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    5086 results match your criteria Cerebral Cortex [Journal]

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    Temporal Dynamics of Hippocampal and Medial Prefrontal Cortex Interactions During the Delay Period of a Working Memory-Guided Foraging Task.
    Cereb Cortex 2017 Sep 12:1-12. Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    Department of Psychology, Stark Neuroscience Institute, Institute for Mathematical Modeling and Computational Sciences, Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA.
    Connections between the hippocampus (HC) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) are critical for working memory; however, the precise contribution of this pathway is a matter of debate. One suggestion is that it may stabilize retrospective memories of recently encountered task-relevant information. Alternatively, it may be involved in encoding prospective memories, or the internal representation of future goals. Read More

    Structural Plasticity of Synaptopodin in the Axon Initial Segment during Visual Cortex Development.
    Cereb Cortex 2017 Sep;27(9):4662-4675
    Institute of Neuroanatomy, Centre for Biomedicine and Medical Technology Mannheim (CBTM), Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Ludolf-Krehl-Str. 13-17, 68167 Mannheim, Germany.
    The axon initial segment (AIS) is essential for action potential generation. Recently, the AIS was identified as a site of neuronal plasticity. A subpopulation of AIS in cortical principal neurons contains stacks of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) forming the cisternal organelle (CO). Read More

    Spatial Embryonic Origin Delineates GABAergic Hub Neurons Driving Network Dynamics in the Developing Entorhinal Cortex.
    Cereb Cortex 2017 Sep;27(9):4649-4661
    INMED, Aix-Marseille University, INSERM, Marseille 13273, France.
    Coordinated neuronal activity is essential for the development of cortical circuits. GABAergic hub neurons that function in orchestrating early neuronal activity through a widespread net of postsynaptic partners are therefore critical players in the establishment of functional networks. Evidence for hub neurons was previously found in the hippocampus, but their presence in other cortical regions remains unknown. Read More

    Contributions of the Medial Prefrontal Cortex to Social Influence in Economic Decision-Making.
    Cereb Cortex 2017 Sep;27(9):4635-4648
    Department of Psychology, Royal Holloway, University of London TWO 0EX, UK.
    Economic decisions are guided by highly subjective reward valuations (SVs). Often these SVs are over-ridden when individuals conform to social norms. Yet, the neural mechanisms that underpin the distinct processing of such normative reward valuations (NVs) are poorly understood. Read More

    What can Cortical Development in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Teach us About the Early Developmental Mechanisms Involved?
    Cereb Cortex 2017 09;27(9):4624-4634
    NICHE Lab, Department of Psychiatry, Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, University Medical Center Utrecht, 3584 CX Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Studies of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have shown developmental changes in the cortical mantle. Different dimensions of cortical morphology, such as surface area and thickness, relate to different neurodevelopmental mechanisms. As such, studying multiple dimensions may inform us about the developmental origins of ADHD. Read More

    Building Up Absence Seizures in the Somatosensory Cortex: From Network to Cellular Epileptogenic Processes.
    Cereb Cortex 2017 Sep;27(9):4607-4623
    Univ. Grenoble Alpes, Grenoble Institut des Neurosciences, GIN, F-38000 Grenoble, France.
    The epileptogenic processes leading to recurrent seizures in Genetic Epilepsies are largely unknown. Using the Genetic Absence Epilepsy Rat from Strasbourg, we investigated in vivo the network and single neuron mechanisms responsible for the early emergence of epileptic activity. Local field potential recordings in the primary somatosensory cortex (SoCx), from the second post-natal week to adulthood, showed that immature cortical discharges progressively evolved into typical spike-and-wave discharges following a 3-step maturation process. Read More

    A  Complex Code of Extrinsic Influences on Cortical Progenitor Cells of Higher Mammals.
    Cereb Cortex 2017 Sep;27(9):4586-4606
    Instituto de Neurociencias, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas - Universidad Miguel Hernández, 03550 Sant Joan d'Alacant, Spain.
    Development of the cerebral cortex depends critically on the regulation of progenitor cell proliferation and fate. Cortical progenitor cells are remarkably diverse with regard to their morphology as well as laminar and areal position. Extrinsic factors, such as thalamic axons, have been proposed to play key roles in progenitor cell regulation, but the diversity, extent and timing of interactions between extrinsic elements and each class of cortical progenitor cell in higher mammals remain undefined. Read More

    Rewards and Cognitive Control in the Human Prefrontal Cortex.
    Cereb Cortex 2017 Oct;27(10):5024-5039
    Département d'Etudes Cognitives, Ecole Normale Supérieure, 75005 Paris, France.
    The human prefrontal cortex (PFC) subserves cognitive control, that is, the ability to form behavioral strategies that coordinate actions and thoughts in relation to internal goals. Cognitive control involves the medial and lateral PFC but we still poorly understand how these regions guide strategy selection according to expected rewards. We addressed this issue using neuroimaging, computational modeling and model-based analyses of information flows between medial and lateral PFC. Read More

    How We Transmit Memories to Other Brains: Constructing Shared Neural Representations Via Communication.
    Cereb Cortex 2017 Oct;27(10):4988-5000
    Princeton Neuroscience Institute, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08540, USA.
    Humans are able to mentally construct an episode when listening to another person's recollection, even though they themselves did not experience the events. However, it is unknown how strongly the neural patterns elicited by mental construction resemble those found in the brain of the individual who experienced the original events. Using fMRI and a verbal communication task, we traced how neural patterns associated with viewing specific scenes in a movie are encoded, recalled, and then transferred to a group of naïve listeners. Read More

    The Knockout of Synapsin II in Mice Impairs Social Behavior and Functional Connectivity Generating an ASD-like Phenotype.
    Cereb Cortex 2017 Oct;27(10):5014-5023
    Research Coordination and support Service, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome, Italy.
    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and epilepsy are neurodevelopmental conditions that appear with high rate of co-occurrence, suggesting the possibility of a common genetic basis. Mutations in Synapsin (SYN) genes, particularly SYN1 and SYN2, have been recently associated with ASD and epilepsy in humans. Accordingly, mice lacking Syn1 or Syn2, but not Syn3, experience epileptic seizures and display autistic-like traits that precede the onset of seizures. Read More

    Fast-spiking Parvalbumin Interneurons are Frequently Myelinated in the Cerebral Cortex of Mice and Humans.
    Cereb Cortex 2017 Oct;27(10):5001-5013
    Department of Psychiatry, Erasmus MC, 3000 CA Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Myelination, the insulating ensheathment of axons by oligodendrocytes, is thought to both optimize signal propagation and provide metabolic support. Despite the well-established physiological importance of myelination to neuronal function, relatively little is known about the myelination of GABAergic interneurons in the cerebral cortex. Here, we report that a large fraction of myelin in mouse cerebral cortex ensheaths GABAergic interneurons, reaching up to 80% in hippocampal subregions. Read More

    The Transcription Factors COUP-TFI and COUP-TFII have Distinct Roles in Arealisation and GABAergic Interneuron Specification in the Early Human Fetal Telencephalon.
    Cereb Cortex 2017 Oct;27(10):4971-4987
    Institute of Neuroscience, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE2 4HH, UK.
    In human telencephalon at 8-12 postconceptional weeks, ribonucleic acid quantitative sequencing and immunohistochemistry revealed cortical chicken ovalbumin upstream promotor-transcription factor 1 (COUP-TFI) expression in a high ventro-posterior to low anterior gradient except for raised immunoreactivity in the anterior ventral pallium. Unlike in mouse, COUP-TFI and SP8 were extensively co-expressed in dorsal sensory neocortex and dorsal hippocampus whereas COUPTFI/COUPTFII co-expression defined ventral temporal cortex and ventral hippocampus. In the ganglionic eminences (GEs) COUP-TFI immunoreactivity demarcated the proliferative zones of caudal GE (CGE), dorsal medial GE (MGE), MGE/lateral GE (LGE) boundary, and ventral LGE whereas COUP-TFII was limited to ventral CGE and the MGE/LGE boundary. Read More

    Connectivity Neurofeedback Training Can Differentially Change Functional Connectivity and Cognitive Performance.
    Cereb Cortex 2017 Oct;27(10):4960-4970
    Department of Cognitive Neuroscience, Brain Information Communication Research Laboratory Group, Advanced Telecommunications Research Institutes International, 2-2-2 Hikaridai, Keihanna Science City, Kyoto 619-0288, Japan.
    Advances in functional magnetic resonance imaging have made it possible to provide real-time feedback on brain activity. Neurofeedback has been applied to therapeutic interventions for psychiatric disorders. Since many studies have shown that most psychiatric disorders exhibit abnormal brain networks, a novel experimental paradigm named connectivity neurofeedback, which can directly modulate a brain network, has emerged as a promising approach to treat psychiatric disorders. Read More

    Hippocampal Engagement during Recall Depends on Memory Content.
    Cereb Cortex 2017 Jun 28:1-14. Epub 2017 Jun 28.
    Department of Psychology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA01003, USA.
    The hippocampus is considered pivotal to recall, allowing retrieval of information not available in the immediate environment. In contrast, neocortex is thought to signal familiarity, contributing to recall only when called upon by the hippocampus. However, this view is not compatible with representational accounts of memory, which reject the mapping of cognitive processes onto brain regions. Read More

    Neuroinflammation and Tau Interact with Amyloid in Predicting Sleep Problems in Aging Independently of Atrophy.
    Cereb Cortex 2017 Jun 26:1-11. Epub 2017 Jun 26.
    Department of Psychology, Center for Lifespan Changes in Brain and Cognition, University of Oslo, 0317 Oslo, Norway.
    Sleep problems relate to brain changes in aging and disease, but the mechanisms are unknown. Studies suggest a relationship between β-amyloid (Aβ) accumulation and sleep, which is likely augmented by interactions with multiple variables. Here, we tested how different cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers for brain pathophysiology, brain atrophy, memory function, and depressive symptoms predicted self-reported sleep patterns in 91 cognitively healthy older adults over a 3-year period. Read More

    Neuromodulation of Axon Terminals.
    Cereb Cortex 2017 Jun 24:1-9. Epub 2017 Jun 24.
    Sagol Department of Neurobiology, University of Haifa, Haifa3498838, Israel.
    Understanding which cellular compartments are influenced during neuromodulation underpins any rational effort to explain and optimize outcomes. Axon terminals have long been speculated to be sensitive to polarization, but experimentally informed models for CNS stimulation are lacking. We conducted simultaneous intracellular recording from the neuron soma and axon terminal (blebs) during extracellular stimulation with weak sustained (DC) uniform electric fields in mouse cortical slices. Read More

    Alternative RNA Splicing Associated With Mammalian Neuronal Differentiation.
    Cereb Cortex 2017 Jun 23:1-7. Epub 2017 Jun 23.
    Department of Developmental and Stem Cell Biology, Beckman Research Institute of City of Hope, 1500 East Duarte Road, Duarte, CA 91010, USA.
    Alternative pre-mRNA splicing (AS) produces multiple isoforms of mRNAs and proteins from a single gene. It is most prevalent in the mammalian brain and is thought to contribute to the formation and/or maintenance of functional complexity of the brain. Increasing evidence has documented the significant changes of AS between different regions or different developmental stages of the brain, however, the dynamics of AS and the possible function of it during neural progenitor cell (NPC) differentiation is less well known. Read More

    Experience-Dependent Regulation of Cajal-Retzius Cell Networks in the Developing and Adult Mouse Hippocampus.
    Cereb Cortex 2017 Jun 16:1-16. Epub 2017 Jun 16.
    Department of Physiology, Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60611-3008, USA.
    In contrast to their near-disappearance in the adult neocortex, Cajal-Retzius cells have been suggested to persist longer in the hippocampus. A distinctive feature of the mature hippocampus, not maintained by other cortical areas, is its ability to sustain adult neurogenesis. Here, we have investigated whether environmental manipulations affecting hippocampal postnatal neurogenesis have a parallel impact on Cajal-Retzius cells. Read More

    The Importance of Knowing When You Don't Remember: Neural Signaling of Retrieval Failure Predicts Memory Improvement Over Time.
    Cereb Cortex 2016 Nov 23:1-13. Epub 2016 Nov 23.
    Center for Mind and Brain, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA.
    Just as the ability to remember prior events is critical for guiding our decision-making, so too is the ability to recognize the limitations of our memory. Indeed, we hypothesize that neural signaling of retrieval failure promotes more accurate memory judgments over time. To test this hypothesis, we collected longitudinal functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 8 to 9 years olds, 10 to 12 years olds, and adults, with two time points spaced approximately 1. Read More

    Morphological Diversity Strongly Constrains Synaptic Connectivity and Plasticity.
    Cereb Cortex 2017 Sep;27(9):4570-4585
    Blue Brain Project, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Synaptic connectivity between neurons is naturally constrained by the anatomical overlap of neuronal arbors, the space on the axon available for synapses, and by physiological mechanisms that form synapses at a subset of potential synapse locations. What is not known is how these constraints impact emergent connectivity in a circuit with diverse morphologies. We investigated the role of morphological diversity within and across neuronal types on emergent connectivity in a model of neocortical microcircuitry. Read More

    Representation of Rapid Image Sequences in V4 Networks.
    Cereb Cortex 2017 Jun 20:1-10. Epub 2017 Jun 20.
    Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, University of Texas-Houston Medical School, Houston, TX 77030, USA.
    Natural viewing often consists of sequences of brief fixations to image patches of different structure. Whether and how briefly presented sequential stimuli are encoded in a temporal-position manner is poorly understood. Here, we performed multiple-electrode recordings in the visual cortex (area V4) of nonhuman primates (Macaca mulatta) viewing a sequence of 7 briefly flashed natural images, and measured correlations between the cue-triggered population response in the presence and absence of the stimulus. Read More

    Fine Subdivisions of the Semantic Network Supporting Social and Sensory-Motor Semantic Processing.
    Cereb Cortex 2017 Jun 15:1-12. Epub 2017 Jun 15.
    CAS Key Laboratory of Behavioral Science, Institute of Psychology, Beijing 100101, China.
    Neuroimaging studies have consistently indicated that semantic processing involves a brain network consisting of multimodal cortical regions distributed in the frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes. However, little is known about how semantic information is organized and processed within the network. Some recent studies have indicated that sensory-motor semantic information modulates the activation of this network. Read More

    Places in the Brain: Bridging Layout and Object Geometry in Scene-Selective Cortex.
    Cereb Cortex 2017 Jun 13:1-10. Epub 2017 Jun 13.
    Department of Psychology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30309, USA.
    Diverse animal species primarily rely on sense (left-right) and egocentric distance (proximal-distal) when navigating the environment. Recent neuroimaging studies with human adults show that this information is represented in 2 scene-selective cortical regions-the occipital place area (OPA) and retrosplenial complex (RSC)-but not in a third scene-selective region-the parahippocampal place area (PPA). What geometric properties, then, does the PPA represent, and what is its role in scene processing? Here we hypothesize that the PPA represents relative length and angle, the geometric properties classically associated with object recognition, but only in the context of large extended surfaces that compose the layout of a scene. Read More

    Structural Covariance Networks in Children with Autism or ADHD.
    Cereb Cortex 2017 Aug;27(8):4267-4276
    Autism Research Centre, Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 8AH, UK.
    Background: While autism and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are considered distinct conditions from a diagnostic perspective, clinically they share some phenotypic features and have high comorbidity. Regardless, most studies have focused on only one condition, with considerable heterogeneity in their results. Taking a dual-condition approach might help elucidate shared and distinct neural characteristics. Read More

    A Quadrantic Bias in Prefrontal Representation of Visual-Mnemonic Space.
    Cereb Cortex 2017 Jun 9:1-17. Epub 2017 Jun 9.
    Department of Physiology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1Y6.
    Single neurons in primate dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dLPFC) are known to encode working memory (WM) representations of visual space. Psychophysical studies have shown that the horizontal and vertical meridians of the visual field can bias spatial information maintained in WM. However, most studies and models have tacitly assumed that dLPFC neurons represent mnemonic space homogenously. Read More

    Abstract Representations of Object-Directed Action in the Left Inferior Parietal Lobule.
    Cereb Cortex 2017 Jun 9:1-13. Epub 2017 Jun 9.
    Department of Brain & Cognitive Sciences, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627-0268, USA.
    Prior neuroimaging and neuropsychological research indicates that the left inferior parietal lobule in the human brain is a critical substrate for representing object manipulation knowledge. In the present functional MRI study we used multivoxel pattern analyses to test whether action similarity among objects can be decoded in the inferior parietal lobule independent of the task applied to objects (identification or pantomime) and stimulus format in which stimuli are presented (pictures or printed words). Participants pantomimed the use of objects, cued by printed words, or identified pictures of objects. Read More

    Reduced Fidelity of Neural Representation Underlies Episodic Memory Decline in Normal Aging.
    Cereb Cortex 2017 Jun 7:1-14. Epub 2017 Jun 7.
    State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning and IDG/McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, P.R. China.
    Emerging studies have emphasized the importance of the fidelity of cortical representation in forming enduring episodic memory. No study, however, has examined whether there are age-related reductions in representation fidelity that can explain memory declines in normal aging. Using functional MRI and multivariate pattern analysis, we found that older adults showed reduced representation fidelity in the visual cortex, which accounted for their decreased memory performance even after controlling for the contribution of reduced activation level. Read More

    Children with Cerebral Palsy Hyper-Gate Somatosensory Stimulations of the Foot.
    Cereb Cortex 2017 Jun 7:1-8. Epub 2017 Jun 7.
    Center for Magnetoencephalography, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-2045, USA.
    We currently have a substantial knowledge gap in our understanding of the neurophysiological underpinnings of the sensory perception deficits often reported in the clinic for children with cerebral palsy (CP). In this investigation, we have begun to address this knowledge gap by using magnetoencephalography (MEG) brain imaging to evaluate the sensory gating of neural oscillations in the somatosensory cortices. A cohort of children with CP (Gross Motor Function Classification System II-III) and typically developing children underwent paired-pulse electrical stimulation of the tibial nerve during MEG. Read More

    Attention Selectively Reshapes the Geometry of Distributed Semantic Representation.
    Cereb Cortex 2017 Aug;27(8):4277-4291
    Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755, USA.
    Humans prioritize different semantic qualities of a complex stimulus depending on their behavioral goals. These semantic features are encoded in distributed neural populations, yet it is unclear how attention might operate across these distributed representations. To address this, we presented participants with naturalistic video clips of animals behaving in their natural environments while the participants attended to either behavior or taxonomy. Read More

    Focal Cortical Anomalies and Language Impairment in 16p11.2 Deletion and Duplication Syndrome.
    Cereb Cortex 2017 Jun 7:1-9. Epub 2017 Jun 7.
    Department of Neurology, Epilepsy Division, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY10016, USA.
    Individuals with copy number variants (CNV) in the 16p11.2 chromosomal region are at high risk for language disorders. We investigate whether the extent and location of focal cortical anomalies are associated with language impairment in individuals with 16p11. Read More

    Cholinergic Grb2-Associated-Binding Protein 1 Regulates Cognitive Function.
    Cereb Cortex 2017 Jun 7:1-14. Epub 2017 Jun 7.
    College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058, China.
    Grb2-associated-binding protein 1 (Gab1) is a docking/scaffolding molecule known to play an important role in cell growth and survival. Here, we report that Gab1 is decreased in cholinergic neurons in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and in a mouse model of AD. In mice, selective ablation of Gab1 in cholinergic neurons in the medial septum impaired learning and memory and hippocampal long-term potentiation. Read More

    Neural Sources and Underlying Mechanisms of Neural Responses to Heartbeats, and their Role in Bodily Self-consciousness: An Intracranial EEG Study.
    Cereb Cortex 2017 Jun 7:1-14. Epub 2017 Jun 7.
    Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience, Center for Neuroprosthetics and Brain Mind Institute, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), 9 Chemin des Mines, 1202 Geneva, Switzerland.
    Recent research has shown that heartbeat-evoked potentials (HEPs), brain activity in response to heartbeats, are a useful neural measure for investigating the functional role of brain-body interactions in cognitive processes including self-consciousness. In 2 experiments, using intracranial electroencephalography (EEG), we investigated (1) the neural sources of HEPs, (2) the underlying mechanisms for HEP generation, and (3) the functional role of HEPs in bodily self-consciousness. In Experiment-1, we found that shortly after the heartbeat onset, phase distributions across single trials were significantly concentrated in 10% of the recording sites, mainly in the insula and the operculum, but also in other regions including the amygdala and fronto-temporal cortex. Read More

    Abnormal Gray Matter Shape, Thickness, and Volume in the Motor Cortico-Subcortical Loop in Idiopathic Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder: Association with Clinical and Motor Features.
    Cereb Cortex 2017 Jun 7:1-14. Epub 2017 Jun 7.
    Centre for Advanced Research in Sleep Medicine, Hôpital du Sacré-Cœur de Montréal, Montreal, Quebec H4J 1C5, Canada.
    Idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) is a major risk factor for Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies. Anatomical gray matter abnormalities in the motor cortico-subcortical loop areas remain under studied in iRBD patients. We acquired T1-weighted images and administrated quantitative motor tasks in 41 patients with polysomnography-confirmed iRBD and 41 healthy subjects. Read More

    Temporally Segmented Directionality in the Motor Cortex.
    Cereb Cortex 2017 Jun 7:1-14. Epub 2017 Jun 7.
    Center for Neuroscience, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA.
    Developing models of the dynamic and complex patterns of information processing that take place during behavior is a major thrust of systems neuroscience. An underlying assumption of many models is that the same set of rules applies across different conditions. This has been the case for directional tuning during volitional movement; a single cosine function has been remarkably robust for describing the encoding of movement direction in different types of neurons, in many locations of the nervous system, and even across species. Read More

    Cell Class-Dependent Intracortical Connectivity and Output Dynamics of Layer 6 Projection Neurons of the Rat Primary Visual Cortex.
    Cereb Cortex 2017 Jun 7:1-11. Epub 2017 Jun 7.
    Queensland Brain Institute, The University of Queensland, Brisbane QLD 4072, Australia.
    Neocortical information processing is powerfully influenced by the activity of layer 6 projection neurons through control of local intracortical and subcortical circuitry. Morphologically distinct classes of layer 6 projection neuron have been identified in the mammalian visual cortex, which exhibit contrasting receptive field properties, but little information is available on their functional specificity. To address this we combined anatomical tracing techniques with high-resolution patch-clamp recording to identify morphological and functional distinct classes of layer 6 projection neurons in the rat primary visual cortex, which innervated separable subcortical territories. Read More

    Histamine Enhances Theta-Coupled Spiking and Gamma Oscillations in the Medial Entorhinal Cortex Consistent With Successful Spatial Recognition.
    Cereb Cortex 2017 Jun 7:1-19. Epub 2017 Jun 7.
    Department of Physiology, Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038, China.
    Encoding of spatial information in the superficial layers of the medial entorhinal cortex (sMEC) involves theta-modulated spiking and gamma oscillations, as well as spatially tuned grid cells and border cells. Little is known about the role of the arousal-promoting histaminergic system in the modification of information encoded in the sMEC in vivo, and how such histamine-regulated information correlates with behavioral functions. Here, we show that histamine upregulates the neural excitability of a significant proportion of neurons (16. Read More

    Socioeconomic Status and Reading Disability: Neuroanatomy and Plasticity in Response to Intervention.
    Cereb Cortex 2017 Jun 7:1-16. Epub 2017 Jun 7.
    McGovern Institute for Brain Research and Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.
    Although reading disability (RD) and socioeconomic status (SES) are independently associated with variation in reading ability and brain structure/function, the joint influence of SES and RD on neuroanatomy and/or response to intervention is unknown. In total, 65 children with RD (ages 6-9) with diverse SES were assigned to an intensive, 6-week summer reading intervention (n = 40) or to a waiting-list control group (n = 25). Before and after, all children completed standardized reading assessments and magnetic resonance imaging to measure cortical thickness. Read More

    Relationship Between Synaptic AMPAR and Spine Dynamics: Impairments in the FXS Mouse.
    Cereb Cortex 2017 08;27(8):4244-4256
    Department of Developmental Neuroscience, Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center, 985960 Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-5960, USA.
    Structural dynamics of dendritic spines are important for memory and learning and are impaired in neurodevelopmental disorders such as fragile X syndrome. Spine dynamics are regulated by activity-dependent mechanisms that involve modulation of AMPA receptors (AMPAR); however, the relationship between AMPAR and spine dynamics in vivo and how these are altered in FXS mouse model is not known. Here, we tracked AMPAR and spines over multiple days in vivo in the cortex and found that dendritic spines in the fmr1 KO mouse were denser, smaller, had higher turnover rates and contained less sGluA2 compared to littermate controls. Read More

    Dissociable Roles of Cerebral μ-Opioid and Type 2 Dopamine Receptors in Vicarious Pain: A Combined PET-fMRI Study.
    Cereb Cortex 2017 Aug;27(8):4257-4266
    Turku PET Centre, University of Turku, 20520 Turku, Finland.
    Neuroimaging studies have shown that seeing others in pain activates brain regions that are involved in first-hand pain, suggesting that shared neuromolecular pathways support processing of first-hand and vicarious pain. We tested whether the dopamine and opioid neurotransmitter systems involved in nociceptive processing also contribute to vicarious pain experience. We used in vivo positron emission tomography to quantify type 2 dopamine and μ-opioid receptor (D2R and MOR, respectively) availabilities in brains of 35 subjects. Read More

    Insular and Ventrolateral Orbitofrontal Cortices Differentially Contribute to Goal-Directed Behavior in Rodents.
    Cereb Cortex 2017 May 25:1-13. Epub 2017 May 25.
    CNRS, Institut de Neurosciences Cognitives et Intégratives d'Aquitaine, UMR 5287, 33076 Bordeaux, France.
    The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) has long been considered a critical site in action control. However, recent evidence indicates that the contribution of cortical areas to goal-directed behavior likely extends beyond mPFC. Here, we examine the function of both insular (IC) and ventrolateral orbitofrontal (vlOFC) cortices in action-dependent learning. Read More

    Hick-Hyman Law is Mediated by the Cognitive Control Network in the Brain.
    Cereb Cortex 2017 May 22:1-16. Epub 2017 May 22.
    Department of Psychology, Queens College, The City University of New York, Queens, NY 11367, USA.
    The Hick-Hyman law describes a linear increase in reaction time (RT) as a function of the information entropy of response selection, which is computed as the binary logarithm of the number of response alternatives. While numerous behavioral studies have provided evidence for the Hick-Hyman law, its neural underpinnings have rarely been examined and are still unclear. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging study, by utilizing a choice reaction time task to manipulate the entropy of response selection, we examined brain activity mediating the input and the output, as well as the connectivity between corresponding regions in human participants. Read More

    Decomposing Tool-Action Observation: A Stereo-EEG Study.
    Cereb Cortex 2017 Aug;27(8):4229-4243
    Department of Neuroscience, University of Parma, Via Volturno 39, 43125 Parma, Italy.
    A description of the spatiotemporal dynamics of human cortical activity during cognitive tasks is a fundamental goal of neuroscience. In the present study, we employed stereo-EEG in order to assess the neural activity during tool-action observation. We recorded from 49 epileptic patients (5502 leads) implanted with intracerebral electrodes, while they observed tool and hand actions. Read More

    A Schizophrenia-Related Deletion Leads to KCNQ2-Dependent Abnormal Dopaminergic Modulation of Prefrontal Cortical Interneuron Activity.
    Cereb Cortex 2017 May 19:1-17. Epub 2017 May 19.
    Department of Neurology, Columbia University, New York, NY10032, USA.
    Altered prefrontal cortex function is implicated in schizophrenia (SCZ) pathophysiology and could arise from imbalance between excitation and inhibition (E/I) in local circuits. It remains unclear whether and how such imbalances relate to genetic etiologies. We used a mouse model of the SCZ-predisposing 22q11. Read More

    Bistability, Causality, and Complexity in Cortical Networks: An In Vitro Perturbational Study.
    Cereb Cortex 2017 May 19:1-10. Epub 2017 May 19.
    IDIBAPS (Institut D'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer), Roselló 149-153, 08036 Barcelona, Spain.
    Measuring the spatiotemporal complexity of cortical responses to direct perturbations provides a reliable index of the brain's capacity for consciousness in humans under both physiological and pathological conditions. Upon loss of consciousness, the complex pattern of causal interactions observed during wakefulness collapses into a stereotypical slow wave, suggesting that cortical bistability may play a role. Bistability is mainly expressed in the form of slow oscillations, a default pattern of activity that emerges from cortical networks in conditions of functional or anatomical disconnection. Read More

    Computing the Social Brain Connectome Across Systems and States.
    Cereb Cortex 2017 May 18:1-26. Epub 2017 May 18.
    Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, RWTH Aachen University, 52072 Aachen, Germany.
    Social skills probably emerge from the interaction between different neural processing levels. However, social neuroscience is fragmented into highly specialized, rarely cross-referenced topics. The present study attempts a systematic reconciliation by deriving a social brain definition from neural activity meta-analyses on social-cognitive capacities. Read More

    Atypical Endocannabinoid Signaling Initiates a New Form of Memory-Related Plasticity at a Cortical Input to Hippocampus.
    Cereb Cortex 2017 May 17:1-14. Epub 2017 May 17.
    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697, USA.
    Endocannabinoids (ECBs) depress transmitter release at sites throughout the brain. Here, we describe another form of ECB signaling that triggers a novel form of long-term potentiation (LTP) localized to the lateral perforant path (LPP) which conveys semantic information from cortex to hippocampus. Two cannabinoid CB1 receptor (CB1R) signaling cascades were identified in hippocampus. Read More

    Chronic Inflammatory Pain Impairs mGluR5-Mediated Depolarization-Induced Suppression of Excitation in the Anterior Cingulate Cortex.
    Cereb Cortex 2017 May 17:1-13. Epub 2017 May 17.
    Department of Neurobiology and Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, School of Basic Medicine, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032, P.R. China.
    The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is a critical hub for nociceptive perception and pain-related anxiety. Long-term synaptic plasticity in ACC was found to be important for chronic inflammatory pain and pain-related anxiety. As short-term synaptic plasticity, depolarization-induced suppression of excitation (DSE) is involved in several conditions, such as chronic stress, epilepsy, and autism. Read More

    The Basal Ganglia Striosomes Affect the Modulation of Conflicts by Subliminal Information-Evidence from X-Linked Dystonia Parkinsonism.
    Cereb Cortex 2017 May 13:1-10. Epub 2017 May 13.
    Institute of Neurogenetics, University of Lübeck, Maria-Goeppert-Straße 1, 23562 Lübeck, Germany.
    Cognitive control is relevant when distracting information induces behavioral conflicts. Such conflicts can be produced consciously and by subliminally processed information. Interestingly, both sources of conflict interact suggesting that they share neural mechanisms. Read More

    View-Independent Working Memory Representations of Artificial Shapes in Prefrontal and Posterior Regions of the Human Brain.
    Cereb Cortex 2017 May 13:1-16. Epub 2017 May 13.
    Bernstein Center for Computational Neuroscience, Charité Universitätsmedizin, Philippstraße 13, Haus 6, Berlin 10115, Germany.
    Traditional views of visual working memory postulate that memorized contents are stored in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex using an adaptive and flexible code. In contrast, recent studies proposed that contents are maintained by posterior brain areas using codes akin to perceptual representations. An important question is whether this reflects a difference in the level of abstraction between posterior and prefrontal representations. Read More

    Oligodendrocyte- and Neuron-Specific Nogo-A Restrict Dendritic Branching and Spine Density in the Adult Mouse Motor Cortex.
    Cereb Cortex 2017 May 15:1-9. Epub 2017 May 15.
    Brain Research Institute, University of Zurich, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland.
    Nogo-A has been well described as a myelin-associated inhibitor of neurite outgrowth and functional neuroregeneration after central nervous system (CNS) injury. Recently, a new role of Nogo-A has been identified as a negative regulator of synaptic plasticity in the uninjured adult CNS. Nogo-A is present in neurons and oligodendrocytes. Read More

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