Search our Database of Scientific Publications and Authors

I’m looking for a

    5230 results match your criteria Cerebral Cortex [Journal]

    1 OF 105

    Basal Forebrain Gating by Somatostatin Neurons Drives Prefrontal Cortical Activity.
    Cereb Cortex 2017 Nov 17:1-12. Epub 2017 Nov 17.
    Departamento de Psiquiatria, Centro Interdisciplinario de Neurociencia UC, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Marcoleta 391, Santiago 8330024, Chile.
    The basal forebrain provides modulatory input to the cortex regulating brain states and cognitive processing. Somatostatin-expressing neurons constitute a heterogeneous GABAergic population known to functionally inhibit basal forebrain cortically projecting cells thus favoring sleep and cortical synchronization. However, it remains unclear if somatostatin cells can regulate population activity patterns in the basal forebrain and modulate cortical dynamics. Read More

    The Hierarchical Organization of the Default, Dorsal Attention and Salience Networks in Adolescents and Young Adults.
    Cereb Cortex 2017 Nov 17:1-12. Epub 2017 Nov 17.
    The Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging, University College London, Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK.
    An important characteristic of spontaneous brain activity is the anticorrelation between the core default network (cDN) and the dorsal attention network (DAN) and the salience network (SN). This anticorrelation may constitute a key aspect of functional anatomy and is implicated in several brain disorders. We used dynamic causal modeling to assess the hypothesis that a causal hierarchy underlies this anticorrelation structure, using resting-state fMRI of healthy adolescent and young adults (N = 404). Read More

    Recurrent Processing of Contour Integration in the Human Visual Cortex as Revealed By fMRI-Guided TMS.
    Cereb Cortex 2017 Nov 17:1-10. Epub 2017 Nov 17.
    School of Psychological and Cognitive Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China.
    Contour integration is a critical step in visual perception because it groups discretely local elements into perceptually global contours. Previous investigations have suggested that striate and extrastriate visual areas are involved in this mid-level processing of visual perception. However, the temporal dynamics of these areas in the human brain during contour integration is less understood. Read More

    Neural Mechanisms of Episodic Retrieval Support Divergent Creative Thinking.
    Cereb Cortex 2017 Nov 17:1-17. Epub 2017 Nov 17.
    Department of Psychology and Center for Brain Science, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA.
    Prior research has indicated that brain regions and networks that support semantic memory, top-down and bottom-up attention, and cognitive control are all involved in divergent creative thinking. Kernels of evidence suggest that neural processes supporting episodic memory-the retrieval of particular elements of prior experiences-may also be involved in divergent thinking, but such processes have typically been characterized as not very relevant for, or even a hindrance to, creative output. In the present study, we combine functional magnetic resonance imaging with an experimental manipulation to test formally, for the first time, episodic memory's involvement in divergent thinking. Read More

    Medial Orbitofrontal Cortex Mediates Effort-related Responding in Rats.
    Cereb Cortex 2017 Nov 17:1-11. Epub 2017 Nov 17.
    Department Animal Physiology, University of Stuttgart, D-70569 Stuttgart, Germany.
    The medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC) is known to support flexible control of goal-directed behavior. However, limited evidence suggests that the mOFC also mediates the ability of organisms to work with vigor towards a selected goal, a hypothesis that received little consideration to date. Here we show that excitotoxic mOFC lesion increased responding under a progressive ratio (PR) schedule of reinforcement, that is, the highest ratio achieved, and increased the preference for the high effort-high reward option in an effort-related decision-making task, but left intact outcome-selective Pavlovian-instrumental transfer and outcome-specific devaluation. Read More

    p140Cap Regulates GABAergic Synaptogenesis and Development of Hippocampal Inhibitory Circuits.
    Cereb Cortex 2017 Nov 17:1-15. Epub 2017 Nov 17.
    Department of Molecular Biotechnology and Health Sciences, University of Torino, 10126 Torino, Italy.
    The neuronal scaffold protein p140Cap was investigated during hippocampal network formation. p140Cap is present in presynaptic GABAergic terminals and its genetic depletion results in a marked alteration of inhibitory synaptic activity. p140Cap-/- cultured neurons display higher frequency of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs) with no changes of their mean amplitude. Read More

    Delta Rhythm Orchestrates the Neural Activity Underlying the Resting State BOLD Signal via Phase-amplitude Coupling.
    Cereb Cortex 2017 Nov 17:1-15. Epub 2017 Nov 17.
    Neuroimaging Research Branch, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, USA.
    Spontaneous ongoing neuronal activity is a prominent feature of the mammalian brain. Temporal and spatial patterns of such ongoing activity have been exploited to examine large-scale brain network organization and function. However, the neurophysiological basis of this spontaneous brain activity as detected by resting-state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) remains poorly understood. Read More

    Echoes of Affective Stimulation in Brain connectivity Networks.
    Cereb Cortex 2017 Nov 17:1-14. Epub 2017 Nov 17.
    Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Corporate Member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Department of Psychiatry, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Berlin, Germany.
    Affective experience has effects on subjective feelings, physiological indices, entails immediate activity changes in the brain, and even influences brain networks in a protracted manner. However, it is still unclear, how the functional connectivity (FC) interplay between major intrinsic connectivity networks upon affective stimulation depends on affective valence, and whether this is specific for affective experience, i.e. Read More

    Prefrontal Executive Control Rescues Risk for Anxiety Associated with High Threat and Low Reward Brain Function.
    Cereb Cortex 2017 Nov 17:1-7. Epub 2017 Nov 17.
    Laboratory of NeuroGenetics, Department of Psychology & Neuroscience, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708, USA.
    Compared with neural biomarkers of risk for mental illness, little is known about biomarkers of resilience. We explore if greater executive control-related prefrontal activity may function as a resilience biomarker by "rescuing" risk associated with higher threat-related amygdala and lower reward-related ventral striatum activity. Functional MRI was used to assay baseline threat-related amygdala, reward-related ventral striatum, and executive control-related prefrontal activity in 120 young adult volunteers. Read More

    Astrocyte-Specific Deletion of Sox2 Promotes Functional Recovery After Traumatic Brain Injury.
    Cereb Cortex 2017 Nov 17:1-16. Epub 2017 Nov 17.
    Department of Molecular Biology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 6000 Harry Hines Blvd, Dallas, TX 75390-9148, USA.
    Injury to the adult brain induces activation of local astrocytes, which serves as a compensatory response that modulates tissue damage and recovery. However, the mechanism governing astrocyte activation during brain injury remains largely unknown. Here we provide in vivo evidence that SOX2, a transcription factor critical for stem cells and brain development, is also required for injury-induced activation of adult cortical astrocytes. Read More

    Distinct Cerebellar Contributions to Cognitive-Perceptual Dynamics During Natural Viewing.
    Cereb Cortex 2017 Dec;27(12):5652-5662
    QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Queensland, Herston 4006, Australia.
    The crucial role of the cerebellum in motor learning and coordination is very well known. Considerable interest has recently shifted toward its contribution to nonmotor tasks, such as working memory, emotion, and language. However, the cognitive role and functional subdivisions of the cerebellum, particularly in dynamic, ecologically realistic contexts, are not yet established. Read More

    Sequential Firing Codes for Time in Rodent Medial Prefrontal Cortex.
    Cereb Cortex 2017 Dec;27(12):5663-5671
    Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Center for Memory and Brain, Boston University, Boston, MA USA.
    A subset of hippocampal neurons, known as "time cells" fire sequentially for circumscribed periods of time within a delay interval. We investigated whether medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) also contains time cells and whether their qualitative properties differ from those in the hippocampus and striatum. We studied the firing correlates of neurons in the rodent mPFC during a temporal discrimination task. Read More

    Reverse NCX Attenuates Cellular Sodium Loading in Metabolically Compromised Cortex.
    Cereb Cortex 2017 Nov 9:1-17. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Institute of Neurobiology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Heinrich Heine University Duesseldorf, Universitaetsstrasse 1, 40225 Duesseldorf, Germany.
    In core regions of ischemic stroke, disruption of blood flow causes breakdown of ionic gradients and, ultimately, calcium overload and cell death. In the surrounding penumbra, cells may recover upon reperfusion, but recovery is hampered by additional metabolic demands imposed by peri-infarct depolarizations (PIDs). There is evidence that sodium influx drives PIDs, but no data exist on PID-related sodium accumulations in vivo. Read More

    Representations of Fine Digit Movements in Posterior and Anterior Parietal Cortex Revealed Using Long-Train Intracortical Microstimulation in Macaque Monkeys.
    Cereb Cortex 2017 Nov 9:1-20. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Center for Neuroscience, University of California, 1544 Newton Court, Davis, CA 95618, USA.
    The current investigation in macaque monkeys utilized long-train intracortical microstimulation to determine the extent of cortex from which movements could be evoked. Not only were movements evoked from motor areas (PMC and M1), but they were also evoked from posterior parietal (5, 7a, 7b) and anterior parietal areas (3b, 1, 2). Large representations of digit movements involving only the index finger (D2) and thumb (D1), were elicited from areas 1, 2, 7b, and M1. Read More

    Characteristic Increases in EEG Connectivity Correlate With Changes of Structural MRI in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.
    Cereb Cortex 2017 Nov 9:1-15. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Academic Unit of Neurology, Trinity Biomedical Sciences Institute, Trinity College Dublin, the University of Dublin, 152-160 Pearse Street, Dublin D02 R590, Ireland.
    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a terminal progressive adult-onset neurodegeneration of the motor system. Although originally considered a pure motor degeneration, there is increasing evidence of disease heterogeneity with varying degrees of extra-motor involvement. How the combined motor and nonmotor degeneration occurs in the context of broader disruption in neural communication across brain networks has not been well characterized. Read More

    Effective Connectivity Measured Using Optogenetically Evoked Hemodynamic Signals Exhibits Topography Distinct from Resting State Functional Connectivity in the Mouse.
    Cereb Cortex 2017 Nov 9:1-17. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Department of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO 63110, USA.
    Brain connectomics has expanded from histological assessment of axonal projection connectivity (APC) to encompass resting state functional connectivity (RS-FC). RS-FC analyses are efficient for whole-brain mapping, but attempts to explain aspects of RS-FC (e.g. Read More

    Amyloid Network Topology Characterizes the Progression of Alzheimer's Disease During the Predementia Stages.
    Cereb Cortex 2017 Nov 9:1-10. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Clinical Memory Research Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences Malmö, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    There is increasing evidence showing that the accumulation of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide into extracellular plaques is a central event in Alzheimer's disease (AD). These abnormalities can be detected as lowered levels of Aβ42 in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and are followed by increased amyloid burden on positron emission tomography (PET) several years before the onset of dementia. The aim of this study was to assess amyloid network topology in nondemented individuals with early stage Aβ accumulation, defined as abnormal CSF Aβ42 levels and normal Florbetapir PET (CSF+/PET-), and more advanced Aβ accumulation, defined as both abnormal CSF Aβ42 and Florbetapir PET (CSF+/PET+). Read More

    Local and Global Spatial Organization of Interaural Level Difference and Frequency Preferences in Auditory Cortex.
    Cereb Cortex 2017 Nov 9:1-20. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PT, UK.
    Despite decades of microelectrode recordings, fundamental questions remain about how auditory cortex represents sound-source location. Here, we used in vivo 2-photon calcium imaging to measure the sensitivity of layer II/III neurons in mouse primary auditory cortex (A1) to interaural level differences (ILDs), the principal spatial cue in this species. Although most ILD-sensitive neurons preferred ILDs favoring the contralateral ear, neurons with either midline or ipsilateral preferences were also present. Read More

    The Bat as a New Model of Cortical Development.
    Cereb Cortex 2017 Nov 9:1-14. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, UC Davis School of Medicine, Sacramento, CA, USA.
    The organization of the mammalian cerebral cortex shares fundamental features across species. However, while the radial thickness of grey matter varies within one order of magnitude, the tangential spread of the cortical sheet varies by orders of magnitude across species. A broader sample of model species may provide additional clues for understanding mechanisms that drive cortical expansion. Read More

    Age-Related Declines in Motor Performance are Associated With Decreased Segregation of Large-Scale Resting State Brain Networks.
    Cereb Cortex 2017 Nov 9:1-13. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    KU Leuven, Movement Control and Neuroplasticity Research Group, Department of Movement Sciences, Biomedical Sciences, Leuven 3000, Belgium.
    Aging is typically associated with substantial declines in motor functioning as well as robust changes in the functional organization of brain networks. Previous research has investigated the link between these 2 age-varying factors but examinations were predominantly limited to the functional organization within motor-related brain networks. Little is known about the relationship between age-related behavioral impairments and changes in functional organization at the whole brain (i. Read More

    The Laminar Organization of Piriform Cortex Follows a Selective Developmental and Migratory Program Established by Cell Lineage.
    Cereb Cortex 2017 Nov 9:1-16. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Department of Neurosurgery, Yale University School of Medicine, 333 Cedar Street, New Haven, CT 06520, USA.
    Piriform cortex (PC) is a 3-layer paleocortex receiving primary afferent input from the olfactory bulb. The past decade has seen significant progress in understanding the synaptic, cellular and functional organization of PC, but PC embryogenesis continues to be enigmatic. Here, using birthdating strategies and clonal analyses, we probed the early development and laminar specificity of neurogenesis/gliogenesis as it relates to the organization of the PC. Read More

    Meta-Connectomic Analysis Reveals Commonly Disrupted Functional Architectures in Network Modules and Connectors across Brain Disorders.
    Cereb Cortex 2017 Nov 9:1-16. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    National Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China.
    Neuropsychiatric disorders are increasingly conceptualized as disconnection syndromes that are associated with abnormal network integrity in the brain. However, whether different neuropsychiatric disorders show commonly dysfunctional connectivity architectures in large-scale brain networks remains largely unknown. Here, we performed a meta-connectomic study to identify disorder-related functional modules and brain regions by combining meta-analyses of 182 published resting-state functional MRI studies in 11 neuropsychiatric disorders and graph-theoretical analyses of 3 independent resting-state functional MRI datasets with healthy and diseased populations (Alzheimer's disease and major depressive disorder [MDD]). Read More

    Perturbation of GABAergic Synapses at the Axon Initial Segment of Basolateral Amygdala Induces Trans-regional Metaplasticity at the Medial Prefrontal Cortex.
    Cereb Cortex 2017 Nov 9:1-16. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Sagol Department of Neurobiology, University of Haifa, Haifa 31905, Israel.
    GABAergic synapses in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) play an important role in fear memory generation. We have previously reported that reduction in GABAergic synapses innervating specifically at the axon initial segment (AIS) of principal neurons of BLA, by neurofascin (NF) knockdown, impairs fear extinction. BLA is bidirectionally connected with the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), which is a key region involved in extinction of acquired fear memory. Read More

    Contextual Fear Extinction Induces Hippocampal Metaplasticity Mediated by Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 5.
    Cereb Cortex 2017 Nov 9:1-14. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Department of Pharmacology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232, USA.
    Dysregulated fear memory can lead to a broad spectrum of anxiety disorders. The brain systems underlying fear memory are manifold, with the hippocampus being prominently involved by housing fear-related spatial memories as engrams, which are created and stored through neural changes such as synaptic plasticity. Although metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors contribute significantly to both fear behavior and hippocampal synaptic plasticity, the relationship between these two phenomena has not been fully elucidated. Read More

    Cell-Type Specific Burst Firing Interacts with Theta and Beta Activity in Prefrontal Cortex During Attention States.
    Cereb Cortex 2017 Nov 9:1-17. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Department of Biology, Centre for Vision Research, York University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M6J 1P3.
    Population-level theta and beta band activity in anterior cingulate and prefrontal cortices (ACC/PFC) are prominent signatures of self-controlled, adaptive behaviors. But how these rhythmic activities are linked to cell-type specific activity has remained unclear. Here, we suggest such a cell-to-systems level linkage. Read More

    Same Genes, Different Brains: Neuroanatomical Differences Between Monozygotic Twins Discordant for Musical Training.
    Cereb Cortex 2017 Nov 9:1-8. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Department of Neuroscience, Retzius väg 8, Karolinska Institutet, 17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Numerous cross-sectional and observational longitudinal studies show associations between expertise and regional brain anatomy. However, since these designs confound training with genetic predisposition, the causal role of training remains unclear. Here, we use a discordant monozygotic (identical) twin design to study expertise-dependent effects on neuroanatomy using musical training as model behavior, while essentially controlling for genetic factors and shared environment of upbringing. Read More

    Focal Suppression of Distractor Sounds by Selective Attention in Auditory Cortex.
    Cereb Cortex 2017 Nov 9:1-17. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Oregon Hearing Research Center, Oregon Health and Science University, OR, USA.
    Auditory selective attention is required for parsing crowded acoustic environments, but cortical systems mediating the influence of behavioral state on auditory perception are not well characterized. Previous neurophysiological studies suggest that attention produces a general enhancement of neural responses to important target sounds versus irrelevant distractors. However, behavioral studies suggest that in the presence of masking noise, attention provides a focal suppression of distractors that compete with targets. Read More

    Childhood Music Training Induces Change in Micro and Macroscopic Brain Structure: Results from a Longitudinal Study.
    Cereb Cortex 2017 Nov 8:1-12. Epub 2017 Nov 8.
    Brain and Creativity Institute, Dornsife College of Letters, Arts and Sciences, University of Southern California, CA, USA.
    Several studies comparing adult musicians and nonmusicians have shown that music training is associated with structural brain differences. It is not been established, however, whether such differences result from pre-existing biological traits, lengthy musical training, or an interaction of the two factors, or if comparable changes can be found in children undergoing music training. As part of an ongoing longitudinal study, we investigated the effects of music training on the developmental trajectory of children's brain structure, over two years, beginning at age 6. Read More

    Frontostriatal and Dopamine Markers of Individual Differences in Reinforcement Learning: A Multi-modal Investigation.
    Cereb Cortex 2017 Oct 31:1-10. Epub 2017 Oct 31.
    Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, and Center for Depression, Anxiety and Stress Research, McLean Hospital, Belmont, MA 02478, USA.
    Prior studies have shown that dopamine (DA) functioning in frontostriatal circuits supports reinforcement learning (RL), as phasic DA activity in ventral striatum signals unexpected reward and may drive coordinated activity of striatal and orbitofrontal regions that support updating of action plans. However, the nature of DA functioning in RL is complex, in particular regarding the role of DA clearance in RL behavior. Here, in a multi-modal neuroimaging study with healthy adults, we took an individual differences approach to the examination of RL behavior and DA clearance mechanisms in frontostriatal learning networks. Read More

    Pathway-Specific Control of Striatal Neuron Vulnerability by Corticostriatal Cannabinoid CB1 Receptors.
    Cereb Cortex 2017 Oct 31:1-16. Epub 2017 Oct 31.
    Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas (CIBERNED), Instituto Universitario de Investigación Neuroquímica (IUIN) and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology I, Complutense University, 28040 Madrid, Spain.
    The vast majority of neurons within the striatum are GABAergic medium spiny neurons (MSNs), which receive glutamatergic input from the cortex and thalamus, and form two major efferent pathways: the direct pathway, expressing dopamine D1 receptor (D1R-MSNs), and the indirect pathway, expressing dopamine D2 receptor (D2R-MSNs). While molecular mechanisms of MSN degeneration have been identified in animal models of striatal damage, the molecular factors that dictate a selective vulnerability of D1R-MSNs or D2R-MSNs remain unknown. Here, we combined genetic, chemogenetic, and pharmacological strategies with behavioral and neurochemical analyses, and show that the pool of cannabinoid CB1 receptor (CB1R) located on corticostriatal terminals efficiently safeguards D1R-MSNs, but not D2R-MSNs, from different insults. Read More

    Fast Inhibitory Decay Facilitates Adult-like Temporal Processing in Layer 5 of Developing Primary Auditory Cortex.
    Cereb Cortex 2017 Oct 31:1-17. Epub 2017 Oct 31.
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, IDG/McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Center for Brain-Inspired Computing Research, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China.
    The protracted maturational process of temporal processing in layer 4 (L4) of primary auditory cortex (A1) has been extensively studied. Accumulating evidences show that layer 5 (L5) receives direct thalamic inputs as well. How the temporal responses in L5 may developmentally emerge remains unclear. Read More

    Barrel Cortical Neuron Integrates Triple Associated Signals for Their Memory Through Receiving Epigenetic-Mediated New Synapse Innervations.
    Cereb Cortex 2017 Dec;27(12):5858-5871
    Qingdao University, School of Pharmacy, Qingdao, Shandong 266021, China.
    Associative learning is common way for information acquisition. Associative memory is essential to logical reasoning and associative thinking. The storages of multiple associated signals in individual neurons facilitate their integration, expand memory volume, and strengthen cognition ability. Read More

    Polygenic Risk of Spasmodic Dysphonia is Associated With Vulnerable Sensorimotor Connectivity.
    Cereb Cortex 2016 Nov 19:1-9. Epub 2016 Nov 19.
    Department of Neurology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029, USA.
    Spasmodic dysphonia (SD), or laryngeal dystonia, is an isolated task-specific dystonia of unknown causes and pathophysiology that selectively affects speech production. Using next-generation whole-exome sequencing in SD patients, we computed polygenic risk score from 1804 genetic markers based on a genome-wide association study in another form of similar task-specific focal dystonia, musician's dystonia. We further examined the associations between the polygenic risk score, resting-state functional connectivity abnormalities within the sensorimotor network, and SD clinical characteristics. Read More

    The DNA Methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) Controls the Shape and Dynamics of Migrating POA-Derived Interneurons Fated for the Murine Cerebral Cortex.
    Cereb Cortex 2017 Dec;27(12):5696-5714
    Institute of Human Genetics, University Hospital Jena, 07743 Jena, Germany.
    The proliferative niches in the subpallium generate a rich cellular variety fated for diverse telencephalic regions. The embryonic preoptic area (POA) represents one of these domains giving rise to the pool of cortical GABAergic interneurons and glial cells, in addition to striatal and residual POA cells. The migration from sites of origin within the subpallium to the distant targets like the cerebral cortex, accomplished by the adoption and maintenance of a particular migratory morphology, is a critical step during interneuron development. Read More

    Dynamic Network Communication in the Human Functional Connectome Predicts Perceptual Variability in Visual Illusion.
    Cereb Cortex 2016 Nov 22:1-15. Epub 2016 Nov 22.
    Institute of Neuroscience, State Key Laboratory of Neuroscience, Key Laboratory of Primate Neurobiology, CAS Center for Excellence in Brain Science and Intelligence Technology, Shanghai Institute for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences , Shanghai200031, China.
    Ubiquitous variability between individuals in visual perception is difficult to standardize and has thus essentially been ignored. Here we construct a quantitative psychophysical measure of illusory rotary motion based on the Pinna-Brelstaff figure (PBF) in 73 healthy volunteers and investigate the neural circuit mechanisms underlying perceptual variation using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We acquired fMRI data from a subset of 42 subjects during spontaneous and 3 stimulus conditions: expanding PBF, expanding modified-PBF (illusion-free) and expanding modified-PBF with physical rotation. Read More

    Effects of Adult Female Rat Androgenization on Brain Morphology and Metabolomic Profile.
    Cereb Cortex 2017 Jul 6:1-8. Epub 2017 Jul 6.
    Departamento de Psicobiología, Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia, 28040 Madrid, Spain.
    Androgenization in adult natal women, as in transsexual men (TM), affects brain cortical thickness and the volume of subcortical structures. In order to understand the mechanism underlying these changes we have developed an adult female rat model of androgenization. Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy were used to monitor brain volume changes, white matter microstructure and ex vivo metabolic profiles over 32 days in androgenized and control subjects. Read More

    Developmental Changes in the Integration of Affective and Cognitive Corticostriatal Pathways are Associated with Reward-Driven Behavior.
    Cereb Cortex 2017 Jul 5:1-12. Epub 2017 Jul 5.
    Center for the Neural Basis of Cognition, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA.
    The relative influence of affective and cognitive processes on behavior is increasingly understood to transform through development, from adolescence into adulthood, but the neuroanatomical mechanisms underlying this change are not well understood. We analyzed diffusion magnetic resonance imaging in 115 10- to 28-year-old participants to identify convergent corticostriatal projections from cortical systems involved in affect and cognitive control and determined the age-related differences in their relative structural integrity. Results indicate that the relative integrity of affective projections, in relation to projections from cognitive control systems, decreases with age and is positively associated with reward-driven task performance. Read More

    Prenatal Ethanol Exposure and Neocortical Development: A Transgenerational Model of FASD.
    Cereb Cortex 2017 Jul 6:1-14. Epub 2017 Jul 6.
    Department of Psychology and Interdepartmental Neuroscience Program, University of California, Riverside, 900 University Ave. Riverside, CA 92521, USA.
    Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders, or FASD, represent a range of adverse developmental conditions caused by prenatal ethanol exposure (PrEE) from maternal consumption of alcohol. PrEE induces neurobiological damage in the developing brain leading to cognitive-perceptual and behavioral deficits in the offspring. Alcohol-mediated alterations to epigenetic function may underlie PrEE-related brain dysfunction, with these changes potentially carried across generations to unexposed offspring. Read More

    fMRI-based Neuronal Response to New Odorants in the Newborn Brain.
    Cereb Cortex 2017 Jul 6:1-7. Epub 2017 Jul 6.
    Division of Development and Growth, Department of Pediatrics,University of Geneva, Switzerland.
    The sense of smell is one of the oldest and the most primitive senses mammals possess, it helps to evaluate the surrounding environment. From birth, smell is an important sensory modality, highly relevant for neonatal behavioral adaptation. Even though human newborns seem to be able to perceive and react to olfactory stimuli, there is still a lack of knowledge about the ontogeny of smell and the underlying central processing involved in odor perception in newborns. Read More

    Parvalbumin-Positive Interneurons Regulate Neuronal Ensembles in Visual Cortex.
    Cereb Cortex 2017 Jul 6:1-15. Epub 2017 Jul 6.
    Neurotechnology Center, Department of Biological Sciences, Columbia University, 550 West 120 Street, Box 4822, New York, NY 10027, USA.
    For efficient cortical processing, neural circuit dynamics must be spatially and temporally regulated with great precision. Although parvalbumin-positive (PV) interneurons can control network synchrony, it remains unclear how they contribute to spatio-temporal patterning of activity. We investigated this by optogenetic inactivation of PV cells with simultaneous two-photon Ca2+ imaging from populations of neurons in mouse visual cortex in vivo. Read More

    Autism Related Neuroligin-4 Knockout Impairs Intracortical Processing but not Sensory Inputs in Mouse Barrel Cortex.
    Cereb Cortex 2017 Jul 5:1-14. Epub 2017 Jul 5.
    Institute of Physiology, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Duesbergweg 6, D-55128 Mainz, Germany.
    Neuroligin-4 (Nlgn4) is a cell adhesion protein that regulates synapse organization and function. Mutations in human NLGN4 are among the causes of autism spectrum disorders. In mouse, Nlgn4 knockout (KO) perturbs GABAergic synaptic transmission and oscillatory activity in hippocampus, and causes social interaction deficits. Read More

    Large-Scale Network Topology Reveals Heterogeneity in Individuals With at Risk Mental State for Psychosis: Findings From the Longitudinal Youth-at-Risk Study.
    Cereb Cortex 2017 Oct 27:1-10. Epub 2017 Oct 27.
    Center for Cognitive Neuroscience, Neuroscience and Behavioral Disorder Program, Duke-NUS Medical School, National University of Singapore, Singapore 169857, Singapore.
    Emerging evidence demonstrates heterogeneity in clinical outcomes of prodromal psychosis that only a small percentage of at-risk individuals eventually progress to full-blown psychosis. To examine the neurobiological underpinnings of this heterogeneity from a network perspective, we tested whether the early patterns of large-scale brain network topology were associated with risk of developing clinical psychosis. Task-free functional MRI data were acquired from subjects with At Risk Mental State (ARMS) for psychosis and healthy controls (HC). Read More

    Neural Encoding of Auditory Features during Music Perception and Imagery.
    Cereb Cortex 2017 Oct 27:1-12. Epub 2017 Oct 27.
    Helen Wills Neuroscience Institute, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.
    Despite many behavioral and neuroimaging investigations, it remains unclear how the human cortex represents spectrotemporal sound features during auditory imagery, and how this representation compares to auditory perception. To assess this, we recorded electrocorticographic signals from an epileptic patient with proficient music ability in 2 conditions. First, the participant played 2 piano pieces on an electronic piano with the sound volume of the digital keyboard on. Read More

    Adolescent Tuning of Association Cortex in Human Structural Brain Networks.
    Cereb Cortex 2017 Oct 27:1-14. Epub 2017 Oct 27.
    Brain Mapping Unit, Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 0SZ, UK.
    Motivated by prior data on local cortical shrinkage and intracortical myelination, we predicted age-related changes in topological organization of cortical structural networks during adolescence. We estimated structural correlation from magnetic resonance imaging measures of cortical thickness at 308 regions in a sample of N = 297 healthy participants, aged 14-24 years. We used a novel sliding-window analysis to measure age-related changes in network attributes globally, locally and in the context of several community partitions of the network. Read More

    Network Structure and Function in Parkinson's Disease.
    Cereb Cortex 2017 Oct 27:1-15. Epub 2017 Oct 27.
    Center for Neurosciences, The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, Manhasset, NY 11030, USA.
    Little is known of the structural and functional properties of abnormal brain networks associated with neurological disorders. We used a social network approach to characterize the properties of the Parkinson's disease (PD) metabolic topography in 4 independent patient samples and in an experimental non-human primate model. The PD network exhibited distinct features. Read More

    Inhibition of c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase Protects Against Brain Damage and Improves Learning and Memory After Traumatic Brain Injury in Adult Mice.
    Cereb Cortex 2017 Jun 30:1-19. Epub 2017 Jun 30.
    Department of Biology and Applied Life Science (BK21), College of Natural Sciences, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701, Republic of Korea.
    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a global risk factor that leads to long-term cognitive impairments. To date, the disease remains without effective therapeutics because of the multifactorial nature of the disease. Here, we demonstrated that activation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) is involved in multiple pathological features of TBI. Read More

    A Layer-specific Corticofugal Input to the Mouse Superior Colliculus.
    Cereb Cortex 2017 Jul 5:1-17. Epub 2017 Jul 5.
    Department of Biology, Neuroscience Institute, University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX 78249, USA.
    In the auditory cortex (AC), corticofugal projections arise from each level of the auditory system and are considered to provide feedback "loops" important to modulate the flow of ascending information. It is well established that the cortex can influence the response of neurons in the superior colliculus (SC) via descending corticofugal projections. However, little is known about the relative contribution of different pyramidal neurons to these projections in the SC. Read More

    Ventromedial Frontal Lobe Damage Alters how Specific Attributes are Weighed in Subjective Valuation.
    Cereb Cortex 2017 Oct 23:1-11. Epub 2017 Oct 23.
    Montreal Neurological Institute, Department of Neurology & Neurosurgery, McGill University, 3801 University St., Montreal, QC H3A 2B4, Canada.
    The concept of subjective value is central to current neurobiological views of economic decision-making. Much of this work has focused on signals in the ventromedial frontal lobe (VMF) that correlate with the subjective value of a variety of stimuli (e.g. Read More

    Activity in LIP, But not V4, Matches Performance When Attention is Spread.
    Cereb Cortex 2017 Oct 23:1-15. Epub 2017 Oct 23.
    Department of Neurobiology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.
    The enhancement of neuronal responses in many visual areas while animals perform spatial attention tasks has widely been thought to be the neural correlate of visual attention, but it is unclear whether the presence or absence of this modulation contributes to our striking inability to notice changes in change blindness examples. We asked whether neuronal responses in visual area V4 and the lateral intraparietal area (LIP) in posterior parietal cortex could explain the limited ability of subjects to attend multiple items in a display. We trained animals to perform a change detection task in which they had to compare 2 arrays of stimuli separated briefly in time and found that each animal's performance decreased as function of set-size. Read More

    Task-Modulated Cortical Representations of Natural Sound Source Categories.
    Cereb Cortex 2017 Oct 23:1-12. Epub 2017 Oct 23.
    Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance, Centre for Functional and Diagnostic Imaging and Research, Copenhagen University Hospital Hvidovre, 2650 Hvidovre, Denmark.
    In everyday sound environments, we recognize sound sources and events by attending to relevant aspects of an acoustic input. Evidence about the cortical mechanisms involved in extracting relevant category information from natural sounds is, however, limited to speech. Here, we used functional MRI to measure cortical response patterns while human listeners categorized real-world sounds created by objects of different solid materials (glass, metal, wood) manipulated by different sound-producing actions (striking, rattling, dropping). Read More

    1 OF 105