5,657 results match your criteria Cerebral Cortex [Journal]


A Double Dissociation in Sensitivity to Verb and Noun Semantics Across Cortical Networks.

Cereb Cortex 2019 Feb 15. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA.

What is the neural organization of the mental lexicon? Previous research suggests that partially distinct cortical networks are active during verb and noun processing, but what information do these networks represent? We used multivoxel pattern analysis (MVPA) to investigate whether these networks are sensitive to lexicosemantic distinctions among verbs and among nouns and, if so, whether they are more sensitive to distinctions among words in their preferred grammatical class. Participants heard 4 types of verbs (light emission, sound emission, hand-related actions, mouth-related actions) and 4 types of nouns (birds, mammals, manmade places, natural places). As previously shown, the left posterior middle temporal gyrus (LMTG+), and inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) responded more to verbs, whereas the inferior parietal lobule (LIP), precuneus (LPC), and inferior temporal (LIT) cortex responded more to nouns. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/cercor/advance-article/doi/10.1093/
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhz014DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Anterior Intraparietal Area: A Hub in the Observed Manipulative Action Network.

Cereb Cortex 2019 Feb 15. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Parma, Via Volturno 39, Parma, Italy.

Current knowledge regarding the processing of observed manipulative actions (OMAs) (e.g., grasping, dragging, or dropping) is limited to grasping and underlying neural circuitry remains controversial. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhz011DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Aberrant Excitatory-Inhibitory Synaptic Mechanisms in Entorhinal Cortex Microcircuits During the Pathogenesis of Alzheimer's Disease.

Cereb Cortex 2019 Feb 15. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

UCL School of Pharmacy, University College London, London, UK.

Synaptic dysfunction is widely proposed as an initial insult leading to the neurodegeneration observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We hypothesize that the initial insult originates in the lateral entorhinal cortex (LEC) due to deficits in key interneuronal functions and synaptic signaling mechanisms, in particular, Wnt (Wingless/integrated). To investigate this hypothesis, we utilized the first knock-in mouse model of AD (AppNL-F/NL-F), expressing a mutant form of human amyloid-β (Aβ) precursor protein. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhz016DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Motivational Impairment is Accompanied by Corticoaccumbal Dysfunction in the BACHD-Tg5 Rat Model of Huntington's Disease.

Cereb Cortex 2019 Feb 7. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 20 Penn St., Baltimore, MD, USA.

Neuropsychiatric symptoms, such as avolition, apathy, and anhedonia, precede the onset of debilitating motor symptoms in Huntington's disease (HD), and their development may give insight into early disease progression and treatment. However, the neuronal and circuit mechanisms of premanifest HD pathophysiology are not well-understood. Here, using a transgenic rat model expressing the full-length human mutant HD gene, we find early and profound deficits in reward motivation in the absence of gross motor abnormalities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhz009DOI Listing
February 2019
8.665 Impact Factor

Corrigendum: Neurexins 1-3 Each Have a Distinct Pattern of Expression in the Early Developing Human Cerebral Cortex.

Cereb Cortex 2019 Feb 12. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Institute of Neuroscience, Newcastle University, Framlington Place, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhz012DOI Listing
February 2019

The Neural Dynamics of Familiar Face Recognition.

Cereb Cortex 2019 Feb 7. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Institute of Psychology, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Leutragraben 1, Jena, Germany.

In real-life situations, the appearance of a person's face can vary substantially across different encounters, making face recognition a challenging task for the visual system. Recent fMRI decoding studies have suggested that face recognition is supported by identity representations located in regions of the occipitotemporal cortex. Here, we used EEG to elucidate the temporal emergence of these representations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhz010DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Corrigendum: An Information-Driven 2-Pathway Characterization of Occipitotemporal and Posterior Parietal Visual Object Representations.

Cereb Cortex 2019 Feb 7. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Vision Sciences Laboratory, Department of Psychology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhy343DOI Listing
February 2019

Mapping Alterations of the Functional Structure of the Cerebral Cortex in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.

Cereb Cortex 2019 Feb 4. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Centro Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental, CIBERSAM, Barcelona, Spain.

We mapped alterations of the functional structure of the cerebral cortex using a novel imaging approach in a sample of 160 obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients. Whole-brain functional connectivity maps were generated using multidistance measures of intracortical neural activity coupling defined within isodistant local areas. OCD patients demonstrated neural activity desynchronization within the orbitofrontal cortex and in primary somatosensory, auditory, visual, gustatory, and olfactory areas. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhz008DOI Listing
February 2019
4 Reads
8.665 Impact Factor

Histological and MRI Study of the Development of the Human Indusium Griseum.

Cereb Cortex 2019 Feb 4. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Croatian Institute for Brain Research, School of Medicine, University of Zagreb, Šalata12, Zagreb, Croatia.

To uncover the ontogenesis of the human indusium griseum (IG), 28 post-mortem fetal human brains, 12-40 postconceptional weeks (PCW) of age, and 4 adult brains were analyzed immunohistochemically and compared with post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of 28 fetal brains (14-41 PCW). The morphogenesis of the IG occurred between 12 and 15 PCW, transforming the bilateral IG primordia into a ribbon-like cortical lamina. The histogenetic transition of sub-laminated zones into the three-layered cortical organization occurred between 15 and 35 PCW, concomitantly with rapid cell differentiation that occurred from 18 to 28 PCW and the elaboration of neuronal connectivity during the entire second half of gestation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhz004DOI Listing
February 2019
8.665 Impact Factor

Early Interactive Acoustic Experience with Non-speech Generalizes to Speech and Confers a Syllabic Processing Advantage at 9 Months.

Cereb Cortex 2019 Feb 4. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Center for Molecular & Behavioral Neuroscience, Rutgers University-Newark, 197 University Avenue, Newark, NJ, USA.

During early development, the infant brain is highly plastic and sensory experiences modulate emerging cortical maps, enhancing processing efficiency as infants set up key linguistic precursors. Early interactive acoustic experience (IAE) with spectrotemporally-modulated non-speech has been shown to facilitate optimal acoustic processing and generalizes to novel non-speech sounds at 7-months-of-age. Here we demonstrate that effects of non-speech IAE endure well beyond the immediate training period and robustly generalize to speech processing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhz001DOI Listing
February 2019

Disruption of Cortical Dopaminergic Modulation Impairs Preparatory Activity and Delays Licking Initiation.

Cereb Cortex 2019 Feb 4. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, USA.

Dysfunction of motor cortices is thought to contribute to motor disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD). However, little is known on the link between cortical dopaminergic loss, abnormalities in motor cortex neural activity and motor deficits. We address the role of dopamine in modulating motor cortical activity by focusing on the anterior lateral motor cortex (ALM) of mice performing a cued-licking task. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhz005DOI Listing
February 2019

The Cortical Neuroimmune Regulator TANK Affects Emotional Processing and Enhances Alcohol Drinking: A Translational Study.

Cereb Cortex 2019 Feb 4. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Centre for Population Neuroscience and Stratified Medicine (PONS) and MRC-SGDP Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College De Crespigny Park, London, UK.

Alcohol abuse is a major public health problem worldwide. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that control regular drinking may help to reduce hazards of alcohol consumption. While immunological mechanisms have been related to alcohol drinking, most studies reported changes in immune function that are secondary to alcohol use. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhy341DOI Listing
February 2019

Multimodal Parcellations and Extensive Behavioral Profiling Tackling the Hippocampus Gradient.

Cereb Cortex 2019 Feb 4. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Institute of Systems Neuroscience, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany.

The hippocampus displays a complex organization and function that is perturbed in many neuropathologies. Histological work revealed a complex arrangement of subfields along the medial-lateral and the ventral-dorsal dimension, which contrasts with the anterior-posterior functional differentiation. The variety of maps has raised the need for an integrative multimodal view. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhy336DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

The Subplate: A Potential Driver of Cortical Folding?

Cereb Cortex 2019 Feb 4. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

The Ritchie Centre, Hudson Institute of Medical Research, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia.

In many species of Mammalia, the surface of the brain develops from a smooth structure to one with many fissures and folds, allowing for vast expansion of the surface area of the cortex. The importance of understanding what drives cortical folding extends beyond mere curiosity, as conditions such as preterm birth, intrauterine growth restriction, and fetal alcohol syndrome are associated with impaired folding in the infant and child. Despite being a key feature of brain development, the mechanisms driving cortical folding remain largely unknown. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/cercor/advance-article/doi/10.1093/
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhz003DOI Listing
February 2019
3 Reads

Alterations in Oscillatory Behavior of Central Medial Thalamic Neurons Demonstrate a Key Role of CaV3.1 Isoform of T-Channels During Isoflurane-Induced Anesthesia.

Cereb Cortex 2019 Jan 31. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Department of Anesthesiology, University of Colorado, Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, USA.

Although the central medial nucleus (CeM) of the thalamus is an essential part of the arousal system for sleep and anesthesia initiation, the precise mechanisms that regulate its activity are not well studied. We examined the role of CaV3.1 isoform of T-type calcium channels (T-channels) in the excitability and rhythmic activity of CeM neurons during isoflurane (ISO)-induced anesthesia by using mouse genetics and selective pharmacology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhz002DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Objective Morphological Classification of Neocortical Pyramidal Cells.

Cereb Cortex 2019 Jan 31. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Blue Brain Project, Brain and Mind Institute, EPFL, Campus Biotech: CH 1202, Geneva, Switzerland.

A consensus on the number of morphologically different types of pyramidal cells (PCs) in the neocortex has not yet been reached, despite over a century of anatomical studies, due to the lack of agreement on the subjective classifications of neuron types, which is based on expert analyses of neuronal morphologies. Even for neurons that are visually distinguishable, there is no common ground to consistently define morphological types. The objective classification of PCs can be achieved with methods from algebraic topology, and the dendritic arborization is sufficient for the reliable identification of distinct types of cortical PCs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhy339DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Functional Alteration of Cerebello-Cerebral Coupling in an Experimental Mouse Model of Parkinson's Disease.

Cereb Cortex 2019 Jan 31. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Neurophysiology of Brain Circuits Team, Institut de Biologie de l'Ecole Normale Supérieure (IBENS), Ecole Normale Supérieure, CNRS, INSERM, PSL Research University, Paris, France.

In Parkinson's disease, the degeneration of the midbrain dopaminergic neurons is consistently associated with modified metabolic activity in the cerebellum. Here we examined the functional reorganization taking place in the cerebello-cerebral circuit in a murine model of Parkinson's disease with 6-OHDA lesion of midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Cerebellar optogenetic stimulations evoked similar movements in control and lesioned mice, suggesting a normal coupling of cerebellum to the motor effectors after the lesion. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhy346DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Distinctive Interaction Between Cognitive Networks and the Visual Cortex in Early Blind Individuals.

Cereb Cortex 2019 Jan 31. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Institut du Cerveau et de la Moelle épinière, ICM, Inserm U 1127, CNRS UMR 7225, Sorbonne Université, Paris, France.

In early blind individuals, brain activation by a variety of nonperceptual cognitive tasks extends to the visual cortex, while in the sighted it is restricted to supramodal association areas. We hypothesized that such activation results from the integration of different sectors of the visual cortex into typical task-dependent networks. We tested this hypothesis with fMRI in blind and sighted subjects using tasks assessing speech comprehension, incidental long-term memory and both verbal and nonverbal executive control, in addition to collecting resting-state data. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhz006DOI Listing
January 2019

Regional Specialization of Pyramidal Neuron Morphology and Physiology in the Tree Shrew Neocortex.

Cereb Cortex 2019 Jan 31. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Disorders of Neural Circuit Function, Max Planck Florida Institute for Neuroscience, Jupiter, USA.

The mammalian cerebral cortex is divided into different areas according to their function and pattern of connections. Studies comparing primary visual (V1) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) of primates have demonstrated striking pyramidal neuron (PN) specialization not present in comparable areas of the mouse neocortex. To better understand PFC evolution and regional PN specialization, we studied the tree shrew, a species with a close phylogenetic relationship to primates. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhy326DOI Listing
January 2019

The Dynamic Associations Between Cortical Thickness and General Intelligence are Genetically Mediated.

Cereb Cortex 2019 Jan 31. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Departments of Psychiatry and Genetics, Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University, PO Box 980126, Richmond, VA, USA.

The neural substrates of intelligence represent a fundamental but largely uncharted topic in human developmental neuroscience. Prior neuroimaging studies have identified modest but highly dynamic associations between intelligence and cortical thickness (CT) in childhood and adolescence. In a separate thread of research, quantitative genetic studies have repeatedly demonstrated that most measures of intelligence are highly heritable, as are many brain regions associated with intelligence. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/cercor/advance-article/doi/10.1093/
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhz007DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Reduced White Matter Fiber Density in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Cereb Cortex 2019 Jan 21. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

Alberta Children's Hospital Research Institute, University of Calgary, Calgary AB, Canada.

Differences in brain networks and underlying white matter abnormalities have been suggested to underlie symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, robustly characterizing microstructural white matter differences has been challenging. In the present study, we applied an analytic technique that calculates structural metrics specific to differently-oriented fiber bundles within a voxel, termed "fixels". Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/cercor/advance-article/doi/10.1093/
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhy348DOI Listing
January 2019
4 Reads

Thalamocortical Afferents Innervate the Cortical Subplate much Earlier in Development in Primate than in Rodent.

Cereb Cortex 2019 Jan 21. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

Institute of Neuroscience, Newcastle University, Framlington Place, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.

The current model, based on rodent data, proposes that thalamocortical afferents (TCA) innervate the subplate towards the end of cortical neurogenesis. This implies that the laminar identity of cortical neurons is specified by intrinsic instructions rather than information of thalamic origin. In order to determine whether this mechanism is conserved in the primates, we examined the growth of thalamocortical (TCA) and corticofugal afferents in early human and monkey fetal development. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhy327DOI Listing
January 2019

Biological Characteristics of Connection-Wise Resting-State Functional Connectivity Strength.

Cereb Cortex 2019 Jan 21. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

Connectome Lab, Department of Complex Trait Genetics, Center for Neurogenomics and Cognitive Research, Faculty of Science, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam Neuroscience, De Boelelaan 1081-1087, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Functional connectivity is defined as the statistical dependency of neurophysiological activity between 2 separate brain areas. To investigate the biological characteristics of resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC)-and in particular the significance of connection-wise variation in time-series correlations-rsFC was compared with strychnine-based connectivity measured in the macaque. Strychnine neuronography is a historical technique that induces activity in cortical areas through means of local administration of the substance strychnine. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhy342DOI Listing
January 2019

Selective Modulation of Early Visual Cortical Activity by Movement Intention.

Cereb Cortex 2019 Jan 21. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

Department of Psychology, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada.

The primate visual system contains myriad feedback projections from higher- to lower-order cortical areas, an architecture that has been implicated in the top-down modulation of early visual areas during working memory and attention. Here we tested the hypothesis that these feedback projections also modulate early visual cortical activity during the planning of visually guided actions. We show, across three separate human functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies involving object-directed movements, that information related to the motor effector to be used (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhy345DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Sequence Variation Associated with SLC12A5 Gene Expression Is Linked to Brain Structure and Function in Healthy Adults.

Cereb Cortex 2019 Jan 21. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

Section on Integrative Neuroimaging, Clinical and Translational Neuroscience Branch, National Institute of Mental Health Intramural Research Program, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.

A single-nucleotide polymorphism in the promoter region of the Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9) gene, rs3918242, has been shown to affect MMP9 expression in macrophages and was associated with schizophrenia by two independent groups. However, rs3918242's effects on MMP9 expression were not replicable in cell lines or brain tissue. Additionally, publically available data indicate that rs3918242 genotype is related not to MMP9 expression, but rather to expression of SLC12A5, a nearby gene coding for a K+/Cl- cotransporter, whose expression has also been related to schizophrenia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhy344DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Spontaneous Brain Activity Predicts Task-Evoked Activity During Animate Versus Inanimate Touch.

Cereb Cortex 2019 Jan 21. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

The Royal's Institute of Mental Health Research & University of Ottawa Brain and Mind Research Institute, Centre for Neural Dynamics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, 145 Carling Avenue, Rm. 6435, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

The spontaneous activity of the brain is characterized by an elaborate temporal structure with scale-free properties as indexed by the power law exponent (PLE). We test the hypothesis that spontaneous brain activity modulates task-evoked activity during interactions with animate versus inanimate stimuli. For this purpose, we developed a paradigm requiring participants to actively touch either animate (real hand) or inanimate (mannequin hand) stimuli. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhy340DOI Listing
January 2019
4 Reads

Plasticity in Adult Mouse Visual Cortex Following Optic Nerve Injury.

Cereb Cortex 2019 Jan 21. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Museum Avenue, Cardiff, UK.

Optic nerve (ON) injury is an established model of axonal injury which results in retrograde degeneration and death of retinal ganglion cells as well anterograde loss of transmission and Wallerian degeneration of the injured axons. While the local impact of ON crush has been extensively documented we know comparatively little about the functional changes that occur in higher visual structures such as primary visual cortex (V1). We explored the extent of adult cortical plasticity using ON crush in aged mice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhy347DOI Listing
January 2019
6 Reads

Neural Coding of Contact Events in Somatosensory Cortex.

Cereb Cortex 2019 Jan 21. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

Committee on Computational Neuroscience, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.

Manual interactions with objects require precise and rapid feedback about contact events. These tactile signals are integrated with motor plans throughout the neuraxis to achieve dexterous object manipulation. To better understand the role of somatosensory cortex in interactions with objects, we measured, using chronically implanted arrays of electrodes, the responses of populations of somatosensory neurons to skin indentations designed to simulate the initiation, maintenance, and termination of contact with an object. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhy337DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Enhanced Population Coding for Rewarded Choices in the Medial Frontal Cortex of the Mouse.

Cereb Cortex 2019 Jan 7. Epub 2019 Jan 7.

Interdepartmental Neuroscience Program, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.

Instrumental behavior is characterized by the selection of actions based on the degree to which they lead to a desired outcome. However, we lack a detailed understanding of how rewarded actions are reinforced and preferentially implemented. In rodents, the medial frontal cortex is hypothesized to play an important role in this process, based in part on its capacity to encode chosen actions and their outcomes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhy292DOI Listing
January 2019
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I See Your Effort: Force-Related BOLD Effects in an Extended Action Execution-Observation Network Involving the Cerebellum.

Cereb Cortex 2019 Mar;29(3):1351-1368

Department of Brain and Behavioral Sciences, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.

Action observation (AO) is crucial for motor planning, imitation learning, and social interaction, but it is not clear whether and how an action execution-observation network (AEON) processes the effort of others engaged in performing actions. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we used a "squeeze ball" task involving different grip forces to investigate whether AEON activation showed similar patterns when executing the task or observing others performing it. Both in action execution, AE (subjects performed the visuomotor task) and action observation, AO (subjects watched a video of the task being performed by someone else), the fMRI signal was detected in cerebral and cerebellar regions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhy322DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Hemispheric Module-Specific Influence of the X Chromosome on White Matter Connectivity: Evidence from Girls with Turner Syndrome.

Cereb Cortex 2019 Jan 7. Epub 2019 Jan 7.

State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning & IDG/McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China.

Turner syndrome (TS) is caused by the congenital absence of all or part of one of the X chromosomes in females, offering a valuable human "knockout model" to study the functioning patterns of the X chromosome in the human brain. Little is known about whether and how the loss of the X chromosome influences the brain structural wiring patterns in human. We acquired a multimodal MRI dataset and cognitive assessments from 22 girls with TS and 21 age-matched control girls to address these questions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhy335DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Nestin Regulates Neurogenesis in Mice Through Notch Signaling From Astrocytes to Neural Stem Cells.

Cereb Cortex 2019 Jan 3. Epub 2019 Jan 3.

Laboratory of Astrocyte Biology and CNS Regeneration, Center for Brain Repair, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

The intermediate filament (nanofilament) protein nestin is a marker of neural stem cells, but its role in neurogenesis, including adult neurogenesis, remains unclear. Here, we investigated the role of nestin in neurogenesis in adult nestin-deficient (Nes-/-) mice. We found that the proliferation of Nes-/- neural stem cells was not altered, but neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of Nes-/- mice was increased. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhy284DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Neural Interactions Underlying Visuomotor Associations in the Human Brain.

Cereb Cortex 2018 Dec 27. Epub 2018 Dec 27.

Departments of Ophthalmology and Neurosurgery, Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA, US.

Rapid and flexible learning during behavioral choices is critical to our daily endeavors and constitutes a hallmark of dynamic reasoning. An important paradigm to examine flexible behavior involves learning new arbitrary associations mapping visual inputs to motor outputs. We conjectured that visuomotor rules are instantiated by translating visual signals into actions through dynamic interactions between visual, frontal and motor cortex. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhy333DOI Listing
December 2018
11 Reads

EphA4 Regulates Hippocampal Neural Precursor Proliferation in the Adult Mouse Brain by d-Serine Modulation of N-Methyl-d-Aspartate Receptor Signaling.

Cereb Cortex 2018 Dec 22. Epub 2018 Dec 22.

Queensland Brain Institute, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD, Australia.

The hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) is a major region of the adult rodent brain in which neurogenesis occurs throughout life. The EphA4 receptor, which regulates neurogenesis and boundary formation in the developing brain, is also expressed in the adult DG, but whether it regulates adult hippocampal neurogenesis is not known. Here, we show that, in the adult mouse brain, EphA4 inhibits hippocampal precursor cell proliferation but does not affect precursor differentiation or survival. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhy319DOI Listing
December 2018
4 Reads

Temporal Metacognition as the Decoding of Self-Generated Brain Dynamics.

Cereb Cortex 2018 Dec 22. Epub 2018 Dec 22.

Cognitive Neuroimaging Unit, CEA DRF/Joliot, INSERM, Université Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, NeuroSpin center, Gif/Yvette, France.

Metacognition, the ability to know about one's thought process, is self-referential. Here, we combined psychophysics and time-resolved neuroimaging to explore metacognitive inference on the accuracy of a self-generated behavior. Human participants generated a time interval and evaluated the signed magnitude of their temporal production. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhy318DOI Listing
December 2018
7 Reads

Differential Representations of Perceived and Retrieved Visual Information in Hippocampus and Cortex.

Cereb Cortex 2018 Dec 22. Epub 2018 Dec 22.

Laboratory of Brain and Cognition, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Memory retrieval is thought to depend on interactions between hippocampus and cortex, but the nature of representation in these regions and their relationship remains unclear. Here, we performed an ultra-high field fMRI (7T) experiment, comprising perception, learning and retrieval sessions. We observed a fundamental difference between representations in hippocampus and high-level visual cortex during perception and retrieval. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhy325DOI Listing
December 2018
8 Reads

Acquisition of Spatial Search Strategies and Reversal Learning in the Morris Water Maze Depend on Disparate Brain Functional Connectivity in Mice.

Cereb Cortex 2018 Dec 22. Epub 2018 Dec 22.

Laboratory of Biological Psychology, Department of Psychology, KU Leuven, Tiensestraat 102, Leuven, Belgium.

Learning has been proposed to coincide with changes in connections between brain regions. In the present study, we used resting-state fMRI (rsfMRI) to map brain-wide functional connectivity (FC) in mice that were trained in the hidden-platform version of the Morris water maze. C57BL6 mice were investigated in a small animal MRI scanner following 2, 10, or 15 days of acquisition learning, or 5 days of reversal learning. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/cercor/advance-article/doi/10.1093/
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhy329DOI Listing
December 2018
7 Reads

Ceftriaxone Treatment Preserves Cortical Inhibitory Interneuron Function via Transient Salvage of GLT-1 in a Rat Traumatic Brain Injury Model.

Cereb Cortex 2018 Dec 22. Epub 2018 Dec 22.

Department of Neurology, Division of Epilepsy and Clinical Neurophysiology, Neuromodulation Program, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in a decrease in glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1) expression, the major mechanism for glutamate removal from synapses. Coupled with an increase in glutamate release from dead and dying neurons, this causes an increase in extracellular glutamate. The ensuing glutamate excitotoxicity disproportionately damages vulnerable GABAergic parvalbumin-positive inhibitory interneurons, resulting in a progressively worsening cortical excitatory:inhibitory imbalance due to a loss of GABAergic inhibitory tone, as evidenced by chronic post-traumatic symptoms such as epilepsy, and supported by neuropathologic findings. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhy328DOI Listing
December 2018
3 Reads

Hippocampal Wdr1 Deficit Impairs Learning and Memory by Perturbing F-actin Depolymerization in Mice.

Cereb Cortex 2018 Dec 22. Epub 2018 Dec 22.

Department of Neurobiology, Key Laboratory of Human Functional Genomics of Jiangsu, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China.

WD repeat protein 1 (Wdr1), known as a cofactor of actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilin, is conserved among eukaryotes, and it plays a critical role in the dynamic reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. However, the function of Wdr1 in the central nervous system remains elusive. Using Wdr1 conditional knockout mice, we demonstrated that Wdr1 plays a significant role in regulating synaptic plasticity and memory. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhy301DOI Listing
December 2018
13 Reads

Corrigendum: Dissociation of Appetitive Overexpectation and Extinction in the Infralimbic Cortex.

Cereb Cortex 2018 Dec 27. Epub 2018 Dec 27.

Department of Psychology, Center for Studies in Behavioral Neurobiology, Concordia University, Montreal, QC, Canada.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhy338DOI Listing
December 2018
7 Reads

Waves of Maturation and Senescence in Micro-structural MRI Markers of Human Cortical Myelination over the Lifespan.

Cereb Cortex 2019 Mar;29(3):1369-1381

Brain Mapping Unit, Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

Seminal human brain histology work has demonstrated developmental waves of myelination. Here, using a micro-structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) marker linked to myelin, we studied fine-grained age differences to deduce waves of growth, stability, and decline of cortical myelination over the life-cycle. In 484 participants, aged 8-85 years, we fitted smooth growth curves to T1- to T2-weighted ratio in each of 360 regions from one of seven cytoarchitectonic classes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhy330DOI Listing
March 2019
7 Reads

Aging-Related Changes in Cognition and Cortical Integrity are Associated With Serum Expression of Candidate MicroRNAs for Alzheimer Disease.

Cereb Cortex 2018 Dec 22. Epub 2018 Dec 22.

Laboratory of Functional Neuroscience, Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, Spain.

Evidence has shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in molecular pathways responsible for aging and prevalent aging-related chronic diseases. However, the lack of research linking circulating levels of miRNAs to changes in the aging brain hampers clinical translation. Here, we have investigated if serum expression of brain-enriched miRNAs that have been proposed as potential biomarkers in Alzheimer's disease (AD) (miR-9, miR-29b, miR-34a, miR-125b, and miR-146a) are also associated with cognitive functioning and changes of the cerebral cortex in normal elderly subjects. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhy323DOI Listing
December 2018
6 Reads

erbb4 Deficits in Chandelier Cells of the Medial Prefrontal Cortex Confer Cognitive Dysfunctions: Implications for Schizophrenia.

Cereb Cortex 2018 Dec 22. Epub 2018 Dec 22.

Center for Neuroscience and Department of Neurology of Second Affiliated Hospital, NHC and CAMS Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology, Joint Institute for Genetics and Genome Medicine between Zhejiang University and University of Toronto, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China.

erbb4 is a known susceptibility gene for schizophrenia. Chandelier cells (ChCs, also known as axo-axonic cells) are a distinct GABAergic interneuron subtype that exclusively target the axonal initial segment, which is the site of pyramidal neuron action potential initiation. ChCs are a source of ErbB4 expression and alterations in ChC-pyramidal neuron connectivity occur in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of schizophrenic patients and animal models of schizophrenia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhy316DOI Listing
December 2018
8 Reads

Direct Evidence for Prediction Signals in Frontal Cortex Independent of Prediction Error.

Cereb Cortex 2018 Dec 22. Epub 2018 Dec 22.

Edmond and Lily Safra Center for Brain Sciences and Department of Psychology, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Mount Scopus, Jerusalem, Israel.

Predictive coding (PC) has been suggested as one of the main mechanisms used by brains to interact with complex environments. PC theories posit top-down prediction signals, which are compared with actual outcomes, yielding in turn prediction error (PE) signals, which are used, bottom-up, to modify the ensuing predictions. However, disentangling prediction from PE signals has been challenging. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhy331DOI Listing
December 2018
7 Reads

Connectivity of Frontoparietal Regions Reveals Executive Attention and Consciousness Interactions.

Cereb Cortex 2018 Dec 27. Epub 2018 Dec 27.

Department of Experimental Psychology, and Mind, Brain, and Behavior Research Center (CIMCYC), University of Granada, Granada, Spain.

The executive control network is involved in the voluntary control of novel and complex situations. Solving conflict situations or detecting errors have demonstrated to impair conscious perception of near-threshold stimuli. The aim of this study was to explore the neural mechanisms underlying executive control and its interaction with conscious perception using functional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhy332DOI Listing
December 2018
9 Reads

Reorganization of Higher-Order Somatosensory Cortex After Sensory Loss from Hand in Squirrel Monkeys.

Cereb Cortex 2018 Dec 22. Epub 2018 Dec 22.

Department of Psychology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA.

Unilateral dorsal column lesions (DCL) at the cervical spinal cord deprive the hand regions of somatosensory cortex of tactile activation. However, considerable cortical reactivation occurs over weeks to months of recovery. While most studies focused on the reactivation of primary somatosensory area 3b, here, for the first time, we address how the higher-order somatosensory cortex reactivates in the same monkeys after DCL that vary across cases in completeness, post-lesion recovery times, and types of treatments. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhy317DOI Listing
December 2018
8 Reads

Building the Arrow of Time… Over Time: A Sequence of Brain Activity Mapping Imagined Events in Time and Space.

Cereb Cortex 2018 Dec 19. Epub 2018 Dec 19.

CEA, DRF/Joliot, NeuroSpin, INSERM, U992, Cognitive Neuroimaging Unit, Université Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, Gif/Yvette, France.

When moving, the spatiotemporal unfolding of events is bound to our physical trajectory, and time and space become entangled in episodic memory. When imagining past or future events, or being in different geographical locations, the temporal and spatial dimensions of mental events can be independently accessed and manipulated. Using time-resolved neuroimaging, we characterized brain activity while participants ordered historical events from different mental perspectives in time (e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhy320DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

Sex Differences Along the Autism Continuum: A Twin Study of Brain Structure.

Cereb Cortex 2019 Mar;29(3):1342-1350

Karolinska Institutet Center of Neurodevelopmental Disorders (KIND), Centre for Psychiatry Research, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Karolinska Institutet, and Stockholm Health Care Services, Stockholm County Council, CAP Research Centre, Sweden.

Females might possess protective mechanisms regarding autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and require a higher detrimental load, including structural brain alterations, before developing clinically relevant levels of autistic traits. This study examines sex differences in structural brain morphology in autism and autistic traits using a within-twin pair approach. Twin design inherently controls for shared confounders and enables the study of gene-independent neuroanatomical variation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhy303DOI Listing
March 2019
12 Reads

An Autonomic Network: Synchrony Between Slow Rhythms of Pulse and Brain Resting State Is Associated with Personality and Emotions.

Cereb Cortex 2018 Dec 19. Epub 2018 Dec 19.

Laboratory of Neuroimaging, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhy230DOI Listing
December 2018
3 Reads

The Superficial White Matter in Autism and Its Role in Connectivity Anomalies and Symptom Severity.

Cereb Cortex 2018 Dec 19. Epub 2018 Dec 19.

Multimodal Imaging and Connectome Analysis Laboratory, McConnell Brain Imaging Centre, Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 2B4, Canada.

In autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), the majority of neuroimaging studies have focused on the analysis of cortical morphology. White matter changes remain less understood, particularly their association to cortical structure and function. Here, we focused on region that has gained only little attention in ASD neuroimaging: the superficial white matter (SWM) immediately beneath the cortical interface, a compartment playing a prominent role in corticogenesis that incorporates long- and short-range fibers implicated in corticocortical connectivity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhy321DOI Listing
December 2018
14 Reads