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    5326 results match your criteria Cerebral Cortex [Journal]

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    Cytoskeletal Associated Filamin A and RhoA Affect Neural Progenitor Specification During Mitosis.
    Cereb Cortex 2018 Feb 16. Epub 2018 Feb 16.
    Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
    Neural progenitor proliferation and cell fate decision from self-renewal to differentiation are crucial factors in determining brain size and morphology. The cytoskeletal dependent regulation of these processes is not entirely known. The actin-binding filamin A (FlnA) was shown to regulate proliferation of progenitors by directing changes in cell cycles proteins such as Cdk1 during G2/M phase. Read More

    Neonatal Ethanol Disturbs the Normal Maturation of Parvalbumin Interneurons Surrounded by Subsets of Perineuronal Nets in the Cerebral Cortex: Partial Reversal by Lithium.
    Cereb Cortex 2018 Feb 16. Epub 2018 Feb 16.
    Division of Analytical Psychopharmacology, Nathan Kline Institute for Psychiatric Research, Orangeburg, NY 10962, USA.
    Reduction in parvalbumin-positive (PV+) interneurons is observed in adult mice exposed to ethanol at postnatal day 7 (P7), a late gestation fetal alcohol spectrum disorder model. To evaluate whether PV+ cells are lost, or PV expression is reduced, we quantified PV+ and associated perineuronal net (PNN)+ cell densities in barrel cortex. While PNN+ cell density was not reduced by P7 ethanol, PV cell density decreased by 25% at P90 with no decrease at P14. Read More

    Excitation of Cortical nNOS/NK1R Neurons by Hypocretin 1 is Independent of Sleep Homeostasis.
    Cereb Cortex 2018 Feb 16. Epub 2018 Feb 16.
    Center for Neuroscience, Biosciences Division, SRI International, Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA.
    We have proposed that cortical nNOS/NK1R interneurons have a role in sleep homeostasis. The hypocretins (orexins) are wake-promoting neuropeptides and hypocretin/orexin (Hcrt) neurons project to the cortex. Hcrt peptides affect deep layer cortical neurons, and Hcrt receptor 1 (Hcrtr1; Ox1r) mRNA is expressed in cortical nNOS/NK1R cells. Read More

    Differential Dependence of GABAergic and Glutamatergic Neurons on Glia for the Establishment of Synaptic Transmission.
    Cereb Cortex 2018 Feb 7. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    Institute for Integrative Neuroanatomy, NeuroCure Cluster of Excellence, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, 10115 Berlin, Germany.
    In the mammalian cortex, GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons represent 2 major neuronal classes, which establish inhibitory and excitatory synapses, respectively. Despite differences in their anatomy, physiology and developmental origin, both cell types require support from glial cells, particularly astrocytes, for their growth and survival. Recent experiments indicate that glutamatergic neurons also depend on astrocytes for synapse formation. Read More

    System-Specific Patterns of Thalamocortical Connectivity in Early Brain Development as Revealed by Structural and Functional MRI.
    Cereb Cortex 2018 Feb 7. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA.
    The normal development of thalamocortical connections plays a critical role in shaping brain connectivity in the prenatal and postnatal periods. Recent studies using advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques in neonates and infants have shown that abnormal thalamocortical connectivity is associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. However, all these studies have focused on a single neuroimaging modality, overlooking the dynamic relationship between structure and function at this early stage. Read More

    Prenatal Stress, Mood, and Gray Matter Volume in Young Adulthood.
    Cereb Cortex 2018 Feb 7. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    Rotman Research Institute, Baycrest, Toronto, ON M6A 2EI, Canada.
    This study aimed to determine whether prenatal stress, measured by the number of stressful life events during the first 20 weeks of pregnancy, might relate to mood dysregulation and altered brain structure in young adulthood. Participants included 93 young adults from a community-based birth cohort from the Czech Republic. Information on prenatal stress exposure was collected from their mothers in 1990-1992. Read More

    Global White Matter Diffusion Characteristics Predict Longitudinal Cognitive Change Independently of Amyloid Status in Clinically Normal Older Adults.
    Cereb Cortex 2018 Feb 7. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    Department of Radiology, Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02129, USA.
    White matter degradation has been proposed as one possible explanation for age-related cognitive decline. In the present study, we examined 2 main questions: 1) Do diffusion characteristics predict longitudinal change in cognition independently or synergistically with amyloid status? 2) Are the effects of diffusion characteristics on longitudinal cognitive change tract-specific or global in nature? Cognitive domains of executive function, episodic memory, and processing speed were measured annually (mean follow-up = 3.93 ± 1. Read More

    Determinants of Optogenetic Cortical Spreading Depolarizations.
    Cereb Cortex 2018 Feb 7. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, MA, USA.
    Cortical spreading depolarization (SD) is the electrophysiological event underlying migraine aura, and a critical contributor to secondary damage after brain injury. Experimental models of SD have been used for decades in migraine and brain injury research; however, they are highly invasive and often cause primary tissue injury, diminishing their translational value. Here we present a non-invasive method to trigger SDs using light-induced depolarization in transgenic mice expressing channelrhodopsin-2 in neurons (Thy1-ChR2-YFP). Read More

    Self-Face Recognition Begins to Share Active Region in Right Inferior Parietal Lobule with Proprioceptive Illusion During Adolescence.
    Cereb Cortex 2018 Feb 6. Epub 2018 Feb 6.
    Center for Information and Neural Networks (CiNet), National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT), 2A6 1-4 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan.
    We recently reported that right-side dominance of the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) in self-body recognition (proprioceptive illusion) task emerges during adolescence in typical human development. Here, we extend this finding by demonstrating that functional lateralization to the right IPL also develops during adolescence in another self-body (specifically a self-face) recognition task. We collected functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from 60 right-handed healthy children (8-11 years), adolescents (12-15 years), and adults (18-23 years; 20 per group) while they judged whether a presented face was their own (Self) or that of somebody else (Other). Read More

    Rab23 Regulates Radial Migration of Projection Neurons via N-cadherin.
    Cereb Cortex 2018 Feb 6. Epub 2018 Feb 6.
    Neuroscience Academic Clinical Programme, Duke-NUS Medical School, Singapore 169857, Singapore.
    Radial migration of cortical projection neurons is a prerequisite for shaping a distinct multilayered cerebral cortex during mammalian corticogenesis. Members of Rab GTPases family were reported to regulate radial migration. Here, in vivo conditional knockout or in utero knockdown (KD) of Rab23 in mice neocortex causes aberrant polarity and halted migration of cortical projection neurons. Read More

    Cerebellar Functional Connectivity in Term- and Very Preterm-Born Infants.
    Cereb Cortex 2018 Feb 6. Epub 2018 Feb 6.
    Department of Neurology, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO 63110, USA.
    Cortical resting state networks have been consistently identified in infants using resting state-functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). Comparable studies in adults have demonstrated cerebellar components of well-established cerebral networks. However, there has been limited investigation of early cerebellar functional connectivity. Read More

    Environmental Influences on Infant Cortical Thickness and Surface Area.
    Cereb Cortex 2018 Feb 6. Epub 2018 Feb 6.
    Department of Psychiatry, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA.
    Cortical thickness (CT) and surface area (SA) vary widely between individuals and are associated with intellectual ability and risk for various psychiatric and neurodevelopmental conditions. Factors influencing this variability remain poorly understood, but the radial unit hypothesis, as well as the more recent supragranular cortex expansion hypothesis, suggests that prenatal and perinatal influences may be particularly important. In this report, we examine the impact of 17 major demographic and obstetric history variables on interindividual variation in CT and SA in a unique sample of 805 neonates who received MRI scans of the brain around 2 weeks of age. Read More

    Neural Representations of the Full Spatial Field in Auditory Cortex of Awake Marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).
    Cereb Cortex 2018 Feb 6. Epub 2018 Feb 6.
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21025, USA.
    Unlike visual signals, sound can reach the ears from any direction, and the ability to localize sounds from all directions is essential for survival in a natural environment. Previous studies have largely focused on the space in front of a subject that is also covered by vision and were often limited to measuring spatial tuning along the horizontal (azimuth) plane. As a result, we know relatively little about how the auditory cortex responds to sounds coming from spatial locations outside the frontal space where visual information is unavailable. Read More

    PDK1 Deficit Impairs the Development of the Dentate Gyrus in Mice.
    Cereb Cortex 2018 Feb 6. Epub 2018 Feb 6.
    Department of Neurobiology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 2111666, China.
    3-Phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1) is crucial for the development of the dentate gyrus (DG), the first gateway receiving afferent inputs from the entorhinal cortex. However, the role of PDK1 in DG development is unclear. In the present study, by crossing Pdk1fl/fl mice with the Emx1-cre line, we identified that the ablation of PDK1 disrupted the development of DG via decreasing the proliferation, and increasing the differentiation of dentate neural progenitor cells, downregulating AKT activity and upregulating GSK3β signaling. Read More

    The Prolonged Masking of Temporal Acoustic Inputs with Noise Drives Plasticity in the Adult Rat Auditory Cortex.
    Cereb Cortex 2018 Jan 30. Epub 2018 Jan 30.
    Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada H3A 2B4.
    The prolonged masking of auditory inputs with white noise has been shown to reopen the critical period for spectral tuning in the adult rat auditory cortex. Here, we argue that the masking of salient temporal inputs in particular is responsible for changes in neuronal activity that lead to this experience-dependent plasticity. We tested this hypothesis by passively exposing adult rats to 2 weeks of amplitude-modulated (AM) white noise with different modulation depths from 0% (no modulation) to 100% (strong modulation). Read More

    Single Neurons in Anterior Cingulate Cortex Signal the Need to Change Action During Performance of a Stop-change Task that Induces Response Competition.
    Cereb Cortex 2018 Feb 3. Epub 2018 Feb 3.
    Department of Psychology, University of Maryland, 1120 Biology-Psychology Building, College Park, MD 20742, USA.
    Several human imaging studies have suggested that anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is highly active when participants receive competing inputs, and that these signals may be important for influencing the downstream planning of actions. Despite increasing evidence from several neuroimaging studies, no study has examined ACC activity at the level of the single neuron in rodents performing similar tasks. To fill this gap, we recorded from single neurons in ACC while rats performed a stop-change task. Read More

    Verbal Creativity Correlates with the Temporal Variability of Brain Networks During the Resting State.
    Cereb Cortex 2018 Feb 3. Epub 2018 Feb 3.
    Key Laboratory of Cognition and Personality (SWU), Ministry of Education, Chongqing 400715, China.
    Creativity is the ability to see the world in new ways. Creative individuals exhibit the ability to switch between different modes of thinking and shift their mental focus. This suggests a connection between creativity and dynamic interactions of brain networks. Read More

    Polycomb Protein Eed is Required for Neurogenesis and Cortical Injury Activation in the Subventricular Zone.
    Cereb Cortex 2018 Feb 3. Epub 2018 Feb 3.
    Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3QX, UK.
    The postnatal subventricular zone (SVZ) harbors neural stem cells (NSCs) that exhibit robust neurogenesis. However, the epigenetic mechanisms that maintain NSCs and regulate neurogenesis remain unclear. We report that label-retaining SVZ NSCs express Eed, the core component of Polycomb repressive complex 2. Read More

    Temporal Regulation of Dendritic Spines Through NrCAM-Semaphorin3F Receptor Signaling in Developing Cortical Pyramidal Neurons.
    Cereb Cortex 2018 Feb 3. Epub 2018 Feb 3.
    Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA.
    Neuron-glial related cell adhesion molecule NrCAM is a newly identified negative regulator of spine density that genetically interacts with Semaphorin3F (Sema3F), and is implicated in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). To investigate a role for NrCAM in spine pruning during the critical adolescent period when networks are established, we generated novel conditional, inducible NrCAM mutant mice (Nex1Cre-ERT2: NrCAMflox/flox). We demonstrate that NrCAM functions cell autonomously during adolescence in pyramidal neurons to restrict spine density in the visual (V1) and medial frontal cortex (MFC). Read More

    Eye Movement Reinstatement and Neural Reactivation During Mental Imagery.
    Cereb Cortex 2018 Feb 3. Epub 2018 Feb 3.
    Rotman Research Institute at Baycrest, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M6A 2E1.
    Half a century ago, Donald Hebb posited that mental imagery is a constructive process that emulates perception. Specifically, Hebb claimed that visual imagery results from the reactivation of neural activity associated with viewing images. He also argued that neural reactivation and imagery benefit from the re-enactment of eye movement patterns that first occurred at viewing (fixation reinstatement). Read More

    Distinct Neocortical Progenitor Lineages Fine-tune Neuronal Diversity in a Layer-specific Manner.
    Cereb Cortex 2018 Feb 3. Epub 2018 Feb 3.
    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02118, USA.
    How the variety of neurons that organize into neocortical layers and functional areas arises is a central question in the study of cortical development. While both intrinsic and extrinsic cues are known to influence this process, whether distinct neuronal progenitor groups contribute to neuron diversity and allocation is poorly understood. Using in vivo genetic fate-mapping combined with whole-cell patch clamp recording, we show that the firing pattern and apical dendritic morphology of excitatory neurons in layer 4 of the barrel cortex are specified in part by their neural precursor lineage. Read More

    Training and Spontaneous Reinforcement of Neuronal Assemblies by Spike Timing Plasticity.
    Cereb Cortex 2018 Feb 3. Epub 2018 Feb 3.
    Center for the Neural Basis of Cognition, University of Pittsburgh and Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA.
    The synaptic connectivity of cortex is plastic, with experience shaping the ongoing interactions between neurons. Theoretical studies of spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) have focused on either just pairs of neurons or large-scale simulations. A simple analytic account for how fast spike time correlations affect both microscopic and macroscopic network structure is lacking. Read More

    Genetic Variation of a DRD2 Co-expression Network is Associated with Changes in Prefrontal Function After D2 Receptors Stimulation.
    Cereb Cortex 2018 Feb 3. Epub 2018 Feb 3.
    Group of Psychiatric Neuroscience, Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Neuroscience and Sense Organs, University of Bari Aldo Moro, Bari 70124, Italy.
    Dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs) contribute to the inverted U-shaped relationship between dopamine signaling and prefrontal function. Genetic networks from post-mortem human brain revealed 84 partner genes co-expressed with DRD2. Moreover, eight functional single nucleotide polymorphisms combined into a polygenic co-expression index (PCI) predicted co-expression of this DRD2 network and were associated with prefrontal function in humans. Read More

    Frontoparietal Activity Interacts With Task-Evoked Changes in Functional Connectivity.
    Cereb Cortex 2018 Feb 3. Epub 2018 Feb 3.
    Helen Wills Neuroscience Institute and Department of Psychology, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.
    Flexible interactions between brain regions enable neural systems to adaptively transfer and process information. However, the neural substrates that regulate adaptive communications between brain regions are understudied. In this human fMRI study, we investigated this issue by tracking time-varying, task-evoked changes in functional connectivity between localized occipitotemporal regions while participants performed different tasks on the same visually presented stimuli. Read More

    Distinct Beta-band Oscillatory Circuits Underlie Corticospinal Gain Modulation.
    Cereb Cortex 2018 Feb 3. Epub 2018 Feb 3.
    Division of Functional and Restorative Neurosurgery, and Centre for Integrative Neuroscience, Eberhard Karls University Tuebingen, 72076 Tuebingen, Germany.
    Rhythmic synchronization of neurons is known to affect neuronal interactions. In the motor system, oscillatory power fluctuations modulate corticospinal excitability. However, previous research addressing phase-specific gain modulation in the motor system has resulted in contradictory findings. Read More

    Foxg1 Overexpression in Neocortical Pyramids Stimulates Dendrite Elongation Via Hes1 and pCreb1 Upregulation.
    Cereb Cortex 2018 Jan 28. Epub 2018 Jan 28.
    Lab of Cerebral Cortex Development, Neuroscience Area, SISSA, via Bonomea 265-34136 Trieste, Italy.
    The architecture of neocortical projection neurons is subject of a complex gene control. Here we demonstrated that Foxg1, a transcription factor gene which patterns the early rostral brain and sets the pace of telencephalic neuronogenesis, specifically stimulates dendrite elongation. This phenomenon occurs in vivo like in vitro, and it is detectable even upon moderate changes of Foxg1 expression levels. Read More

    Genetic Influences on the Development of Cerebral Cortical Thickness During Childhood and Adolescence in a Dutch Longitudinal Twin Sample: The Brainscale Study.
    Cereb Cortex 2018 Jan 25. Epub 2018 Jan 25.
    Department of Psychiatry, Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 5384 CX Utrecht, the Netherlands.
    Previous studies have demonstrated that cortical thickness (CT) is under strong genetic control across the life span. However, little is known about genetic influences that cause changes in cortical thickness (ΔCT) during brain development. We obtained 482 longitudinal MRI scans at ages 9, 12, and 17 years from 215 twins and applied structural equation modeling to estimate genetic influences on (1) cortical thickness between regions and across time, and (2) changes in cortical thickness between ages. Read More

    Subthreshold Activity Underlying the Diversity and Selectivity of the Primary Auditory Cortex Studied by Intracellular Recordings in Awake Marmosets.
    Cereb Cortex 2018 Jan 25. Epub 2018 Jan 25.
    Laboratory of Auditory Neurophysiology, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.
    Extracellular recording studies have revealed diverse and selective neural responses in the primary auditory cortex (A1) of awake animals. However, we have limited knowledge on subthreshold events that give rise to these responses, especially in non-human primates, as intracellular recordings in awake animals pose substantial technical challenges. We developed a novel intracellular recording technique in awake marmosets to systematically study subthreshold activity of A1 neurons that underlies their diverse and selective spiking responses. Read More

    Genetic Complexity of Cortical Structure: Differences in Genetic and Environmental Factors Influencing Cortical Surface Area and Thickness.
    Cereb Cortex 2018 Jan 25. Epub 2018 Jan 25.
    Queensland Brain Institute, University of Queensland, Brisbane QLD 4072, Australia.
    Quantifying the genetic architecture of the cerebral cortex is necessary for understanding disease and changes to the brain across the lifespan. Prior work shows that both surface area (SA) and cortical thickness (CT) are heritable. However, we do not yet understand the extent to which region-specific genetic factors (i. Read More

    Presynaptic GABAA Receptors Modulate Thalamocortical Inputs in Layer 4 of Rat V1.
    Cereb Cortex 2018 Jan 24. Epub 2018 Jan 24.
    Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, SUNY-Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA.
    Fast inhibitory GABAergic transmission plays a fundamental role in neural circuits. Current theories of cortical function assume that fast GABAergic inhibition acts via GABAA receptors on postsynaptic neurons, while presynaptic effects of GABA depend on GABAB receptor activation. Manipulations of GABAA receptor activity in vivo produced different effects on cortical function, which were generally ascribed to the mode of action of a drug, more than its site of action. Read More

    Cortical Responses to Input From Distant Areas are Modulated by Local Spontaneous Alpha/Beta Oscillations.
    Cereb Cortex 2018 Jan 24. Epub 2018 Jan 24.
    Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA.
    Any given area in human cortex may receive input from multiple, functionally heterogeneous areas, potentially representing different processing threads. Alpha (8-13 Hz) and beta oscillations (13-20 Hz) have been hypothesized by other investigators to gate local cortical processing, but their influence on cortical responses to input from other cortical areas is unknown. To study this, we measured the effect of local oscillatory power and phase on cortical responses elicited by single-pulse electrical stimulation (SPES) at distant cortical sites, in awake human subjects implanted with intracranial electrodes for epilepsy surgery. Read More

    Fear Extinction Recall Modulates Human Frontomedial Theta and Amygdala Activity.
    Cereb Cortex 2018 Jan 24. Epub 2018 Jan 24.
    Department of Psychology, Personality Psychology and Assessment, University of Marburg, 35032 Marburg, Germany.
    Human functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electroencephalography (EEG) studies, as well as animal studies, indicate that the amygdala and frontomedial brain regions are critically involved in conditioned fear and that frontomedial oscillations in the theta range (4-8 Hz) may support communication between these brain regions. However, few studies have used a multimodal approach to probe interactions among these key regions in humans. Here, our goal was to bridge the gap between prior human fMRI, EEG, and animal findings. Read More

    A Brief History of the Encoding of Hand Position by the Cerebral Cortex: Implications for Motor Control and Cognition.
    Cereb Cortex 2018 Jan 24. Epub 2018 Jan 24.
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, SAPIENZA University of Rome, 00185 Rome, Italy.
    Encoding hand position by the cerebral cortex is essential not only for the neural representation of the body image but also for different actions based on eye-hand coordination. These include reaching for visual objects as well as complex movement sequences, such as tea-making, tool use, and object construction, among many others. All these functions depend on a continuous refreshing of the hand position representation, relying on both predictive signaling and afferent information. Read More

    On the Neural and Mechanistic Bases of Self-Control.
    Cereb Cortex 2018 Jan 24. Epub 2018 Jan 24.
    Department of Psychology, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA.
    Intertemporal choice requires a dynamic interaction between valuation and deliberation processes. While evidence identifying candidate brain areas for each of these processes is well established, the precise mechanistic role carried out by each brain region is still debated. In this article, we present a computational model that clarifies the unique contribution of frontoparietal cortex regions to intertemporal decision making. Read More

    Physiological and Anatomical Outputs of Rat Genital Cortex.
    Cereb Cortex 2018 Jan 24. Epub 2018 Jan 24.
    Bernstein Center for Computational Neuroscience Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, 10115 Berlin, Germany.
    Rat somatosensory genital cortex contains a large sexually monomorphic representation of the penis in males and the clitoris in females. Genital cortex microstimulation-evoked movements of legs, trunk and genitals, which showed sex-specific differences related to mating behaviors and included thrusting in males and lordosis-like movements in females. Erections/tumescence of penis or clitoris could not be evoked, however. Read More

    Neonatal Hypoxia-Ischemia Causes Functional Circuit Changes in Subplate Neurons.
    Cereb Cortex 2018 Jan 20. Epub 2018 Jan 20.
    Department of Biology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA.
    Neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI) in the preterm human results in damage to subcortical developing white matter and cognitive impairments. Subplate neurons (SPNs) are among the first-born cortical neurons and are necessary for normal cerebral development. While moderate or severe HI at P1 in rats leads to SPN loss, it is unclear if HI, esp. Read More

    Neural Evidence for the Contribution of Active Suppression During Working Memory Filtering.
    Cereb Cortex 2018 Jan 20. Epub 2018 Jan 20.
    Department of Psychology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA.
    In order to efficiently process incoming visual information, selective attention acts as a filter that enhances relevant and suppresses irrelevant information. In this study, we used an event-related potential (ERP) approach with systematic lateralization to investigate enhancement and suppression during encoding of information into visual working memory (WM) separately. We used a change detection task in which observers had to memorize some items while ignoring other items. Read More

    Encoding of Auditory Temporal Gestalt in the Human Brain.
    Cereb Cortex 2018 Jan 20. Epub 2018 Jan 20.
    Department of Radiology.
    The perception of an acoustic rhythm is invariant to the absolute temporal intervals constituting a sound sequence. It is unknown where in the brain temporal Gestalt, the percept emerging from the relative temporal proximity between acoustic events, is encoded. Two different relative temporal patterns, each induced by three experimental conditions with different absolute temporal patterns as sensory basis, were presented to participants. Read More

    Core Differences in Synaptic Signaling Between Primary Visual and Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex.
    Cereb Cortex 2018 Jan 17. Epub 2018 Jan 17.
    Department of Neuroscience, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT06510, USA.
    Neurons in primary visual cortex (V1) are more resilient than those in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) in aging, schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. The current study compared glutamate and neuromodulatory actions in macaque V1 to those in dlPFC, and found striking regional differences. V1 neuronal firing to visual stimuli depended on AMPA receptors, with subtle NMDA receptor contributions, while dlPFC depends primarily on NMDA receptors. Read More

    The Roles of Left Versus Right Anterior Temporal Lobes in Semantic Memory: A Neuropsychological Comparison of Postsurgical Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Patients.
    Cereb Cortex 2018 Jan 17. Epub 2018 Jan 17.
    Neuroscience and Aphasia Research Unit (NARU), University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, UK.
    The presence and degree of specialization between the anterior temporal lobes (ATLs) is a key issue in debates about the neural architecture of semantic memory. Here, we comprehensively assessed multiple aspects of semantic cognition in a large group of postsurgical temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients with left versus right anterior temporal lobectomy (n = 40). Both subgroups showed deficits in expressive and receptive verbal semantic tasks, word and object recognition, naming and recognition of famous faces and perception of faces and emotions. Read More

    Lack of Methyl-CpG Binding Protein 2 (MeCP2) Affects Cell Fate Refinement During Embryonic Cortical Development.
    Cereb Cortex 2018 Jan 17. Epub 2018 Jan 17.
    San Raffaele Rett Research Unit, Division of Neuroscience, San Raffaele Hospital, 20132 Milan, Italy.
    During differentiation, neurons progressively restrict their fate repressing the expression of specific genes. Here we describe the involvement in such developmental steps of the methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2), an epigenetic factor that participates to chromatin folding and transcriptional regulation. We previously reported that, due to transcriptional impairments, the maturation of Mecp2 null neurons is delayed. Read More

    Rhythmic Spontaneous Activity Mediates the Age-Related Decline in Somatosensory Function.
    Cereb Cortex 2018 Jan 12. Epub 2018 Jan 12.
    Department of Neurological Sciences, University of Nebraska Medical Center (UNMC), Omaha, NE 68198-8422, USA.
    Sensory gating is a neurophysiological process whereby the response to a second stimulus in a pair of identical stimuli is attenuated, and it is thought to reflect the capacity of the CNS to preserve neural resources for behaviorally relevant stimuli. Such gating is observed across multiple sensory modalities and is modulated by age, but the mechanisms involved are not understood. In this study, we examined somatosensory gating in 68 healthy adults using magnetoencephalography (MEG) and advanced oscillatory and time-domain analysis methods. Read More

    The Roles of Subdivisions of Human Insula in Emotion Perception and Auditory Processing.
    Cereb Cortex 2018 Jan 12. Epub 2018 Jan 12.
    Tsinghua Laboratory of Brain and Intelligence (THBI) and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, P.R. China.
    Previous studies have shown insular activations involving sensory, motor, and affective processing. However, the functional roles of subdivisions within the human insula are still not well understood. In the present study, we used intracranial electroencephalography and electrical cortical stimulation to investigate the causal roles of subdivisions of the insula in auditory emotion perception in epilepsy patients implanted with depth electrodes in this brain region. Read More

    An Orientation Map for Disparity-Defined Edges in Area V4.
    Cereb Cortex 2018 Jan 10. Epub 2018 Jan 10.
    State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning, IDG/McGovern Institute for Brain Research, and the Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China.
    Binocular disparity information is an important source of 3D perception. Neurons sensitive to binocular disparity are found in almost all major visual areas in nonhuman primates. In area V4, disparity processes are suggested for the purposes of 3D-shape representation and fine disparity perception. Read More

    Morphological and Functional Characterization of Non-fast-Spiking GABAergic Interneurons in Layer 4 Microcircuitry of Rat Barrel Cortex.
    Cereb Cortex 2018 Jan 10. Epub 2018 Jan 10.
    Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine, INM-2 and INM-10, Research Centre Jülich, D-52425 Jülich, Germany.
    GABAergic interneurons are notorious for their heterogeneity, despite constituting a small fraction of the neuronal population in the neocortex. Classification of interneurons is crucial for understanding their widespread cortical functions as they provide a complex and dynamic network, balancing excitation and inhibition. Here, we investigated different types of non-fast-spiking (nFS) interneurons in Layer 4 (L4) of rat barrel cortex using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings with biocytin-filling. Read More

    Reassessing the Evidence for Capacity Limits in Neural Signals Related to Working Memory.
    Cereb Cortex 2018 Jan 10. Epub 2018 Jan 10.
    Department of Psychology, University of Cambridge, Downing St, Cambridge CB2 3EB, UK.
    In 2004, two landmark studies described the discovery of brain imaging (functional magnetic resonance imaging and electroencephalography) signals that increase with the number of items held in visual working memory (WM). These studies claimed that the signals leveled off (plateaued) once the number of memoranda reached the capacity of WM, as estimated by the prevailing model of the time. However, alternative models were not considered, and changing concepts of WM in the more than a decade since these studies were published necessitate a re-evaluation of their findings; newer models that provide the most accurate account of behavioral data do not incorporate a fixed limit on the number of items stored. Read More

    Heterogeneous Redistribution of Facial Subcategory Information Within and Outside the Face-Selective Domain in Primate Inferior Temporal Cortex.
    Cereb Cortex 2018 Jan 10. Epub 2018 Jan 10.
    Department of Physiology, Niigata University School of Medicine, Niigata 951-8501, Japan.
    The inferior temporal cortex (ITC) contains neurons selective to multiple levels of visual categories. However, the mechanisms by which these neurons collectively construct hierarchical category percepts remain unclear. By comparing decoding accuracy with simultaneously acquired electrocorticogram (ECoG), local field potentials (LFPs), and multi-unit activity in the macaque ITC, we show that low-frequency LFPs/ECoG in the early evoked visual response phase contain sufficient coarse category (e. Read More

    Effects of Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Over the Ventrolateral Prefrontal Cortex on Episodic Memory Formation and Retrieval.
    Cereb Cortex 2018 Jan 10. Epub 2018 Jan 10.
    Department of Psychology, Kingston University, Penrhyn Road, Kingston Upon Thames, Surrey KT1 2EE, UK.
    In the past decade, several studies have investigated the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on episodic memory abilities. However, the specific conditions under which tDCS affects memory remain largely unclear. Here, we report data from 4 experiments aimed at investigating the effects of anodal tDCS over the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) on verbal episodic memory. Read More

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