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    1 OF 25

    Gonorrhoea in Greenland, incidence and previous preventive measures: a review to improve future strategies.
    Int J Circumpolar Health 2017 ;76(1):1350092
    a Queen Ingrid Health Care Center , Nuuk , Greenland.
    Gonorrhoea continues to be a significant health challenge in Greenland. The aim of this study was to describe the development of gonorrhoea in Greenland through time including incidence rates and previous measures taken to address the challenge. A systematic literature search in PubMed, Embase and The Cochrane Library was conducted. Read More

    Haemophilus ducreyi DNA is detectable on the skin of asymptomatic children, flies and fomites in villages of Papua New Guinea.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 May 10;11(5):e0004958. Epub 2017 May 10.
    Lihir Medical Centre- International SOS, Newcrest Mining, Lihir Island, Papua New Guinea.
    Background: Haemophilus ducreyi and Treponema pallidum subsp. pertenue are major causes of leg ulcers in children in Africa and the Pacific Region. We investigated the presence of DNA (PCR positivity) from these bacteria on asymptomatic people, flies, and household linens in an endemic setting. Read More

    Pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia causing a painful plaque in a HIV-infected female.
    Int J STD AIDS 2017 Jun 20;28(7):723-725. Epub 2016 Oct 20.
    1 Pacific Clinic Newcastle, HNE Sexual Health, Newcastle, NSW, Australia.
    Dermatological conditions are more common and can present atypically, in human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals. This case report describes a 22-year-old human immunodeficiency virus-positive Caucasian female who presented with a vulval lesion eight weeks after starting antiretroviral treatment. Clinical examination revealed a 2 cm well-demarcated plaque on the outer aspect of the left labium minus. Read More

    Skin diseases of the vulva: Infectious diseases.
    J Obstet Gynaecol 2017 Oct 11;37(7):840-848. Epub 2017 Apr 11.
    a Department of Dermatology , Bispebjerg Hospital , Copenhagen , Denmark.
    A multitude of infectious diseases of viral (genital herpes, herpes zoster, genital warts and molluscum contagiosum), bacterial (syphilis, chancroid, lymphogranuloma venereum, donovanosis, erysipelas, cellulitis and necrotising fasciitis, folliculitis, impetigo, bartholin gland abscess, trichomycosis and erythrasma), fungal (candidiasis and dermatophytosis) and parasitic (pediculosis pubis) origin may affect the vulvar area. Herein, we review the infections and their skin manifestations in the vulvar area. Read More

    2017 European guideline for the management of chancroid.
    Int J STD AIDS 2017 Mar 12;28(4):324-329. Epub 2017 Jan 12.
    5 Section of STI, Olafia Clinic, Oslo University Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Chancroid is a sexually acquired infection caused by Haemophilus ducreyi. The infection is characterized by one or more genital ulcers, which are soft and painful, and regional lymphadenitis, which may develop into buboes. The infection may easily be misidentified due to its rare occurrence in Europe and difficulties in detecting the causative pathogen. Read More

    Haemophilus ducreyi Cutaneous Ulcer Strains Diverged from Both Class I and Class II Genital Ulcer Strains: Implications for Epidemiological Studies.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2016 Dec 27;10(12):e0005259. Epub 2016 Dec 27.
    Departments of Microbiology and Immunology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, United States of America.
    Background: Haemophilus ducreyi has emerged as a major cause of cutaneous ulcers (CU) in yaws-endemic regions of the tropics in the South Pacific, South East Asia and Africa. H. ducreyi was once thought only to cause the genital ulcer (GU) disease chancroid; GU strains belong to 2 distinct classes, class I and class II. Read More

    Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Hospitalized Patients With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) in Zahedan, Southeastern Iran.
    Int J High Risk Behav Addict 2016 Sep 2;5(3):e28028. Epub 2016 Jul 2.
    Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran.
    Background: Studies show that nearly 40 million people are living with human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) around the world and since the beginning of the epidemic, about 35 million have died from AIDS. Heterosexual intercourse is the most common route for transmission of HIV infection (85%). People with a sexually transmitted infection (STI), such as syphilis, genital herpes, chancroid, or bacterial vaginosis, are more likely to obtain HIV infection during sex. Read More

    Sexually transmitted infections case notification rates in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 2005-2012.
    J Infect Dev Ctries 2016 Aug 31;10(8):884-7. Epub 2016 Aug 31.
    College of Medicine, Alfaisal University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    Introduction: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are major public health concerns around the world. This study describes the epidemiology of reported STI cases from 2005 to 2012 in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    Methodology: The annual registry was the main source of data as reported by healthcare providers. Read More

    Complete Genome Sequences of 11 Haemophilus ducreyi Isolates from Children with Cutaneous Lesions in Vanuatu and Ghana.
    Genome Announc 2016 Jul 7;4(4). Epub 2016 Jul 7.
    Laboratory Reference and Research Branch, Division of Sexually Transmitted Diseases Prevention, NCHHSTP, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
    Haemophilus ducreyi causes chancroid and has recently been shown to be a significant cause of cutaneous lesions in tropical or subtropical regions where yaws is endemic. Here, we report the draft genome assemblies for 11 cutaneous strains of Haemophilus ducreyi, isolated from children in Vanuatu and Ghana. Read More

    Prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Infection in Teenage Pregnancy in Rajavithi Hospital, Thailand.
    J Med Assoc Thai 2016 Feb;99 Suppl 2:S153-60
    Background: Behavioral and social changes in the modern era have triggered an increase in the incidence of early sexual contact and teenage pregnancy. Since there is no routine Gonococcal & Chlamydial (GC & CT) screening in teens in antenatal clinics in Thailand, the present study was performed to find the prevalence of STI, especially Chlamydial infection, in teenage pregnancy.

    Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), especially Chlamydial infection (CT), in teenage pregnancy and its related factors. Read More

    Host Polymorphisms in TLR9 and IL10 Are Associated With the Outcomes of Experimental Haemophilus ducreyi Infection in Human Volunteers.
    J Infect Dis 2016 Aug 27;214(3):489-95. Epub 2016 Apr 27.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology Departments of Medicine Pathology and Laboratory Medicine Center for Immunobiology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indiana University, Indianapolis.
    Background: In humans inoculated with Haemophilus ducreyi, there are host effects on the possible clinical outcomes-pustule formation versus spontaneous resolution of infection. However, the immunogenetic factors that influence these outcomes are unknown. Here we examined the role of 14 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 7 selected pathogen-recognition pathways and cytokine genes on the gradated outcomes of experimental infection. Read More

    Haemophilus ducreyi Seeks Alternative Carbon Sources and Adapts to Nutrient Stress and Anaerobiosis during Experimental Infection of Human Volunteers.
    Infect Immun 2016 May 22;84(5):1514-25. Epub 2016 Apr 22.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA Department of Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA Center for Immunobiology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA
    Haemophilus ducreyi causes the sexually transmitted disease chancroid in adults and cutaneous ulcers in children. In humans, H. ducreyi resides in an abscess and must adapt to a variety of stresses. Read More

    Medical Examination of Aliens--Revisions to Medical Screening Process. Final rule.
    • Authors:
    Fed Regist 2016 Jan;81(16):4191-206
    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), within the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), is issuing this final rule (FR) to amend its regulations governing medical examinations that aliens must undergo before they may be admitted to the United States. Based on public comment received, HHS/CDC did not make changes from the NPRM published on June 23, 2015. Accordingly, this FR will: Revise the definition of communicable disease of public health significance by removing chancroid, granuloma inguinale, and lymphogranuloma venereum as inadmissible health-related conditions for aliens seeking admission to the United States; update the notification of the health-related grounds of inadmissibility to include proof of vaccinations to align with existing requirements established by the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA); revise the definitions and evaluation criteria for mental disorders, drug abuse and drug addiction; clarify and revise the evaluation requirements for tuberculosis; clarify and revise the process for the HHS/CDC-appointed medical review board that convenes to reexamine the determination of a Class A medical condition based on an appeal; and update the titles and designations of federal agencies within the text of the regulation. Read More

    Travel-related sexually transmitted infections.
    Int Marit Health 2015 ;66(4):238-46
    Head of Department of Epidemiology and Tropical Medicine, Military Institute of Medicine, Warsaw, Poland.
    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are among the most common notifiable health problems worldwide, with particularly high rates in developing countries. Men and women with multiple sexual partners at home or a previous history of STIs are more likely to have casual sexual exposure (CSE) while travelling. Over the last several decades 5% to even 50% of short-term travellers engaged in CSE during foreign trips. Read More

    Epidemiology of Haemophilus ducreyi Infections.
    Emerg Infect Dis 2016 Jan;22(1):1-8
    The global epidemiology of Haemophilus ducreyi infections is poorly documented because of difficulties in confirming microbiological diagnoses. We evaluated published data on the proportion of genital and nongenital skin ulcers caused by H. ducreyi before and after introduction of syndromic management for genital ulcer disease (GUD). Read More

    Haemophilus ducreyi: from sexually transmitted infection to skin ulcer pathogen.
    Curr Opin Infect Dis 2016 Feb;29(1):52-7
    aCentre for Infectious Diseases and Microbiology bMarie Bashir Institute for Infectious Diseases and Biosecurity, Westmead Clinical School, University of Sydney, Sydney cWestern Sydney Sexual Health Centre, Parramatta, New South Wales, Australia dBarcelona Centre for International Health Research, Hospital Clínic, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Purpose Of Review: This article provides an overview of the biology, epidemiology, clinical features, diagnostic tests, and treatment of Haemophilus ducreyi infection, with special reference to the decline of chancroid and the recent emergence of H. ducreyi as a pathogen responsible for chronic limb ulceration clinically similar to yaws.

    Recent Findings: Chancroid has declined in importance as a sexually transmitted infection in most countries where it was previously endemic. Read More

    A case of syphilitic anal condylomata lata mimicking malignancy.
    Int J Surg Case Rep 2015 4;17:69-71. Epub 2015 Nov 4.
    Department of Colorectal surgery, University Hospital of North Tees, Hardwick, Stockton on Tees, TS19 8PE, UK. Electronic address:
    Introduction: Condylata lata in secondary syphilis is well known presentation and needs to be considered in differential diagnosis of perianal lesions. In England between 2013 and 2014 the overall incidence of infectious syphilis increased by 33% and is mainly seen in men who have sex with men.

    Presentation Of Case: We report the management of a 49-years-old Caucasian homosexual man with perianal lesions that were suspicious of malignancy. Read More

    Sexually Transmitted Infections.
    Urol Clin North Am 2015 Nov;42(4):507-18
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, 645 North Michigan Avenue, Suite 900, Chicago, IL 60611, USA. Electronic address:
    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) remain a significant burden on public health in the United States. Primary prevention counseling with early diagnosis and treatment remain the best methods to decrease the incidence of STIs. Through significant public heath interventions, the incidence of gonorrhea, Chlamydia, and trichomoniasis is decreasing; however, the incidence of primary and secondary syphilis is increasing. Read More

    Pattern of sexually transmitted infections in a Muslim majority region of North India.
    Indian J Sex Transm Dis 2015 Jan-Jun;36(1):30-4
    Department of Dermatology, Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Leprosy, Government Medical College, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India.
    Background: Changing trends of sexually transmitted infections (STI) and HIV/AIDS has been noted in the literature over years, depending to some extent on the geographical and cultural factors of the region. In Kashmir Valley also, the pattern of STI may be different from the rest of the country.

    Aims Of The Study: The aim was to present the experience with patterns of STI in Kashmir. Read More

    First case of chancroid in 14 years at the largest STI clinic in Paris, France.
    Int J STD AIDS 2016 Aug 16;27(9):805-7. Epub 2015 Sep 16.
    Dermatology Department, STD Clinic, APHP-Hospital Saint Louis, Paris, France.
    We report the first case of chancroid seen at our clinic in 14 years. It was diagnosed by nuclear acid amplification test in a male patient returning from Madagascar. Although the disease is considered on the verge of disappearance even in tropical countries, its real potential for reemergence - due to new strains of Haemophilus ducreyi, underreporting and a lack of widespread use of molecular testing - could be underestimated. Read More

    Haemophilus ducreyi Cutaneous Ulcer Strains Are Nearly Identical to Class I Genital Ulcer Strains.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2015 6;9(7):e0003918. Epub 2015 Jul 6.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, United States of America; Department of Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, United States of America; Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, United States of America; The Center for Immunobiology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, United States of America.
    Background: Although cutaneous ulcers (CU) in the tropics is frequently attributed to Treponema pallidum subspecies pertenue, the causative agent of yaws, Haemophilus ducreyi has emerged as a major cause of CU in yaws-endemic regions of the South Pacific islands and Africa. H. ducreyi is generally susceptible to macrolides, but CU strains persist after mass drug administration of azithromycin for yaws or trachoma. Read More

    Male Circumcision and STI Acquisition in Britain: Evidence from a National Probability Sample Survey.
    PLoS One 2015 17;10(6):e0130396. Epub 2015 Jun 17.
    Research Department of Infection and Population Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Background: It is well-established that male circumcision reduces acquisition of HIV, herpes simplex virus 2, chancroid, and syphilis. However, the effect on the acquisition of non-ulcerative sexually transmitted infections (STIs) remains unclear. We examined the relationship between circumcision and biological measures of three STIs: human papillomavirus (HPV), Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma genitalium. Read More

    DksA and (p)ppGpp have unique and overlapping contributions to Haemophilus ducreyi pathogenesis in humans.
    Infect Immun 2015 Aug 8;83(8):3281-92. Epub 2015 Jun 8.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indiana University, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indiana University, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA Department of Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indiana University, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA Center for Immunobiology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indiana University, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA
    The (p)ppGpp-mediated stringent response is important for bacterial survival in nutrient limiting conditions. For maximal effect, (p)ppGpp interacts with the cofactor DksA, which stabilizes (p)ppGpp's interaction with RNA polymerase. We previously demonstrated that (p)ppGpp was required for the virulence of Haemophilus ducreyi in humans. Read More

    Penile carcinoma presenting as inguinal bubo, masquerading as a venereal disease.
    Int J STD AIDS 2016 Mar 20;27(4):323-5. Epub 2015 May 20.
    Department of Dermatology and Venereology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
    We report a case of penile carcinoma presenting as an inguinal bubo in a young man. The associated painful genital ulcer and history of high-risk sexual behaviour raised a strong suspicion of a sexually transmitted infection. We review the literature for similar cases, highlight the similarities with venereal disease and discuss the differential diagnosis of inguinal bubo. Read More

    Phosphoethanolamine Transferase LptA in Haemophilus ducreyi Modifies Lipid A and Contributes to Human Defensin Resistance In Vitro.
    PLoS One 2015 22;10(4):e0124373. Epub 2015 Apr 22.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, United States of America.
    Haemophilus ducreyi resists the cytotoxic effects of human antimicrobial peptides (APs), including α-defensins, β-defensins, and the cathelicidin LL-37. Resistance to LL-37, mediated by the sensitive to antimicrobial peptide (Sap) transporter, is required for H. ducreyi virulence in humans. Read More

    Defining Potential Vaccine Targets of Haemophilus ducreyi Trimeric Autotransporter Adhesin DsrA.
    Monoclon Antib Immunodiagn Immunother 2015 Apr;34(2):73-82
    1 Department of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill , North Carolina.
    Haemophilus ducreyi is the causative agent of the sexually transmitted genital ulcer disease chancroid. Strains of H. ducreyi are grouped in two classes (I and II) based on genotypic and phenotypic differences, including those found in DsrA, an outer membrane protein belonging to the family of multifunctional trimeric autotransporter adhesins. Read More

    Molecular phylogenetic analysis of non-sexually transmitted strains of Haemophilus ducreyi.
    PLoS One 2015 16;10(3):e0118613. Epub 2015 Mar 16.
    Department of Biology, Allegheny College, Meadville, Pennsylvania, United States of America.
    Haemophilus ducreyi, the etiologic agent of chancroid, has been previously reported to show genetic variance in several key virulence factors, placing strains of the bacterium into two genetically distinct classes. Recent studies done in yaws-endemic areas of the South Pacific have shown that H. ducreyi is also a major cause of cutaneous limb ulcers (CLU) that are not sexually transmitted. Read More

    Mass treatment with single-dose azithromycin for yaws.
    N Engl J Med 2015 Feb;372(8):703-10
    From Lihir Medical Center, International SOS, Newcrest Mining, Lihir Island (O.M., P.M., A.K., R.P.), the Disease Control Branch, National Department of Health, Port Moresby (W.H., S.V.B.), and the Papua New Guinea Institute of Medical Research, Goroka, Eastern Highland Province (P.S.) - all in Papua New Guinea; Barcelona Institute for Global Health, Barcelona Center for International Health Research, Hospital Clinic, University of Barcelona, Barcelona (O.M., S.S., P.L.A., Q.B.); the College of Public Health, Medical and Veterinary Sciences, James Cook University, Cairns, QLD (R.H.), and the Centre for Social Responsibility in Mining, Sustainable Minerals Institute, University of Queensland, Brisbane (T.G.) - both in Australia; the Departments of Medicine (S.L., C.G.) and Global Health (S.L.), University of Washington, Seattle; the Department of Clinical Research, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London (D.M.); and the Department of Control of Neglected Tropical Diseases, World Health Organization, Geneva (K.A.).
    Background: Mass treatment with azithromycin is a central component of the new World Health Organization (WHO) strategy to eradicate yaws. Empirical data on the effectiveness of the strategy are required as a prerequisite for worldwide implementation of the plan.

    Methods: We performed repeated clinical surveys for active yaws, serologic surveys for latent yaws, and molecular analyses to determine the cause of skin ulcers and identify macrolide-resistant mutations before and 6 and 12 months after mass treatment with azithromycin on a Papua New Guinean island on which yaws was endemic. Read More

    Pattern of sexually transmitted diseases in patients presenting at Ayub teaching hospital, Abbottabad.
    J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 2014 Oct-Dec;26(4):582-3
    Background: Sexually transmitted diseases are present in all societies across the globe. Different cultures and societies show a different spectrum of these diseases. The last study conducted in Hazara division was back in 1995. Read More

    [Male circumcision from an infectiological point of view].
    Hautarzt 2015 Jan;66(1):30-7
    Klinik für Dermatologie, Venerologie und Allergologie, Universitätsklinikum, Goethe-Universität, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590, Frankfurt/M., Deutschland,
    Background: In May 2012 a German regional court (Cologne) declared circumcision on religious grounds in minor boys an illegitimate bodily harm. This led to substantial political and religious discussions, because Jews as well as Muslims consider circumcision as an indispensable element of their religion. Still in 2012 a "circumcision law" was passed by the Federal Council of Germany, which continues to allow circumcision in boys "performed under strict medical conditions". Read More

    Haemophilus ducreyi associated with skin ulcers among children, Solomon Islands.
    Emerg Infect Dis 2014 Oct;20(10):1705-7
    During a survey of yaws prevalence in the Solomon Islands, we collected samples from skin ulcers of 41 children. Using PCR, we identified Haemophilus ducreyi infection in 13 (32%) children. PCR-positive and PCR-negative ulcers were phenotypically indistinguishable. Read More

    Virtual screening of phytochemicals to novel targets in Haemophilus ducreyi towards the treatment of Chancroid.
    Bioinformation 2014 30;10(8):502-6. Epub 2014 Aug 30.
    G.B. Pant Engineering College, Ghurdauri, Pauri Garhwal, Uttarakhand, India.
    Conventionally, drugs are discovered by testing chemically synthesized compounds against a battery of in vivo biological screens. Information technology and Omic science enabled us for high throughput screening of compound libraries against biological targets and hits are then tested for efficacy in cells or animals. Chancroid, caused by Haemophilus ducreyi is a public health problem and has been recognized as a cofactor for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) transmission. Read More

    Haemophilus ducreyi RpoE and CpxRA appear to play distinct yet complementary roles in regulation of envelope-related functions.
    J Bacteriol 2014 Dec 8;196(23):4012-25. Epub 2014 Sep 8.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA Department of Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA Center for Immunobiology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA
    Haemophilus ducreyi causes the sexually transmitted disease chancroid and a chronic limb ulceration syndrome in children. In humans, H. ducreyi is found in an abscess and overcomes a hostile environment to establish infection. Read More

    Haemophilus ducreyi as a cause of skin ulcers in children from a yaws-endemic area of Papua New Guinea: a prospective cohort study.
    Lancet Glob Health 2014 Apr 27;2(4):e235-41. Epub 2014 Mar 27.
    Barcelona Centre for International Health Research, Hospital Clinic, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Background: Skin infections with ulceration are a major health problem in countries of the south Pacific region. Yaws, caused by Treponema pallidum subspecies pertenue and diagnosed by the presence of skin ulcers and a reactive syphilis serology, is one major cause, but this infection can be confused clinically with ulcers due to other causative agents. We investigated T pallidum pertenue and another bacterium known to cause skin infections in the Pacific islands-Haemophilus ducreyi-as causes of skin ulceration in a yaws-endemic region. Read More

    Cytolethal distending toxins require components of the ER-associated degradation pathway for host cell entry.
    PLoS Pathog 2014 Jul 31;10(7):e1004295. Epub 2014 Jul 31.
    Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Molecular Genetics, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, United States of America; California NanoSystems Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, United States of America.
    Intracellular acting protein exotoxins produced by bacteria and plants are important molecular determinants that drive numerous human diseases. A subset of these toxins, the cytolethal distending toxins (CDTs), are encoded by several Gram-negative pathogens and have been proposed to enhance virulence by allowing evasion of the immune system. CDTs are trafficked in a retrograde manner from the cell surface through the Golgi apparatus and into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) before ultimately reaching the host cell nucleus. Read More

    Sexual transmission of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1.
    Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 2014 May-Jun;47(3):265-74
    Laboratório de Investigação em Dermatologia e Imunodeficiência, Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.
    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is endemic in many parts of the world and is primarily transmitted through sexual intercourse or from mother to child. Sexual transmission occurs more efficiently from men to women than women to men and might be enhanced by sexually transmitted diseases that cause ulcers and result in mucosal ruptures, such as syphilis, herpes simplex type 2 (HSV-2), and chancroid. Other sexually transmitted diseases might result in the recruitment of inflammatory cells and could increase the risk of HTLV-1 acquisition and transmission. Read More

    Outer membrane protein P4 is not required for virulence in the human challenge model of Haemophilus ducreyi infection.
    BMC Microbiol 2014 Jun 24;14:166. Epub 2014 Jun 24.
    Department of Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, 545 Barnhill Drive Room EH-435, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA.
    Background: Bacterial lipoproteins often play important roles in pathogenesis and can stimulate protective immune responses. Such lipoproteins are viable vaccine candidates. Haemophilus ducreyi, which causes the sexually transmitted disease chancroid, expresses a number of lipoproteins during human infection. Read More

    A clinico-epidemiological study of ulcerative sexually transmitted diseases with human immunodeficiency virus status.
    Indian J Sex Transm Dis 2014 Jan;35(1):59-61
    Department of Skin and VD, M.P. Shah Medical College and G.G. Hospital, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India.
    Introduction: Genital ulcerative diseases are a major public health problem. The advert of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS over the past 25 years has deepened the scope of morbidity, mortality, and various forms of clinical presentations of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs).

    Materials And Methods: A total of 50 cases having Genital ulcerative diseases and STD reporting to STD clinic during the period of the year from November 2005 to December 2006 were included and detailed history and clinical examination were carried out and provisional diagnosis is made. Read More

    A (p)ppGpp-null mutant of Haemophilus ducreyi is partially attenuated in humans due to multiple conflicting phenotypes.
    Infect Immun 2014 Aug 9;82(8):3492-502. Epub 2014 Jun 9.
    Departments of Microbiology and Immunology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA Departments of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA Department of Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA Center for Immunobiology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA
    (p)ppGpp responds to nutrient limitation through a global change in gene regulation patterns to increase survival. The stringent response has been implicated in the virulence of several pathogenic bacterial species. Haemophilus ducreyi, the causative agent of chancroid, has homologs of both relA and spoT, which primarily synthesize and hydrolyze (p)ppGpp in Escherichia coli. Read More

    A multicenter prospective trial to asses a new real-time polymerase chain reaction for detection of Treponema pallidum, herpes simplex-1/2 and Haemophilus ducreyi in genital, anal and oropharyngeal ulcers.
    Clin Microbiol Infect 2014 Dec 25;20(12):O1020-7. Epub 2014 Jul 25.
    Department of Dermatology, University Hospital of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Treponema pallidum, herpes simplex virus types 1 or 2 (HSV-1/2) and Haemophilus ducreyi are sexually transmitted pathogens that can cause genital, anal and oropharyngeal ulcers. Laboratory evaluation of these pathogens in ulcers requires different types of specimens and tests, increasing the risk of improper specimen handling and time lapse until analysis. We sought to develop a new real-time PCR (TP-HD-HSV1/2 PCR) to facilitate the detection of T. Read More

    The Haemophilus ducreyi LspA1 protein inhibits phagocytosis by using a new mechanism involving activation of C-terminal Src kinase.
    MBio 2014 May 20;5(3):e01178-14. Epub 2014 May 20.
    Department of Microbiology, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical School, Dallas, Texas, USA
    Unlabelled: Haemophilus ducreyi causes chancroid, a sexually transmitted infection. A primary means by which this pathogen causes disease involves eluding phagocytosis; however, the molecular basis for this escape mechanism has been poorly understood. Here, we report that the LspA virulence factors of H. Read More

    Sexually transmitted infections.
    J Dtsch Dermatol Ges 2014 Jun;12(6):451-63
    Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Clinic for Dermatology, Venerology and Allergology.
    In no other medical field former rare infections of the 1980(th) and 1990(th) occur again as this is seen in the field of venerology which is as well based on the mobility of the population. Increasing rates of infections in Europe, and increasing bacteriological resistances face health professionals with new challenges. The WHO estimates more than 340 million cases of illnesses worldwide every year. Read More

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