5,703 results match your criteria Cerebral Cortex [Journal]


Single-Cell and Neuronal Network Alterations in an In Vitro Model of Fragile X Syndrome.

Cereb Cortex 2019 Apr 8. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Molecular, Cellular, and Network Excitability Lab, University of Antwerp, Wilrijk, Flanders, Belgium.

The Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) is involved in many cellular processes and it regulates synaptic and network development in neurons. Its absence is known to lead to intellectual disability, with a wide range of comorbidities including autism. Over the past decades, FMRP research focused on abnormalities both in glutamatergic and GABAergic signaling, and an altered balance between excitation and inhibition has been hypothesized to underlie the clinical consequences of absence of the protein. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhz068DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Changes in Functional Connectivity Predict Outcome of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Treatment of Major Depressive Disorder.

Cereb Cortex 2019 Apr 6. Epub 2019 Apr 6.

TMS Clinical and Research Program, Neuromodulation Division, Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior at UCLA, Los Angeles CA 90024, USA.

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with changes in brain functional connectivity (FC). These changes may be related to the mechanism of action of rTMS and explain the variability in clinical outcome. We examined changes in electroencephalographic FC during the first rTMS treatment in 109 subjects treated with 10 Hz stimulation to left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhz035DOI Listing
April 2019
5 Reads

KCC2 Manipulation Alters Features of Migrating Interneurons in Ferret Neocortex.

Cereb Cortex 2019 Apr 6. Epub 2019 Apr 6.

Program in Neuroscience, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, USUHS, Bethesda, MD 20814-4799, USA.

KCC2 is a brain specific chloride-potassium cotransporter affecting neuronal development including migration and cellular maturation. It modulates chloride homeostasis influencing the switch of GABA from depolarizing to hyperpolarizing, which contributes to the cues that influence the termination of neuronal migration. The expression of KCC2 during migration of interneurons, therefore, correlates with the ability of these cells to respond to GABA as a stop signal. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhz048DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

FMRP Modulates Activity-Dependent Spine Plasticity by Binding Cofilin1 mRNA and Regulating Localization and Local Translation.

Cereb Cortex 2019 Apr 6. Epub 2019 Apr 6.

Division of Cellular Neurobiology, Zoological Institute, TU Braunschweig, Germany.

Multiple variants of intellectual disability, e.g., the Fragile X Syndrome are associated with alterations in dendritic spine morphology, thereby pointing to dysregulated actin dynamics during development and processes of synaptic plasticity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhz059DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

The Attentional Blink is Related to the Microsaccade Rate Signature.

Cereb Cortex 2019 Apr 3. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Department of Cognitive Neuroscience, Faculty of Psychology and Neuroscience, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

The reduced detectability of a target T2 following discrimination of a preceding target T1 in the attentional blink (AB) paradigm is classically interpreted as a consequence of reduced attention to T2 due to attentional allocation to T1. Here, we investigated whether AB was related to changes in microsaccade rate (MSR). We found a pronounced MSR signature following T1 onset, characterized by MSR suppression from 200 to 328 ms and enhancement from 380 to 568 ms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhz058DOI Listing
April 2019
7 Reads

Local and Volume-Conducted Contributions to Cortical Field Potentials.

Cereb Cortex 2019 Apr 3. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Department of Translational Neuroscience, Cajal Institute - CSIC, Av. Dr. Arce 37, Madrid, Spain.

Brain field potentials (FPs) can reach far from their sources, making difficult to know which waves come from where. We show that modern algorithms efficiently segregate the local and remote contributions to cortical FPs by recovering the generator-specific spatial voltage profiles. We investigated experimentally and numerically the local and remote origin of FPs in different cortical areas in anesthetized rats. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhz061DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Children Use Regions in the Visual Processing and Executive Function Networks during a Subsequent Memory Reading Task.

Cereb Cortex 2019 Mar 30. Epub 2019 Mar 30.

Educational Neuroimaging Center, Faculty of Biomedical Engineering.

Memory encoding is a critical process for memory function, which is foundational for cognitive functioning including reading, and has been extensively studied using subsequent memory tasks. Research in adults using such tasks indicates the participation of visual and cognitive-control systems in remembered versus forgotten words. However, given the known developmental trajectories of these systems, the functional neuroanatomy of memory encoding in children may be different than in adults. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhz057DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Maturational Changes in Human Dorsal and Ventral Visual Networks.

Cereb Cortex 2019 Mar 30. Epub 2019 Mar 30.

Department of Radiology, MGH/MIT/HMS A. A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown MA 02129, USA.

Developmental neuroimaging studies report the emergence of increasingly diverse cognitive functions as closely entangled with a rise-fall modulation of cortical thickness (CTh), structural cortical and white-matter connectivity, and a time-course for the experience-dependent selective elimination of the overproduced synapses. We examine which of two visual processing networks, the dorsal (DVN; prefrontal, parietal nodes) or ventral (VVN; frontal-temporal, fusiform nodes) matures first, thus leading the neuro-cognitive developmental trajectory. Three age-dependent measures are reported: (i) the CTh at network nodes; (ii) the matrix of intra-network structural connectivity (edges); and (iii) the proficiency in network-related neuropsychological tests. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhz053DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

Evolution of Brain Connections: Integrating Diffusion MR Tractography With Gene Expression Highlights Increased Corticocortical Projections in Primates.

Cereb Cortex 2019 Mar 30. Epub 2019 Mar 30.

Division of Newborn Medicine, Department of Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA.

Diffusion MR tractography permits investigating the 3D structure of cortical pathways as interwoven paths across the entire brain. We use high-resolution scans from diffusion spectrum imaging and high angular resolution diffusion imaging to investigate the evolution of cortical pathways within the euarchontoglire (i.e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhz054DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Neural Correlates of Enhanced Memory for Meaningful Associations with Age.

Cereb Cortex 2019 Mar 28. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Department of Psychology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, USA.

Evidence suggests that age differences in associative memory are attenuated for associations that are consistent with prior knowledge. Such knowledge structures have traditionally been associated with the default network (DN), which also shows reduced modulation with age. In the present study, we investigated whether DN activity and connectivity patterns could account for this age-related effect. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhy334DOI Listing

Hippocampal and Retrosplenial Goal Distance Coding After Long-term Consolidation of a Real-World Environment.

Cereb Cortex 2019 Mar 22. Epub 2019 Mar 22.

Institute of Behavioural Neuroscience, University College London, London, WC1H 0AP, UK.

Recent research indicates the hippocampus may code the distance to the goal during navigation of newly learned environments. It is unclear however, whether this also pertains to highly familiar environments where extensive systems-level consolidation is thought to have transformed mnemonic representations. Here we recorded fMRI while University College London and Imperial College London students navigated virtual simulations of their own familiar campus (>2 years of exposure) and the other campus learned days before scanning. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhz044DOI Listing
March 2019
8.665 Impact Factor

Thalamic Inputs to Posterior Parietal Cortical Areas Involved in Skilled Forelimb Movement and Tool Use in the Capuchin Monkey.

Cereb Cortex 2019 Mar 19. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Institute of Biophysics Carlos Chagas Filho, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, 21941-902, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

The posterior parietal cortex (PPC) is a central hub for the primate forebrain networks that control skilled manual behavior, including tool use. Here, we quantified and compared the sources of thalamic input to electrophysiologically-identified hand/forearm-related regions of several PPC areas, namely areas 5v, AIP, PFG, and PF, of the capuchin monkey (Sapajus sp). We found that these areas receive most of their thalamic connections from the Anterior Pulvinar (PuA), Lateral Posterior (LP) and Medial Pulvinar (PuM) nuclei. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhz051DOI Listing

Neurostimulation Reveals Context-Dependent Arbitration Between Model-Based and Model-Free Reinforcement Learning.

Cereb Cortex 2019 Mar 19. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Zurich Center for Neuroeconomics (ZNE), Department of Economics, University of Zurich, Zurich, Zurich 8006, Switzerland.

While it is established that humans use model-based (MB) and model-free (MF) reinforcement learning in a complementary fashion, much less is known about how the brain determines which of these systems should control behavior at any given moment. Here we provide causal evidence for a neural mechanism that acts as a context-dependent arbitrator between both systems. We applied excitatory and inhibitory transcranial direct current stimulation over a region of the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex previously found to encode the reliability of both learning systems. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/cercor/advance-article/doi/10.1093/
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhz019DOI Listing
March 2019
4 Reads

Switching From Fear to No Fear by Different Neural Ensembles in Mouse Retrosplenial Cortex.

Cereb Cortex 2019 Mar 19. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

School of Life Science and Technology, ShanghaiTech University, Shanghai 201210, China.

Fear extinction is generally considered a form of new learning that inhibits previously acquired fear memories. Here, by tracking immediate early gene expression in vivo, we found that contextual fear extinction training evoked distinct neural ensembles in mouse retrosplenial cortex (RSC). The optogenetic reactivation of these extinction-activated neurons in the RSC was sufficient to suppress a fear response, while the reactivation of conditioning-activated neurons in the same area promoted a fear response. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhz050DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

Prefrontal Cortical and Behavioral Adaptations to Surgical Delivery Mediated by Metabolic Principles.

Cereb Cortex 2019 Mar 16. Epub 2019 Mar 16.

Program in Integrative Cell Signaling and Neurobiology of Metabolism, Department of Comparative Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.

We previously observed an association between mode of delivery and brain mitochondrial mechanisms in pups. We also showed that mitochondrial processes impact adult behavior. However, no experimental data is available to causally connect mode of delivery with cellular processes of neurons in the cerebral cortex and adult behavior. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhz046DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Premotor Cortex Provides a Substrate for the Temporal Transformation of Information During the Planning of Gait Modifications.

Cereb Cortex 2019 Mar 16. Epub 2019 Mar 16.

Département de Neurosciences, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Québec, Canada.

We tested the hypothesis that the premotor cortex (PMC) in the cat contributes to the planning and execution of visually guided gait modifications. We analyzed single unit activity from 136 cells localized within layer V of cytoarchitectonic areas 6iffu and that part of 4δ within the ventral bank of the cruciate sulcus while cats walked on a treadmill and stepped over an obstacle that advanced toward them. We found a rich variety of discharge patterns, ranging from limb-independent cells that discharged several steps in front of the obstacle to step-related cells that discharged either during steps over the obstacle or in the steps leading up to that step. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/cercor/advance-article/doi/10.1093/
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhz039DOI Listing
March 2019
4 Reads

The Role of Redox Dysregulation in the Effects of Prenatal Stress on Embryonic Interneuron Migration.

Cereb Cortex 2019 Mar 16. Epub 2019 Mar 16.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, 1310 PBDB, 169 Newton Rd, Iowa City, IA, USA.

Maternal stress during pregnancy is associated with increased risk of psychiatric disorders in offspring, but embryonic brain mechanisms disrupted by prenatal stress are not fully understood. Our lab has shown that prenatal stress delays inhibitory neural progenitor migration. Here, we investigated redox dysregulation as a mechanism for embryonic cortical interneuron migration delay, utilizing direct manipulation of pro- and antioxidants and a mouse model of maternal repetitive restraint stress starting on embryonic day 12. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhz052DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

Dynamic Causal Modeling of the Relationship between Cognition and Theta-alpha Oscillations in Adults with Down Syndrome.

Cereb Cortex 2019 Mar 16. Epub 2019 Mar 16.

Division of Psychiatry, Faculty of Brain Sciences, University College London, 149 Tottenham Court Road, London, UK.

Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) show high inter-subject variability in cognitive ability and have an ultra-high risk of developing dementia (90% lifetime prevalence). Elucidating factors underlying variability in cognitive function can inform us about intellectual disability (ID) and may improve our understanding of factors associated with later cognitive decline. Increased neuronal inhibition has been posited to contribute to ID in DS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhz043DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6458903PMC
March 2019
2 Reads

The Hyperpolarization-Activated HCN4 Channel is Important for Proper Maintenance of Oscillatory Activity in the Thalamocortical System.

Cereb Cortex 2019 Mar 16. Epub 2019 Mar 16.

Institut für Experimentelle und Klinische Pharmakologie und Toxikologie, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany.

Hyperpolarization-activated cation channels are involved, among other functions, in learning and memory, control of synaptic transmission and epileptogenesis. The importance of the HCN1 and HCN2 isoforms for brain function has been demonstrated, while the role of HCN4, the third major neuronal HCN subunit, is not known. Here we show that HCN4 is essential for oscillatory activity in the thalamocortical (TC) network. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhz047DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6458902PMC
March 2019
1 Read

Corticostriatal Circuits Encode the Subjective Value of Perceived Control.

Cereb Cortex 2019 Mar 16. Epub 2019 Mar 16.

Department of Psychology, Rutgers University, Newark, NJ, USA.

The ability to perceive and exercise control over an outcome is both desirable and beneficial to our well-being. It has been shown that animals and humans alike exhibit behavioral bias towards seeking control and that such bias recruits the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and striatum. Yet, this bias remains to be quantitatively captured and studied neurally. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhz045DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Deletion of the KH1 Domain of Fmr1 Leads to Transcriptional Alterations and Attentional Deficits in Rats.

Cereb Cortex 2019 Mar 16. Epub 2019 Mar 16.

Department of Psychiatry, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA.

Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by mutations in the FMR1 gene. It is a leading monogenic cause of autism spectrum disorder and inherited intellectual disability and is often comorbid with attention deficits. Most FXS cases are due to an expansion of CGG repeats leading to suppressed expression of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), an RNA-binding protein involved in mRNA metabolism. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhz029DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6458915PMC
March 2019
2 Reads

Acute Inescapable Stress Rapidly Increases Synaptic Energy Metabolism in Prefrontal Cortex and Alters Working Memory Performance.

Cereb Cortex 2019 Mar 16. Epub 2019 Mar 16.

Laboratory of Neuropsychopharmacology and Functional Neurogenomics, Dipartimento di Scienze Farmacologiche e Biomolecolari and CEND, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milano, Italy.

Brain energy metabolism actively regulates synaptic transmission and activity. We have previously shown that acute footshock (FS)-stress induces fast and long-lasting functional and morphological changes at excitatory synapses in prefrontal cortex (PFC). Here, we asked whether FS-stress increased energy metabolism in PFC, and modified related cognitive functions. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/cercor/advance-article/doi/10.1093/
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhz034DOI Listing
March 2019
9 Reads

Reduced Hippocampal Dendrite Branching, Spine Density and Neurocognitive Function in Premature Rabbits, and Reversal with Estrogen or TrkB Agonist Treatment.

Cereb Cortex 2019 Mar 16. Epub 2019 Mar 16.

Department of Pediatrics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx NY, USA.

Preterm-born children suffer from neurological and behavioral disorders. Herein, we hypothesized that premature birth and non-maternal care of preterm newborns might disrupt neurobehavioral function, hippocampal dendritic arborization, and dendritic spine density. Additionally, we assessed whether 17β-estradiol (E2) replacement or the TrkB receptor agonist, 7,8-dihydroxyflavone (DHF), would reverse compromised dendritic development and cognitive function in preterm newborns. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhz033DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Phosphodiesterase 1 Bridges Glutamate Inputs with NO- and Dopamine-Induced Cyclic Nucleotide Signals in the Striatum.

Cereb Cortex 2019 Mar 16. Epub 2019 Mar 16.

Sorbonne Université, CNRS, Biological Adaptation and Ageing, Paris, France.

The calcium-regulated phosphodiesterase 1 (PDE1) family is highly expressed in the brain, but its functional role in neurones is poorly understood. Using the selective PDE1 inhibitor Lu AF64196 and biosensors for cyclic nucleotides including a novel biosensor for cGMP, we analyzed the effect of PDE1 on cAMP and cGMP in individual neurones in brain slices from male newborn mice. Release of caged NMDA triggered a transient increase of intracellular calcium, which was associated with a decrease in cAMP and cGMP in medium spiny neurones in the striatum. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhz041DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

When Conflict Cannot be Avoided: Relative Contributions of Early Selection and Frontal Executive Control in Mitigating Stroop Conflict.

Cereb Cortex 2019 Mar 16. Epub 2019 Mar 16.

Neurosciences Graduate Program, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.

When viewing familiar stimuli (e.g., common words), processing is highly automatized such that it can interfere with the processing of incompatible sensory information. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhz042DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Association Between Earliest Amyloid Uptake and Functional Connectivity in Cognitively Unimpaired Elderly.

Cereb Cortex 2019 Mar 16. Epub 2019 Mar 16.

Clinical Memory Research Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Malmö, Lund University, Sweden.

Alterations in cognitive performance have been noted in nondemented subjects with elevated accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) fibrils. However, it is not yet understood whether brain function is already influenced by Aβ deposition during the very earliest stages of the disease. We therefore investigated associations between [18F]Flutemetamol PET, resting-state functional connectivity, gray and white matter structure and cognitive performance in 133 cognitively normal elderly that exhibited normal global Aβ PET levels. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhz020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6458901PMC
March 2019
2 Reads

No Evidence that Predictions and Attention Modulate the First Feedforward Sweep of Cortical Information Processing.

Cereb Cortex 2019 Mar 16. Epub 2019 Mar 16.

Department of Psychology, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Predictive coding models propose that predictions (stimulus likelihood) reduce sensory signals as early as primary visual cortex (V1), and that attention (stimulus relevance) can modulate these effects. Indeed, both prediction and attention have been shown to modulate V1 activity, albeit with fMRI, which has low temporal resolution. This leaves it unclear whether these effects reflect a modulation of the first feedforward sweep of visual information processing and/or later, feedback-related activity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhz038DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Terminal Arbors of Callosal Axons Undergo Plastic Changes in Early-Amputated Rats.

Cereb Cortex 2019 Apr;29(4):1460-1472

Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, CEP 21941-902 Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Brazil.

Sensory information is processed in specific brain regions, and shared between the cerebral hemispheres by axons that cross the midline through the corpus callosum. However, sensory deprivation usually causes sensory losses and/or functional changes. This is the case of people who suffered limb amputation and show changes of body map organization within the somatosensory cortex (S1) of the deafferented cerebral hemisphere (contralateral to the amputated limb), as well as in the afferented hemisphere (ipsilateral to the amputated limb). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhy043DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound Attenuates LPS-Induced Neuroinflammation and Memory Impairment by Modulation of TLR4/NF-κB Signaling and CREB/BDNF Expression.

Cereb Cortex 2019 Apr;29(4):1430-1438

Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the restorative role of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroinflammation and memory impairments in a simulation of Alzheimer's disease. Mice subjected to LPS administration (250 μg/kg, i.p. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/cercor/article/29/4/1430/4904063
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhy039DOI Listing
April 2019
13 Reads

Spatial Patterns of Brain Activity Preferentially Reflecting Transient Pain and Stimulus Intensity.

Cereb Cortex 2019 Mar 7. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

Department of Neuroscience, Physiology and Pharmacology, University College London, London, UK.

How pain emerges in the human brain remains an unresolved question. Neuroimaging studies have suggested that several brain areas subserve pain perception because their activation correlates with perceived pain intensity. However, painful stimuli are often intense and highly salient; therefore, using both intensity- and saliency-matched control stimuli is crucial to isolate pain-selective brain responses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhz026DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6458907PMC
March 2019
2 Reads

Structural Associations of Cortical Contrast and Thickness in First Episode Psychosis.

Cereb Cortex 2019 Mar 7. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

McGill Centre for Integrative Neuroscience, McGill University, Montreal, Canada.

There is growing evidence that psychosis is characterized by brain network abnormalities. Analyzing morphological abnormalities with T1-weighted structural MRI may be limited in discovering the extent of deviations in cortical associations. We assess whether structural associations of either cortical white-gray contrast (WGC) or cortical thickness (CT) allow for a better understanding of brain structural relationships in first episode of psychosis (FEP) patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhz040DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read
8.665 Impact Factor

The Emergence of Hierarchical Somatosensory Processing in Late Prematurity.

Cereb Cortex 2019 Mar 4. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

Department of Neuroscience, Physiology and Pharmacology, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, UK.

The somatosensory system has a hierarchical organization. Information processing increases in complexity from the contralateral primary sensory cortex to bilateral association cortices and this is represented by a sequence of somatosensory-evoked potentials recorded with scalp electroencephalographies. The mammalian somatosensory system matures over the early postnatal period in a rostro-caudal progression, but little is known about the development of hierarchical information processing in the human infant brain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhz030DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6458926PMC
March 2019
1 Read

Foxg1 Directly Represses Dbx1 to Confine the POA and Subsequently Regulate Ventral Telencephalic Patterning.

Cereb Cortex 2019 Mar 4. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

Key Laboratory of Developmental Genes and Human Diseases, MOE, Department of histology and embryology, School of Medicine, Southeast University, Nanjing 210009, China.

During early development, signaling centers, such as the cortical hem and the preoptic area (POA), are critical for telencephalic patterning. However, the mechanisms underlying the maintenance of signal centers are poorly understood. Here, we report that the transcription factor Foxg1 is required to confine the POA, a resource of Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) that is pivotal for ventral telencephalic development. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhz037DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Overlapping Anatomical Networks Convey Cross-Modal Suppression in the Sighted and Coactivation of "Visual" and Auditory Cortex in the Blind.

Cereb Cortex 2019 Mar 4. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

Department of Neuroscience, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC 20057, USA.

In the present combined DTI/fMRI study we investigated adaptive plasticity of neural networks involved in controlling spatial and nonspatial auditory working memory in the early blind (EB). In both EB and sighted controls (SC), fractional anisotropy (FA) within the right inferior longitudinal fasciculus correlated positively with accuracy in a one-back sound localization but not sound identification task. The neural tracts passing through the cluster of significant correlation connected auditory and "visual" areas in the right hemisphere. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhz021DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

HuR in the Medial Prefrontal Cortex is Critical for Stress-Induced Synaptic Dysfunction and Depressive-Like Symptoms in Mice.

Cereb Cortex 2019 Mar 4. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

Key laboratory of Molecular Epigenetics Ministry of Education, Institute of Genetics and Cytology, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130021, China.

Chronic stress has been observed to increase the risk of developing depression and induce neuronal alterations of synaptic plasticity, yet the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we found that the ubiquitously expressed RNA-binding protein HuR was up-regulated in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of mice following chronic stress. In adult mice, AAV-Cre-mediated knockout of HuR in the mPFC prevented anxiety-like and depression-like behaviors induced by chronic stress. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhz036DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Disrupted AMPA Receptor Function upon Genetic- or Antibody-Mediated Loss of Autism-Associated CASPR2.

Cereb Cortex 2019 Mar 4. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

Synapse Biology Group, CNC-Centre for Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Coimbra, 3004-504 Coimbra, Portugal.

Neuropsychiatric disorders share susceptibility genes, suggesting a common origin. One such gene is CNTNAP2 encoding contactin-associated protein 2 (CASPR2), which harbours mutations associated to autism, schizophrenia, and intellectual disability. Antibodies targeting CASPR2 have also been recently described in patients with several neurological disorders, such as neuromyotonia, Morvan's syndrome, and limbic encephalitis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhz032DOI Listing
March 2019
14 Reads

Foxg1 Antagonizes Neocortical Stem Cell Progression to Astrogenesis.

Cereb Cortex 2019 Mar 1. Epub 2019 Mar 1.

Laboratory of Cerebral Cortex Development, Neuroscience Area, SISSA, Trieste, Italy.

Neocortical astrogenesis follows neuronogenesis and precedes oligogenesis. Among key factors dictating its temporal articulation, there are progression rates of pallial stem cells (SCs) towards astroglial lineages as well as activation rates of astrocyte differentiation programs in response to extrinsic gliogenic cues. In this study, we showed that high Foxg1 SC expression antagonizes astrocyte generation, while stimulating SC self-renewal and committing SCs to neuronogenesis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhz031DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Hemisphere and Gender Differences in the Rich-Club Organization of Structural Networks.

Cereb Cortex 2019 Feb 27. Epub 2019 Feb 27.

Department of Information and Computer, Taiyuan University of Technology, No. 79, Yingze West Street, Taiyuan, Shanxi, China.

Structural and functional differences in brain hemispheric asymmetry have been well documented between female and male adults. However, potential differences in the connectivity patterns of the rich-club organization of hemispheric structural networks in females and males remain to be determined. In this study, diffusion tensor imaging was used to construct hemispheric structural networks in healthy subjects, and graph theoretical analysis approaches were applied to quantify hemisphere and gender differences in rich-club organization. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhz027DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Fairy Tales versus Facts: Genre Matters to the Developing Brain.

Cereb Cortex 2019 Feb 26. Epub 2019 Feb 26.

Vanderbilt Brain Institute, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA.

Neurobiological studies of discourse comprehension have almost exclusively focused on narrative comprehension. However, successful engagement in modern society, particularly in educational settings, also requires comprehension with an aim to learn new information (i.e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhz025DOI Listing
February 2019
4 Reads

Preventing a Thought from Coming to Mind Elicits Increased Right Frontal Beta Just as Stopping Action Does.

Cereb Cortex 2019 Feb 26. Epub 2019 Feb 26.

Department of Psychology, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA.

In the stop-signal task, an electrophysiological signature of action-stopping is increased early right frontal beta band power for successful vs. failed stop trials. Here we tested whether the requirement to stop an unwanted thought from coming to mind also elicits this signature. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhz017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6458912PMC
February 2019
1 Read

Distinct Structure of Cortical Population Activity on Fast and Infraslow Timescales.

Cereb Cortex 2019 Feb 23. Epub 2019 Feb 23.

Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, UK.

Cortical activity is organized across multiple spatial and temporal scales. Most research on the dynamics of neuronal spiking is concerned with timescales of 1 ms-1 s, and little is known about spiking dynamics on timescales of tens of seconds and minutes. Here, we used frequency domain analyses to study the structure of individual neurons' spiking activity and its coupling to local population rate and to arousal level across 0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhz023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6458908PMC
February 2019
1 Read

Neurofeedback Training of Gamma Oscillations in Monkey Primary Visual Cortex.

Cereb Cortex 2019 Feb 23. Epub 2019 Feb 23.

Ernst Struengmann Institute for Neuroscience in Cooperation with Max Planck Society, Deutschordenstrasse 46, Frankfurt, Germany.

In humans, neurofeedback (NFB) training has been used extensively and successfully to manipulate brain activity. Feedback signals were derived from EEG, fMRI, MEG, and intracranial recordings and modifications were obtained of the BOLD signal, of the power of oscillatory activity in distinct frequency bands and of single unit activity. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether neuronal activity could also be controlled by NFB in early sensory cortices whose activity is thought to be influenced mainly by sensory input rather than volitional control. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhz013DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Learning Promotes Subfield-Specific Synaptic Diversity in Hippocampal CA1 Neurons.

Cereb Cortex 2019 Feb 23. Epub 2019 Feb 23.

Department of Physiology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, Yamaguchi, Japan.

The hippocampus is functionally heterogeneous between the dorsal and ventral subfields with left-right asymmetry. To determine the possible location of contextual memory, we performed an inhibitory avoidance task to analyze synaptic plasticity using slice patch-clamp technique. The training bilaterally increased the AMPA/NMDA ratio at dorsal CA3-CA1 synapses, whereas the training did not affect the ratio at ventral CA3-CA1 synapses regardless of the hemisphere. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhz022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6459007PMC
February 2019

Dlx1/2 are Central and Essential Components in the Transcriptional Code for Generating Olfactory Bulb Interneurons.

Cereb Cortex 2019 Feb 23. Epub 2019 Feb 23.

State Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology, Institutes of Brain Science, MOE Frontier Research Center for Brain Science, Department of Neurology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, PR China.

Generation of olfactory bulb (OB) interneurons requires neural stem/progenitor cell specification, proliferation, differentiation, and young interneuron migration and maturation. Here, we show that the homeobox transcription factors Dlx1/2 are central and essential components in the transcriptional code for generating OB interneurons. In Dlx1/2 constitutive null mutants, the differentiation of GSX2+ and ASCL1+ neural stem/progenitor cells in the dorsal lateral ganglionic eminence is blocked, resulting in a failure of OB interneuron generation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhz018DOI Listing
February 2019
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Hippocampal Interaction With Area 25, but not Area 32, Regulates Marmoset Approach-Avoidance Behavior.

Cereb Cortex 2019 Feb 23. Epub 2019 Feb 23.

Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge, UK.

Affective disorders are associated with increased sensitivity to negative feedback that influences approach-avoidance decision making. Although neuroimaging studies of these disorders reveal dysregulation in primate cingulate areas 25 and 32 and the anterior hippocampus (aHipp), the causal involvement of these structures and their interaction in the primate brain is unknown. We therefore investigated the effects of localized pharmacological manipulations of areas 25 and 32 and/or the aHipp of the marmoset monkey on performance of an anxiolytic-sensitive instrumental decision-making task in which an approach-avoidance conflict is created by pairing a response with reward and punishment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhz015DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

A Double Dissociation in Sensitivity to Verb and Noun Semantics Across Cortical Networks.

Cereb Cortex 2019 Feb 15. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA.

What is the neural organization of the mental lexicon? Previous research suggests that partially distinct cortical networks are active during verb and noun processing, but what information do these networks represent? We used multivoxel pattern analysis (MVPA) to investigate whether these networks are sensitive to lexicosemantic distinctions among verbs and among nouns and, if so, whether they are more sensitive to distinctions among words in their preferred grammatical class. Participants heard 4 types of verbs (light emission, sound emission, hand-related actions, mouth-related actions) and 4 types of nouns (birds, mammals, manmade places, natural places). As previously shown, the left posterior middle temporal gyrus (LMTG+), and inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) responded more to verbs, whereas the inferior parietal lobule (LIP), precuneus (LPC), and inferior temporal (LIT) cortex responded more to nouns. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/cercor/advance-article/doi/10.1093/
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhz014DOI Listing
February 2019
5 Reads

Anterior Intraparietal Area: A Hub in the Observed Manipulative Action Network.

Cereb Cortex 2019 Apr;29(4):1816-1833

Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Parma, Via Volturno 39, Parma, Italy.

Current knowledge regarding the processing of observed manipulative actions (OMAs) (e.g., grasping, dragging, or dropping) is limited to grasping and underlying neural circuitry remains controversial. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/cercor/advance-article/doi/10.1093/
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhz011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6418391PMC
April 2019
13 Reads

Aberrant Excitatory-Inhibitory Synaptic Mechanisms in Entorhinal Cortex Microcircuits During the Pathogenesis of Alzheimer's Disease.

Cereb Cortex 2019 Apr;29(4):1834-1850

UCL School of Pharmacy, University College London, London, UK.

Synaptic dysfunction is widely proposed as an initial insult leading to the neurodegeneration observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We hypothesize that the initial insult originates in the lateral entorhinal cortex (LEC) due to deficits in key interneuronal functions and synaptic signaling mechanisms, in particular, Wnt (Wingless/integrated). To investigate this hypothesis, we utilized the first knock-in mouse model of AD (AppNL-F/NL-F), expressing a mutant form of human amyloid-β (Aβ) precursor protein. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhz016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6418384PMC
April 2019
2 Reads

Motivational Impairment is Accompanied by Corticoaccumbal Dysfunction in the BACHD-Tg5 Rat Model of Huntington's Disease.

Cereb Cortex 2019 Feb 7. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 20 Penn St., Baltimore, MD, USA.

Neuropsychiatric symptoms, such as avolition, apathy, and anhedonia, precede the onset of debilitating motor symptoms in Huntington's disease (HD), and their development may give insight into early disease progression and treatment. However, the neuronal and circuit mechanisms of premanifest HD pathophysiology are not well-understood. Here, using a transgenic rat model expressing the full-length human mutant HD gene, we find early and profound deficits in reward motivation in the absence of gross motor abnormalities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhz009DOI Listing
February 2019
8.665 Impact Factor