plastic Surgery, Clinique Hartmann, Neuilly-sur-Seine, France.
    Supported by recent literature on the signs of aging of the middle and lower face, our clinical research has documented a loss of volume of the deep structural components of the central face and a progressive descent of the nasolabial fat and the jowl fat, leading to facial fragmentation. The signs that appear around the age of 45 to 50 years are well targeted by the mini-invasive technique described here. We focused on refitting the jowl fat and the nasolabial fat associated with cutaneous tightening. Read More

    Anatomy of lower eyelid and eyelid-cheek junction.
    Ann Chir Plast Esthet 2017 Oct 14;62(5):365-374. Epub 2017 Oct 14.
    Department of Medical Education, Albany Medical College, 47 New Scotland avenue MC-135, 12208 Albany, NY, USA.
    Background: Understanding the anatomy of the lower eyelid and the lid-cheek junction is important for surgical and non-surgical approaches. It is important to understand the correlation between the clinical presentation and the individual anatomy to direct an adequate treatment.

    Methods: A review of the literature based on the authors experience combined with anatomical dissections was conducted to reveal the current concepts of the surgical and non-surgical anatomy. Read More

    The Temporal Artery Island Flap: A Good Reconstructive Option for Small to Medium-Sized Facial Defects.
    J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2017 Sep 19. Epub 2017 Sep 19.
    Professor and Department Head, Department of Plastic Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Ataturk University, Erzurum, Turkey.
    Purpose: The reconstruction of facial defects is esthetically vital because of the unique skin color and texture of the face. The aim of this study was to show the utility of different temporal artery island flap designs for the reconstruction of upper and middle facial defects without contrast to the color and texture of the face.

    Materials And Methods: This study is a retrospective case series conducted from November 2004 through May 2015. Read More

    Otology at the Academy of Gondishapur 200-600 CE.
    Otol Neurotol 2017 Dec;38(10):1540-1545
    Departments of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery and Pediatrics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, New York.
    Objective: To investigate the way in which otology was practiced at the Academy of Gondishapur in ancient Persia from 200 to 600 CE.

    Method: The pertinent literature, using German and English translations of Latin, Greek, Arabic, and Sanskrit documents, was identified and reviewed through the indices of available books and through a PDF search for the following topics: auricle, deaf, deafness, dizziness, ear, hearing, medicine, otitis, pinna, punishment-ear, speech, surgery, vertigo, and voice.

    Results: The medical school at the Academy of Gondishapur followed the medical and surgical practices of Greece and Rome and, in the 6th century, incorporated those from India as detailed in the Shutra Samhita. Read More

    Facial Assessment and Injection Guide for Botulinum Toxin and Injectable Hyaluronic Acid Fillers: Focus on the Midface.
    Plast Reconstr Surg 2017 Oct;140(4):540e-550e
    São Paulo, Brazil; Aalst, Belgium; Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; and Dallas, Texas From the Clinica Dr. Maurício de Maio; the Aalst Dermatology Clinic, private practice; and the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center.
    This second article of a three-part series addresses techniques and recommendations for aesthetic treatment of the midface. Injectable fillers are important for rejuvenation of the midface by replacing lost volume and providing structural support; neuromodulators play a smaller role in this facial region. Fillers are used for volumization and contouring of the midface regions, including the upper cheek and lid-cheek junction and the submalar and preauricular areas. Read More

    Bilateral Submental Flap: An Innovative Modification.
    J Craniofac Surg 2017 Nov;28(8):e786-e788
    Maharashtra, India.
    Early management of premalignant lesions like oral submucous fibrosis cannot be underestimated in context of prevention and control of oral malignancies. Soft tissue reconstruction of the oral cavity and face is a complex undertaking. Several flaps local and distant as well as microvascular are available, each with their pros and cons. Read More

    Complex Subunit Repair of a Cheek, Nose, and Medial Canthal Defect: A Stepwise Approach.
    J Craniofac Surg 2017 Nov;28(8):e765-e766
    *Division of Dermatology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine †Division of Dermatology, Montefiore Medical Center ‡Division of Plastic Surgery, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY.
    A recent national survey suggests that up to one-third of facial reconstructive and plastic surgeons do not adhere to the classical principle of subunit reconstruction. While single-stage flaps and grafts may be easier and less time consuming, they can also lead to a poor cosmetic outcome. Here, the authors describe how the authors repaired a complex post-Mohs surgery facial defect involving multiple cosmetic subunits and how adherence to the subunit principle was essential to obtaining the most optimal functional and esthetic outcome. Read More

    Rational and simplified nomenclature for buccinator myomucosal flaps.
    Oral Maxillofac Surg 2017 Dec 21;21(4):453-459. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    Department of Maxillofacial Surgery, Sassari University Hospital, Viale San Pietro 43B, 07100, Sassari, Italy.
    Background: Reconstruction of moderate-sized mucosal defects of the oral cavity or oropharynx represents a surgical challenge. Buccinator myomucosal flaps seem to provide "ideal reconstruction" of oral/oropharyngeal defects because they carry a thin, mobile, well-vascularized, and sensitive tissue, like that excised or lost. Nevertheless, these flaps are not immediately popular because of confusion surrounding the complex terminology used to name them. Read More

    Prosthetic rehabilitation of a geriatric patient with squamous cell carcinoma of the buccal mucosa: A report of clinical challenges.
    Int J Pharm Investig 2017 Apr-Jun;7(2):107-110
    Faculty of Dental Sciences, M. S. Ramaiah University of Applied Sciences, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.
    Objective: This article aims to highlight the rehabilitation of a geriatric patient with an orofacial cheek defect by an extraoral silicone prosthesis.

    Methodology: Structured extra- and intra-oral examination of tissues coupled with a justified choice of impression materials, techniques, and prosthetic rehabilitation with a high-temperature vulcanizing silicone was done.

    Results: The presence of compressible tissues, static appearance of the prosthesis during patient's facial movements, variability in complexion of the skin around the defect, and manipulating heat-vulcanized silicone were the challenges faced during clinical procedures. Read More

    The Versatility of Cheek Rotation Flaps.
    Arch Craniofac Surg 2016 Dec 23;17(4):190-197. Epub 2016 Dec 23.
    Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju, Korea.
    Background: The cheek rotation flap has sufficient blood flow and large flap size and it is also flexible and easy to manipulate. It has been used for reconstruction of defects on cheek, lower eyelid, or medial and lateral canthus. For the large defects on central nose, paramedian forehead flap has been used, but patients were reluctant despite the remaining same skin tone on damaged area because of remaining scars on forehead. Read More

    Dengue shock syndrome with retroperitoneal haematoma requiring repeated artery angioembolization.
    Med J Malaysia 2017 Aug;72(4):254-256
    Selayang Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine, Malaysia.
    Eyelid reconstruction is complex and challenging since it is not only for structural and functional restoration, but also for an acceptable aesthetic result. In full thickness eyelid injuries, it will involve both anterior and posterior lamella. Therefore, when reconstructing the defect, it requires at least two layers; one will be a flap with blood supply, and the other can be a free graft. Read More

    The Cervicofacial Flap in Cheek Reconstruction: A Guide for Flap Design.
    J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2017 Dec 12;75(12):2708.e1-2708.e6. Epub 2017 Aug 12.
    Chief, Division of Head and Neck Surgery, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Florida Health, Jacksonville, FL. Electronic address:
    Purpose: The cervicofacial (CF) flap is a random-pattern flap that provides an excellent match for cheek reconstruction. The design of the CF flap varies between different cheek subunits. In this report, the authors review their experience with this flap and present a guide for flap design for different cheek subunits. Read More

    Incarceration of the inferior oblique muscle branch of the oculomotor nerve in patients with orbital floor trapdoor fracture.
    Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2017 Oct 29;255(10):2059-2065. Epub 2017 Aug 29.
    Department of Oculoplastic, Orbital, and Lacrimal Surgery, Aichi Medical University Hospital, 1-1 Yazako-Karimata, Nagakute, Aichi, 480-1195, Japan.
    Purpose: To examine the clinical characteristics of patients with concomitant incarceration of the inferior oblique muscle branch of the oculomotor nerve who had suffered from an orbital floor trapdoor fracture with orbital fat incarceration.

    Methods: Fifty-nine patients were retrospectively reviewed. Concomitant inferior oblique muscle branch incarceration was diagnosed by inferior oblique muscle underaction on the Hess chart and a missing inferior oblique muscle branch on computed tomographic images on baseline examination. Read More

    Reconstruction of midface defects with the osteocutaneous radial forearm flap: Evaluation of long term outcomes including patient reported quality of life.
    Microsurgery 2017 Oct 26;37(7):752-762. Epub 2017 Aug 26.
    Department of Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery, Stanford University, Stanford, California.
    Background: Maxillectomy defects significantly impair quality of life. Prosthetics can overcome some of these issues, but has limitations. The role of the osteocutaneous radial forearm free flap (OC-RFFF) has been established for reconstruction of smaller maxillectomy defects, but its role in larger defects is not well defined. Read More

    Reconstruction of full-thickness buccal defects with folded radial forearm flaps: A retrospective clinical study.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2017 Aug;96(32):e7344
    aDepartment of Stomatology, the First Affiliated Hospital of zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou bDepartment of Stomatology, School of Stomatology, Xinxiang Medical Collage, Xinxiang cDepartment of Stomatology, Nanyang Stomatology Hospital, Nanyang dDepartment of Gastroenterology, the First Affiliated Hospital of zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, PR China.
    Our goal was to describe our experience of the folded radial forearm flap (RFF) flap in through-and-through buccal defect reconstructions.Patients who had received a folded RFF flap for full-thickness cheek defect reconstruction were included. The flap success rate and functional results were evaluated. Read More

    Free-flap surgical correction of facial deformity after anteromedial maxillectomy.
    J Craniomaxillofac Surg 2017 Sep 6;45(9):1573-1577. Epub 2017 Jul 6.
    Department of Plastic Surgery (Head: Prof. Kotaro Yoshimura, M.D.), Jichi Medical University, 3311-1 Yakushiji, Shimotsuke, Tochigi, 329-0498, Japan.
    Anteromedial maxillectomy is typically performed in conjunction with low-dose radiotherapy and intraarterial chemotherapy. In doing so, the extent of surgical defects is reduced. However, nasal deviation and oral incompetence may ensue, due to cicatricial contracture of wounds, and may be distressing to these patients. Read More

    Pedicled buccal fat pad for the augmentation of facial depression deformity: A case report.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2017 Jul;96(30):e7599
    aDepartment of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Okayama Rosai Hospital bDepartment of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Iwate Medical University, Iwate cDepartment of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama, Japan.
    Rationale: Tissue augmentation of facial depression deformities can be achieved by volume replacement with autologous fat injection, dermal filler injection, etc. Here, we report a case of tissue augmentation of a facial depression deformity using a pedicled buccal fat pad (BFP).

    Patient Concerns: A 64-year-old woman was referred with a chief complaint of facial depression deformity. Read More

    Lower eyelid reconstruction following a traumatic full thickness loss.
    Med J Malaysia 2017 Jun;72(3):199-201
    Universiti Sains Malaysia, School of Medical Sciences, Reconstructive Science Unit, Health Campus, Kubang Kerian, Malaysia.
    Eyelid reconstruction is complex and challenging since it is not only for structural and functional restoration, but also for an acceptable aesthetic result. In full thickness eyelid injuries, it will involve both anterior and posterior lamella. Therefore, when reconstructing the defect, it requires at least two layers; one will be a flap with blood supply, and the other can be a free graft. Read More

    A Novel Technique for Reduction Malarplasty by Inward Displacement of Infractured Zygomatic Arch Without Fixation.
    J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2017 Dec 24;75(12):2658-2666. Epub 2017 Jun 24.
    Professor, Department of Plastic Surgery, Minhang Shanghai Hospital, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:
    Purpose: Reduction malarplasty is one of the most common esthetic surgical procedures performed in the Asian population. Traditional procedures have several complications, such as bone nonunion, malunion, cheek drooping, and damage to the infraorbital nerve and maxillary sinus. Therefore, a more straightforward and effective method of reducing the width of the midface is needed. Read More

    Midface rejuvenation surgery combining preperiosteal midcheek lift, lower blepharoplasty with orbital fat preservation and autologous fat grafting.
    J Stomatol Oral Maxillofac Surg 2017 Oct 3;118(5):283-288. Epub 2017 Jul 3.
    Department of Plastic, Reconstructive and Maxillo-facial Surgery, Henri-Mondor Hospital, 51, avenue du Maréchal-de-Lattre-de-Tassigny, 94010 Créteil, France.
    Objective: The aim of this study was to describe a technique for midface rejuvenation combining lower blepharoplasty, midcheek lift and autologous fat transfer.

    Methods: All patients who underwent a midface rejuvenation procedure performed by the same surgeon and using a classic subciliary blepharoplasty surgical approach were identified. The technique combined three distinct procedures: lower blepharoplasty with use of a transposition flap of orbital adipose tissue in the medial and central compartment to reduce the subpalpebral bags and attenuate the palpebrojugual sulcus; midcheek lift in the preperiosteal plane with trans-osseous fixation exerting traction on the soft tissues of the cheek along several vectors; autologous fat transfer to offset the loss of volume in the target area. Read More

    Reconstruction of Cheek Defects Secondary to Mohs Microsurgery or Wide Local Excision.
    Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am 2017 Aug;25(3):443-461
    Division of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Michigan Medical Center, 1500 East Medical Center Drive SPC 5312, 1904 Taubman Center, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-5312, USA. Electronic address:
    Successful reconstruction of the cheek following excision for cutaneous malignancy requires careful consideration of defect location, size, and depth in relation to the anatomic properties of the affected cheek unit. Various reconstructive options are available to the surgeon, ranging from simple excisions to complex cervicofacial advancements to meet the needs for functional and aesthetically pleasing reconstructive outcomes. The surgeon must prevent distortion of mobile structures, such as the eyelid, nose, and lips; respect aesthetic subunits; and avoid blunting natural creases. Read More

    Reconstruction Techniques of Choice for the Facial Cosmetic Units.
    Actas Dermosifiliogr 2017 Oct 27;108(8):729-737. Epub 2017 Jun 27.
    Servicio de Dermatología, Hospital Infanta Sofía, San Sebastián de los Reyes, Madrid, España.
    Background And Objectives: A broad range of skin flaps can be used to repair facial surgical defects after the excision of a tumor. The aim of our study was to develop a practical guideline covering the most useful skin grafts for each of the distinct facial cosmetic units.

    Material And Methods: This was a multicenter study in which 10 dermatologists with extensive experience in reconstructive surgery chose their preferred technique for each cosmetic unit. Read More

    Predictors of Autologous Free Fat Graft Retention in the Management of Craniofacial Contour Deformities.
    Plast Reconstr Surg 2017 Jul;140(1):50e-61e
    Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil From the Institute of Plastic and Craniofacial Surgery, SOBRAPAR Hospital.
    Background: Autologous free fat graft outcomes are not always predictable, and variables that can potentially influence fat graft retention are still not well understood or investigated. The purposes of this study were to assess fat graft retention in the management of craniofacial contour deformities and to identify possible predictive factors of this retention.

    Methods: A prospective analysis was conducted using consecutive patients with unilateral craniofacial contour deformities who underwent autologous free fat grafting between 2012 and 2015. Read More

    [Results of urethral reconstruction in adults after multiple hypospadias repairs].
    Urologiia 2017 Jun(2):82-87
    Department of Andrology and Urology, V.I. Kulakov Research Center for Obstetrics, Gynecology and Perinatology of Minzdrav of Russia, Moscow, Russia.
    Aim: To improve treatment results in patients after multiple hypospadias repairs by optimizing the postoperative management.

    Materials And Methods: Eighty-two patients (mean age 48.1+/-15. Read More

    Single stage aesthetic and functional reconstruction of composite facial gunshot wound with a chimeric functioning muscle and fibular osseous flap. Case report and review of the literature.
    Microsurgery 2017 Sep 23;37(6):674-679. Epub 2017 May 23.
    Department of Plastic Surgery, Microsurgery and Burn Center "J. Ioannovich", Athens General State Hospital "G. Gennimatas", Athens, Greece.
    The current concepts in the aesthetic and functional reconstruction of complex oromandibular defects are presented with a case of a patient with self-inflicted gunshot wound to the face. The patient presented with a 6 cm composite mandibular defect; the buccomandibular and suborbital aesthetic zones of the cheek along with the mucosa lining, and the ipsilateral facial musculature were missing. A rapid prototyping model of the facial skeleton was used to assist in preoperative planning. Read More

    The Six-Step Lower Blepharoplasty: Using Fractionated Fat to Enhance Blending of the Lid-Cheek Junction.
    Plast Reconstr Surg 2017 Jun;139(6):1381-1383
    Dallas, Texas From the Department of Plastic Surgery, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center; and the Dallas Plastic Surgery Institute.
    Lower lid blepharoplasty is one of the most complex procedures performed by plastic surgeons and may cause significant long-term sequelae, including inadequate aesthetic outcomes if not performed with a thorough understanding of anatomy and proper technique. The authors' practice is consistently evolving to deliver the highest quality results for their patients. The purpose of this article is to introduce an additional sixth step to the lower lid blepharoplasty procedure involving the targeted injection of fractionated fat to better blend the lid-cheek junction. Read More

    Buccal Fat Pad Augmentation for Facial Rejuvenation.
    Plast Reconstr Surg 2017 Jun;139(6):1273e-1276e
    San Diego, Calif. From the Division of Plastic Surgery, University of California, San Diego; and FACES+ Plastic Surgery, Dermatology, Skin and Laser Center.
    The buccal space, with its fat pad, is a valuable, overlooked target in facial rejuvenation procedures. The authors identified a specific group of patients who have normal or prominent malar projection in the presence of atrophy of the buccal fat pad, with or without prominent gonial angles. Eight of 24 prospectively studied patients (Biomedical Research Institute of America) who had fat grafts and face lifts received an average of 2. Read More

    The Anatomy of the Facial Vein: Implications for Plastic, Reconstructive, and Aesthetic Procedures.
    Plast Reconstr Surg 2017 Jun;139(6):1346-1353
    Roseau, Commonwealth of Dominica; Salzburg, Austria; Leipzig and Munich, Germany; Sacramento, Calif.; and Albany and New York, N.Y. From the Department of Anatomy, Ross University School of Medicine; the Institute of Anatomy and the Departments of Radiology and Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg & Nuremberg; the Institute of Anatomy, University of Leipzig, Faculty of Medicine; Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, University of California Davis Medical Center; Division of Plastic Surgery, Albany Medical Center; the Department of Hand, Plastic, and Aesthetic Surgery, Ludwig-Maximilians University; and private practice.
    Background: Anatomical knowledge of the facial vasculature is crucial for successful plastic, reconstructive, and minimally invasive procedures of the face. Whereas the majority of previous investigations focused on facial arteries, the precise course, variability, and relationship with adjacent structures of the facial vein have been widely neglected.

    Methods: Seventy-two fresh frozen human cephalic cadavers (32 male and 40 female cadavers; mean age, 75. Read More

    Reconstructing Discontinuous Facial Defects with Simultaneous Ulnar Perforator Free Flaps.
    Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open 2017 Apr 7;5(4):e1291. Epub 2017 Apr 7.
    Department of Otolaryngology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colo.; and Division of Plastic Surgery, Departments of Surgery and Otolaryngology, Children's Hospital Colorado and University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colo.
    Multiple, simultaneous skin cancers of the face are common. This is the first description of reconstructing discontinuous facial defects (i.e. Read More

    Use of Buccinator Myomucosal Flap in Tongue Reconstruction.
    J Craniofac Surg 2017 Jun;28(4):1084-1087
    *Department of Maxillofacial Surgery, Azienda Ospedaliera San Paolo †Department of Maxillofacial Surgery, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Grande Ospedale Maggiore, Milan, Italy.
    The myomucosal buccinator flap, first described by Bozola in 1989, has become an important tool for intraoral defects reconstruction. In the literature, there is a variety of proposed myomucosal cheek flaps, both pedicled and island, based on the buccal or the facial arteries. From January 2007 to December 2011, the authors used a pedicled buccinator flap based posteriorly on the buccal artery to reconstruct partial lingual defects following tumor resection in 27 patients. Read More

    Elongated Dorsal Nasal Flap to Reconstruct Large Defects of the Nose.
    Dermatol Surg 2017 Aug;43(8):1036-1041
    *All authors are affiliated with the Department of Dermatology, University Clinic of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain.
    Background: The typical reconstructive option for closing large-sized defects of the distal half of the nose is the paramedian forehead flap. Other alternatives are a melolabial interpolation flap and bilobed or trilobed flaps. The dorsal nasal (Rieger) flap is suitable for closing small-sized defects at this location, especially when they are medially located. Read More

    Single-Staged Tunneled Cheek Interpolation Flap With Cartilage Batten Graft for Repair of Nasal Ala Defect.
    J Drugs Dermatol 2017 Mar;16(3):288-290

    Surgical defects located within 5 mm of the nasal alar margin are at risk for alar elevation or collapse of the external nasal valve during wound healing. To reduce the chance of such complications, free cartilage grafts may be used as part of the reconstruction. However, if the defect is large enough so that the free cartilage graft does not fill most of the defect, wound contraction can still lead to alar displacement. Read More

    Crossed pectoralis major myocutaneous flap for recurrent oral cavity cancers.
    Ann Maxillofac Surg 2016 Jul-Dec;6(2):219-222
    Department of Surgical Oncology, Sri Aurobindo Medical College and Post Graduate Institute, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India.
    Background: Oral cavity cancers are fairly common and have propensity to recur locally. Since Pectoralis Major Myocutaneous (PMMC) flap is the most widely used first flap for reconstruction, it is exhausted at the earliest and recurrence poses a formidable challenge for reconstructive surgeon. Present study evaluated the feasibility of contralateral Pectoralis Major Myocutaneous Flap for reconstruction after resection of recurrent tumour. Read More

    Simultaneous vascularized bony reconstruction of the maxilla and mandible using a single fibula: A case report.
    Microsurgery 2017 Mar 13;37(3):243-247. Epub 2017 Mar 13.
    Department of Plastic Surgery, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, USA.
    Simultaneous maxillary and mandibular reconstruction is exceedingly rare. These are complicated cases, requiring consideration of multiple variables: defect components, donor site morbidity, recipient vessels, and so forth. We describe a unique case of secondary maxillary/mandibular reconstruction in a 59-year-old male. Read More

    A Novel Reconstructive Procedure for the Divided Nevus of the Eyelids Using a Tissue Expander.
    Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open 2016 Dec 13;4(12):e1160. Epub 2016 Dec 13.
    Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Fukuoka Sanno Hospital, Fukuoka, Japan; and Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, International University of Health and Welfare Hospital, Tochigi, Japan.
    Expanded local flaps and skin grafts (expanded/nonexpanded) are a common approach for reconstructing medium (1.5-20 cm) and large (>20 cm) divided nevi of the eyelids. However, this approach does not often provide a satisfactory cosmetic result, particularly in Asian patients, because of different skin types. Read More

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