5,433 results match your criteria Cerebral Cortex [Journal]


Quantitative Three-Dimensional Reconstructions of Excitatory Synaptic Boutons in Layer 5 of the Adult Human Temporal Lobe Neocortex: A Fine-Scale Electron Microscopic Analysis.

Cereb Cortex 2018 Jun 21. Epub 2018 Jun 21.

Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine INM-10, Research Centre Jülich GmbH, Leo-Brandt Str., Jülich, Germany.

Studies of synapses are available for different brain regions of several animal species including non-human primates, but comparatively little is known about their quantitative morphology in humans. Here, synaptic boutons in Layer 5 (L5) of the human temporal lobe (TL) neocortex were investigated in biopsy tissue, using fine-scale electron microscopy, and quantitative three-dimensional reconstructions. The size and organization of the presynaptic active zones (PreAZs), postsynaptic densities (PSDs), and that of the 3 distinct pools of synaptic vesicles (SVs) were particularly analyzed. Read More

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Toward Task Connectomics: Examining Whole-Brain Task Modulated Connectivity in Different Task Domains.

Cereb Cortex 2018 Jun 21. Epub 2018 Jun 21.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ, USA.

Human brain anatomical and resting-state functional connectivity have been comprehensively portrayed using MRI, which are termed anatomical and functional connectomes. A systematic examination of tasks modulated whole brain functional connectivity, which we term as task connectome, is still lacking. We analyzed 6 block-designed and 1 event-related designed functional MRI data, and examined whole-brain task modulated connectivity in various task domains, including emotion, reward, language, relation, social cognition, working memory, and inhibition. Read More

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Theta Oscillations Index Frontal Decision-Making and Mediate Reciprocal Frontal-Parietal Interactions in Willed Attention.

Cereb Cortex 2018 Jun 21. Epub 2018 Jun 21.

J. Crayton Pruitt Family Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.

Attention can be attracted reflexively by sensory signals, biased by learning or reward, or focused voluntarily based on momentary goals. When voluntary attention is focused by purely internal decision processes (will), rather than instructions via external cues, we call this "willed attention." In prior work, we reported ERP and fMRI correlates of willed spatial attention in trial-by-trial cuing tasks. Read More

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Altered Cortical and Hippocampal Excitability in TgF344-AD Rats Modeling Alzheimer's Disease Pathology.

Cereb Cortex 2018 Jun 16. Epub 2018 Jun 16.

Department of Comparative Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.

Current findings suggest that accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) and hyperphosphorylated tau in the brain disrupt synaptic function in hippocampal-cortical neuronal networks leading to impairment in cognitive and affective functions in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Development of new disease-modifying AD drugs are challenging due to the lack of predictive animal models and efficacy assays. In the present study we recorded neural activity in TgF344-AD rats, a transgenic model with a full array of AD pathological features, including age-dependent Aβ accumulation, tauopathy, neuronal loss, and cognitive impairments. Read More

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June 2018
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Sustained Activation of Postsynaptic 5-HT2A Receptors Gates Plasticity at Prefrontal Cortex Synapses.

Cereb Cortex 2018 Jun 16. Epub 2018 Jun 16.

Institut de Génomique Fonctionnelle, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, Université de Montpellier, Montpellier, France.

The prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays a key role in many high-level cognitive processes. It is densely innervated by serotonergic neurons originating from the dorsal and median raphe nuclei, which profoundly influence PFC activity. Among the 5-HT receptors abundantly expressed in PFC, 5-HT2A receptors located in dendrites of layer V pyramidal neurons control neuronal excitability and mediate the psychotropic effects of psychedelic hallucinogens, but their impact on glutamatergic transmission and synaptic plasticity remains poorly characterized. Read More

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June 2018
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Functional Segregation of the Right Inferior Frontal Gyrus: Evidence From Coactivation-Based Parcellation.

Cereb Cortex 2018 Apr 18. Epub 2018 Apr 18.

Institute of Systems Neuroscience, Medical Faculty, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany.

Previous studies helped unraveling the functional architecture of the human cerebral cortex. However, a comprehensive functional segregation of right lateral prefrontal cortex is missing. Here, we delineated cortical clusters in right area 44 and 45 based on their task-constrained whole-brain activation patterns across neuroimaging experiments obtained from a large database. Read More

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April 2018
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Ventromedial Prefrontal Volume in Adolescence Predicts Hyperactive/Inattentive Symptoms in Adulthood.

Cereb Cortex 2018 Apr 18. Epub 2018 Apr 18.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington, VT 05401, USA.

Youths with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptomatology often exhibit residual inattention and/or hyperactivity in adulthood; however, this is not true for all individuals. We recently reported that dimensional, multi-informant ratings of hyperactive/inattentive symptoms are associated with ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) structure. Herein, we investigate the degree to which vmPFC structure during adolescence predicts hyperactive/inattentive symptomatology at 5-year follow-up. Read More

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April 2018
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The Transcription Factor LHX1 Regulates the Survival and Directed Migration of POA-derived Cortical Interneurons.

Cereb Cortex 2018 Apr 18. Epub 2018 Apr 18.

Institute of Human Genetics, University Hospital Jena, 07747 Jena, Germany.

The delicate balance of excitation and inhibition is crucial for proper function of the cerebral cortex, relying on the accurate number and subtype composition of inhibitory gamma-aminobutyric (GABA)-expressing interneurons. Various intrinsic and extrinsic factors precisely orchestrate their multifaceted development including the long-range migration from the basal telencephalon to cortical targets as well as interneuron survival throughout the developmental period. Particularly expressed guidance receptors were described to channel the migration of cortical interneurons deriving from the medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) and the preoptic area (POA) along distinct routes. Read More

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Modality-specific Subpopulations of Place Fields Coexist in the Hippocampus.

Cereb Cortex 2018 Apr 18. Epub 2018 Apr 18.

Department Biology II, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, 82152 Martinsried, Germany.

Hippocampal place cells integrate signals from multiple sensory modalities. However, it is unclear how these different inputs are combined to generate place fields. We investigated how visual spatial cues and an animal's locomotion are integrated by CA3 place cells of Mongolian gerbils. Read More

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Cross-Task Contributions of Frontobasal Ganglia Circuitry in Response Inhibition and Conflict-Induced Slowing.

Cereb Cortex 2018 Apr 18. Epub 2018 Apr 18.

Department of Cognitive, Linguistic and Psychological Sciences, and Brown Institute for Brain Sciences, Brown University, Providence, 02912 Rhode Island, USA.

Why are we so slow in choosing the lesser of 2 evils? We considered whether such slowing relates to uncertainty about the value of these options, which arises from the tendency to avoid them during learning, and whether such slowing relates to frontosubthalamic inhibitory control mechanisms. In total, 49 participants performed a reinforcement-learning task and a stop-signal task while fMRI was recorded. A reinforcement-learning model was used to quantify learning strategies. Read More

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Foxg1 Regulates the Postnatal Development of Cortical Interneurons.

Cereb Cortex 2018 Apr 18. Epub 2018 Apr 18.

Key Laboratory of Developmental Genes and Human Diseases, MOE, School of Medicine, Southeast University, Nanjing 210009, P. R. China.

Abnormalities in cortical interneurons are closely associated with neurological diseases. Most patients with Foxg1 syndrome experience seizures, suggesting a possible role of Foxg1 in the cortical interneuron development. Here, by conditional deletion of Foxg1, which was achieved by crossing Foxg1fl/fl with the Gad2-CreER line, we found the postnatal distributions of somatostatin-, calretinin-, and neuropeptide Y-positive interneurons in the cortex were impaired. Read More

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Constitutive Inactivation of the PRRT2 Gene Alters Short-Term Synaptic Plasticity and Promotes Network Hyperexcitability in Hippocampal Neurons.

Cereb Cortex 2018 Apr 18. Epub 2018 Apr 18.

Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Genova, Viale Benedetto XV 3, 16132 Genova, Italy.

Mutations in PRoline-Rich Transmembrane protein 2 (PRRT2) underlie a group of paroxysmal disorders including epilepsy, kinesigenic dyskinesia and migraine. Most of the mutations lead to impaired PRRT2 expression and/or function, emphasizing the pathogenic role of the PRRT2 deficiency. In this work, we investigated the phenotype of primary hippocampal neurons obtained from mouse embryos in which the PRRT2 gene was constitutively inactivated. Read More

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April 2018
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Intracortical Myelination of Heschl's Gyrus and the Planum Temporale Varies With Heschl's Duplication Pattern and Rhyming Performance: An Investigation of 440 Healthy Volunteers.

Cereb Cortex 2018 Apr 18. Epub 2018 Apr 18.

University of Bordeaux, IMN, UMR 5293, F-33000 Bordeaux, France.

We investigated, in 445 healthy adults whose Heschl's gyrus (HG) gyrification patterns had been previously identified, how an in vivo MRI marker of intracortical myelination of HG and the planum temporale (PT) varied as a function of HG gyrification pattern and, in cases of duplication, of anatomical characteristics of the second HG (H2). By measuring the MRI T1/T2 ratio in regions of interest covering the first HG (H1), H2 in cases of common stem (H2CSD), or complete posterior duplication (H2CPD) and the PT, we showed that H1 had the highest T1/T2 values, while the PT had the lowest. The major impact of duplication was a decrease in both H1 and PT T1/T2 values in cases of left CPD. Read More

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Cocaine Decreases Spontaneous Neuronal Activity and Increases Low-Frequency Neuronal and Hemodynamic Cortical Oscillations.

Cereb Cortex 2018 Apr 18. Epub 2018 Apr 18.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA.

Low-frequency oscillations (LFOs) in hemodynamics assessed by fMRI reflect synchronized neuronal activities and are the basis for mapping brain function and its disruption by drugs and disease. Here we assess if cocaine disrupts coupling between neuronal and vascular LFOs by simultaneously measuring cortical field potentials (FP) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) regarding their LFOs (0-1 Hz) spectral bandwidths in the somatosensory cortex of naïve and chronic cocaine-exposed rats at baseline and during cocaine intoxication. While across all conditions the dominant oscillation frequencies for FP and CBF LFOs were ~0. Read More

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April 2018
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Distinct Roles for the Cerebellum, Angular Gyrus, and Middle Temporal Gyrus in Action-Feedback Monitoring.

Cereb Cortex 2018 Apr 18. Epub 2018 Apr 18.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Philipps-University Marburg, Rudolf-Bultmann-Straße 8, 35039 Marburg, Germany.

Action-feedback monitoring is essential to ensure meaningful interactions with the external world. This process involves generating efference copy-based sensory predictions and comparing these with the actual action-feedback. As neural correlates of comparator processes, previous fMRI studies have provided heterogeneous results, including the cerebellum, angular and middle temporal gyrus. Read More

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Relationships Between Tau and Glucose Metabolism Reflect Alzheimer's Disease Pathology in Cognitively Normal Older Adults.

Cereb Cortex 2018 Apr 18. Epub 2018 Apr 18.

Helen Wills Neuroscience Institute, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.

Tau is associated with hypometabolism in patients with Alzheimer's disease. In normal aging, the association between tau and glucose metabolism is not fully characterized. We used [18F] AV-1451, [18F] Fluorodeoxyglucose, and [11C] Pittsburgh Compound-B (PiB) PET to measure associations between tau and glucose metabolism in cognitively normal older adults (N = 49). Read More

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Brain Activity and Network Interactions in the Impact of Internal Emotional Distraction.

Cereb Cortex 2018 Jun 14. Epub 2018 Jun 14.

Beckman Institute for Advanced Science & Technology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, USA.

Emotional distraction may come from the external world and from our mind, as internal distraction. Although external emotional distraction has been extensively investigated, less is known about the mechanisms associated with the impact of internal emotional distraction on cognitive performance, and those involved in coping with such distraction. These issues were investigated using a working memory task with emotional distraction, where recollected unpleasant autobiographical memories served as internal emotional distraction. Read More

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June 2018
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Vascular-Derived Vegfa Promotes Cortical Interneuron Migration and Proximity to the Vasculature in the Developing Forebrain.

Cereb Cortex 2018 Jul;28(7):2577-2593

Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University College London, London, UK.

Vascular endothelial growth factor (Vegfa) is essential for promoting the vascularization of the embryonic murine forebrain. In addition, it directly influences neural development, although its role in the forming forebrain is less well elucidated. It was recently suggested that Vegfa may influence the development of GABAergic interneurons, inhibitory cells with crucial signaling roles in cortical neuronal circuits. Read More

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Mapping Cortical Laminar Structure in the 3D BigBrain.

Cereb Cortex 2018 Jul;28(7):2551-2562

Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Montreal Neurological Institute (MNI), McGill University, Montreal, Canada.

Histological sections offer high spatial resolution to examine laminar architecture of the human cerebral cortex; however, they are restricted by being 2D, hence only regions with sufficiently optimal cutting planes can be analyzed. Conversely, noninvasive neuroimaging approaches are whole brain but have relatively low resolution. Consequently, correct 3D cross-cortical patterns of laminar architecture have never been mapped in histological sections. Read More

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Neurocognitive Profiles of Older Adults with Working-Memory Dysfunction.

Cereb Cortex 2018 Jul;28(7):2525-2539

Umeå Center for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI), Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.

Individuals differ in how they perceive, remember, and think. There is evidence for the existence of distinct subgroups that differ in cognitive performance within the older population. However, it is less clear how individual differences in cognition in old age are linked to differences in brain-based measures. Read More

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Duality of Function: Activation for Meaningless Nonwords and Semantic Codes in the Same Brain Areas.

Cereb Cortex 2018 Jul;28(7):2516-2524

Department of Psychology, Smith Hall, Room 301, Rutgers University - Newark, 101 Warren Street, Newark, NJ, USA.

Studies of the neural substrates of semantic (word meaning) processing have typically focused on semantic manipulations, with less consideration for potential differences in difficulty across conditions. While the idea that particular brain regions can support multiple functions is widely accepted, studies of specific cognitive domains rarely test for co-location with other functions. Here we start with standard univariate analyses comparing words to meaningless nonwords, replicating our recent finding that this contrast can activate task-positive regions for words, and default-mode regions in the putative semantic network for nonwords, pointing to difficulty effects. Read More

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Somatotopic Mapping of the Developing Sensorimotor Cortex in the Preterm Human Brain.

Cereb Cortex 2018 Jul;28(7):2507-2515

Department of Bioengineering, Imperial College London, London, UK.

In the mature mammalian brain, the primary somatosensory and motor cortices are known to be spatially organized such that neural activity relating to specific body parts can be somatopically mapped onto an anatomical "homunculus". This organization creates an internal body representation which is fundamental for precise motor control, spatial awareness and social interaction. Although it is unknown when this organization develops in humans, animal studies suggest that it may emerge even before the time of normal birth. Read More

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Dysfunctional Autism Risk Genes Cause Circuit-Specific Connectivity Deficits With Distinct Developmental Trajectories.

Cereb Cortex 2018 Jul;28(7):2495-2506

Neural Control of Movement Lab, HEST, ETH Zürich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, Zurich, Switzerland.

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a set of complex neurodevelopmental disorders for which there is currently no targeted therapeutic approach. It is thought that alterations of genes regulating migration and synapse formation during development affect neural circuit formation and result in aberrant connectivity within distinct circuits that underlie abnormal behaviors. However, it is unknown whether deviant developmental trajectories are circuit-specific for a given autism risk-gene. Read More

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July 2018
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Fast Compensatory Functional Network Changes Caused by Reversible Inactivation of Monkey Parietal Cortex.

Cereb Cortex 2018 Jun 13. Epub 2018 Jun 13.

Laboratorium voor Neuro- en Psychofysiologie, KU Leuven Medical School, Campus Gasthuisberg, Leuven, Belgium.

The brain has a remarkable capacity to recover after lesions. However, little is known about compensatory neural adaptations at the systems level. We addressed this question by investigating behavioral and (correlated) functional changes throughout the cortex that are induced by focal, reversible inactivations. Read More

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Prefrontal D1 Dopamine-Receptor Neurons and Delta Resonance in Interval Timing.

Cereb Cortex 2018 Jun 12. Epub 2018 Jun 12.

Department of Neurology, Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA.

Considerable evidence has shown that prefrontal neurons expressing D1-type dopamine receptors (D1DRs) are critical for working memory, flexibility, and timing. This line of work predicts that frontal neurons expressing D1DRs mediate cognitive processing. During timing tasks, one form this cognitive processing might take is time-dependent ramping activity-monotonic changes in firing rate over time. Read More

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Relationships Between Neuronal Oscillatory Amplitude and Dynamic Functional Connectivity.

Cereb Cortex 2018 Jun 12. Epub 2018 Jun 12.

Sir Peter Mansfield Imaging Centre, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK.

Event-related fluctuations of neural oscillatory amplitude are reported widely in the context of cognitive processing and are typically interpreted as a marker of brain "activity". However, the precise nature of these effects remains unclear; in particular, whether such fluctuations reflect local dynamics, integration between regions, or both, is unknown. Here, using magnetoencephalography, we show that movement induced oscillatory modulation is associated with transient connectivity between sensorimotor regions. Read More

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Neural Overlap in Item Representations Across Episodes Impairs Context Memory.

Cereb Cortex 2018 Jun 12. Epub 2018 Jun 12.

Department of Psychology, Princeton Neuroscience Institute, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, USA.

We frequently encounter the same item in different contexts, and when that happens, memories of earlier encounters can get reactivated. We examined how existing memories are changed as a result of such reactivation. We hypothesized that when an item's initial and subsequent neural representations overlap, this allows the initial item to become associated with novel contextual information, interfering with later retrieval of the initial context. Read More

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Letter and Category Fluency Performance Correlates with Distinct Patterns of Cortical Thickness in Older Adults.

Cereb Cortex 2018 Jun 11. Epub 2018 Jun 11.

Department of Neurology, Taub Institute for Research on Alzheimer's Disease and the Aging Brain, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA.

Verbal fluency tasks are generally thought to be mediated by frontal brain regions for letter fluency and temporal regions for category fluency. This idea, however, is primarily based on lesion studies and adapted versions of the fluency tasks in functional neuroimaging, without fundamental evidence from structural neuroimaging in healthy individuals. We investigated the cortical structural correlates of letter and category fluency, including overlapping and different regions, in 505 individuals who participated in a community-based study of healthy aging. Read More

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Selective Changes in Noise Correlations Contribute to an Enhanced Representation of Saccadic Targets in Prefrontal Neuronal Ensembles.

Cereb Cortex 2018 Jun 11. Epub 2018 Jun 11.

Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Dartmouth College, Hanover NH 03755, USA.

Abstarct: An ensemble of neurons can provide a dynamic representation of external stimuli, ongoing processes, or upcoming actions. This dynamic representation could be achieved by changes in the activity of individual neurons and/or their interactions. To investigate these possibilities, we simultaneously recorded from ensembles of prefrontal neurons in non-human primates during a memory-guided saccade task. Read More

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To Move or Not to Move? Functional Role of Ventral Premotor Cortex in Motor Monitoring During Limb Immobilization.

Cereb Cortex 2018 Jun 11. Epub 2018 Jun 11.

Psychology Department, University of Turin, Turin, Italy.

Anatomo-clinical evidence from motor-awareness disorders after brain-damages suggests that the premotor cortex (PMC) is involved in motor-monitoring of voluntary actions. Indeed, PMC lesions prevent patients from detecting the mismatch between intended, but not executed, movements with the paralyzed limb. This functional magnetic resonance imaging study compared, in healthy subjects, free movements against blocked movements, precluded by a cast. Read More

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Sp9 Regulates Medial Ganglionic Eminence-Derived Cortical Interneuron Development.

Cereb Cortex 2018 Jun 6. Epub 2018 Jun 6.

State Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology, Department of Neurology, Institutes of Brain Science, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Immature neurons generated by the subpallial MGE tangentially migrate to the cortex where they become parvalbumin-expressing (PV+) and somatostatin (SST+) interneurons. Here, we show that the Sp9 transcription factor controls the development of MGE-derived cortical interneurons. SP9 is expressed in the MGE subventricular zone and in MGE-derived migrating interneurons. Read More

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Tissue-Type Plasminogen Activator Controlled Corticogenesis Through a Mechanism Dependent of NMDA Receptors Expressed on Radial Glial Cells.

Cereb Cortex 2018 Jun 6. Epub 2018 Jun 6.

Normandie Université, UNICAEN, INSERM, INSERM UMR-S U 1237, "Physiopathology and Imaging of Neurological Disorders", GIP Cyceron, Caen, France.

Modifications of neuronal migration during development, including processes that control cortical lamination are associated with functional deficits at adult stage. Here, we report for the first time that the lack of the serine protease tissue-type Plasminogen Activator (tPA), previously characterized as a neuromodulator and a gliotransmitter, leads to an altered cortical lamination in adult. This results in a neuronal migration defect of tPA deficient neurons which are stopped in the intermediate zone at E16. Read More

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Spatial Topography of Individual-Specific Cortical Networks Predicts Human Cognition, Personality, and Emotion.

Cereb Cortex 2018 Jun 6. Epub 2018 Jun 6.

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, ASTAR-NUS Clinical Imaging Research Centre, Singapore Institute for Neurotechnology and Memory Networks Program, National University of Singapore, Singapore.

Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) offers the opportunity to delineate individual-specific brain networks. A major question is whether individual-specific network topography (i.e. Read More

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Emergent Functional Network Effects in Parkinson Disease.

Cereb Cortex 2018 Jun 6. Epub 2018 Jun 6.

Department of Neurology, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, USA.

The hallmark pathology underlying Parkinson disease (PD) is progressive synucleinopathy, beginning in caudal brainstem that later spreads rostrally. However, the primarily subcortical pathology fails to account for the wide spectrum of clinical manifestations in PD. To reconcile these observations, resting-state functional dysfunction across connectivity (FC) can be used to examine dysfunction across distributed brain networks. Read More

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Revealing the Dynamic Modulations That Underpin a Resilient Neural Network for Semantic Cognition: An fMRI Investigation in Patients With Anterior Temporal Lobe Resection.

Cereb Cortex 2018 Jun 6. Epub 2018 Jun 6.

Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology (CCACE), Department of Psychology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.

One critical feature of any well-engineered system is its resilience to perturbation and minor damage. The purpose of the current study was to investigate how resilience is achieved in higher cognitive systems, which we explored through the domain of semantic cognition. Convergent evidence implicates the bilateral anterior temporal lobes (ATLs) as a conceptual knowledge hub. Read More

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June 2018
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Temporal Embryonic Origin Critically Determines Cellular Physiology in the Dentate Gyrus.

Cereb Cortex 2018 Jun 6. Epub 2018 Jun 6.

Inserm, Marseille, France.

The dentate gyrus, the entry gate to the hippocampus, comprises 3 types of glutamatergic cells, the granule, the mossy and the semilunar granule cells. Whereas accumulating evidence indicates that specification of subclasses of neocortical neurons starts at the time of their final mitotic divisions, when cellular diversity is specified in the Dentate Gyrus remains largely unknown. Here we show that semilunar cells, like mossy cells, originate from the earliest stages of developmental neurogenesis and that early born neurons form age-matched circuits with each other. Read More

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The Ventral Anterior Temporal Lobe has a Necessary Role in Exception Word Reading.

Cereb Cortex 2018 Jun 6. Epub 2018 Jun 6.

School of Psychology & Clinical Language Sciences, Centre for Integrative Neuroscience and Neurodynamics, University of Reading, UK.

An influential account of reading holds that words with exceptional spelling-to-sound correspondences (e.g., PINT) are read via activation of their lexical-semantic representations, supported by the anterior temporal lobe (ATL). Read More

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Differential Contributions of Glutamatergic Hippocampal→Retrosplenial Cortical Projections to the Formation and Persistence of Context Memories.

Cereb Cortex 2018 Jun 6. Epub 2018 Jun 6.

Department of Physiology, Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA.

Learning to associate stressful events with specific environmental contexts depends on excitatory transmission in the hippocampus, but how this information is transmitted to the neocortex for lasting memory storage is unclear. We identified dorsal hippocampal (DH) projections to the retrosplenial cortex (RSC), which arise mainly from the subiculum and contain either the vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (vGlut1) or vGlut2. Both vGlut1+ and vGlut2+ axons strongly excite and disynaptically inhibit RSC pyramidal neurons in superficial layers, but vGlut2+ axons trigger greater inhibition that spreads to deep layers, indicating that these pathways engage RSC circuits via partially redundant, partially differentiated cellular mechanisms. Read More

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Contrasting Semantic versus Inhibitory Processing in the Angular Gyrus: An fMRI Study.

Cereb Cortex 2018 Jun 6. Epub 2018 Jun 6.

Department of Psychology, New York University, 6 Washington Place, New York, NY, USA.

Recent studies of semantic memory have focused on dissociating the neural bases of two foundational components of human thought: taxonomic categories, which group similar objects like dogs and seals based on features, and thematic categories, which group dissimilar objects like dogs and leashes based on events. While there is emerging consensus that taxonomic concepts are represented in the anterior temporal lobe, there is disagreement over whether thematic concepts are represented in the angular gyrus (AG). We previously found AG sensitivity to both kinds of concepts; however, some accounts suggest that such activity reflects inhibition of irrelevant information rather than thematic activation. Read More

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How Areal Specification Shapes the Local and Interareal Circuits in a Macaque Model of Congenital Blindness.

Cereb Cortex 2018 May 30. Epub 2018 May 30.

Univ Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Inserm, Stem Cell and Brain Research Institute U1208, 69500 Bron, France.

There is little understanding of the structural underpinnings of the functional reorganization of the cortex in the congenitally blind human. Taking advantage of the extensive characterization of the macaque visual system, we examine in macaque the influence of congenital blindness resulting from the removal of the retina during in utero development. This effectively removes the normal influence of the thalamus on cortical development leading to an induced hybrid cortex (HC) combining features of primary visual and extrastriate cortex. Read More

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Evaluating the Prediction of Brain Maturity From Functional Connectivity After Motion Artifact Denoising.

Cereb Cortex 2018 May 30. Epub 2018 May 30.

Department of Neurology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA.

The ability to make individual-level predictions from neuroanatomy has the potential to be particularly useful in child development. Previously, resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) MRI has been used to successfully predict maturity and diagnosis of typically and atypically developing individuals. Unfortunately, submillimeter head motion in the scanner produces systematic, distance-dependent differences in RSFC and may contaminate, and potentially facilitate, these predictions. Read More

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Functional Fractionation of the Cingulo-opercular Network: Alerting Insula and Updating Cingulate.

Cereb Cortex 2018 May 30. Epub 2018 May 30.

Department of Psychology, Vanderbilt Vision Research Center, Center for Integrative and Cognitive Neurosciences, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37240, USA.

The anterior insula (AI) and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) are engaged in various cognitive and affective processes. An influential account posits that the AI and dACC's ubiquitous engagements reflect their role in the transient capture of attention by salient stimuli. Using fMRI here we tested this claim and functionally dissociated these regions. Read More

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Human Pregenual Anterior Cingulate Cortex: Structural, Functional, and Connectional Heterogeneity.

Cereb Cortex 2018 May 30. Epub 2018 May 30.

Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-1), Research Centre Jülich, 52425 Jülich, Germany.

The human pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pACC) encompasses 7 distinct cyto- and receptorarchitectonic areas. We lack a detailed understanding of the functions in which they are involved, and stereotaxic maps are not available. We present an integrated structural/functional map of pACC based on probabilistic cytoarchitectonic mapping and meta-analytic connectivity modeling and quantitative functional decoding. Read More

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May 2018
2 Reads

A Longitudinal Study of Local Gyrification Index in Young Boys With Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Cereb Cortex 2018 May 30. Epub 2018 May 30.

UC Davis MIND Institute and the UC Davis Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, School of Medicine, 2230 Stockton Blvd., Sacramento, CA 95817, USA.

Local gyrification index (LGI), a metric quantifying cortical folding, was evaluated in 105 boys with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and 49 typically developing (TD) boys at 3 and 5 years-of-age. At 3 years-of-age, boys with ASD had reduced gyrification in the fusiform gyrus compared with TD boys. A longitudinal evaluation from 3 to 5 years revealed that while TD boys had stable/decreasing LGI, boys with ASD had increasing LGI in right inferior temporal gyrus, right inferior frontal gyrus, right inferior parietal lobule, and stable LGI in left lingual gyrus. Read More

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Cell-Specific Loss of SNAP25 from Cortical Projection Neurons Allows Normal Development but Causes Subsequent Neurodegeneration.

Cereb Cortex 2018 May 30. Epub 2018 May 30.

Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3QX, UK.

Synaptosomal associated protein 25 kDa (SNAP25) is an essential component of the SNARE complex regulating synaptic vesicle fusion. SNAP25 deficiency has been implicated in a variety of cognitive disorders. We ablated SNAP25 from selected neuronal populations by generating a transgenic mouse (B6-Snap25tm3mcw (Snap25-flox)) with LoxP sites flanking exon5a/5b. Read More

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Ingested d-Aspartate Facilitates the Functional Connectivity and Modifies Dendritic Spine Morphology in Rat Hippocampus.

Cereb Cortex 2018 May 30. Epub 2018 May 30.

NeuroSpin, CEA-Saclay Center, Gif-sur-Yvette 91191, France.

d-Aspartate (d-Asp), the stereoisomer of l-aspartate, has a role in memory function in rodents. However, the mechanism of the effect of d-Asp has not been fully understood. In this study, we hypothesized that ingested d-Asp directly reaches the hippocampal tissues via the blood circulation and modifies the functional connectivity between hippocampus and other regions through spinogenesis in hippocampal CA1 neurons. Read More

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Neural Correlates of Personalized Spiritual Experiences.

Cereb Cortex 2018 May 29. Epub 2018 May 29.

Spirituality Mind Body Institute, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, USA.

Across cultures and throughout history, human beings have reported a variety of spiritual experiences and the concomitant perceived sense of union that transcends one's ordinary sense of self. Nevertheless, little is known about the underlying neural mechanisms of spiritual experiences, particularly when examined across different traditions and practices. By adapting an individualized guided-imagery task, we investigated neural correlates of personally meaningful spiritual experiences as compared with stressful and neutral-relaxing experiences. Read More

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Distinct Anatomical Connectivity Patterns Differentiate Subdivisions of the Nonlemniscal Auditory Thalamus in Mice.

Cereb Cortex 2018 May 24. Epub 2018 May 24.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, IDG/McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Center for Brain-Inspired Computing Research, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China.

Systematic examination of the inputs and outputs of the nonlemniscal auditory thalamus will facilitate the functional elucidation of this complex structure in the central auditory system. In mice, comprehensive tracing studies that reveal the long-range connectivity of the nonlemniscal auditory thalamus are lacking. To this end, we used Cre-inducible anterograde and monosynaptic retrograde viruses in Calbindin-2A-dgCre-D and Calretinin-IRES-Cre mice, focusing on the differences across subdivisions of the nonlemniscal auditory thalamus. Read More

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Neuroanatomical Correlates of Advanced Paternal and Maternal Age at Birth in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Cereb Cortex 2018 May 25. Epub 2018 May 25.

Department of Psychiatry, The University of Hamamatsu School of Medicine, 1-20-1 Handayama, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu City, Shizuoka 431-3192, Japan.

Although advanced paternal and maternal age at birth (PA/MA) increases the risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), the underlying neurobiological mechanisms are not fully understood. To explore the neuroanatomical correlates of advanced PA/MA, the current study conducted brain morphometric analyses in 39 high-functioning adult males with ASD and 39 age-, intellectual level-, and parental socioeconomic background-matched, typically developed (TD) males. Whole-brain analysis revealed that the regional gray matter volume (GMV) in bilateral posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and precuneus (PCU) were significantly smaller in the individuals with ASD than in TD subjects (false discovery rate-corrected P = 0. Read More

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Preterm Birth Changes Networks of Newborn Cortical Activity.

Cereb Cortex 2018 May 23. Epub 2018 May 23.

Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, University of Helsinki, 00029 HUS, Helsinki, Finland.

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