6,165 results match your criteria Cerebral Cortex[Journal]


Automatic Encoding of a View-Centered Background Image in the Macaque Temporal Lobe.

Authors:
He Chen Yuji Naya

Cereb Cortex 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

School of Psychological and Cognitive Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China.

Perceptual processing along the ventral visual pathway to the hippocampus (HPC) is hypothesized to be substantiated by signal transformation from retinotopic space to relational space, which represents interrelations among constituent visual elements. However, our visual perception necessarily reflects the first person's perspective based on the retinotopic space. To investigate this two-facedness of visual perception, we compared neural activities in the temporal lobe (anterior inferotemporal cortex, perirhinal and parahippocampal cortices, and HPC) between when monkeys gazed on an object and when they fixated on the screen center with an object in their peripheral vision. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhaa183DOI Listing

Genetic and microstructural differences in the cortical plate of gyri and sulci during gyrification in fetal sheep.

Cereb Cortex 2020 Jul 1. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

The Ritchie Centre, Hudson Institute of Medical Research, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3168, Australia.

Gyrification of the cerebral cortex is a developmentally important process, but the mechanisms that drive cortical folding are not fully known. Theories propose that changes within the cortical plate (CP) cause gyrification, yet differences between the CP below gyri and sulci have not been investigated. Here we report genetic and microstructural differences in the CP below gyri and sulci assessed before (at 70 days of gestational age [GA] 70), during (GA 90), and after (GA 110) gyrification in fetal sheep. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhaa171DOI Listing

Corrigendum to: Patterns of Cortical Folding Associated with Autistic Symptoms in Carriers and Noncarriers of the 22q11.2 Microdeletion.

Cereb Cortex 2020 Jul 1. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Department of Forensic and Neurodevelopmental Sciences, and the Sackler Institute for Translational Neurodevelopmental Sciences, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College, London, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhaa194DOI Listing

Voluntary Actions Modulate Perception and Neural Representation of Action-Consequences in a Hand-Dependent Manner.

Cereb Cortex 2020 Jul 1. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Sagol School of Neuroscience, School of Psychological Sciences, Tel-Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel.

Evoked neural activity in sensory regions and perception of sensory stimuli are modulated when the stimuli are the consequence of voluntary movement, as opposed to an external source. It has been suggested that such modulations are due to motor commands that are sent to relevant sensory regions during voluntary movement. However, given the anatomical-functional laterality bias of the motor system, it is plausible that the pattern of such behavioral and neural modulations will also exhibit a similar bias, depending on the effector triggering the stimulus (e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhaa156DOI Listing

Noradrenaline Release from Locus Coeruleus Terminals in the Hippocampus Enhances Excitation-Spike Coupling in CA1 Pyramidal Neurons Via β-Adrenoceptors.

Cereb Cortex 2020 Jul 1. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Centre for Synaptic Plasticity, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.

Release of the neuromodulator noradrenaline signals salience during wakefulness, flagging novel or important experiences to reconfigure information processing and memory representations in the hippocampus. Noradrenaline is therefore expected to enhance hippocampal responses to synaptic input; however, noradrenergic agonists have been found to have mixed and sometimes contradictory effects on Schaffer collateral synapses and the resulting CA1 output. Here, we examine the effects of endogenous, optogenetically driven noradrenaline release on synaptic transmission and spike output in mouse hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhaa159DOI Listing

Functional Connectivity within and beyond the Face Network Is Related to Reduced Discrimination of Degraded Faces in Young and Older Adults.

Cereb Cortex 2020 Jun 29. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Max Planck UCL Centre for Computational Psychiatry and Ageing Research, Max Planck Institute for Human Development, Berlin, Germany.

Degrading face stimuli reduces face discrimination in both young and older adults, but the brain correlates of this decline in performance are not fully understood. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the effects of degraded face stimuli on face and nonface brain networks and tested whether these changes would predict the linear declines seen in performance. We found decreased activity in the face network (FN) and a decrease in the similarity of functional connectivity (FC) in the FN across conditions as degradation increased but no effect of age. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhaa179DOI Listing

Sensorimotor Peak Alpha Frequency Is a Reliable Biomarker of Prolonged Pain Sensitivity.

Cereb Cortex 2020 Jun 27. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Department of Neural and Pain Sciences, University of Maryland School of Dentistry, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA.

Previous research has observed that the speed of alpha band oscillations (8-12 Hz range) recorded during resting electroencephalography is slowed in chronic pain patients. While this slowing may reflect pathological changes that occur during the chronification of pain, an alternative explanation is that healthy individuals with slower alpha oscillations are more sensitive to prolonged pain, and by extension, more susceptible to developing chronic pain. To test this hypothesis, we examined the relationship between the pain-free, resting alpha oscillation speed of healthy individuals and their sensitivity to two models of prolonged pain, Phasic Heat Pain and Capsaicin Heat Pain, at two visits separated by 8 weeks on average (n = 61 Visit 1, n = 46 Visit 2). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhaa124DOI Listing

White Matter Development from Birth to 6 Years of Age: A Longitudinal Study.

Cereb Cortex 2020 Jun 27. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Department of Psychiatry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA.

Human white matter development in the first years of life is rapid, setting the foundation for later development. Microstructural properties of white matter are linked to many behavioral and psychiatric outcomes; however, little is known about when in development individual differences in white matter microstructure are established. The aim of the current study is to characterize longitudinal development of white matter microstructure from birth through 6 years to determine when in development individual differences are established. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhaa170DOI Listing

Investigation of Psychiatric and Neuropsychological Correlates of Default Mode Network and Dorsal Attention Network Anticorrelation in Children.

Cereb Cortex 2020 Jun 27. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05401, USA.

The default mode network (DMN) and dorsal attention network (DAN) demonstrate an intrinsic "anticorrelation" in healthy adults, which is thought to represent the functional segregation between internally and externally directed thought. Reduced segregation of these networks has been proposed as a mechanism for cognitive deficits that occurs in many psychiatric disorders, but this association has rarely been tested in pre-adolescent children. The current analysis used data from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development study to examine the relationship between the strength of DMN/DAN anticorrelation and psychiatric symptoms in the largest sample to date of 9- to 10-year-old children (N = 6543). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhaa143DOI Listing

Brain Networks Processing Temporal Information in Dynamic Facial Expressions.

Cereb Cortex 2020 Jun 25. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Laboratory for Behavioural Neurology and Imaging of Cognition, Department of Basic Neuroscience, University of Geneva, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland.

This fMRI study examines the role of local and global motion information in facial movements during exposure to novel dynamic face stimuli. We found that synchronous expressions distinctively engaged medial prefrontal areas in the rostral and caudal sectors of anterior cingulate cortex (r/cACC) extending to inferior supplementary motor areas, as well as motor cortex and bilateral superior frontal gyrus (global temporal-spatial processing). Asynchronous expressions in which one part of the face unfolded before the other activated more the right superior temporal sulcus (STS) and inferior frontal gyrus (local temporal-spatial processing). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhaa176DOI Listing

Diverse Temporal Dynamics of Repetition Suppression Revealed by Intracranial Recordings in the Human Ventral Temporal Cortex.

Cereb Cortex 2020 Jun 25. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Department of Psychology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.

Repeated stimulus presentations commonly produce decreased neural responses-a phenomenon known as repetition suppression (RS) or adaptation-in ventral temporal cortex (VTC) of humans and nonhuman primates. However, the temporal features of RS in human VTC are not well understood. To fill this gap in knowledge, we utilized the precise spatial localization and high temporal resolution of electrocorticography (ECoG) from nine human subjects implanted with intracranial electrodes in the VTC. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhaa173DOI Listing

Quantitative MRI-Based Analysis Identifies Developmental Limbic Abnormalities in PCDH19 Encephalopathy.

Cereb Cortex 2020 Jun 25. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Child Neurology Unit and Laboratories, Neuroscience Department, Children's Hospital A. Meyer - University of Florence, 50139 Florence, Italy.

Protocadherin-19 (PCDH19) is a calcium dependent cell-adhesion molecule involved in neuronal circuit formation with prevalent expression in the limbic structures. PCDH19-gene mutations cause a developmental encephalopathy with prominent infantile onset focal seizures, variably associated with intellectual disability and autistic features. Diagnostic neuroimaging is usually unrevealing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhaa177DOI Listing

Vocomotor and Social Brain Networks Work Together to Express Social Traits in Voices.

Cereb Cortex 2020 Jun 24. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Department of Speech, Hearing and Phonetic Sciences, University College London, London, UK.

Voice modulation is important when navigating social interactions-tone of voice in a business negotiation is very different from that used to comfort an upset child. While voluntary vocal behavior relies on a cortical vocomotor network, social voice modulation may require additional social cognitive processing. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated the neural basis for social vocal control and whether it involves an interplay of vocal control and social processing networks. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhaa175DOI Listing

Pubertal Testosterone Tracks the Developmental Trajectory of Neural Oscillatory Activity Serving Visuospatial Processing.

Cereb Cortex 2020 Jun 24. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Department of Neurological Sciences, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198, USA.

Puberty is a period of substantial hormonal fluctuations that induce dramatic physical, neurological, and behavioral changes. Previous research has demonstrated that pubertal hormones modulate cortical development, as well as sex- and age-specific patterns of cognitive development during childhood and adolescence. However, the influence of pubertal hormones on the brain's functional development, specifically neural oscillatory dynamics, has yet to be fully examined. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhaa169DOI Listing

Propagation of BOLD Activity Reveals Task-dependent Directed Interactions Across Human Visual Cortex.

Cereb Cortex 2020 Jun 24. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Center for Brain and Cognition, Computational Neuroscience Group, Department of Information and Communication Technologies, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, 08018 Barcelona, Spain.

It has recently been shown that large-scale propagation of blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) activity is constrained by anatomical connections and reflects transitions between behavioral states. It remains to be seen, however, if the propagation of BOLD activity can also relate to the brain's anatomical structure at a more local scale. Here, we hypothesized that BOLD propagation reflects structured neuronal activity across early visual field maps. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhaa165DOI Listing

Time to Face Language: Embodied Mechanisms Underpin the Inception of Face-Related Meanings in the Human Brain.

Cereb Cortex 2020 Jun 24. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Universidad de San Andrés, B1644BID Buenos Aires, Argentina.

In construing meaning, the brain recruits multimodal (conceptual) systems and embodied (modality-specific) mechanisms. Yet, no consensus exists on how crucial the latter are for the inception of semantic distinctions. To address this issue, we combined electroencephalographic (EEG) and intracranial EEG (iEEG) to examine when nouns denoting facial body parts (FBPs) and nonFBPs are discriminated in face-processing and multimodal networks. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhaa178DOI Listing

The Functional Convergence and Heterogeneity of Social, Episodic, and Self-Referential Thought in the Default Mode Network.

Cereb Cortex 2020 Jun 23. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, Medical Research Council, Cambridge CB2 7EF, UK.

The default mode network (DMN) is engaged in a variety of cognitive settings, including social, semantic, temporal, spatial, and self-related tasks. Andrews-Hanna et al. (2010; Andrews-Hanna 2012) proposed that the DMN consists of three distinct functional-anatomical subsystems-a dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dMPFC) subsystem that supports social cognition; a medial temporal lobe (MTL) subsystem that contributes to memory-based scene construction; and a set of midline core hubs that are especially involved in processing self-referential information. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhaa166DOI Listing

COUP-TFI/Nr2f1 Orchestrates Intrinsic Neuronal Activity during Development of the Somatosensory Cortex.

Cereb Cortex 2020 Jun 23. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Université Côte d'Azur, CNRS, Inserm, iBV, 06108 Nice, France.

The formation of functional cortical maps in the cerebral cortex results from a timely regulated interaction between intrinsic genetic mechanisms and electrical activity. To understand how transcriptional regulation influences network activity and neuronal excitability within the neocortex, we used mice deficient for Nr2f1 (also known as COUP-TFI), a key determinant of primary somatosensory (S1) area specification during development. We found that the cortical loss of Nr2f1 impacts on spontaneous network activity and synchronization of S1 cortex at perinatal stages. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhaa137DOI Listing

Large-Scale Structural Covariance Networks Predict Age in Middle-to-Late Adulthood: A Novel Brain Aging Biomarker.

Cereb Cortex 2020 Jun 23. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang Ming University, Taipei 11221, Taiwan.

The aging process is accompanied by changes in the brain's cortex at many levels. There is growing interest in summarizing these complex brain-aging profiles into a single, quantitative index that could serve as a biomarker both for characterizing individual brain health and for identifying neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric diseases. Using a large-scale structural covariance network (SCN)-based framework with machine learning algorithms, we demonstrate this framework's ability to predict individual brain age in a large sample of middle-to-late age adults, and highlight its clinical specificity for several disease populations from a network perspective. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhaa161DOI Listing

vmPFC Drives Hippocampal Processing during Autobiographical Memory Recall Regardless of Remoteness.

Cereb Cortex 2020 Jun 23. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Wellcome Centre for Human Neuroimaging, UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology, University College London, London WC1N 3AR, UK.

Our ability to recall past experiences, autobiographical memories (AMs), is crucial to cognition, endowing us with a sense of self and underwriting our capacity for autonomy. Traditional views assume that the hippocampus orchestrates event recall, whereas recent accounts propose that the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) instigates and coordinates hippocampal-dependent processes. Here we sought to characterize the dynamic interplay between the hippocampus and vmPFC during AM recall to adjudicate between these perspectives. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhaa172DOI Listing

Emotion Regulation Modulates Dietary Decision-Making via Activity in the Prefrontal-Striatal Valuation System.

Cereb Cortex 2020 Jun 22. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Melbourne School of Psychological Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne 3010, VIC, Australia.

The consumption of indulgent, carbohydrate- and fat-rich foods is often used as a strategy to cope with negative affect because they provide immediate self-reward. Such dietary choices, however, can severely affect people's health. One countermeasure could be to improve one's emotion regulation ability. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhaa147DOI Listing

Olig2-Induced Semaphorin Expression Drives Corticospinal Axon Retraction After Spinal Cord Injury.

Cereb Cortex 2020 Jun 22. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Division of Developmental Biology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA.

Axon regeneration is limited in the central nervous system, which hinders the reconstruction of functional circuits following spinal cord injury (SCI). Although various extrinsic molecules to repel axons following SCI have been identified, the role of semaphorins, a major class of axon guidance molecules, has not been thoroughly explored. Here we show that expression of semaphorins, including Sema5a and Sema6d, is elevated after SCI, and genetic deletion of either molecule or their receptors (neuropilin1 and plexinA1, respectively) suppresses axon retraction or dieback in injured corticospinal neurons. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhaa142DOI Listing

Brain Network Segregation and Glucose Energy Utilization: Relevance for Age-Related Differences in Cognitive Function.

Cereb Cortex 2020 Jun 22. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

National Institute on Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

The human brain is organized into segregated networks with strong within-network connections and relatively weaker between-network connections. This "small-world" organization may be essential for maintaining an energetically efficient system, crucial to the brain which consumes 20% of the body's energy. Brain network segregation and glucose energy utilization both change throughout the lifespan. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhaa167DOI Listing

Mapping the Brain-Wide Network Effects by Optogenetic Activation of the Corpus Callosum.

Cereb Cortex 2020 Jun 18. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Research Group of Translational Neuroimaging and Neural Control, High-field Magnetic Resonance, Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics, Tübingen, Baden-Württemberg 72076, Germany.

Optogenetically driven manipulation of circuit-specific activity enables causality studies, but its global brain-wide effect is rarely reported. Here, we applied simultaneous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and calcium recording with optogenetic activation of the corpus callosum (CC) connecting barrel cortices (BC). Robust positive BOLD was detected in the ipsilateral BC due to antidromic activity, spreading to the ipsilateral motor cortex (MC), and posterior thalamus (PO). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhaa164DOI Listing

Altered Resting-State Functional Connectivity Between Awake and Isoflurane Anesthetized Marmosets.

Cereb Cortex 2020 Jun 18. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Centre for Functional and Metabolic Mapping, Robarts Research Institute, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B7, Canada.

The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is a New World primate that is becoming increasingly popular as a preclinical model. To assess functional connectivity (FC) across the marmoset brain, resting-state functional MRI (RS-fMRI) is often performed under isoflurane anesthesia to avoid the effects of motion, physiological stress, and training requirements. In marmosets, however, it remains unclear how isoflurane anesthesia affects patterns of FC. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhaa168DOI Listing

Connections of the Human Orbitofrontal Cortex and Inferior Frontal Gyrus.

Cereb Cortex 2020 Jun 17. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 11221, Taiwan.

The direct connections of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) were traced with diffusion tractography imaging and statistical analysis in 50 humans, to help understand better its roles in emotion and its disorders. The medial OFC and ventromedial prefrontal cortex have direct connections with the pregenual and subgenual parts of the anterior cingulate cortex; all of which are reward-related areas. The lateral OFC (OFClat) and its closely connected right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG) have direct connections with the supracallosal anterior cingulate cortex; all of which are punishment or nonreward-related areas. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhaa160DOI Listing

Hyperexcitability in Aging Is Lost in Alzheimer's: What Is All the Excitement About?

Cereb Cortex 2020 Jun 17. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Departments of Neurology and Brain and Cognitive Sciences, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester 14642, NY, USA.

Neuronal hyperexcitability has emerged as a potential biomarker of late-onset early-stage Alzheimer's disease (LEAD). We hypothesize that the aging-related posterior cortical hyperexcitability anticipates the loss of excitability with the emergence of impairment in LEAD. To test this hypothesis, we compared the behavioral and neurophysiological responses of young and older (ON) normal adults, and LEAD patients during a visuospatial attentional control task. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhaa163DOI Listing

Corollary Discharge Versus Efference Copy: Distinct Neural Signals in Speech Preparation Differentially Modulate Auditory Responses.

Cereb Cortex 2020 Jun 16. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

NYU-ECNU Institute of Brain and Cognitive Science at NYU Shanghai, Shanghai 200062, China.

Actions influence sensory processing in a complex way to shape behavior. For example, during actions, a copy of motor signals-termed "corollary discharge" (CD) or "efference copy" (EC)-can be transmitted to sensory regions and modulate perception. However, the sole inhibitory function of the motor copies is challenged by mixed empirical observations as well as multifaceted computational demands for behaviors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhaa154DOI Listing

Development of Dynamic Functional Architecture during Early Infancy.

Cereb Cortex 2020 Jun 12. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Department of Radiology and BRIC, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA.

Uncovering the moment-to-moment dynamics of functional connectivity (FC) in the human brain during early development is crucial for understanding emerging complex cognitive functions and behaviors. To this end, this paper leveraged a longitudinal resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging dataset from 51 typically developing infants and, for the first time, thoroughly investigated how the temporal variability of the FC architecture develops at the "global" (entire brain), "mesoscale" (functional system), and "local" (brain region) levels in the first 2 years of age. Our results revealed that, in such a pivotal stage, 1) the whole-brain FC dynamic is linearly increased; 2) the high-order functional systems tend to display increased FC dynamics for both within- and between-network connections, while the primary systems show the opposite trajectories; and 3) many frontal regions have increasing FC dynamics despite large heterogeneity in developmental trajectories and velocities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhaa128DOI Listing

Progressive Memory Circuit Impairments along with Alzheimer's Disease Neuropathology Spread: Evidence from in vivo Neuroimaging.

Cereb Cortex 2020 Jun 13. Epub 2020 Jun 13.

Department of Radiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou 310009, China.

During the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD), neuropathology may propagate transneuronally, cause disruption in memory circuit, and lead to memory impairment. However, there is a lack of in vivo evidence regarding this process. Thus, we aim to simulate and observe the progression of neuropathology in AD continuum. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhaa162DOI Listing

Unconscious Number Discrimination in the Human Visual System.

Cereb Cortex 2020 Jun 12. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Department of Psychology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA.

How do humans compute approximate number? According to one influential theory, approximate number representations arise in the intraparietal sulcus and are amodal, meaning that they arise independent of any sensory modality. Alternatively, approximate number may be computed initially within sensory systems. Here we tested for sensitivity to approximate number in the visual system using steady state visual evoked potentials. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhaa155DOI Listing
June 2020
8.665 Impact Factor

Brain Wiring and Supragranular-Enriched Genes Linked to Protracted Human Frontal Cortex Development.

Cereb Cortex 2020 Jun 12. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Center for Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, Delaware State University, Dover, DE 19901, USA.

The human frontal cortex is unusually large compared with many other species. The expansion of the human frontal cortex is accompanied by both connectivity and transcriptional changes. Yet, the developmental origins generating variation in frontal cortex circuitry across species remain unresolved. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhaa135DOI Listing

Development of Microstructural and Morphological Cortical Profiles in the Neonatal Brain.

Cereb Cortex 2020 Jun 12. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

MRC Centre for Neurodevelopmental Disorders, King's College London, London, SE1 1UL, UK.

Interruptions to neurodevelopment during the perinatal period may have long-lasting consequences. However, to be able to investigate deviations in the foundation of proper connectivity and functional circuits, we need a measure of how this architecture evolves in the typically developing brain. To this end, in a cohort of 241 term-born infants, we used magnetic resonance imaging to estimate cortical profiles based on morphometry and microstructure over the perinatal period (37-44 weeks postmenstrual age, PMA). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhaa150DOI Listing

Irrelevant Predictions: Distractor Rhythmicity Modulates Neural Encoding in Auditory Cortex.

Cereb Cortex 2020 Jun 5. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Gonda Multidisciplinary Brain Research Center, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 5290002, Israel.

Dynamic attending theory suggests that predicting the timing of upcoming sounds can assist in focusing attention toward them. However, whether similar predictive processes are also applied to background noises and assist in guiding attention "away" from potential distractors, remains an open question. Here we address this question by manipulating the temporal predictability of distractor sounds in a dichotic listening selective attention task. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhaa153DOI Listing

Neural Correlates of Voice Perception in Newborns and the Influence of Preterm Birth.

Cereb Cortex 2020 Jun 9. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Division of Development and Growth, Department of Pediatrics, Geneva University Hospitals, 1205 Geneva, Switzerland.

Maternal voice is a highly relevant stimulus for newborns. Adult voice processing occurs in specific brain regions. Voice-specific brain areas in newborns and the relevance of an early vocal exposure on these networks have not been defined. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhaa144DOI Listing

Increased Dendritic Orientation Dispersion in the Left Occipital Gyrus is Associated with Atypical Visual Processing in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Cereb Cortex 2020 Jun 9. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Department of Psychiatry, Nara Medical University, Kashihara 634-8521, Japan.

In autism spectrum disorder (ASD), the complexity-specific hypothesis explains that atypical visual processing is attributable to selective functional changes in visual pathways. We investigated dendritic microstructures and their associations with functional connectivity (FC). Participants included 28 individuals with ASD and 29 typically developed persons. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhaa121DOI Listing

Evaluating the Sensitivity of Resting-State BOLD Variability to Age and Cognition after Controlling for Motion and Cardiovascular Influences: A Network-Based Approach.

Cereb Cortex 2020 Jun 9. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63130, USA.

Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies report that moment-to-moment variability in the BOLD signal is related to differences in age and cognition and, thus, may be sensitive to age-dependent decline. However, head motion and/or cardiovascular health (CVH) may contaminate these relationships. We evaluated relationships between resting-state BOLD variability, age, and cognition, after characterizing and controlling for motion-related and cardiovascular influences, including pulse, blood pressure, BMI, and white matter hyperintensities (WMH), in a large (N = 422) resting-state fMRI sample of cognitively normal individuals (age 43-89). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhaa138DOI Listing

Overarching Principles and Dimensions of the Functional Organization in the Inferior Parietal Cortex.

Cereb Cortex 2020 Jun 9. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

MRC Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 7EF, UK.

The parietal cortex (PC) is implicated in a confusing myriad of different cognitive processes/tasks. Consequently, understanding the nature and organization of the core underlying neurocomputations is challenging. According to the Parietal Unified Connectivity-biased Computation model, two properties underpin PC function and organization. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhaa133DOI Listing

Neural Correlates of Evidence and Urgency During Human Perceptual Decision-Making in Dynamically Changing Conditions.

Cereb Cortex 2020 Jun 5. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

McConnell Brain Imaging Centre, Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montréal, Quebec H3A 2B4, Canada.

Current models of decision-making assume that the brain gradually accumulates evidence and drifts toward a threshold that, once crossed, results in a choice selection. These models have been especially successful in primate research; however, transposing them to human fMRI paradigms has proved it to be challenging. Here, we exploit the face-selective visual system and test whether decoded emotional facial features from multivariate fMRI signals during a dynamic perceptual decision-making task are related to the parameters of computational models of decision-making. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhaa129DOI Listing

Salience Network Atrophy Links Neuron Type-Specific Pathobiology to Loss of Empathy in Frontotemporal Dementia.

Cereb Cortex 2020 Jun 5. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Department of Neurology, Memory and Aging Center, University of California San Francisco, 675 Nelson Rising Lane, San Francisco, California 94158, USA.

Each neurodegenerative syndrome reflects a stereotyped pattern of cellular, regional, and large-scale brain network degeneration. In behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), a disorder of social-emotional function, von Economo neurons (VENs), and fork cells are among the initial neuronal targets. These large layer 5 projection neurons are concentrated in the anterior cingulate and frontoinsular (FI) cortices, regions that anchor the salience network, a large-scale system linked to social-emotional function. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhaa119DOI Listing

A Gaussian Process Model of Human Electrocorticographic Data.

Cereb Cortex 2020 Jun 4. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755, USA.

We present a model-based method for inferring full-brain neural activity at millimeter-scale spatial resolutions and millisecond-scale temporal resolutions using standard human intracranial recordings. Our approach makes the simplifying assumptions that different people's brains exhibit similar correlational structure, and that activity and correlation patterns vary smoothly over space. One can then ask, for an arbitrary individual's brain: given recordings from a limited set of locations in that individual's brain, along with the observed spatial correlations learned from other people's recordings, how much can be inferred about ongoing activity at other locations throughout that individual's brain? We show that our approach generalizes across people and tasks, thereby providing a person- and task-general means of inferring high spatiotemporal resolution full-brain neural dynamics from standard low-density intracranial recordings. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhaa115DOI Listing
June 2020
8.665 Impact Factor

A Critical, Event-Related Appraisal of Denoising in Resting-State fMRI Studies.

Cereb Cortex 2020 Jun 4. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Departments of Neurology and Psychology, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 S Euclid Ave, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA.

This article advances two parallel lines of argument about resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signals, one empirical and one conceptual. The empirical line creates a four-part organization of the text: (1) head motion and respiration commonly cause distinct, major, unwanted influences (artifacts) in fMRI signals; (2) head motion and respiratory changes are, confoundingly, both related to psychological and clinical and biological variables of interest; (3) many fMRI denoising strategies fail to identify and remove one or the other kind of artifact; and (4) unremoved artifact, due to correlations of artifacts with variables of interest, renders studies susceptible to identifying variance of noninterest as variance of interest. Arising from these empirical observations is a conceptual argument: that an event-related approach to task-free scans, targeting common behaviors during scanning, enables fundamental distinctions among the kinds of signals present in the data, information which is vital to understanding the effects of denoising procedures. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhaa139DOI Listing

The Motor Cortex Has Independent Representations for Ipsilateral and Contralateral Arm Movements But Correlated Representations for Grasping.

Cereb Cortex 2020 Jun 4. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Department of Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, United States.

Motor commands for the arm and hand generally arise from the contralateral motor cortex, where most of the relevant corticospinal tract originates. However, the ipsilateral motor cortex shows activity related to arm movement despite the lack of direct connections. The extent to which the activity related to ipsilateral movement is independent from that related to contralateral movement is unclear based on conflicting conclusions in prior work. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhaa120DOI Listing

Neural Pattern Similarity Unveils the Integration of Social Information and Aversive Learning.

Cereb Cortex 2020 Jun 4. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Section for Psychology, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm 171 77, Sweden.

Attributing intentions to others' actions is important for learning to avoid their potentially harmful consequences. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging multivariate pattern analysis to investigate how the brain integrates information about others' intentions with the aversive outcome of their actions. In an interactive aversive learning task, participants (n = 33) were scanned while watching two alleged coparticipants (confederates)-one making choices intentionally and the other unintentionally-leading to aversive (a mild shock) or safe (no shock) outcomes to the participant. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhaa122DOI Listing

Spike Phase Shift Relative to Beta Oscillations Mediates Modality Selection.

Cereb Cortex 2020 Jun 4. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Institute of Neuroscience, State Key Laboratory of Neuroscience, CAS Center for Excellence in Brain Science & Intelligence Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 200031, China.

How does the brain selectively process signals from stimuli of different modalities? Coherent oscillations may function in coordinating communication between neuronal populations simultaneously involved in such cognitive behavior. Beta power (12-30 Hz) is implicated in top-down cognitive processes. Here we test the hypothesis that the brain increases encoding and behavioral influence of a target modality by shifting the relationship of neuronal spike phases relative to beta oscillations between primary sensory cortices and higher cortices. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhaa125DOI Listing

Differential Generation of Saccade, Fixation, and Image-Onset Event-Related Potentials in the Human Mesial Temporal Lobe.

Cereb Cortex 2020 Jun 4. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Krembil Research Institute, Toronto Western Hospital, Toronto, ON M5T 1M8, Canada.

Event-related potentials (ERPs) are a commonly used electrophysiological signature for studying mesial temporal lobe (MTL) function during visual memory tasks. The ERPs associated with the onset of visual stimuli (image-onset) and eye movements (saccades and fixations) provide insights into the mechanisms of their generation. We hypothesized that since eye movements and image-onset provide MTL structures with salient visual information, perhaps they both engage similar neural mechanisms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhaa132DOI Listing

Neuronal Encoding of Multisensory Motion Features in the Rat Associative Parietal Cortex.

Cereb Cortex 2020 Jun 4. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LNSC UMR 7260, Marseille 13331, France.

Motion perception is facilitated by the interplay of various sensory channels. In rodents, the cortical areas involved in multisensory motion coding remain to be identified. Using voltage-sensitive-dye imaging, we revealed a visuo-tactile convergent region that anatomically corresponds to the associative parietal cortex (APC). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhaa118DOI Listing

Bipartite Functional Fractionation within the Default Network Supports Disparate Forms of Internally Oriented Cognition.

Cereb Cortex 2020 Jun 4. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

MRC Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, University of Cambridge, Cambridge UK.

Our understanding about the functionality of the brain's default network (DN) has significantly evolved over the past decade. Whereas traditional views define this network based on its suspension/disengagement during task-oriented behavior, contemporary accounts have characterized various situations wherein the DN actively contributes to task performance. However, it is unclear how different task-contexts drive componential regions of the DN to coalesce into a unitary network and fractionate into different subnetworks. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhaa130DOI Listing

Invariant Synapse Density and Neuronal Connectivity Scaling in Primate Neocortical Evolution.

Cereb Cortex 2020 Jun 2. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Department of Anthropology, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA.

Synapses are involved in the communication of information from one neuron to another. However, a systematic analysis of synapse density in the neocortex from a diversity of species is lacking, limiting what can be understood about the evolution of this fundamental aspect of brain structure. To address this, we quantified synapse density in supragranular layers II-III and infragranular layers V-VI from primary visual cortex and inferior temporal cortex in a sample of 25 species of primates, including humans. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhaa149DOI Listing