89,329 results match your criteria Cerebellum & ataxias[Journal]


Is Purkinje Neuron Hyperpolarisation Important for Cerebellar Synaptic Plasticity? A Retrospective and Prospective Analysis.

Authors:
Marco Canepari

Cerebellum 2020 Jul 11. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

University of Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, LIPhy, F-38000, Grenoble, France.

Two recent studies have demonstrated that the dendritic Ca signal associated with a climbing fibre (CF) input to the cerebellar Purkinje neuron (PN) depends on the membrane potential (V). Specifically, when the cell is hyperpolarised, this signal is mediated by T-type voltage-gated Ca channels; in contrast, when the cell is firing, the CF-PN signal is mediated by P/Q-type voltage-gated Ca channels. When the CF input is paired with parallel fibre (PF) activity, the signal is locally amplified at the sites of PF-activated synapses according to the V at the time of the CF input, suggesting that the standing V is a critical parameter for the induction of PF synaptic plasticity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12311-020-01164-0DOI Listing

Effects of acute mild hypoxia on cerebral blood flow in pilots.

Neurol Sci 2020 Jul 11. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Department of Radiology, The Air Force General Hospital in Beijing, No. 30 Fucheng Road, Haidian District, Beijing, West Diaoyutai, China.

Background: Pilots often face and need to overcome a diverse range of unfavorable conditions, of which hypoxic exposure is the most common. Studies have reported that hypoxia can induce a decrease in cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the brains of both humans and animals. Hypoxia and the associated cerebral hemodynamic changes can contribute to cognitive performance deficits that may endanger flight safety and increase the risk of accidents. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10072-020-04567-3DOI Listing

Functional Neuroanatomy of Salicylate- and Noise-Induced Tinnitus and Hyperacusis.

Curr Top Behav Neurosci 2020 Jul 12. Epub 2020 Jul 12.

Center for Hearing and Deafness, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, USA.

Tinnitus and hyperacusis are debilitating conditions often associated with aging or exposure to intense noise or ototoxic drugs. One of the most reliable methods of inducing tinnitus is with high doses of sodium salicylate, the active ingredient in aspirin. High doses of salicylate have been widely used to investigate the functional neuroanatomy of tinnitus and hyperacusis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/7854_2020_156DOI Listing

Structural connectivity predicts clinical outcomes of deep brain stimulation for Tourette syndrome.

Brain 2020 Jul 12. Epub 2020 Jul 12.

Scientific Computing and Imaging Institute, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA.

Deep brain stimulation may be an effective therapy for select cases of severe, treatment-refractory Tourette syndrome; however, patient responses are variable, and there are no reliable methods to predict clinical outcomes. The objectives of this retrospective study were to identify the stimulation-dependent structural networks associated with improvements in tics and comorbid obsessive-compulsive behaviour, compare the networks across surgical targets, and determine if connectivity could be used to predict clinical outcomes. Volumes of tissue activated for a large multisite cohort of patients (n = 66) implanted bilaterally in globus pallidus internus (n = 34) or centromedial thalamus (n = 32) were used to generate probabilistic tractography to form a normative structural connectome. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/awaa188DOI Listing

Neuroanatomical Substrates and Predictors of Response to Capsulotomy in Intractable Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2020 May 20. Epub 2020 May 20.

Institute of Neuroscience, State Key Laboratory of Neuroscience, Key Laboratory of Primate Neurobiology, Center for Excellence in Brain Science and Intelligence Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China; University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; Shanghai Center for Brain Science and Brain-Inspired Intelligence Technology, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Background: Anterior capsulotomy that surgically targets fiber tracts connecting prefrontal cortex and subcortical nuclei is a therapeutic option for a subgroup of patients with treatment-refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder. The goal of this study was to investigate neural correlates to anterior capsulotomy and find predictors of clinical improvement following this procedure.

Methods: Structural and diffusion imaging data and clinical evaluation were acquired from 31 patients with refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder who underwent anterior capsulotomy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2020.05.005DOI Listing

The cerebellar nuclei and dexterous limb movements.

Neuroscience 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Molecular Neurobiology Laboratory, Salk Institute for Biological Studies, 10010 N. Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Electronic address:

Dexterous forelimb movements like reaching, grasping, and manipulating objects are fundamental building blocks of the mammalian motor repertoire. These behaviors are essential to everyday activities, and their elaboration underlies incredible accomplishments by human beings in art and sport. Moreover, the susceptibility of these behaviors to damage and disease of the nervous system can lead to debilitating deficits, highlighting a need for a better understanding of function and dysfunction in sensorimotor control. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2020.06.046DOI Listing

Non-congenital viral infections of the central nervous system: from the immunocompetent to the immunocompromised child.

Pediatr Radiol 2020 Jul 10. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Neuroradiology Unit, NESMOS Department, Sapienza University, Rome, Italy.

Non-congenital viral infections of the central nervous system in children can represent a severe clinical condition that needs a prompt diagnosis and management. However, the aetiological diagnosis can be challenging because symptoms are often nonspecific and cerebrospinal fluid analysis is not always diagnostic. In this context, neuroimaging represents a helpful tool, even though radiologic patterns sometimes overlap. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00247-020-04746-6DOI Listing

A variable presentation of Joubert syndrome: Case report and a brief review.

J Neonatal Perinatal Med 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine, Metropolitan Hospital Center, New York, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/NPM-180144DOI Listing

Characterising the influence of cerebellum on the neuroplastic modulation of intracortical motor circuits.

PLoS One 2020 10;15(7):e0236005. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Discipline of Physiology, Adelaide Medical School, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia.

The cerebellum (CB) has extensive connections with both cortical and subcortical areas of the brain, and is known to strongly influence function in areas it projects to. In particular, research using non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) has shown that CB projections to primary motor cortex (M1) are likely important for facilitating the learning of new motor skills, and that this process may involve modulation of late indirect (I) wave inputs in M1. However, the nature of this relationship remains unclear, particularly in regards to how CB influences the contribution of the I-wave circuits to neuroplastic changes in M1. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0236005PLOS

Neuroprotective effects of mango cv. 'Ataulfo' peel and pulp against oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

J Sci Food Agric 2020 Jul 10. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Coordinación de Tecnología de Alimentos de Origen Vegetal, Centro de Investigación en Alimentación y Desarrollo A. C., Carretera Gustavo Enrique Astiazarán Rosas No. 46 Postal Code 83304, Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico.

Background: Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of diabetes mellitus, both can damage the brain. Mango and its by-products are sources of bioactive compounds with antioxidant properties. We hypothesized that mango cv. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.10658DOI Listing

Neural sensitivity to risk in adults with co-occurring HIV infection and cocaine use disorder.

Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci 2020 Jul 9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Duke University School of Medicine, Box 102848, Durham, NC, 27708, USA.

Persons with co-occurring HIV infection and cocaine use disorder tend to engage in riskier decision-making. However, the neural correlates of sensitivity to risk are not well-characterized in this population. The purpose of this study was to examine the neural interaction effects of HIV infection and cocaine use disorder to sensitivity to risk. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13415-020-00806-4DOI Listing

Therapeutic Potential of Dihydropyridine Calcium Channel Blockers on Oxidative Injury Caused by Organophosphates in Cortex and Cerebellum: An In Vivo Study.

Indian J Clin Biochem 2020 Jul 14;35(3):339-346. Epub 2019 May 14.

Medicinal Plants and Natural Products Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran.

This study was designed to investigate the effects of amlodipine (AM), a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker, on the oxidative damage induced by diazinon (DZN) in the rat cortex and cerebellum. Forty-two rats were randomly divided into six groups. The rats were treated intraperitoneally with normal saline (group 1), AM (9 mg/kg; group 2), DZN (32 mg/kg; group 3) and different doses of AM (3, 6, and 9 mg/kg; groups 4, 5, and 6, respectively) with DZN. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12291-019-00830-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7326842PMC

Enriched environments enhance cognition, exploratory behaviour and brain physiological functions of Sparus aurata.

Sci Rep 2020 Jul 9;10(1):11252. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Laboratory of Neurophisiology, Universitat de les Illes Balears (UIB), Palma de Mallorca, Spain.

Environmental enrichment is considered as a recommended tool to guarantee or improve the welfare of captive fish. This study demonstrates for the first time that structural environmental enrichment enhances cognition, exploratory behaviour and brain physiological functions of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata). Seabream was reared in groups (n = 15) during 60 days under two different treatments: enriched tanks with plant-fibre ropes (EE) or bare/non-enriched tanks (NE). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-68306-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7347547PMC

The chromatin remodeling enzyme Chd4 regulates genome architecture in the mouse brain.

Nat Commun 2020 Jul 9;11(1):3419. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Department of Neuroscience, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA.

The development and function of the brain require tight control of gene expression. Genome architecture is thought to play a critical regulatory role in gene expression, but the mechanisms governing genome architecture in the brain in vivo remain poorly understood. Here, we report that conditional knockout of the chromatin remodeling enzyme Chd4 in granule neurons of the mouse cerebellum increases accessibility of gene regulatory sites genome-wide in vivo. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-17065-zDOI Listing

Dural arteriovenous fistula presenting with dementia and bulbar symptoms.

BMJ Case Rep 2020 Jul 9;13(7). Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Neurology, University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust, Leicester, UK

Dural arteriovenous fistulas are relatively rare. Some cases are difficult to diagnose, leading to unnecessary investigations, treatments and delays, particularly if the presentation is atypical. We report a case of a man who presented with progressive dementia and bulbar symptoms, both under-recognised non-haemorrhagic neurological deficits, caused by cortical venous hypertension. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2020-234907DOI Listing

Significance of high signal intensity in the endolymphatic duct on magnetic resonance imaging in ears with otological disorders.

Acta Otolaryngol 2020 Jul 10:1-5. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan.

Background: High signal intensity in the endolymphatic duct (ED) is occasionally observed on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in ears that have otological disorders.

Objective: The signal intensity (SI) in the ED on post-contrast MRI was investigated in subjects with various otological disorders, and the meaning of high SI in the ED was evaluated.

Material And Methods: 392 patients with otological disorders and 21 controls without otological symptoms underwent 3 T MRI. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00016489.2020.1781927DOI Listing

A Revised Computational Neuroanatomy for Motor Control.

J Cogn Neurosci 2020 Jul 9:1-14. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Ben-Gurion University of the Negev.

We discuss a new framework for understanding the structure of motor control. Our approach integrates existing models of motor control with the reality of hierarchical cortical processing and the parallel segregated loops that characterize cortical-subcortical connections. We also incorporate the recent claim that cortex functions via predictive representation and optimal information utilization. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1162/jocn_a_01602DOI Listing

Exosomal Facilitates Tumor Progression and Temozolomide Resistance by Regulating Axis in Glioma.

Cancer Biother Radiopharm 2020 Jul 9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Department of Neurosurgery, The Sixth Medical Center of PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China.

The resistance of glioma patients to temozolomide (TMZ) treatment is a limiting factor in clinical treatment. Circular RNA HIPK3 () was found to be highly expressed in glioma, however, the role and potential mechanism of exosomal from TMZ-resistant cells remain poorly unclear. Exosomes were characterized by transmission electron microscopy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/cbr.2019.3492DOI Listing

Differences in resting cerebellar and prefrontal cortical blood flow in spinal cord injury-related neuropathic pain: A brief report.

J Spinal Cord Med 2020 Jul 9:1-6. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Department of Radiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA.

Little is understood about differences in resting neural activity among those with spinal cord injury (SCI)-related neuropathic pain. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine resting cerebral blood flow differences in persons with SCI-related neuropathic pain compared to healthy, pain-free able-bodied controls. Five persons with paraplegia and ten able-bodied participants were included in this study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10790268.2020.1786321DOI Listing

Associations of Reading Efficiency with White Matter Properties of the Cerebellar Peduncles in Children.

Cerebellum 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Developmental-Behavioral Pediatrics, Stanford School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA.

Reading in children has been associated with microstructural properties of the cerebellar peduncles, the white matter pathways connecting the cerebellum to the cerebrum. In this study, we used two independent neuroimaging modalities to assess which features of the cerebellar peduncles would be associated with reading. Twenty-three 8-year-old children were evaluated on word reading efficiency and imaged using diffusion MRI (dMRI) and quantitative T1 relaxometry (qT1). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12311-020-01162-2DOI Listing

Abnormal Cerebellar Volume in Patients with Remitted Major Depression with Persistent Cognitive Deficits.

Cerebellum 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Center for Psychosocial Medicine, Department of General Psychiatry, University of Heidelberg, Vossstr. 4, 69115, Heidelberg, Germany.

Cerebellar involvement in major depressive disorder (MDD) has been demonstrated by a growing number of studies, but it is unknown whether cognitive functioning in depressed individuals is related to cerebellar gray matter volume (GMV) abnormalities. Impaired attention and executive dysfunction are characteristic cognitive deficits in MDD, and critically, they often persist despite remission of mood symptoms. In this study, we investigated cerebellar GMV in patients with remitted MDD (rMDD) that showed persistent cognitive impairment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12311-020-01157-zDOI Listing

Long term follow up after transorbital penetrating injury: A case report.

Am J Ophthalmol Case Rep 2020 Sep 24;19:100792. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

Purpose: Traumatic brain injury is the leading cause of mortality and disability among young individuals. Unfortunately, there are few publications concerning long term follow up of patients with these types of injuries. We present a case of trans-orbital penetrating brain injury with an 18 year follow up. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajoc.2020.100792DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7334582PMC
September 2020

CHEDDA syndrome: a case report and review of the literature for this newly described entity.

Radiol Case Rep 2020 Sep 3;15(9):1446-1449. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, 375 Newton Rd, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA.

ongenital ypotonia, pilepsy, evelopmental delay, and igital nomalies (CHEDDA) is a recently identified neurodevelopmental syndrome which has only 8 reported cases to date since its existence was proposed in 2007. We report a case of CHEDDA syndrome identified in a newborn female with congenital anomalies including Pierre-Robin sequence, arthrogryposis, craniosynostosis, cleft palate, and cardiac abnormalities who subsequently developed epilepsy at 1 month of life. Diagnosis was identified by whole-exome sequencing identifying mutations in a conserved histidine-rich motif within the gene Atrophin-1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radcr.2020.05.079DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7334555PMC
September 2020

Assessment of plaque morphology in Alzheimer's mouse cerebellum using three-dimensional X-ray phase-based virtual histology.

Sci Rep 2020 Jul 8;10(1):11233. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Institute of Nanotechnology - CNR, Rome Unit, Rome, Italy.

Visualization and characterization of [Formula: see text]-amyloid deposits is a fundamental task in pre-clinical study of Alzheimer's disease (AD) to assess its evolution and monitor the efficiency of new therapeutic strategies. While the cerebellum is one of the brain areas most underestimated in the context of AD, renewed interest in cerebellar lesions has recently arisen as they may link to motor and cognitive alterations. Thus, we quantitatively investigated three-dimensional plaque morphology in the cerebellum in APP/PS1 transgenic mouse, as a model of AD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-68045-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7343834PMC

Cerebellar transcranial alternating current stimulation in the gamma range applied during the acquisition of a novel motor skill.

Sci Rep 2020 Jul 8;10(1):11217. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Defitech Chair of Clinical Neuroengineering, Center for Neuroprosthetics (CNP) and Brain Mind Institute (BMI), Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), Campus Biotech, Chemin des Mines 9, 1202, Geneva, Switzerland.

The development of novel strategies to augment motor training success is of great interest for healthy persons and neurological patients. A promising approach is the combination of training with transcranial electric stimulation. However, limited reproducibility and varying effect sizes make further protocol optimization necessary. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-68028-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7343806PMC
July 2020
5.078 Impact Factor

[A case suspected of dystonia with marked cerebellar atrophy with torsion dystonia of the neck and cerebellar ataxia that developed during pharmacologic schizophrenia treatment].

Rinsho Shinkeigaku 2020 Jul 7. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Department of Brain Disease Research, Shinshu University School of Medicine.

A 46 year-old man with schizophrenia had taken several anti-psychotic drugs since 25 years of age. From ~35 years of age, he noticed occasional neck torsion to the left, and later an ataxic gait; both symptoms gradually worsened. On admission, the patient was taking olanzapine (5 mg/day) and biperiden hydrochloride (1 mg/day) because his schizophrenia was well controlled. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5692/clinicalneurol.60.cn-001395DOI Listing

Epitope Mapping of DhMab-1: An Antidiacylglycerol Kinase Monoclonal Antibody.

Monoclon Antib Immunodiagn Immunother 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Department of Antibody Drug Development, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan.

Diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) η is classified as a type II DGK and catalyzes diacylglycerol phosphorylation to produce phosphatidic acid. DGKη has been reported to be highly expressed in the hippocampus and cerebellum. Although a DGKη-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb) is necessary to reveal the association between the expression of DGKη and diseases, an anti-DGKη mAb for immunohistochemistry has not been developed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/mab.2020.0014DOI Listing

Functional Convergence of Autonomic and Sensorimotor Processing in the Lateral Cerebellum.

Cell Rep 2020 Jul;32(1):107867

Department of Neuroscience, Erasmus MC, 3015 GE Rotterdam, the Netherlands; Netherlands Institute for Neuroscience, Royal Academy of Arts and Sciences, 1105 BA Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

The cerebellum is involved in the control of voluntary and autonomic rhythmic behaviors, yet it is unclear to what extent it coordinates these in concert. We studied Purkinje cell activity during unperturbed and perturbed respiration in lobules simplex, crus 1, and crus 2. During unperturbed (eupneic) respiration, complex spike and simple spike activity encode the phase of ongoing sensorimotor processing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.107867DOI Listing

Investigation of Networks Underlying Hyperkinetic Seizures utilizing Ictal SPECT.

Neurology 2020 Jul 7. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Cleveland Clinic Epilepsy Center, Cleveland, Ohio, USA

Objective: Study neural networks involved in hyperkinetic seizures (HKS) using ictal SPECT.

Methods: We retrospectively identified 18 HKS patients evaluated at Cleveland Clinic between 2005 - 2015 with video-EEG monitoring and ictal SPECT. Semiology was confirmed by the consensus of two epileptologists' independent review and classified as type I, II or III HKS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000009975DOI Listing

Default mode network connectivity is related to pain frequency and intensity in adolescents.

Neuroimage Clin 2020 Jun 25;27:102326. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Department of Psychiatry, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, USA; Department of Behavioral Neuroscience, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, USA. Electronic address:

Pain during adolescence is common and is associated with future pain chronicity and mental health in adulthood. However, understanding of the neural underpinnings of chronic pain has largely come from studies in adults, with recent studies in adolescents suggesting potentially unique neural features during this vulnerable developmental period. In addition to alterations in the pain network, resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging studies in adults suggest alterations in the default mode network (DMN), involved in internally-driven, self-referential thought, may underlie chronic pain; however, these findings have yet to be examined in adolescents. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nicl.2020.102326DOI Listing

Cerebellar - premotor cortex interactions underlying visuomotor adaptation.

Neuroimage 2020 Jul 4:117142. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

Department of Neurology, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany; Institute of Psychology II, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany.

Visuomotor adaptation (VMA) is a form of motor learning essential for performing day to day routines. Theoretical models and empirical evidence suggest a specific cortico-striato-cerebellar loop that mediates early and late learning in VMA. Here, we investigated dynamic changes in neural activity and connectivity when learning a novel visuomotor rotation using fMRI. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2020.117142DOI Listing

Alcohol and IL-6 Alter Expression of Synaptic Proteins in Cerebellum of Transgenic Mice with Increased Astrocyte Expression of IL-6.

Neuroscience 2020 Jul 4. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

Animal Models Core Facility The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037 USA.

Recent studies indicate that neuroimmune factors, including the cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6), play a role in the CNS actions of alcohol. The cerebellum is a sensitive target of alcohol, but few studies have examined a potential role for neuroimmune factors in the actions of alcohol on this brain region. A number of studies have shown that synaptic transmission, and in particular inhibitory synaptic transmission, is an important cerebellar target of alcohol. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2020.06.043DOI Listing

Bayesian State Estimation in Sensorimotor Systems With Particle Filtering.

IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng 2020 Jul;28(7):1528-1538

In sensorimotor control, sensory feedback integrates with forward models to alleviate the impacts of sensory noise and delay on state estimation. The sensorimotor integration is subject to Bayesian inference and has been formulated by the Kalman filter in computational neuroscience. However, the Kalman filter, as an artificial optimal estimator to address the abstract characteristics of spatial perception, is inadequate to present the neural computation in the cerebellum. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TNSRE.2020.2996963DOI Listing

The Role of the Cerebellum in Pain Perception: A Brain SPECT Perfusion Study in Patients with Burn Injuries.

J Neuroimaging 2020 Jul 7. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

University of Washington, Seattle, WA.

Background And Purpose: Virtual reality (VR) is a promising tool for distraction analgesia. This study aims to compare brain perfusion patterns while patients were undergoing burn wound care in two conditions-VR distraction and control (NoVR).

Methods: With IRB approval, four patients hospitalized for acute burn care (three males and one female) participated in the study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jon.12759DOI Listing

Comparison of immunological, histological and oxidative effects of felbamate and levetiracetam in traumatic brain injury.

Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2020 Jun;24(12):7083-7091

Department of Emergency Medicine, Turgut Ozal Medical Center, Inonu University, Malatya, Turkey.

Objective: We aimed to compare immunological, histological and oxidative effects of antiepileptic agents; felbamate and levetiracetam on head trauma in rats.

Materials And Methods: In this study, 32 Sprague-Dawley genus male rats were used. A closed head trauma mechanism was constituted in order to perform head trauma in rats. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.26355/eurrev_202006_21702DOI Listing

Consensus Paper: Cerebellum and Social Cognition.

Cerebellum 2020 Jul 7. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Ataxia Laboratory, IRCCS Fondazione Santa Lucia, 00179, Rome, Italy.

The traditional view on the cerebellum is that it controls motor behavior. Although recent work has revealed that the cerebellum supports also nonmotor functions such as cognition and affect, only during the last 5 years it has become evident that the cerebellum also plays an important social role. This role is evident in social cognition based on interpreting goal-directed actions through the movements of individuals (social "mirroring") which is very close to its original role in motor learning, as well as in social understanding of other individuals' mental state, such as their intentions, beliefs, past behaviors, future aspirations, and personality traits (social "mentalizing"). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12311-020-01155-1DOI Listing

Functionally distinct Purkinje cell types show temporal precision in encoding locomotion.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm 17177, Sweden;

Purkinje cells, the principal neurons of cerebellar computations, are believed to comprise a uniform neuronal population of cells, each with similar functional properties. Here, we show an undiscovered heterogeneity of adult zebrafish Purkinje cells, revealing the existence of anatomically and functionally distinct cell types. Dual patch-clamp recordings showed that the cerebellar circuit contains all Purkinje cell types that cross-communicate extensively using chemical and electrical synapses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2005633117DOI Listing

Developmentally transient CB1Rs on cerebellar afferents suppress afferent input, downstream synaptic excitation, and signaling to migrating neurons.

J Neurosci 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Washington State University, Integrative Physiology and Neuroscience, Pullman, WA, 99164

The endocannabinoid system plays important roles in brain development, but mechanistic studies have focused on neuronal differentiation, migration, and synaptogenesis, with less attention to trans-cellular interactions that coordinate neurodevelopmental processes across developing neural networks. We determined that in the developing rodent cerebellar cortex (of both sexes), there is a transient window when the dominant brain cannabinoid receptor, CB1R, is expressed on afferent terminals instead of output neuron Purkinje cell synapses that dominate the adult cerebellum. Activation of these afferent CB1Rs suppresses synaptic transmission onto developing granule cells, and consequently also suppresses excitation of downstream neurons in the developing cortical network, including non-synaptic, migrating neurons. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1931-19.2020DOI Listing

Synthesis and preliminary evaluation of 4-hydroxy-6-(3-[C]methoxyphenethyl)pyridazin-3(2H)-one, a C-labeled d-amino acid oxidase (DAAO) inhibitor for PET imaging.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2020 Aug 9;30(16):127326. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 55 Fruit Street, Boston, MA 02114, United States. Electronic address:

Selective DAAO inhibitors have demonstrated promising therapeutic effects in clinical studies, including clinically alleviating symptoms of schizophrenic patients and ameliorating cognitive function in Alzheimer's patients with early phase. Herein we report the synthesis and preliminary evaluation of a C-labeled positron emission tomography ligand based on a DAAO inhibitor, DAO-1903 (8). C-Isotopologue of 8 was prepared in high radiochemical yield with high radiochemical purity (>99%) and high molar activity (>37 GBq/µmol). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2020.127326DOI Listing

Protective effect of maternal exercise against amyloid-β neurotoxicity in the male rat offspring's cerebellum.

J Dev Orig Health Dis 2020 Jun 23:1-12. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Biológicas - Bioquímica, Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.

The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) states that intrauterine maternal environment influences postnatal life by programming offspring's metabolism. Intrauterine milieu induced by exercise during pregnancy promotes long-lasting benefits to the offspring's health and seems to offer some resistance against chronic diseases in adult life. Alzheimer's disease is a public health concern with limited treatment options. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S2040174420000562DOI Listing

Protective Effects of Some Grapevine Polyphenols against Naturally Occurring Neuronal Death.

Molecules 2020 Jun 25;25(12). Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Department of Agricultural, Forestry and Food Sciences (DISAFA), University of Turin, 10095 Grugliasco (TO), Italy.

The interest in the biological properties of grapevine polyphenols (PPs) in neuroprotection is continuously growing in the hope of finding translational applications. However, there are several concerns about the specificity of action of these molecules that appear to act non-specifically on the permeability of cellular membranes. Naturally occurring neuronal death (NOND) during cerebellar maturation is a well characterized postnatal event that is very useful to investigate the death and rescue of neurons. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25122925DOI Listing

Loss of ZC4H2 and RNF220 Inhibits Neural Stem Cell Proliferation and Promotes Neuronal Differentiation.

Cells 2020 Jul 1;9(7). Epub 2020 Jul 1.

State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Evolution, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650223, China.

The ubiquitin E3 ligase RNF220 and its co-factor ZC4H2 are required for multiple neural developmental processes through different targets, including spinal cord patterning and the development of the cerebellum and the locus coeruleus. Here, we explored the effects of loss of ZC4H2 and RNF220 on the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs) derived from mouse embryonic cortex. We showed that loss of either ZC4H2 or RNF220 inhibits the proliferation and promotes the differentiation abilities of NSCs in vitro. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells9071600DOI Listing

Function-Based Tractography of the Language Network Correlates with Aphasia in Patients with Language-Eloquent Glioblastoma.

Brain Sci 2020 Jul 1;10(7). Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Ismaninger Str. 22, 81675 Munich, Germany.

To date, the structural characteristics that distinguish language-involved from non-involved cortical areas are largely unclear. Particularly in patients suffering from language-eloquent brain tumors, reliable mapping of the cortico-subcortical language network is of high clinical importance to prepare and guide safe tumor resection. To investigate differences in structural characteristics between language-positive and language-negative areas, 20 patients (mean age: 63. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10070412DOI Listing

Long-Term Improvement of Parkinson Disease Motor Symptoms Derived From Lesions of Prelemniscal Fiber Tract Components.

Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown) 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Unit for Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery, General Hospital of Mexico, Ciudad de México, Mexico.

Background: Prelemniscal radiations (Raprl) are composed of different fiber tracts, connecting the brain stem and cerebellum with basal ganglia and cerebral cortex. In Parkinson disease (PD), lesions in Raprl induce improvement of tremor, rigidity, and bradykinesia in some patients, while others show improvement of only 1 or 2 symptoms, suggesting different fiber tracts mediate different symptoms.

Objective: To search for correlations between improvements of specific symptoms with surgical lesions of specific fiber tract components of Raprl in patients with PD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ons/opaa186DOI Listing

Characteristics of Recurrent Ischemic Stroke After Embolic Stroke of Undetermined Source: Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Neurol 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Population Health Research Institute, Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

Importance: The concept of embolic stroke of undetermined source (ESUS) unifies a subgroup of cryptogenic strokes based on neuroimaging, a defined minimum set of diagnostic tests, and exclusion of certain causes. Despite an annual stroke recurrence rate of 5%, little is known about the etiology underlying recurrent stroke after ESUS.

Objective: To identify the stroke subtype of recurrent ischemic strokes after ESUS, to explore the interaction with treatment assignment in each category, and to examine the consistency of cerebral location of qualifying ESUS and recurrent ischemic stroke. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaneurol.2020.1995DOI Listing

Sex classification using long-range temporal dependence of resting-state functional MRI time series.

Hum Brain Mapp 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Radiology, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, New York, USA.

A thorough understanding of sex differences that exist in the brains of healthy individuals is crucial for the study of neurological illnesses that exhibit phenotypic differences between males and females. Here we evaluate sex differences in regional temporal dependence of resting-state brain activity in 195 adult male-female pairs strictly matched for total grey matter volume from the Human Connectome Project. We find that males have more persistent temporal dependence in regions within temporal, parietal, and occipital cortices. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hbm.25030DOI Listing

Case of a Long-Time Survivor with Recurrent Multiple Brain Metastases from Lung Cancer: Terminal Stage Cancer or Chronic Disease.

Authors:
Ming Pan

Cureus 2020 May 31;12(5):e8378. Epub 2020 May 31.

Radiation Oncology, Windsor Regional Hospital Cancer Program, Windsor, CAN.

Lung cancer with brain metastasis has a poor prognosis and has always been treated with palliative intent in the past. We report a case of good response to two courses of whole brain irradiation (WBI) and one course of hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (HSRT) over a nine-year period, with no significant neurotoxicity. We present the case of a 43-year-old non-smoker female with biopsy-proven adenocarcinoma of right lower lobe lung, stage T1N2M0, positive for anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.8378DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7328698PMC