2,000,463 results match your criteria Cerebral Palsy


[Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) for obsessive-compulsive disorder: A new treatment option?]

Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Klinik und Poliklinik für Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie, Klinikum der Universität München.

More than 40 % of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) do not respond to established treatments despite advances in psychopharmacology and psychotherapy. Since a couple of years, non-invasive brain stimulation techniques gain importance in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) uses weak constant direct current to modulate neuronal activation and changes the function of neuronal networks. Read More

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December 2018

RNA-Seq Analyses of the Role of miR-21 in Acute Pancreatitis.

Cell Physiol Biochem 2018 7;51(5):2198-2211. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Institute for Brain Research and Rehabilitation, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Mental Health and Cognitive Science, Center for Studies of Psychological Application, South China Normal University, Guangzhou,

Background/aims: Our previous study demonstrated that a deficiency of microRNA 21 (miR-21) protects mice from acute pancreatitis, yet the underlying molecular networks associated with miR-21 in pancreatitis and pancreatitis-associated lung injury remain unexplored.

Methods: We used next generation sequencing to analyze gene expression profiles of pancreatic tissues from wild-type (WT) and miR-21 knockout (KO) mice treated with caerulein by using a 1-day treatment protocol. The Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery gene annotation tool and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis were used to analyze the molecular pathways, while quantitative real-time PCR, western blotting, and immunohistochemistry were used to explore the molecular mechanisms. Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

Renal Functions and Prognosis Stratification in Chronic Heart Failure Patients and the Importance of Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin.

Kidney Blood Press Res 2018 Dec 7;43(6):1865-1877. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Internal Cardiology Medicine, Faculty Hospital Brno, Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.

Background/aims: The rate of incidence and prevalence of acute kidney injury is increasing due to an increased number of patients with heart failure. Therefore it is very pertinent to early detect the level of renal injuries and to make necessary heart failure predictions. Thus the aim of this study is to determine renal functions and prognosis stratification in chronic heart failure patients and importance of Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin (NGAL), an early diagnostic marker of acute kidney injury, as well as stratification of cardiovascular risk in heart failure patients. Read More

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December 2018

GLP1 Receptor Agonist Liraglutide Is an Effective Therapeutic Option for Perioperative Glycemic Control in Type 2 Diabetes within Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) Protocols.

Eur Surg Res 2018 Dec 11;59(5-6):349-360. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Background: Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) protocols are multimodal perioperative care pathways designed to achieve early recovery after surgical procedures by maintaining preoperative organ function and reducing profound stress responses following surgery [Wilmore and Kehlet: BMJ 2001; 322(7284): 473-6]. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAgs), such as liraglutide, have recently been widely used as antidiabetic agents in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) because they maintain blood glucose at an ideal level throughout the day, including during postprandial periods, thereby improving hypoglycemia and body weight more than insulin therapies. Additionally, the administration of liraglutide may exert cardiovascular, renal, and cerebral protective effects in T2D patients. Read More

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December 2018

Viewing Target Distance Influences the Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex Gain when Assessed Using the Video Head Impulse Test.

Audiol Neurootol 2018 Dec 11;23(5):285-289. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Neuro-Otology Unit, Division of Brain Sciences, Charing Cross Hospital Campus, Imperial College London, London, United

Gaze stabilization during head movements is provided by the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR). Clinical assessment of this reflex is performed using the video Head Impulse Test (vHIT). To date, the influence of different fixation distances on VOR gain using the vHIT has not been explored. Read More

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December 2018

Medial amygdala Kiss1 neurons mediate female pheromone stimulation of LH in male mice.

Neuroendocrinology 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.


Background/Aims: The medial amygdala (MeA) responds to olfactory stimuli and alters reproductive physiology. However, the neuronal circuit that relays signals from the MeA to the reproductive axis remains poorly defined. This study aimed to test whether MeA kisspeptin (MeAKiss) neurons in male mice are sensitive to sexually relevant olfactory stimuli and transmit signals to alter reproductive physiology. Read More

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December 2018

Simultaneous optimization of isocenter locations and sector duration in radiosurgery.

Phys Med Biol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario, CANADA.

Stereotactic radiosurgery is an effective technique to treat brain tumors for which several inverse planning methods may be appropriate. We propose an integer programming model to simultaneous sector duration and isocenter optimization (SDIO) problem for Leksell Gamma Knife{\textregistered} Icon{\texttrademark} (Elekta, Stockholm, Sweden) to tractably incorporate treatment time. We devise a Benders decomposition scheme to solve the SDIO problem to optimality. Read More

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December 2018

Patterns of obsessive-compulsive symptoms and social functioning in schizophrenia; a replication study.

Psychiatry Res 2018 Dec 3;271:421-427. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology, School for Mental Health and Neuroscience, Maastricht, the Netherlands; KU Leuven, Department of Neuroscience, Research Group Psychiatry, Leuven, Belgium.

Research has found that Obsessive Compulsive Symptoms (OCS) in schizophrenia are associated with either more or less negative symptoms and either better or poorer cognitive functioning. In order to explain these contradictory results, (Lysaker et al., 2004), performed a cluster analysis resulting in 2 OCS positive (OCSpos) clusters, one with higher functioning (HF) and one with poorer functioning (PF) compared to 2 OCS negative (OCSneg) clusters. Read More

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December 2018

Gender differences in correlates of cognition in first-episode psychosis.

Psychiatry Res 2018 Dec 3;271:412-420. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China; State Key Laboratory of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.

Studies of gender cognitive differences in schizophrenia have reported mixed results. This study examined cognitive correlates including demographics, symptoms and functioning in men and women in a large sample of first-episode adult-onset psychosis patients. Detailed demographic, clinical and functioning data were collected from 360 first-episode patients upon admission into an early intervention service for psychotic disorders. Read More

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December 2018
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Piezoelectric barium titanate nanostimulators for the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2018 Dec 4;538:449-461. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Smart Bio-Interfaces, Viale Rinaldo Piaggio 34, 56025 Pontedera, Italy; Politecnico di Torino, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino, Italy. Electronic address:

Major obstacles to the successful treatment of gliolastoma multiforme are mostly related to the acquired resistance to chemotherapy drugs and, after surgery, to the cancer recurrence in correspondence of residual microscopic foci. As innovative anticancer approach, low-intensity electric stimulation represents a physical treatment able to reduce multidrug resistance of cancer and to induce remarkable anti-proliferative effects by interfering with Ca and K homeostasis and by affecting the organization of the mitotic spindles. However, to preserve healthy cells, it is utterly important to direct the electric stimuli only to malignant cells. Read More

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December 2018

The neurophysiological and neurochemical effects of alcohol on the brain are inconsistent with current evidence based models of sleepwalking.

Authors:
Mark R Pressman

Sleep Med Rev 2018 Nov 10;43:92-95. Epub 2018 Nov 10.

Sleep Medicine Services, Lankenau Medical Center, Wynnewood, PA, USA; Lankenau Institute for Medical Research, Wynnewood, PA, USA; Department of Medicine, Sidney Kimmel Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA; Charles Widger School of Law, Villanova University, Villanova, PA, USA. Electronic address:

The DSM-5 and ICSD-3 have removed alcohol from the list of potential triggers for sleepwalking due to the lack of empirical evidence. Recent imaging and EEG based studies of sleepwalking and confusional arousals have provided a more data-based method of examining if alcohol is compatible with what is known about the neurophysiology and neurochemistry of sleepwalking. These studies have demonstrated a deactivation of the frontal areas of the brain, while the cingulate or motor cortex remains active and characterized activation in the form of beta EEG. Read More

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November 2018

Using GPUs to accelerate computational diffusion MRI: From microstructure estimation to tractography and connectomes.

Neuroimage 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Wellcome Centre for Integrative Neuroimaging - Centre for Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Brain (FMRIB), University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom; Sir Peter Mansfield Imaging Centre, School of Medicine, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom.

The great potential of computational diffusion MRI (dMRI) relies on indirect inference of tissue microstructure and brain connections, since modelling and tractography frameworks map diffusion measurements to neuroanatomical features. This mapping however can be computationally highly expensive, particularly given the trend of increasing dataset sizes and the complexity in biophysical modelling. Limitations on computing resources can restrict data exploration and methodology development. Read More

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December 2018

Age-related differences in task-induced brain activation is not task specific: Multivariate pattern generalization between metacognition, cognition and perception.

Neuroimage 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Department of Neuropsychology and Psychopharmacology, Faculty of Psychology and Neuroscience, Maastricht University, the Netherlands.

Adolescence is associated with widespread maturation of brain structures and functional connectivity profiles that shift from local to more distributed and better integrated networks, which are active during a variety of cognitive tasks. Nevertheless, the approach to examine task-induced developmental brain changes is function-specific, leaving the question open whether functional maturation is specific to the particular cognitive demands of the task used, or generalizes across different tasks. In the present study we examine the hypothesis that functional brain maturation is driven by global changes in how the brain handles cognitive demands. Read More

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December 2018
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Postoperative antiplatelet therapy in the treatment of complex basilar apex aneurysms implementing Hunterian ligation and extracranial-to-intracranial bypass: review of the literature with an illustrative case report.

World Neurosurg 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Neurorestoration Center, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA; Department of Neurological Surgery, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA. Electronic address:

Large, broad-based basilar artery (BA) apex aneurysms involving multiple arterial origins are complex lesions commonly not amenable to direct clipping or endovascular management. BA proximal (Hunterian) occlusion with extracranial-to-intracranial bypass is a supported strategy if one or both posterior communicating arteries are small. Hunterian ligation risks sudden aneurysm thrombosis and thromboembolism in the perforator rich BA apex. Read More

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December 2018

Distal Thrombectomy for Acute Anterior Circulation Stroke with Chronic Large Vessel Occlusion.

World Neurosurg 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Department of Neurology, Shandong Provincial Qianfoshan Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan, 250014, Shandong, China. Electronic address:

Background: Endovascular therapy has been increasingly recommended for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke with large vessel occlusion of the anterior circulation. However, occlusions of the distal cerebral artery are not uncommon and may cause clinical deficits, especially when combined with ipsilateral chronic large vessel occlusion. Therefore, in this patient population, the recognition of chronic occlusion and recanalization of the distal occlusive artery might be of great value for flow compensation. Read More

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December 2018
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Fluid and PET biomarkers for amyloid pathology in Alzheimer's disease.

Mol Cell Neurosci 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Clinical Neurochemistry Laboratory, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Molndal, Sweden; Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, University College, London, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland; Department of Molecular Neuroscience, UCL Institute of Neurology, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland; UK Dementia Research Institute at UCL, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by amyloid plaques and tau pathology (neurofibrillary tangles and neuropil threads). Amyloid plaques are primarily composed of aggregated and oligomeric β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides ending at position 42 (Aβ42). The development of fluid and PET biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease (AD), has allowed for detection of Aβ pathology in vivo and marks a major advancement in understanding the role of Aβ in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Read More

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December 2018

cDNA cloning and expression analysis of glutaredoxin (Grx) 2 in the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Hainan Provincial Key Laboratory for Functional Components Research and Utilization of Marine Bio-resources, Institute of Tropical Bioscience and Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences, Haikou, 571101, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Glutaredoxin (Grx) is a class molecule oxidoreductase, which can regulate the redox state of proteins and plays a key role in antioxidant defense. However, the informations of Grx cDNA sequences and their functions are lack in decapod crustacea. In the present study, the cDNA of LvGrx 2 was cloned from the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Read More

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December 2018

Sex differences in the temporal neuromolecular and synaptogenic effects of the rapid-acting antidepressant drug ketamine in the mouse brain.

Neuroscience 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Department of Biology & Center for Tissue Regeneration and Engineering at Dayton (TREND), University of Dayton, Dayton, Ohio, USA. Electronic address:

Preclinical evidence suggests that ketamine's rapid and sustained antidepressant actions are due to the induction of synaptogenesis in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the hippocampus (HIPP), two brain regions implicated in the pathophysiology of major depression. However, research on the neurobiological effects of ketamine has focused almost exclusively on males. Findings from our group and others indicate that female rodents are more reactive to ketamine's antidepressant effects, since they respond to lower doses in antidepressant-predictive behavioral models. Read More

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December 2018

Separating Normosmic and Anosmic Patients Based on Entropy Evaluation of Olfactory Event-Related Potentials.

Brain Res 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Interdisciplinary Center "Smell and Taste", Department of Otorhinolaryngology, TU Dresden, Fetscherstrasse 74, 01307 Dresden, Germany.

Objective: Methods based on electroencephalography (EEG) are used to evaluate brain responses to odors which is challenging due to the relatively low signal-to-noise ratio. This is especially difficult in patients with olfactory loss. In the present study, we aim to establish a method to separate functionally anosmic and normosmic individuals by means of recordings of olfactory event-related potentials (OERP) using an automated tool. Read More

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December 2018

EA promotes swallowing via activating swallowing-related motor neurons in the Nucleus Ambiguus.

Brain Res 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, No.232 Waihuan East Road, Panyu District Guangzhou, Guangdong province, 510006,China. Electronic address:

To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on swallowing and its underlying mechanism, 32 Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were chose and the electrophysiology was used to detect the discharge of nucleus ambiguus (NA) after EA at CV23 (Lianquan), GV16 (Fengfu), and other acupoints. The swallowing-related motor neuron was identified by antidromic stimulation through recurrent laryngeal nerve. Meanwhile, the swallowing numbers were induced by Double-distilled water (DDW) and the neuron discharges were recorded before and after EA. Read More

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December 2018
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Hyperexcitability of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons in male offspring of a rat model of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) induced by prenatal exposure to valproic acid: a possible involvement of Ih channel current.

Brain Res 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Neuroscience Research Center, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a common neuropsychiatric disorder, which is characterized by impairment in social interaction and cognitive behaviors. However, there is not much electrophysiological data available on alterations of neuronal excitability in autism. Here, we assessed the pattern of neuronal excitability and the possible contribution of Ih current to the altered excitability of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons in a rat model of VPA-induced ASD-like behavior. Read More

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December 2018

Group Differences Among Caregivers of Civilians and Service Members or Veterans with Traumatic Brain Injury.

Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

University of Michigan Medical School, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Objective: To examine group differences among caregivers of service members/veterans (SMVs) and civilians with traumatic brain injury (TBI).

Design: An observational research study examining the group differences between caregivers of SMVs and civilians with TBI. The data presented was collected as part of a larger study that calibrated and validated the TBI-CareQOL item banks. Read More

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December 2018

Chemotherapy sensitization of glioblastoma by focused ultrasound-mediated delivery of therapeutic liposomes.

J Control Release 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, ETH Zurich, Vladimir-Prelog-Weg 1-5, 8093 Zurich, Switzerland.

In glioblastoma, the benefit from temozolomide chemotherapy is largely limited to a subgroup of patients (30-35%) with tumors exhibiting methylation of the promoter region of the O-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) gene. In order to allow more patients to benefit from this treatment, we explored magnetic resonance image-guided microbubble-enhanced low-intensity pulsed focused ultrasound (LIFU) to transiently open the blood-brain barrier and deliver a first-in-class liposome-loaded small molecule MGMT inactivator in mice bearing temozolomide-resistant gliomas. We demonstrate that a liposomal O-(4-bromothenyl)guanine (OBTG) derivative can efficiently target MGMT, thereby sensitizing murine and human glioma cells to temozolomide in vitro. Read More

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December 2018

Microglia in the developing prefrontal cortex of rats show dynamic changes following neonatal disconnection of the ventral hippocampus.

Neuropharmacology 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Douglas Mental Health University Institute, Department of Psychiatry, McGill University, Montréal, Québec, Canada. Electronic address:

Impaired ventral hippocampal (VH)-prefrontal cortex (PFC) connectivity is implicated in many cognitive and behavioral disorders. Excitotoxic neonatal VH (nVH) lesion in rat pups has been shown to induce synaptic pruning in the PFC as well as behavioral changes of relevance to developmental neuropsychiatric disorders. In the current study, we hypothesized that microglia, immune cells required for proper brain development and plasticity, may play a role in the development of abnormal behaviors in the nVH-lesioned animals. Read More

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December 2018
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Pep-1&Borneol-bifunctionalized carmustin-loaded micelles enhance anti-glioma efficacy through tumor targeting and BBB penetratings.

J Pharm Sci 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Department of Neurosurgery, School of Medicine, Zhongda Hospital, Southeast University, Nanjing 210009, China. Electronic address:

Tumor-targeting and blood-brain barrier (BBB)-penetrating are highly desirable for the treatment of glioma. In this study, we developed Pep-1&borneol-bifunctionalized carmustin-loaded micelles (Pep-1/Bor/CMS-M) capable of targeting to IL-13 receptor-overexpressed glioma and penetrating the brain microvascular endothelial cells-associated physiologic barriers. Pep-1/Bor/CMS-M were nearly spherical particles with a diameter of 32. Read More

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December 2018
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Microbiota modulation by eating patterns and diet composition: impact on food intake.

Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2018 Dec 19;315(6):R1254-R1260. Epub 2018 Sep 19.

Foods and Nutrition, University of Georgia , Athens, Georgia.

There is accumulating evidence that the gut microbiota and its composition dynamics play a crucial role in regulating the host physiological functions and behavior. Diet composition is the primary modulator of bacterial richness and abundance in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Macronutrient (fat, sugar, and protein) and fiber contents are especially important in determining microbiota composition and its effect on health outcomes and behavior. Read More

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December 2018
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Brain MRI Lesions are Related to Bowel Incontinence in Multiple Sclerosis.

J Neuroimaging 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Neurology, University Hospital Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany.

Background And Purpose: Bowel incontinence in multiple sclerosis might be associated with specific lesion sites. This study intended to determine associations between bowel incontinence and cerebral multiple sclerosis lesions using a voxel-wise lesion symptom mapping analysis.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of multiple sclerosis patients with self-reported bowel incontinence and matched controls. Read More

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December 2018
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Engineering Controlled Peritumoral Inflammation to Constrain Brain Tumor Growth.

Adv Healthc Mater 2018 Dec 11:e1801076. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Pratt School of Engineering, Duke University, 101 Science Drive, Durham, NC, 27705, USA.

Brain tumors remain a great clinical challenge, in part due to their capacity to invade into eloquent, inoperable regions of the brain. In contrast, inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS) due to injuries activates microglia and astrocytes culminating in an astroglial scar that typically "walls-off" the injury site. Here, the hypothesis is tested that targeting peritumoral cells surrounding tumors to activate them via an inflammatory stimulus that recapitulates the sequelae of a traumatic CNS injury, could generate an environment that would wall-off and contain invasive tumors in the brain. Read More

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December 2018

Putative contributions of the sex chromosome proteins SOX3 and SRY to neurodevelopmental disorders.

Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 2018 Dec 9. Epub 2018 Dec 9.

LIM23, Instituto de Psiquiatria, Hospital das Clinicas HCFMUSP, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil.

The male-biased prevalence of certain neurodevelopmental disorders and the sex-biased outcomes associated with stress exposure during gestation have been previously described. Here, we hypothesized that genes distinctively targeted by only one or both homologous proteins highly conserved across therian mammals, SOX3 and SRY, could induce sexual adaptive changes that result in a differential risk for neurodevelopmental disorders. ChIP-seq/chip data showed that SOX3/SRY gene targets were expressed in different brain cell types in mice. Read More

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December 2018

Brain glutamate, GABA, and glutamine levels and associations with recent drinking in treatment-naïve individuals with Alcohol Use Disorder versus light drinkers.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences.

Background: Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy ( H-MRS) studies have demonstrated abnormal levels of a variety of neurometabolites in inpatients/outpatients with Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) following acute alcohol withdrawal relative to healthy controls. In contrast, few studies have compared neurometabolite levels between less severe, treatment-naïve AUD individuals and light drinkers or related them to recent alcohol consumption. The present study compared neurometabolite levels between treatment-naïve AUD and LD individuals. Read More

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December 2018

Reply to Chen et al.: Parametric methods for cluster inference perform worse for two-sided t-tests.

Hum Brain Mapp 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Big Data Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

One-sided t-tests are commonly used in the neuroimaging field, but two-sided tests should be the default unless a researcher has a strong reason for using a one-sided test. Here we extend our previous work on cluster false positive rates, which used one-sided tests, to two-sided tests. Briefly, we found that parametric methods perform worse for two-sided t-tests, and that nonparametric methods perform equally well for one-sided and two-sided tests. Read More

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December 2018
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Review shows that thyroid hormone substitution could benefit transient hypothyroxinaemia of prematurity but treatment strategies need to be clarified.

Acta Paediatr 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Neonatology, University Hospitals Leuven, KU, Leuven, Belgium.

Aim: Thyroid hormones are crucial for fetal and neonatal brain development. This paper provides an overview of the normal role of thyroid hormones in fetal brain development and the pathophysiology of transient hypothyroxinaemia of prematurity (THOP). It also discusses the diagnostic and therapeutic controversies around THOP and looks at directions for future research. Read More

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December 2018

Ultrasound-targeted microbubble enhances migration and therapeutic efficacy of marrow mesenchymal stem cell on rat middle cerebral artery occlusion stroke model.

J Cell Biochem 2018 Dec 9. Epub 2018 Dec 9.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing, China.

To investigate the role of ultrasound-targeted microbubbles in the homing effect of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and in the therapeutic efficacy of BMSCs on the ischemic stroke. A middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model was induced by plug wire preparation. Seventy-two hours after MCAO, the treatment of BMSCs with ultrasound-targeted microbubble was assessed via modified neurological severity score (mNSS), infarct volumes, and cerebral edema. Read More

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December 2018

Aerodigestive and communicative behaviors in anencephalic and hydranencephalic infants.

Birth Defects Res 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Linguistics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.

The aerodigestive and communicative behaviors of anencephalic and hydranencephalic patients are assessed from literature sources and are compared with documented neural structures present in the brainstem, subcortical, and cortical regions of the brain. Much of the data analyzed corroborate previous neurological studies, which focus on central pattern generators and development in model organisms. However, findings suggest that further research is necessary to determine which components of these systems support these behaviors. Read More

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December 2018

A New Drug Delivery System based on Tauroursodeoxycholic Acid and PEDOT.

Chemistry 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

ITALY.

Localized drug delivery represents one of the most challenging uses of systems based on conductive polymer films. Typically, anionic drugs are incorporated within conductive polymers through the electrostatic interaction with the positively charged polymer. Following this approach, the synthetic glucocorticoid Dexamethasone-phosphate is often delivered from neural probes to reduce the inflammation of the surrounding tissue. Read More

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December 2018

Grey matter alterations in obesity: A meta-analysis of whole-brain studies.

Obes Rev 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Center of Mental Health, Department of Psychiatry, Psychosomatics, and Psychotherapy, University Hospital of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany.

Obesity is a major problem in the modern world causing a higher risk for various cerebrovascular diseases causing a profound individual and societal burden. The neurobiological foundation bears potential to understand the complex interaction of individual differences in brain structure and function and ingestive behaviour. This systematic review was performed on the current evidence of structural abnormalities in grey matter volume (GMV) in patients with obesity based on studies published until December 2017, which were selected through search in PubMed, CENTER (Cochrane Library), PsycINFO, Web of Science, and Ovid MEDLINE. Read More

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December 2018
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Early Endovascular Thrombectomy for Large Vessel Ischemic Stroke Reduces Disability at 90 Days.

Acad Emerg Med 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Department of Neurology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Anterior circulation large vessel occlusion (LVO) of the internal carotid or middle cerebral artery is one of the most devastating ischemic stroke subtypes. Prior to 2015, evidence supporting endovascular thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke was limited. This was due to multiple factors, including low recanalization rates with previous generation thrombectomy devices, inadequate neuroimaging inclusion criteria (patients enrolled in trials lacked target LVO and/or had large pre-existing core infarcts), and selection bias-patients considered most likely to benefit from thrombectomy underwent the procedure outside of clinical trials. Read More

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December 2018

Magnetic resonance imaging in enterovirus-71, myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody, aquaporin-4 antibody, and multiple sclerosis-associated myelitis in children.

Dev Med Child Neurol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Neuroimmunology Group, Institute for Neuroscience and Muscle Research, The Kids Research Institute, Children's Hospital at Westmead, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Aim: We used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to compare the neuroimaging of children with their first episode of clinical enterovirus 71-associated transverse myelitis (EV71-TM), myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody positive transverse myelitis (MOG-TM), aquaporin-4 antibody positive transverse myelitis (AQP4-TM), transverse myelitis in multiple sclerosis (MS-TM), and unclassified transverse myelitis (UNC-TM).

Method: We performed a retrospective blinded radiological assessment and compared the neuroimaging of 52 children (32 females, 20 males; mean age 9y 8mo, SD 5y 5mo, range 5mo-17y) presenting with their first episode of myelitis caused by EV71-TM (n=11), MOG-TM (n=10), AQP4-TM (n=9), MS-TM (n=13), and UNC-TM (n=9).

Results: In the EV71-TM group, lesions were distributed throughout the cord and enhancement of nerve roots (ventral and dorsal) was common. Read More

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December 2018

Oscillatory dynamics of cortical functional connections in semantic prediction.

Hum Brain Mapp 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

MEG and Cortical Networks Group, Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Leipzig, Germany.

An event related potential, known as the N400, has been particularly useful in investigating language processing as it serves as a neural index for semantic prediction. There are numerous studies on the functional segregation of N400 neural sources; however, the oscillatory dynamics of functional connections among the relevant sources has remained elusive. In this study we acquired magnetoencephalography data during a classic N400 paradigm, where the semantic predictability of a fixed target noun was manipulated in simple German sentences. Read More

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December 2018

Microglial cell activation and senescence are characteristic of the pathology FXTAS.

Mov Disord 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

MIND Institute, UC Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, California, USA.

Background: Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) is a late-onset neurodegenerative disorder associated with premutation alleles of the FMR1 gene. Expansions of more than 200 CGG repeats give rise to fragile X syndrome, the most common inherited form of cognitive impairment. Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome is characterized by cerebellar tremor and ataxia, and the presence of ubiquitin-positive inclusions in neurons and astrocytes. Read More

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December 2018
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Helping young people with cerebral palsy in pain.

Authors:
Paul Eunson

Dev Med Child Neurol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Royal Hospital for Sick Children - Paediatric Neurosciences, Edinburgh, UK.

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December 2018

Efficient Cholera Toxin B Subunit-Based Nanoparticles with MRI Capability for Drug Delivery to the Brain Following Intranasal Administration.

Macromol Biosci 2018 Dec 7:e1800340. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Key Laboratory of Carbon Fiber and Functional Polymers (Ministry of Education), Beijing Laboratory of Biomedical Materials, Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Soft Matter Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing, 100029, China.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an incurable neurodegenerative brain disorder that exhibits clear pathologic changes in the hippocampus. Traditional drug delivery systems are ineffective due to the existence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In this study, an efficient, stable, and easily constructed nanosystem (CB-Gd-Cy5. Read More

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December 2018

Nigral iron deposition in common tremor disorders.

Mov Disord 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Neurology, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria.

Objective: We investigated R2* relaxation rates as a marker of iron content in the substantia nigra in patients with common tremor disorders and explored their diagnostic properties.

Methods: Mean nigral R2* rates were measured in 40 patients with tremor-dominant Parkinson's disease (PD), 15 with tremor in dystonia, 25 with essential tremor, and 25 healthy controls.

Results: Tremor-dominant PD patients had significantly higher nigral R2* values (34. Read More

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December 2018

From nodes to networks: How methods for defining nodes influence inferences regarding network interactions.

Hum Brain Mapp 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Center for Complex Systems and Brain Sciences, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, Florida.

Functional connectivity (FC) analysis of fMRI data typically rests on prior identification of network nodes from activation profiles. We compared Activation Likelihood Estimate (ALE) and the Experimentally Derived Estimate (EDE) approaches to network node identification and functional inference for both verbal and visual forms of working memory. ALE arrives at canonical activation maxima that are assumed to reliably represent peaks of brain activity underlying a psychological process (e. Read More

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December 2018

The Fyn kinase inhibitor, AZD0530, suppresses mouse alcohol self-administration and seeking.

Addict Biol 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Neurology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California.

Fyn is a member of the Src family of protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) that plays an important role not only in normal synaptic functions but also in brain pathologies including alcohol use disorder. We previously reported that repeated cycles of binge drinking and withdrawal activate Fyn in the dorsomedial striatum (DMS) of rodents, and that Fyn signaling in the DMS contributes to rat alcohol intake and relapse. Here, we used AZD0530, a CNS penetrable inhibitor of Src PTKs developed for the treatment of Alzheimer disease and cancer and tested its efficacy to suppress alcohol-dependent molecular and behavioral effects. Read More

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December 2018

Infants who die in shared sleeping situations differ from those who die while sleeping alone.

Acta Paediatr 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Discipline of Anatomy and Pathology, Adelaide Medical School, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia.

Aim: To determine whether there are differences between infants who are sharing a sleeping surface with others, compared to those who die alone.

Methods: A literature review was undertaken of pubmed and google scholar databases using search terms: sudden infant death syndrome, SIDS, cosleeping and overlaying.

Results: Statistically significant differences were found between the two groups in the sex ratios, and in staining of brain sections for β-amyloid precursor protein (β-APP), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labelling (TUNEL). Read More

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December 2018

Bismuth Ferrite Second Harmonic Nanoparticles for Pulmonary Macrophage Tracking.

Small 2018 Dec 10:e1803776. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Translational Molecular Imaging, Max-Planck Institute for Experimental Medicine, Hermann-Rein-Str. 3, 37075, Göttingen, Germany.

Recently, second harmonic generation (SHG) nanomaterials have been generated that are efficiently employed in the classical (NIR) and extended (NIR-II) near infrared windows using a multiphoton microscope. The aim was to test bismuth ferrite harmonic nanoparticles (BFO-HNPs) for their ability to monitor pulmonary macrophages in mice. BFO-loaded MH-S macrophages are given intratracheally to healthy mice or BFO-HNPs are intranasally instilled in mice with allergic airway inflammation and lung sections of up to 100 μM are prepared. Read More

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December 2018
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Disruption of the default mode network and its intrinsic functional connectivity underlies minor hallucinations in Parkinson's disease.

Mov Disord 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Movement Disorders Unit, Neurology Department, Sant Pau Hospital, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: Minor hallucinations and well-structured hallucinations are considered in the severity continuum of the psychotic spectrum associated with Parkinson's disease. Although their chronological relationship is largely unknown, the spatial patterns of brain atrophy in these 2 forms of hallucinations partially overlap, suggesting they share similar pathophysiological processes. Functional connectivity studies show that disruption of functional networks involved in perception and attention could be relevant in the emergence of well-structured hallucinations. Read More

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December 2018
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