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    Ten-year incidence and prevalence of clinically diagnosed blepharitis in South Korea: A nationwide population-based cohort study.
    Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2017 Feb 9. Epub 2017 Feb 9.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Severance Hospital, Institute of Vision Research, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
    Importance: Blepharitis is one of the most common conditions. However, no study has yet evaluated the epidemiology by evaluating a large population-based sample.

    Background: To evaluate the incidence and prevalence of clinically diagnosed blepharitis in South Korea. Read More

    Acupuncture for acute hordeolum.
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2017 Feb 9;2:CD011075. Epub 2017 Feb 9.
    School of Chinese Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, 10 Sassoon Road, Pokfulam Rd, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.
    Background: Hordeolum is an acute, purulent inflammation of the eyelid margin usually caused by obstructed orifices of the sebaceous glands of the eyelid. The condition, which affects sebaceous glands internally or externally, is common. When the meibomian gland in the tarsal plate is affected, internal hordeolum occurs, while when the glands of Zeis or Moll associated with eyelash follicles are affected, external hordeolum, or stye occurs. Read More

    Eyelid Fat Atrophy and Depigmentation After an Intralesional Injection of Triamcinolone Acetonide to Treat Chalazion.
    J Craniofac Surg 2017 Jan 20. Epub 2017 Jan 20.
    *Nune Eye Hospital, Daegu †Department of Ophthalmology, Dongguk University, Ilsan Hospital, Gyounggi, South Korea.
    Two patients with depigmentation and fat atrophy after an intralesional injection of triamcinolone acetonide (TA) to treat chalazion are reported. A 2-year-old girl with chalazion in her right lower eyelid received a subconjunctival injection of TA and developed fat atrophy and depigmentation around the injected area. These changes subsided after 7 months. Read More

    Cutaneous Leishmaniasis of the Eyelids: A Case Series with Molecular Identification and Literature Review.
    Korean J Parasitol 2016 Dec 31;54(6):787-792. Epub 2016 Dec 31.
    Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.
    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a protozoan disease which is endemic in Iran. It is transmitted by the Phlebotomus sand fly. The eyelid is rarely involved possibly because the movement of the lids impedes the sand fly from biting the skin in this region. Read More

    Non-surgical interventions for acute internal hordeolum.
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2017 Jan 9;1:CD007742. Epub 2017 Jan 9.
    Center for Clinical Trials and US Cochrane Center, Johns Hopkins University, Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 North Wolfe Street, Mail Rm E6152, Baltimore, MD, USA, 21205.
    Background: A hordeolum is a common, painful inflammation of the eyelid margin that is usually caused by a bacterial infection. The infection affects oil glands of the eyelid and can be either internal or external. In many cases, the lesion drains spontaneously and resolves without treatment; however, the inflammation can spread to other ocular glands or tissues, and recurrences are common. Read More

    Medically uncontrolled conjunctival pyogenic granulomas: correlation between clinical characteristics and histological findings.
    Oncotarget 2017 Jan;8(2):2020-2024
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science and Eye Research Institute, Eye, and ENT Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.
    Background: Conjunctival pyogenic granulomas are commonly seen after ocular surgeries or at an ocular wound site. The aim of this study is to describe a novel histological classification for medically uncontrolled conjunctival pyogenic granulomas (MUCPG), and to explore whether the diversity in clinical features correlates to different histological subtypes of MUCPG.

    Methods: This is an observational cross-section case series. Read More

    Risk Factors and Symptoms of Meibomian Gland Loss in a Healthy Population.
    J Ophthalmol 2016 14;2016:7526120. Epub 2016 Nov 14.
    Department of General Pathology, Pomeranian Medical University, Al. Powstancow Wlkp. 72, 70-111 Szczecin, Poland.
    Purpose. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between MGL and ocular symptoms, several systemic conditions, and key markers of ocular surface health. Methods. Read More

    Extratarsal presentation of chalazion.
    Int Ophthalmol 2016 Dec 9. Epub 2016 Dec 9.
    Department of Ophthalmology, University of Dankook, 359 Manghang-Ro, Dongnam-Gu, Cheonan, Chungchungnam-Do, South Korea.
    Purpose: We report a case of atypical, extratarsal chalazion referred with a history of a chronic inflammatory mass found on the edge of the lower eyelid.

    Methods: A 3-year-old female developed a small mass on the medial side of the right lower lid in 4-month duration. She was seen by her ophthalmologist and the diagnosis of a chalazion was made. Read More

    Hypertrophic scar of the conjunctiva presenting as an eyelid mass: an unusual complication after surgical treatment of a chalazion.
    Springerplus 2016 30;5(1):1689. Epub 2016 Sep 30.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Yeungnam University College of Medicine, Daegu, Republic of Korea ; Department of Ophthalmology, Daegu Veterans Health Service Medical Center, #60 Wolgok-ro, Dalseo-gu, Daegu, 704-802 Republic of Korea.
    Purpose: To present a rare case of a conjunctival hypertrophic scar presenting as eyelid mass after surgical treatment of a chalazion.

    Case Presentation: A 74-year-old man visited our clinic with severe ocular discomfort and excessive lacrimation since several months in his left eye accompanied by itching of the upper eyelid. Examination of the anterior segment revealed a 6 mm (horizontal) × 8 mm (vertical) round, immobile, hard, mushroom-shaped protruding mass on the tarsal conjunctiva of his left eye. Read More

    Nodulo-Ulcerative Ocular Surface Squamous Neoplasia in 6 Patients: A Rare Presentation.
    Cornea 2017 Mar;36(3):322-326
    *Operation Eyesight Universal Institute for Eye Cancer, L V Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India; †Ophthalmic Plastic Surgery Service, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, MA; and ‡Cornea and Refractive Surgery Service, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, MA.
    Purpose: To describe clinical presentation and histopathological features of a nodulo-ulcerative variant of ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN).

    Methods: Retrospective study.

    Results: Six patients were identified with a nodulo-ulcerative variant of OSSN. Read More

    A treatment method for chronic suppurative lacrimal canaliculitis using chalazion forceps.
    Indian J Ophthalmol 2016 Aug;64(8):589-92
    Eye Center, Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China.
    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of chronic suppurative lacrimal canaliculitis treatment using chalazion forceps.

    Patients And Methods: A prospective study was performed on consecutive patients who accepted the aid of chalazion forceps to treat chronic suppurative lacrimal canaliculitis. Two different treatment methods using chalazion forceps were performed according to the degree of lacrimal canaliculitis. Read More

    [Merkel cell carcinoma of the eyelid. An often unrecognized tumor entity : Clinical aspects and treatment strategies].
    Ophthalmologe 2017 Feb;114(2):134-139
    Zentrum für Augenheilkunde, Universitätsklinik Köln, Kerpener Str. 62, 50924, Köln, Deutschland.
    Merkel cell carcinoma of the eyelid is an aggressive, highly malignant tumor of the skin. Totaling approximately 0.5 % of all tumors of the eyelid, it constitutes a relatively small group of lid tumors. Read More

    Cellular neurothekeoma of the eyelid in a 6-year-old boy.
    J AAPOS 2016 Aug 16;20(4):374-6. Epub 2016 Jun 16.
    Division of Pathology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio.
    We report the case of a 6-year-old boy who presented with an 18-month history of a left lower eyelid lesion that was refractory to medical management. The lesion was excised, and microscopic examination and immunohistochemistry revealed a cellular neurothekeoma. Clinical presentation of such lesions is similar to a chalazion or epidermal inclusion cyst. Read More

    The evaluation of meibomian gland function, morphology and related medical history in Asian adult blepharokeratoconjunctivitis patients.
    Acta Ophthalmol 2016 Jun 8. Epub 2016 Jun 8.
    Department of Ophthalmology and Vision Science, The Eye & ENT Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, China.
    Purpose: To evaluate the meibomian gland function, morphology and the related medical history of patients with blepharokeratoconjunctivitis (BKC) in comparison with healthy population and meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD)-induced evaporative dry eye (EDE) patients.

    Methods: Twenty-two eyes of 22 Asian adult patients with BKC were enrolled as the BKC group. Healthy volunteers and MGD-induced EDE patients were recruited in a 1:1 ratio and were matched in age, and the gender compositions of the three groups were also comparable. Read More

    Sebaceous Gland Carcinoma of Eyelid- A Tarnished Masquerade.
    J Clin Diagn Res 2016 Apr 1;10(4):ND03-5. Epub 2016 Apr 1.
    Senior Resident, Department of Ophthalmology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences , Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India .
    Malignant tumours of the face are usually seen in the periocular region, mainly on eyelids most commonly in the inferior eyelid, medial canthus and superior eyelid, respectively. The prime treatment for eyelid malignant tumours is the total excision of the lesion with frozen section control or by Mohs Micrographic surgery. The postoperative defects should be reconstructed judicially taking care that the near normal anatomical and functional recovery is achieved. Read More

    Comparative Clinical Outcomes of Pediatric Patients Presenting With Eyelid Nodules of Idiopathic Facial Aseptic Granuloma, Hordeola, and Chalazia.
    J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus 2016 Jul 17;53(4):206-11. Epub 2016 May 17.
    Purpose: To present the clinical features of the eyelid nodules observed in a newly determined dermatologic disorder, idiopathic facial aseptic granuloma (IFAG), and to compare them with children having acute hordeolum and chalazion.

    Methods: Duration of the lesion, localization, presence of coexisting facial nodules, management strategies, and response time to topical/oral antibiotics were retrospectively reviewed in 50 children with IFAG, acute hordeolum, or chalazion.

    Results: Fourteen children with one or more IFAG nodules on their eyelids, 28 children with one or more acute hordeolum, and 8 children with one or more chalazion were examined. Read More

    An asystolic event after eyelid skin bupivicaine injection during chalazion surgery.
    J AAPOS 2016 Feb;20(1):75-7
    Perelman School of Medicine, University of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
    We report an asystolic event in an 8-year-old girl under general anesthesia that occurred after bupivicaine was injected into the eyelid during routine chalazion incision and drainage surgery. Because the bupivacaine was injected directly into the subcuticular space and not intravascularly, we concluded that the patient's asystolic event was induced by an oculocardiac reflex. Read More

    An unusual eyelid mass: Tarsal dermoid cyst.
    Saudi J Ophthalmol 2015 Oct-Dec;29(4):312-4. Epub 2015 May 16.
    Baskent University, Dept. of Pathology, Ankara, Turkey.
    We report the case of a 15-month-old boy who presented with a mass lesion of the right upper eyelid that had been present since birth and had slowly enlarged over the last 3 months. The lesion had minimal surrounding erythema simulating the appearance of a chalazion. Intraoperatively the lesion was noted to be firmly adherent to the underlying tarsus. Read More

    Association Between Bortezomib Therapy and Eyelid Chalazia.
    JAMA Ophthalmol 2016 Jan;134(1):88-90
    private practice in Columbia, Missouri.
    Importance: Spontaneous reports to the National Registry of Drug-Induced Ocular Side Effects and case reports in the literature suggest an association between bortezomib use and chalazia.

    Observations: To our knowledge, there have been 24 reports of bortezomib-associated chalazia. Fourteen reports were collected from the National Registry of Drug-Induced Ocular Side Effects. Read More

    Primary cutaneous adenoid cystic carcinoma of the eyelid and literature review.
    Arq Bras Oftalmol 2015 Sep-Oct;78(5):323-5
    Department of Pathology, Antalya Education and Research Hospital, Antalya, TR.
    Primary cutaneous adenoid cystic carcinoma (PCACC) is a rare malignant epithelial tumor most commonly observed in the scalp and skin of the chest and originating from the palpebral portion of the lacrimal gland in the orbit. Here we describe the diagnosis and treatment of a rare case of PCACC in an eye of a 52-year-old male. The patient presented with a mass lesion of the right lower eyelid. Read More

    Demodex mites as potential etiological factor in chalazion - a study in Poland.
    Acta Parasitol 2015 Dec;60(4):777-83
    The aim of the study was to investigate the presence of Demodex in the hair follicles of eyelashes and their potential participation in the aetiology of chalazion in patients in Poland. The study of the correlation between the presence of Demodex spp. and chalazion has never been performed in patients in Europe. Read More

    Chalazia Development in Multiple Myeloma: A New Complication Associated with Bortezomib Therapy.
    Hematol Rep 2015 Jun 9;7(2):5729. Epub 2015 Jun 9.
    Division of Hematology/Oncology , New York, NY, USA.
    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a neoplasm of plasma cells within the bone marrow. A major impact on improving survival in MM has been the use of the boronic acid-derived proteasome inhibitor bortezomib, a first-in-class selective inhibitor of the 26S proteasome. Ocular side effects of bortezomib are rare. Read More

    Demodex sp. as a Potential Cause of the Abandonment of Soft Contact Lenses by Their Existing Users.
    Biomed Res Int 2015 21;2015:259109. Epub 2015 Jul 21.
    Department of General Biology and Parasitology, Medical University of Warsaw, Ulica Chałubińskiego 5, 02-004 Warsaw, Poland ; Institute of Parasitology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Ulica Twarda 51/55, 00-818 Warsaw, Poland.
    Demodex mites may be a potential etiological factor in the development of various eye and skin disorders. The aim of the study was to investigate the presence of Demodex in the hair follicles of eyelashes and their potential influence on abandoning soft contact lenses which had been previously well tolerated by their users. A group of 62 users of contact lenses (28 with emerging discomfort and 34 without discomfort) were examined. Read More

    Uneven Meibomian Gland Dropout Over the Tarsal Plate and its Correlation With Meibomian Gland Dysfunction.
    Cornea 2015 Oct;34(10):1200-5
    Department of Ophthalmology and Vision Science, Eye & ENT Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, China.
    Purpose: To evaluate the distribution of meibomian gland dropout and analyze the correlation between dropout and meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD).

    Methods: A total of 161 eyes of 85 patients with MGD were recruited as the MGD group; 88 eyes of 46 health volunteers were enrolled as the control group (2:1 matched for age and sex). Examinations included the Schirmer I test, breakup time, symptom questionnaire, corneal fluorescein staining, meibum quality, meibomian gland expressibility, and meibomian gland dropout. Read More

    Burden of ocular and visual disorders among pupils in special schools in Nepal.
    Arch Dis Child 2015 Sep 21;100(9):834-7. Epub 2015 Apr 21.
    Department of Optometry and Vision Science, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.
    Objectives: To determine detailed oculo-visual characteristics of children with intellectual disability studying in special schools and explore the burden of visual impairment.

    Design Of The Study: Detailed ophthalmic examination was carried out in all pupils studying at the seven special needs schools of Kathmandu valley, Nepal. Ophthalmic examination included case history, presenting distance visual acuity, cycloplegic refraction, binocular vision examination, contrast sensitivity and anterior and posterior segment evaluation. Read More

    Idiopathic Facial Aseptic Granuloma: Review of an Evolving Clinical Entity.
    Pediatr Dermatol 2015 Jul-Aug;32(4):e136-9. Epub 2015 Apr 6.
    Division of General and Community Pediatrics, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio.
    Idiopathic facial aseptic granuloma (IFAG), originally termed pyodermite froide du visage, describes a generally asymptomatic facial nodule presenting in childhood with clinical resemblance to pyoderma or cystic, granulomatous, or vascular lesions. Clinical understanding is constantly evolving, with recent observations indicating that IFAG may represent a subtype of childhood rosacea. We present a case of IFAG associated with eyelid chalazions in a 19-month-old boy. Read More

    IgG4-related disease mimicking chalazion in the upper eyelid with skin manifestations on the trunk.
    Int Ophthalmol 2015 Aug 3;35(4):595-7. Epub 2015 Apr 3.
    Helsinki University Eye Hospital, PL 220, 00029 HUS, Helsinki, Finland,
    IgG4-related disease is a recently defined inflammatory process characterized by IgG4-bearing plasma cells in the involved tissues. The most common sites of involvement are the pancreas, hepatobiliary tract, salivary glands, lymph nodes, retroperitoneum and orbit, especially the lacrimal glands. Other ocular or ocular adnexal sites are rare. Read More

    Large anterior orbital cyst as a late complication of chalazion surgical drainage.
    Eye (Lond) 2015 Apr 30;29(4):585-7. Epub 2015 Jan 30.
    Department of Ophthalmology, King Abdulaziz University Hospital, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
    Purpose: To present four patients who developed large cystic lesions attached to the tarsal plate at the site of previously drained chalazion.

    Methods: Medical records for all patients who developed cystic lesion as a complication of chalazion surgery were retrospectively reviewed for clinical and radiological findings, treatment provided, histopathological findings, and complications.

    Results: Four patients (one male and three females) with a mean age of 22 years (range, 11-36 years) were enrolled in the study. Read More

    Minimal incision posterior approach levator plication for aponeurotic ptosis.
    Eye (Lond) 2015 Apr 23;29(4):483-91. Epub 2015 Jan 23.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Tung Wah Eastern Hospital, Hong Kong.
    Purpose: To assess the efficacy and predictability of a minimal incision posterior approach levator plication technique for correction of involutional ptosis.

    Method: Retrospective chart review of patients with involutional aponeurotic ptosis underwent minimal incision posterior approach levator plication technique between August 2013 and June 2014 by a single surgeon. The upper lid was double everted, and the conjunctiva and Muller's muscle layers were incised vertically until the levator aponeurosis could be identified. Read More

    [Unusual course of a chalazion].
    Ophthalmologe 2015 Mar;112(3):269-71
    Klinik für Augenheilkunde, Universitätsklinikum des Saarlandes UKS, Kirrberger Str. 100, 66424, Homburg/Saar, Deutschland,
    Background: A chalazion is a benign, inflammatory tumor of the eyelid caused by an obstruction of the excretory duct of a meibomian gland. Usually a chalazion shows a slow painless and non-inflammatory progression. Interestingly, sinus infections can initially simulate chalazia by causing an orbital involvement with eyelid swelling. Read More

    A practical approach to ocular pain for the non-ophthalmologist.
    Pain Manag 2014 ;4(6):413-26
    Sinai Hospital, Krieger Eye Institute, Baltimore, MD 21215, USA.
    Pain involving the eye has numerous etiologies and is a feared challenge of many clinicians. Between a fear of the patient losing vision and a lack of familiarity with the ophthalmic equipment necessary to diagnose the problem, working up eye pain can be a daunting task. While the ophthalmologist can be indispensable in challenging cases of eye pain, this article will help clarify the unique clinical features of each etiology that can help clinicians narrow down the differential and arrive at a diagnosis. Read More

    Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the eyelid masquerading as a chalazion.
    Int Ophthalmol 2015 Feb 6;35(1):131-4. Epub 2014 Dec 6.
    Department of Ophthalmology, UT Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Blvd, Dallas, TX, 75390-9057, USA.
    Chalazia are among the most common eyelid lesions presenting to eye care providers. Often successfully managed conservatively, some require more invasive intervention such as incision and drainage or steroid injection. Lesions that recur, do not respond to treatment, or are atypical in appearance or natural history should prompt more thorough analysis, often with biopsy and subsequent microscopic analysis. Read More

    A comparison of intralesional triamcinolone acetonide injection for primary chalazion in children and adults.
    ScientificWorldJournal 2014 15;2014:413729. Epub 2014 Oct 15.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Caritas Medical Centre, 111 Wing Hong Street, Kowloon, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, Hong Kong.
    Purpose: To investigate outcome differences of intralesional triamcinolone acetonide (TA) injection for primary chalazia in children versus adults.

    Methods: A retrospective review of consecutive subjects with primary chalazion who received intralesional TA injection was conducted. A single investigator injected 0. Read More

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