4,990 results match your criteria Cephalalgia[Journal]
Cephalalgia 2018 Dec 10:333102418795163. Epub 2018 Dec 10.
1 Department of Neurology, University Hospital Basel, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.
Background: Several previous studies have investigated cortical abnormalities, specifically cortical thickness, in patients with migraine, with variable results. The relatively small sample sizes of most previous studies may partially explain these inconsistencies.
Objective: To investigate differences of cortical thickness between control subjects and migraineurs in a large cohort. Read More
Cephalalgia 2018 Nov 27:333102418815652. Epub 2018 Nov 27.
1 Neurology Department, Hospital de Santo António, CHP - Centro Hospitalar do Porto, Porto, Portugal.
Background: Short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headaches include those with conjunctival injection and tearing and with cranial autonomic symptoms. Most frequently reported as idiopathic, there is a growing number of symptomatic cases described.
Case Report: A 57-year old man presented a 16-year history of right hemifacial short-lasting pain attacks accompanied by ipsilateral autonomic symptoms and simultaneous malar contractions. Read More
Cephalalgia 2018 Nov 23:333102418815506. Epub 2018 Nov 23.
1 Danish Headache Center, Department of Neurology, Rigshospitalet-Glostrup, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
Background And Aim: Cluster headache attacks exhibit a nocturnal predilection, but little is known of long-term sleep and circadian rhythm. The aim was to compare actigraphy measures, firstly in episodic cluster headache patients in bout and in remission and, secondly, to compare each disease phase with controls.
Methods: Episodic cluster headache patients (ICHD III-beta), from the Danish Headache Center and healthy, age- and sex-matched controls participated. Read More
Cephalalgia 2018 Nov 20:333102418815487. Epub 2018 Nov 20.
1 Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia.
Objectives: Currently, there is no scoring system for assessing the complexity of migraine aura. Our goal was to develop a Migraine Aura Complexity Score that synthesizes the quantity and quality of aura symptoms and to test its applicability in neuroimaging studies.
Methods: Patients with migraine aura were interviewed in order to obtain characteristics of migraine aura. Read More
Cephalalgia 2018 Nov 17:333102418811573. Epub 2018 Nov 17.
4 Headache Research Unit, University Department of Neurology CHR, Citadelle Hospital, Liege, Belgium.
Objective: To assess the safety and efficacy of external trigeminal nerve stimulation for acute pain relief during migraine attacks with or without aura via a sham-controlled trial.
Methods: This was a double-blind, randomized, sham-controlled study conducted across three headache centers in the United States. Adult patients who were experiencing an acute migraine attack with or without aura were recruited on site and randomly assigned 1:1 to receive either verum or sham external trigeminal nerve stimulation treatment (CEFALY Technology) for 1 hour. Read More
Cephalalgia 2018 Nov 17:333102418815505. Epub 2018 Nov 17.
2 School of Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA.
Background And Objective: Some individuals with migraine report the presence of speech changes during their migraine attacks. The goal of this study was to compare objective features of speech during the migraine pre-attack, the migraine attack, and during the interictal period.
Methods: This was a prospective, longitudinal, observational study of adults with episodic migraine and healthy non-migraine controls. Read More
Cephalalgia 2018 Nov 8:333102418812091. Epub 2018 Nov 8.
2 University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.
Aim: To explore post traumatic headache characteristics and risk factors in compensation claimants by observational retrospective cohort analysis.
Case Results: Medicolegal reports on 116 consecutive compensation claimants aged 41.9 ± 15. Read More
Cephalalgia 2018 Oct 22:333102418804155. Epub 2018 Oct 22.
1 Institute of Public Health, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
Objectives: The aim was to evaluate the association of self-perceived levels of attention deficit and hyperactivity symptoms with non-migraine and migraine headaches among university students. We also evaluated their association with migraine aura.
Methods: Study subjects were all participants in the internet-based Students Health Research Enterprise. Read More
Cephalalgia 2018 Oct 18:333102418806864. Epub 2018 Oct 18.
3 Headache Group, Institute of Neurology and The National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Queen Square, London, UK.
Background or aim Despite guidelines and the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-III beta) criteria, the diagnosis of common chronic headache disorders can be challenging for non-expert clinicians. The aim of the review was to identify headache classification tools that could be used by a non-expert clinician to classify common chronic disorders in primary care. Methods We conducted a systematic literature review of studies validating diagnostic and classification headache tools published between Jan 1988 and June 2016 from key databases: MEDLINE, ASSIA, Embase, Web of Knowledge and PsycINFO. Read More
Cephalalgia 2018 Sep;38(1_suppl):156-158
Cephalalgia 2018 Oct;38(11):1798-1799
Cephalalgia 2018 Dec 9;38(14):1998-2005. Epub 2018 Oct 9.
2 Department of Neurology, Neurological Institute, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei City, Taiwan.
Objectives: Several brain and spinal magnetic resonance imaging signs have been described in spontaneous intracranial hypotension. Their correlations are not fully studied. This study aimed to explore potential mechanisms underlying cerebral neuroimaging findings and to examine associations among spinal and brain magnetic resonance imaging signs. Read More
Cephalalgia 2018 Oct 9:333102418806869. Epub 2018 Oct 9.
Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL, USA.
Objective To describe a new subtype of new daily persistent headache that is triggered by a single Valsalva event. Methods A case series of patients was evaluated in an academic headache clinic over a 3-year time period. Results A total of seven patients (four female and three male) were diagnosed with this new subtype of new daily persistent headache. Read More
Cephalalgia 2018 Oct 8:333102418806861. Epub 2018 Oct 8.
1 Department of Neurology, University Hospital of Toulouse, Toulouse, France.
Background Migraine with aura is independently associated with increased risk of ischemic stroke, especially in younger subjects. This association might be related to an impairment of cerebral autoregulation, which normally maintains cerebral blood flow independent of arterial blood pressure variations. Methods Patients aged 30-55, fulfilling ICHD-3 beta criteria for migraine with aura, were prospectively enrolled and compared with gender- and age-matched healthy controls without a history of migraine. Read More
Cephalalgia 2018 Oct 5:333102418804160. Epub 2018 Oct 5.
1 Department of Neurology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands.
Introduction Many patients with cluster headache report use of illicit drugs. We systematically assessed the use of illicit drugs and their effects in a well-defined Dutch cluster headache population. Methods In this cross-sectional explorative study, 756 people with cluster headache received a questionnaire on lifetime use and perceived effects of illicit drugs. Read More
Cephalalgia 2018 Oct 4:333102418804157. Epub 2018 Oct 4.
1 Department of Pharmacology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA.
Background Loss of conditioned pain modulation/diffuse noxious inhibitory controls has been demonstrated in patients with migraine and medication overuse headache. We hypothesized that exposure to acute migraine medications may lead to dysregulation of central pain modulatory circuits that could be revealed by evaluating diffuse noxious inhibitory controls and that prior noxious stimulus is required for a loss of the diffuse noxious inhibitory control response in rats exposed to these medications. Methods Rats were "primed" by continuous infusion of morphine or one of two doses of sumatriptan. Read More
Cephalalgia 2018 Sep 19:333102418801579. Epub 2018 Sep 19.
1 Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland.
Objective This study evaluated the benefit-risk profile of erenumab relative to other therapies approved for migraine prophylaxis and available in the majority of European countries. Methods Trials were identified via a published systematic literature review updated to December 2017 using MEDLINE. Erenumab's pivotal trials study reports were also included (NCT02066415, NCT02456740). Read More
Cephalalgia 2018 Sep 14:333102418801585. Epub 2018 Sep 14.
2 Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA.
Background The therapeutic benefit of nerve decompression surgeries for chronic headache/migraine are controversial. Aim To provide clinical characteristics of headache type and treatment outcome of occipital nerve decompression surgery. Methods A retrospective review of clinical records. Read More
Cephalalgia 2018 Sep 13:333102418801584. Epub 2018 Sep 13.
5 Research and Innovation (R&I), Padova, Italy.
Aim To address whether, in patients with chronic migraine and medication overuse headache, mindfulness-based treatment is associated with changes in plasma levels of catecholamines and elusive amines that are similar to those observed in patients undergoing pharmacological prophylaxis. Methods In this non-randomized, clinic-based effectiveness study, patients aged 18-65, with a history of chronic migraine ≥ 10 years and overuse of triptans or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs ≥ 5 years, were enrolled. Upon completion of a structured withdrawal program, patients received either pharmacological prophylaxis or six weekly sessions of mindfulness-based treatment and were followed for 12 months. Read More
Cephalalgia 2018 Sep 13:333102418801580. Epub 2018 Sep 13.
2 Department of Dermatology, Clínica Universidad de Navarra, Pamplona, Spain.
Background Localized facial scleroderma usually presents as frontal linear morphea or progressive hemifacial atrophy. Only isolated cases of trigeminal painful neuropathy have been described. Case report A 43-year-old woman developed an oval lesion on the right cheek. Read More
Cephalalgia 2018 Sep;38(1_suppl):1-115
Cephalalgia 2018 Sep;38(1_suppl):116-122
Cephalalgia 2018 Aug 30:333102418798611. Epub 2018 Aug 30.
1 Danish Headache Centre and Department of Neurology, Rigshospitalet Glostrup, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
Objective To investigate the effect of the H-antihistamine clemastine on the migraine-inducing abilities of pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide-38. Methods We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo controlled two-way cross-over study. Twenty migraine without aura patients were randomly allocated to receive bolus clemastine 2 mg (1 mg/ml) or bolus saline 2 ml intravenously over 2 min on two study days. Read More
Cephalalgia 2018 09 24;38(10):1644-1657. Epub 2018 Aug 24.
1 Boston Health Economics, Inc., Waltham, MA, USA.
Objectives To assess the cost-effectiveness of erenumab 140 mg ("erenumab") for the prophylactic treatment of episodic migraine and chronic migraine. Study design A hybrid Monte Carlo patient simulation and Markov cohort model was constructed to compare erenumab to no preventive treatment or onabotulinumtoxinA among adult ( ≥ 18 years) patients with episodic migraine and chronic migraine who failed prior preventive therapy from the US societal and payer perspectives. Methods Patients entered the model one at a time and were assigned to a post-treatment monthly migraine day category based on baseline monthly migraine days and treatment effect. Read More
Cephalalgia 2018 Aug 23:333102418796781. Epub 2018 Aug 23.
Jefferson Headache Center, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
Background Migraine is a primary headache disorder involving dysregulation of central and peripheral pain pathways. Medical treatment is often limited by drug side effects, comorbidities and poor compliance. This makes neuromodulation an ideal option for migraine treatment. Read More
Cephalalgia 2018 Sep 22;38(10):1632-1643. Epub 2018 Aug 22.
1 Department of Neurology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark.
Background Impaired brain oxygen delivery can trigger and exacerbate migraine attacks. Normoxic hypercapnia increases brain oxygen delivery markedly by vasodilation of the cerebral vasculature, and hypercapnia has been shown to abort migraine attacks. Stable normoxic hypercapnia can be induced by a compact partial rebreathing device. Read More
Cephalalgia 2018 Aug 13:333102418794941. Epub 2018 Aug 13.
Department of Neurology, E. A. Vagner Perm State Medical University, Perm, Russia.
Background The role of thyroid regulation in migraine is poorly understood, and data is contradictory. Objective To study the possible association of clinical features of migraine with patients' thyroid function. Patients and methods One hundred and thirty migraine patients of a tertiary headache center took part in an open-label, cross-sectional comparative study. Read More
Cephalalgia 2018 Aug 12:333102418794482. Epub 2018 Aug 12.
1 Department of Neurology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
Background Retinal migraine is an important differential diagnosis of recurrent transient monocular blindness accompanied by headache when other etiologies are excluded. Here, we report a case of orbital vasculitis which initially mimicked retinal migraine. Case report A 47-year-old woman had recurrent episodes of fully reversible transient monocular blindness accompanied by ipsilateral headache for 15 months. Read More
Cephalalgia 2018 Aug 12:333102418793641. Epub 2018 Aug 12.
1 Institute of Physiology and Experimental Pathophysiology, University of Erlangen/Nürnberg, Germany.
Introduction Migraine is characterized by cycling phases (interictal, preictal, ictal and postictal) with differing symptoms, while in chronic tension type headache pain phases are fluctuating. The question we asked is whether these phases are associated with changes in parameters of somatosensation and axon-reflex erythema. Methods Patients with episodic migraine and chronic tension type headache were examined psychophysically in the interictal, preictal and ictal phase and healthy subjects on five different test days. Read More
Cephalalgia 2018 Aug 12:333102418793640. Epub 2018 Aug 12.
1 Department of Neurosurgery, Inselspital, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
Objective Spontaneous intracranial hypotension is caused by spinal cerebrospinal fluid leakage. Patients with orthostatic headaches and cerebrospinal fluid leakage show a decrease in optic nerve sheath diameter upon movement from supine to upright position. We hypothesized that the decrease in optic nerve sheath diameter upon gravitational challenge would cease after closure of the leak. Read More
Cephalalgia 2018 Aug 9:333102418794481. Epub 2018 Aug 9.
1 APHP, Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Paris, France.
Background Magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities in hemiplegic migraine have been described previously but were limited to a cortical thickening and biphasic alternation of hypoperfusion and hyperperfusion. Our report reveals possible blood-brain barrier disruption during migraine. Case We present the first demonstrated case of regressive diffuse hemispheric cortical enhancement in sporadic hemiplegic migraine, with histological correlation revealing neuronal lesions similar to ischemic lesions. Read More
Cephalalgia 2018 Aug 8:333102418793636. Epub 2018 Aug 8.
1 Institute of Physiology and Pathophysiology, University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany.
Background Meningiomas are generally slowly growing intracranial tumors. They are often incidentally diagnosed, given that symptoms may be absent even in cases of an enormous tumor size. Headache is a frequent but not consistent symptom. Read More
Cephalalgia 2018 Aug 8:333102418793642. Epub 2018 Aug 8.
1 Danish Headache Center and Department of Neurology, Rigshospitalet Glostrup, Glostrup, Denmark.
Introduction Serotonin (5-HT) plays a role in migraine pathophysiology, but whether brain 5-HT is involved in the conversion from episodic to chronic migraine is unknown. Here, we investigated brain 5-HT levels, as indexed by 5-HT receptor binding, in chronic migraine patients and evaluated whether these were associated with migraine frequency. Methods Sixteen chronic migraine patients underwent a dynamic PET scan after injection of [C]SB207145, a specific 5-HT receptor radioligand. Read More
Cephalalgia 2018 Aug 7:333102418793643. Epub 2018 Aug 7.
1 Department of Medical Imaging, First affiliated hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi, China.
Background Recent neuroimaging studies have reported grey matter alterations in primary trigeminal neuralgia patients. However, few studies have focused on quantitative measurements of trigeminal nerves and the interaction between trigeminal nerve volume and brain morphology, particularly grey matter volume. In this study, we investigated the link between trigeminal nerves and grey matter volume changes in primary trigeminal neuralgia patients compared to healthy controls. Read More
Cephalalgia 2018 09 7;38(10):1622-1631. Epub 2018 Aug 7.
7 Global Development, Amgen Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, USA.
Background We evaluated the effect of erenumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody that inhibits the canonical calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor, on migraine-related disability, impact, and health-related quality of life among patients with episodic migraine. Methods Patients enrolled in a phase 3, 6-month, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of once-monthly erenumab 70 and 140 mg for migraine prevention (STRIVE) used an eDiary during the baseline and double-blind treatment phases to complete validated, specific questionnaires, including the modified (monthly) Migraine Disability Assessment Questionnaire; Headache Impact Test; and Migraine-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire-role function-restrictive (MSQ-RFR), -role function-preventive (MSQ-RFP), and -emotional function (MSQ-EF). Results A total of 955 patients were randomized to receive erenumab 70 mg (n = 317), erenumab 140 mg (n = 319), or placebo (n = 319). Read More
Cephalalgia 2018 Aug 6:333102418791818. Epub 2018 Aug 6.
2 Department of Neurology, Cerebrovascular Research Institute, Eishokai Yoshida Hospital, Kobe, Japan.
Background and purpose It is sometimes difficult to diagnose intracranial vertebral artery dissection in patients with headache as the only symptom. Knowledge of the characteristics of the headache would facilitate the diagnosis. In this study, we aimed to clarify the characteristics of intracranial vertebral artery dissection-related headache using our original self-administered questionnaire. Read More
Cephalalgia 2018 Aug 4:333102418791820. Epub 2018 Aug 4.
3 Dr von Hauner Children's Hospital, Department of Paediatric Neurology and Developmental Medicine, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Munich, Germany.
Objective To assess the relative risk, predictive value and population attributable risk fraction of pre-school episodic syndromes for later migraine in primary school age children. Methods This retrospective cohort study used health insurance data on 55,035 children born in 2006 with no diagnosis of migraine up to the age of 5 years. The relative risk, probability and population attributable risk fraction of migraine prompting a physician visit at the age of 6-10 years in children with episodic syndromes included in the International Classification of Headache Disorders (benign paroxysmal torticollis, benign paroxysmal vertigo, cyclic vomiting syndrome, recurrent abdominal symptoms and abdominal migraine) and those not included in the International Classification of Headache Disorders (pavor nocturnus, somnabulism and bruxism) diagnosed up to the age of 5 years were determined. Read More
Cephalalgia 2018 Aug 4:333102418791595. Epub 2018 Aug 4.
1 Danish Headache Center and Department of Neurology, Rigshospitalet Glostrup, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Objective To review and discuss the literature on the role of thalamic structure and function in migraine. Discussion The thalamus holds an important position in our understanding of allodynia, central sensitization and photophobia in migraine. Structural and functional findings suggest abnormal functional connectivity between the thalamus and various cortical regions pointing towards an altered pain processing in migraine. Read More
Cephalalgia 2018 Jan 1:333102418787263. Epub 2018 Jan 1.
1 University of California, San Diego School of Medicine, La Jolla, CA, USA.
Background There are cases in the headache literature described as "cluster-migraine," but none of stereotyped cases of cluster headache evolving into status migrainosus. We believe this is the first documented case of "cluster-status migrainosus". Case A 54 year-old female hospital administrator presented with headaches with a unique periodicity and semiology that were acutely responsive to high-flow oxygen. Read More
Cephalalgia 2018 Jan 1:333102418786266. Epub 2018 Jan 1.
5 Department of Neurology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA.
Objective To assess migraine epidemiology in men by examining gender differences in disease presentation, comorbidities, and prognosis. Patients and methods The Chronic Migraine Epidemiology and Outcomes (CaMEO) Study is a longitudinal survey of US adults with migraine identified by web questionnaire. Data were stratified by gender, collected between September 2012-November 2013, and included sociodemographics, headache features, Migraine Disability Assessment, Migraine Symptom Severity Score, Allodynia Symptom Checklist, and comorbidities. Read More
Cephalalgia 2018 Jan 1:333102418786261. Epub 2018 Jan 1.
2 Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA.
Introduction The trigeminal ganglion is unique among the somatosensory ganglia regarding its topography, structure, composition and possibly some functional properties of its cellular components. Being mainly responsible for the sensory innervation of the anterior regions of the head, it is a major target for headache research. One intriguing question is if the trigeminal ganglion is merely a transition site for sensory information from the periphery to the central nervous system, or if intracellular modulatory mechanisms and intercellular signaling are capable of controlling sensory information relevant for the pathophysiology of headaches. Read More
Cephalalgia 2018 Jan 1:333102418788341. Epub 2018 Jan 1.
6 Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Architettura, Università degli Studi di Trieste, Trieste, Italy.
Background The use of frontal infrared thermography in the diagnosis of primary headaches provided scattering results due to measurement fluctuations and different types of headaches or research protocols. Objective This study aims to assess the reliability of frontal infrared thermography in healthy individuals and provide a preliminary evaluation in chronic migraine patients using a commercial infrared thermal camera. Methods Thermographic images were acquired in 20 controls and 15 patients at three consecutive time-points in two daily sessions. Read More
Cephalalgia 2018 Jan 1:333102418788336. Epub 2018 Jan 1.
1 Istituto di Biofisica (Biophysics Institute, National Research Council), Genova, Italy.
Introduction Familial hemiplegic migraine 3 is an autosomal dominant headache disorder associated with aura and transient hemiparesis, caused by mutations of the neuronal voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.1. While a gain-of function phenotype is generally assumed to underlie familial hemiplegic migraine, this has not been fully explored. Read More
Cephalalgia 2018 Jan 1:333102418786265. Epub 2018 Jan 1.
7 Headache Science Centre, C. Mondino National Neurological Institute, Pavia, Italy.
Background Medication-overuse headache is a costly disease for individuals and society. Objective To estimate the impact of medication-overuse headache treatment on direct and indirect headache-related health care costs. Methods This prospective longitudinal study was part of the COMOESTAS project (COntinuous MOnitoring of Medication Overuse Headache in Europe and Latin America: development and STAndardization of an Alert and decision support System). Read More
Cephalalgia 2018 09 8;38(10):1611-1621. Epub 2018 Jul 8.
7 Amgen Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, USA.
Background Erenumab was effective and well tolerated in a pivotal clinical trial of chronic migraine. Here, we evaluated efficacy and safety of monthly erenumab (70 mg or 140 mg) versus placebo in the subgroup of patients who had previously failed preventive treatment(s) (≥ 1, ≥ 2 prior failed medication categories) and in patients who had never failed. Methods Subgroup analyses evaluated change from baseline in monthly migraine days; achievement of ≥ 50% and ≥ 75% reduction in monthly migraine days; and change in monthly acute migraine-specific medication days. Read More
Cephalalgia 2018 Jan 1:333102418786457. Epub 2018 Jan 1.
1 Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care, and Pain Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.
Background Migraine has been identified as a risk factor of 30-day hospital readmission after surgery. We aimed to further characterize this association examining pain as a potentially migraine-associated, preventable reason for readmission. Hypothesis Compared to patients with no migraine, surgical patients with migraine are at increased risk of 30-day hospital readmission with an admitting diagnosis specifying pain. Read More
Cephalalgia 2018 Jan 1:333102418787336. Epub 2018 Jan 1.
1 Danish Headache Center and Department of Neurology, Rigshospitalet Glostrup, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Background Sildenafil and calcitonin gene-related peptide are vasoactive substances that induce migraine attacks in patients. The intradural arteries are thought to be involved, but these have never been examined in vivo. Sildenafil is the only migraine-inducing compound for which cephalic, extracranial artery dilation is not reported. Read More
Cephalalgia 2018 Jan 1:333102418787301. Epub 2018 Jan 1.
Department of Systems Neuroscience, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.
Cephalalgia 2018 Jan 1:333102418784698. Epub 2018 Jan 1.
3 Department of Neural and Pain Sciences, University of Maryland Baltimore, Baltimore, MD, USA.
Objective To review and discuss the literature relevant to the role of brainstem structure and function in headache. Background Primary headache disorders, such as migraine and cluster headache, are considered disorders of the brain. As well as head-related pain, these headache disorders are also associated with other neurological symptoms, such as those related to sensory, homeostatic, autonomic, cognitive and affective processing that can all occur before, during or even after headache has ceased. Read More