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Central adiposity in relation to risk of liver cancer in Chinese adults: A prospective study of 0.5 million people.

Int J Cancer 2019 Jan 21. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

Clinical Trial Service Unit & Epidemiological Studies Unit (CTSU), Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Central adiposity is associated with liver cancer risk beyond general adiposity in Western populations. However, there is little prospective evidence in East Asian populations who are more likely to have central adiposity at given BMI levels. The prospective China Kadoorie Biobank recruited 512,713 adults aged 30-79 years from 10 diverse areas. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.32148DOI Listing
January 2019

Associations between Maternal AFP and β-HCG and Preterm Birth.

Am J Perinatol 2019 Jan 21. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Nanjing Medical University Affiliated Suzhou Hospital, Suzhou, China.

Objective:  Preterm birth (PTB) is a significant public health problem. We aimed to explore whether alpha fetal protein (AFP) or β-human gonadotropin (β-HCG) levels during pregnancy were associated with PTB in Chinese population.

Methods:  The clinical data collected Nanjing Medical University Affiliated Suzhou Hospital and Wuxi Maternity and Child Health Care Hospital between January 2006 and December 2011 were analyzed retrospectively. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0038-1677017DOI Listing
January 2019

Should we perform routine prophylactic central neck dissection in patients with thyroid papillary microcarcinoma?

Ann Ital Chir 2018 ;89:485-488

Purpose: Cervical lymph node (LN) metastases in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) are common in tumors especially that are larger than 1cm. Ipsilateral central neck dissection (CND) is usually preferred even in the absence of a palpable LN. This study aims to clarify the incidence and predictive factors for occult ipsilateral central LN metastasis in these patients, and the management of patients without clinical evidence of metastasis. Read More

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January 2018

Resorbable PCEC/gelatin-bismuth doped bioglass-graphene oxide bilayer membranes for guided bone regeneration.

Biomed Mater 2019 Jan 21. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

Department of Engineering Sciences, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, TURKEY.

Guided bone regeneration (GBR) is a therapeutic modality applied prior to dental implant placement to increase bone density at the defect site or during placement for directing bone growth around implant. In this study, an asymmetric, bilayer structure was prepared by covalently bonding a dense polycaprolactone - polyethylene glycol - polycaprolactone (PCEC) membrane layer with a hydrogel layer of bismuth doped bioactive glass (BG, 45S5) and graphene oxide (GO) particles incorporated gelatin. Structural and mechanical properties (surface morphology and chemistry, thickness, tensile strength, degradation rate of GBR membranes) were studied. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1748-605X/ab007bDOI Listing
January 2019

Efficient purification and chemical energy recovery from urine by using a denitrifying fuel cell.

Water Res 2019 Jan 11;152:117-125. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, No. 800, Dongchuan Rd, Shanghai, 200240, PR China; Shanghai Institute of Pollution Control and Ecological Security, Shanghai, 200092, PR China; Key Laboratory of Thin Film and Microfabrication Technology, Ministry of Education, Shanghai, 200240, PR China. Electronic address:

Urine is a major biomass resource, and its excessive discharge would lead to severe aquatic nitrogen pollution and even eutrophication. In this study, we designed an innovative denitrifying fuel cell (DFC) under illumination to purify urine and convert its chemical energy into electricity. The central ideas include the following: 1) on the anode, chlorine radicals (Cl) and hydroxyl (HO) radicals were induced to react with amine or ammonia in urine into N, and to mineralize organics into CO, respectively; 2) on the cathode, NO or NO generated in the cell was selectively reduced to N and tiny NH by Pd/Au/NF; 3) NH was further oxidized to N by Cl according to process 1), then the total nitrogen (TN) was ultimately removed by a continuous redox loop between anode and cathode; 4) the separation and migration of charges were strengthened by a self-bias poly-Si/WO photoanode. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2018.12.066DOI Listing
January 2019

Dissolved carbon fluxes in a vegetation restoration area of an eroding landscape.

Water Res 2019 Jan 11;152:106-116. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

State Key Laboratory of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100085, PR China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049, PR China.

Dissolved carbon (DC) is a critical component of the global carbon (C) cycle. DC transport occurs through water-driven erosion and infiltration during rain storms. To explore the specific role of DC flux in topsoil C pool dynamics during rainfall events and predict the trend of ratios of lateral versus vertical DC efflux from topsoil in a vegetation restoration area, we measured the major DC fluxes at four runoff plots, during rainfall events in an eroding soil landscape on the Chinese Loess Plateau. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2018.12.068DOI Listing
January 2019

Children's understanding of the aspectuality of intentions.

J Exp Child Psychol 2019 Jan 18;181:17-33. Epub 2019 Jan 18.

Department of Developmental Psychology, University of Göttingen, 37073 Göttingen, Germany.

When children come to grasp the concept of intention is a central question in theory of mind research. Existing studies, however, present a puzzling picture. On the one hand, infants distinguish between intentional and accidental actions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2018.12.001DOI Listing
January 2019

Studies towards the development of a PET radiotracer for imaging of the P2Y receptors in the brain: synthesis, F-labeling and preliminary biological evaluation.

Eur J Med Chem 2019 Jan 7;165:142-159. Epub 2019 Jan 7.

Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Radiopharmaceutical Cancer Research, Permoserstraße 15, 04318, Leipzig, Germany.

Purine nucleotides such as ATP and ADP are important extracellular signaling molecules in almost all tissues activating various subtypes of purinoreceptors. In the brain, the P2Y receptor (P2YR) subtype mediates trophic functions like differentiation and proliferation, and modulates fast synaptic transmission, both suggested to be affected in diseases of the central nervous system. Research on P2YR is limited because suitable brain-penetrating P2YR-selective tracers are not yet available. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmech.2019.01.006DOI Listing
January 2019

Characteristics of PCDD/Fs in soil and sediment samples collected from A-So former airbase in Central Vietnam.

Sci Total Environ 2019 Jan 15;661:27-34. Epub 2019 Jan 15.

Center for Space and Remote Sensing Research, National Central University (NCU), Zhongli, Taoyuan 32001, Taiwan, ROC; Institute of Geography, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18-Hoang Quoc Viet, Hanoi 10000, Viet Nam.

A-So airbase, located in A-Luoi Valley - Central Vietnam, is a former military base occupied by US Special Forces between 1963 and 1966. The storage of Agent Orange in A-So airbase during the Vietnam War now poses a high potential for PCDD/F contamination in soils and sediments. In order to evaluate the occurrence and characteristics of PCDD/Fs in A-So former airbase, which has been reserved for a long time and suffered almost no significant anthropogenic impacts, soil and sediment samples were collected from 40 sites of two adjacent zones A and B in an area of 160,000 m. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.01.163DOI Listing
January 2019

Short-term prediction of extremely hot days in summer due to climate change and ENSO and related attributable mortality.

Sci Total Environ 2019 Jan 15;661:10-17. Epub 2019 Jan 15.

Department of Atmospheric Sciences, National Taiwan University, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Summer days with extremely hot temperatures in Taiwan have been increasing for the past few decades, and this continuing trend is expected to worsen heat-related mortality. To mitigate the corresponding health impacts, in this study, we developed a statistical state-space model to predict the number of extremely hot days in June-September for the next year. Based on historical data from 1951 to 2017, we estimated the climate change trend after adjusting for the nonlinear lagged effect of the Niño 3. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.01.168DOI Listing
January 2019

Assessing research impact: Australian Research Council criteria and the case of Family Wellbeing research.

Eval Program Plann 2019 Jan 14;73:176-186. Epub 2019 Jan 14.

Centre for Indigenous Health Equity Research / School of Health, Medical and Applied Sciences Central Queensland University. Electronic address:

Researchers worldwide are increasingly reporting the societal impact of their research as part of national research productivity assessments. However, the challenges they encounter in developing their impact case studies against specified government assessment criteria and how pitfalls can be mitigated are not reported. This paper examines the key steps taken to develop an Aboriginal Family Wellbeing (FWB) empowerment research impact case study in the context of an Australian Research Council (ARC) pilot research impact assessment exercise and the challenges involved in applying the ARC criteria. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.evalprogplan.2019.01.004DOI Listing
January 2019

Chemical profiling, cytotoxicity and phytotoxicity of foliar volatiles of Hyptis suaveolens.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2019 Jan 18;171:863-870. Epub 2019 Jan 18.

Department of Botany, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014, India; Central University of Punjab, Mansa Road, Bathinda 151001, India.

In the present study, the essential oil (EO) of Hyptis suaveolens has been explored for the first time for its phytotoxic and cytotoxic activities. The phytotoxic activity was assessed against rice (Oryza sativa) and its major troublesome weed, Echinochloa crus-galli, under laboratory and screenhouse conditions. GC-MS analysis revealed EO to be monoterpenoid (~ 79% monoterpenes) in nature with α-phellandrene (22. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2018.12.091DOI Listing
January 2019

Using a hybrid-like supported catalyst to improve green fuel production through hydrothermal liquefaction of Scenedesmus obliquus microalgae.

Bioresour Technol 2018 Dec 24;277:136-147. Epub 2018 Dec 24.

Biotechnology Department, College of Science, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.

Hydrothermal liquefaction of Scenedesmus obliquus has been optimized in a micro reactor using response surface methodology. Temperature, residence time and feedstock concentration were studied through central composite design to verify the optimized conditions leading to the highest yield of bio-crude and energy recovery. Based on the non-catalytic studies, temperature, feedstock concentration, and their interaction were respectively determined as the most effective variables. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2018.12.081DOI Listing
December 2018

First clinical inflammatory demyelinating events of the central nervous system in a population aged over 70 years: A multicentre study.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2018 Dec 14;28:309-312. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Service de Neurologie, CHU de Bordeaux, Place Amélie Raba Léon, F-33076, Bordeaux, France. Electronic address:

Background: Few data are available regarding patients with very late-onset inflammatory demyelinating events. (VLO-IDE).

Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe the clinical, biological, and radiological characteristics and aetiological diagnosis of very late first inflammatory demyelinating events of the central nervous system. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msard.2018.12.016DOI Listing
December 2018

Superconditioning TMS unmasks latent voluntary innervation in MND - A case report.

J Neurol Sci 2019 Jan 17;398:27-30. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

Dept. of Neurosurgery, State University of New York - Upstate Medical University, 750 E. Adams St, Syracuse, NY 13210, USA; Avanos Medical Inc., Alpharetta, GA, USA.

Motor neuron disease (MND) includes both ALS and Progressive Muscular Atrophy (PMA) as variants. Abnormalities in brain excitability and upper motor neuron (UMN) function are characteristic of ALS, but by definition are absent in PMA. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) may be useful in demonstrating UMN pathology, but loss of muscle responsiveness with disease progression limits its usefulness in later stages of MND. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2019.01.028DOI Listing
January 2019

Root phenotypes of dwarf and "overgrowth" SLN1 barley mutants, and implications for hypoxic stress tolerance.

J Plant Physiol 2019 Jan 15;234-235:60-70. Epub 2019 Jan 15.

UWA School of Agriculture and Environment, Faculty of Science, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009, Australia. Electronic address:

Gibberellins are central to the regulation of plant development and growth. Action of gibberellins involves the degradation of DELLA proteins, which are negative regulators of growth. In barley (Hordeum vulgare), certain mutations affecting genes involved in gibberellin synthesis or coding for the barley DELLA protein (Sln1) confer dwarfism. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jplph.2019.01.009DOI Listing
January 2019

IL-37 attenuates allergic process via STAT6/STAT3 pathways in murine allergic rhinitis.

Int Immunopharmacol 2019 Jan 18;69:27-33. Epub 2019 Jan 18.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, No. 1 Yixueyuan Road, Yuzhong District, Chongqing 400016, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a common upper airway allergic disease caused by allergens triggering a type 2 immune response. The imbalance of CD4+ T cell subsets is the essential immunological feature of AR, which is mainly characterized by the predominance of T helper (Th) 2 cells. Recent studies indicated that the anti-inflammatory factor interleukin (IL)-37 is involved in the immune regulation of AR. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2019.01.013DOI Listing
January 2019

Discovery of atorvastatin as a tetramer stabilizer of nuclear receptor RXRα through structure-based virtual screening.

Bioorg Chem 2019 Jan 10;85:413-419. Epub 2019 Jan 10.

Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute, 10901 N. Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Electronic address:

Retinoid X receptor alpha (RXRα), a central member of the nuclear receptor superfamily and a key regulator of many signal transduction pathways, has been an attractive drug target. We previously discovered that an N-terminally truncated form of RXRα can be induced by specific ligands to form homotetramers, which, as a result of conformational selection, forms the basis for inhibiting the nongenomic activation of RXRα. Here, we report the identification and characterization of atorvastatin as a new RXRα tetramer stabilizer by using structure-based virtual screening and demonstrate that virtual library screening can be used to aid in identifying RXRα ligands that can induce its tetramerization. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bioorg.2019.01.007DOI Listing
January 2019

Molecular cloning of IL-6, IL-10, IL-11, IFN-ɤ and modulation of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in cobia (Rachycentron canadum) after Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida infection.

Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol 2019 Jan 18. Epub 2019 Jan 18.

Laboratory of Molecular Fish Immunology and Genetics, Department of Tropical Agriculture and International Cooperation, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology,Pingtung 91201, Taiwan; Research Center for Animal Biologics, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology,Pingtung 91201, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida (P. damselae subsp. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpb.2019.01.004DOI Listing
January 2019

The α3 and α4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits in the brainstem medulla of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS).

Neurobiol Dis 2019 Jan 18. Epub 2019 Jan 18.

The Bosch Institute, Faculty of Health and Medicine, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia; Central Clinical School of Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medicine, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia. Electronic address:

SIDS occurs in early infancy and predominantly during a sleep period. Abnormalities in nicotine receptor binding and in the expression of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits α7 and β2 have been reported in the brainstem of SIDS infants. This study focuses on the α3 and α4 nAChR subunits as α3 is important for early postnatal survival while α4 is crucial for nicotine-elicited antinociception and sleep-wake cycle regulation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nbd.2019.01.010DOI Listing
January 2019

Standardization of research methods employed in assessing the interaction metallic-based nanoparticles and the blood-brain barrier: Present and future perspectives.

J Control Release 2019 Jan 18. Epub 2019 Jan 18.

Bernal Institute, University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland; School of Engineering, University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland; Health Research Institute, (HRI), University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland. Electronic address:

Treating diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) is complicated by the presence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), a semipermeable boundary layer protecting the CNS from toxins and homeostatic disruptions. However, this layer also excludes almost 100% of therapeutics, impeding the treatment of CNS diseases. The advent of nanoparticles, in particular metallic-based nanoparticles, presents the potential to overcome this barrier and transport drugs into the CNS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jconrel.2019.01.022DOI Listing
January 2019

Association of purinergic receptor P2RX7 gene polymorphisms with depression symptoms.

Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2019 Jan 18. Epub 2019 Jan 18.

Department of Medical Chemistry, Molecular Biology and Pathobiochemistry, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary. Electronic address:

Introduction: The activation of the ATP-gated P2RX7 (purinergic receptor P2X, ligand-gated ion channel, 7) produces microglial activation, a process which has been demonstrated in depression, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia. Emerging data over the last years highlighted the importance of P2X7 cation channel as a potential drug target for these central nervous system disorders. The Gln460Arg (rs2230912) polymorphism of the P2RX7 gene has been widely studied in mood disorders, however the results are still controversial. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pnpbp.2019.01.006DOI Listing
January 2019

A suprasellar colloid cyst over an 11-year follow-up: case report and literature review.

World Neurosurg 2019 Jan 18. Epub 2019 Jan 18.

Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Japan.

Background: Colloid cysts (CCs) are rare cystic lesions derived from the endoderm of the central nervous system. Although they appear most commonly in the anterior roof of the third ventricle, there are only a few reports of CCs located in the suprasellar region. Although CCs are considered to be slow-growing benign tumors, their developmental process remains unclear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2018.11.258DOI Listing
January 2019

Stress-induced impairment in goal-directed instrumental behaviour is moderated by baseline working memory.

Neurobiol Learn Mem 2019 Jan 18. Epub 2019 Jan 18.

Faculty of Psychology and Neuroscience, Maastricht University, the Netherlands; Department of Medical and Clinical Psychology, Tilburg University, the Netherlands.

Acute stress has been found to impair goal-directed instrumental behaviour, a cognitively flexible behaviour that requires cognitive control. The current study aimed to investigate the role of individual differences in baseline and stress-induced changes in working memory (WM) on the shift to less goal-directed responding under stress. To this end, 112 healthy participants performed an instrumental learning task. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nlm.2019.01.010DOI Listing
January 2019

Chemical neuroanatomy of the substantia nigra in the ovine brain.

J Chem Neuroanat 2019 Jan 18. Epub 2019 Jan 18.

Department of Anatomy and Medical Imaging and Centre for Brain Research, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand. Electronic address:

The substantia nigra is an integral component of the basal ganglia circuitry for limbic and motor functions. Dysfunction and degeneration of the basal ganglia are fundamental aspects of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease. With the increasing use of sheep to model neurological diseases, it is crucial to understand the anatomy and neurochemistry of these key basal ganglia nuclei in the normal sheep brain and how they compare to the human brain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jchemneu.2019.01.007DOI Listing
January 2019

High dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell transplantation in primary central nervous system lymphoma: Data from the Japan Society for Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation (JSHCT) registry.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2019 Jan 18. Epub 2019 Jan 18.

Department of Oncology/Haematology, Shimane University Hospital, Izumo, Japan.

High-dose chemotherapy (HDT) with autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) has been shown to improve prognosis of patients with central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma. We queried the JSHCT Registry from 2006-2015 to analyse the outcomes of 102 patients with primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL), who underwent first HDT/ASCT. Median age was 54 (range:20-74) and 65 patients were treated in upfront setting. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2019.01.020DOI Listing
January 2019

Involvement of A adenosine receptors as anti-inflammatory in gestational diabesity.

Mol Aspects Med 2019 Jan 18. Epub 2019 Jan 18.

Cellular and Molecular Physiology Laboratory, Department of Obstetrics, Division of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, School of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, 8330024, Chile; Department of Physiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universidad de Sevilla, Seville, E-41012, Spain; University of Queensland Centre for Clinical Research (UQCCR), Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Queensland, Herston, QLD, 4029, Queensland, Australia. Electronic address:

Pregnant women that are obese may develop gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) configuring a new metabolic condition referred to as gestational diabesity. The metabolic alterations seen in gestational diabesity include a combination of an exacerbated pro-inflammatory state and fetoplacental endothelial dysfunction. Also, gestational diabesity associates with supra-physiological extracellular concentration of adenosine in the foetoplacental blood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mam.2019.01.001DOI Listing
January 2019

Direct and selective lineage conversion of human fibroblasts to dopaminergic precursors.

Neurosci Lett 2019 Jan 18. Epub 2019 Jan 18.

Department of Pharmacology & Experimental Neuroscience, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska, 68198, United States; Center for Translational Neurodegeneration and Regenerative Therapy, Shanghai Tenth People's Hospital affiliated to Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Transplantation of dopaminergic precursors (DPs) is a promising therapeutic strategy of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, limited cell source for dopaminergic precursors has become a major obstacle for transplantation therapy. Our group demonstrated previously that mouse fibroblasts can be reprogrammed into induced dopaminergic precursors (iDPs) with high differentiation efficiency. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2019.01.033DOI Listing
January 2019

Spexin/NPQ Induces fos and Produces Antinociceptive Effect against Inflammatory Pain in the Mouse Model.

Am J Pathol 2019 Jan 18. Epub 2019 Jan 18.

State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, College of Life Science and Technology, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing, P.R. China. Electronic address:

Spexin/NPQ is a novel highly conserved neuropeptide. It has a widespread expression in periphery and central nervous system. However, the effects of central spexin on acute inflammatory pain are still unknown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajpath.2018.12.009DOI Listing
January 2019

The impact of treatments for obstructive sleep apnea on monetized health economic outcomes: A systematic review.

Chest 2019 Jan 18. Epub 2019 Jan 18.

Sleep Disorders Center, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD.

Study Objectives: To review systematically the published literature regarding the impact of treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) on monetized health economic outcomes.

Methods: Customized structured searches were performed in PubMed, Embase (Embase.com), and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Wiley) databases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chest.2019.01.009DOI Listing
January 2019

HIV-1 Nef and host proteome analysis: Current perspective.

Life Sci 2019 Jan 18. Epub 2019 Jan 18.

Toxicology and Experimental Medicine Division, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Sector-10, Janakipuram Extension, Sitapur Road, Lucknow 226031, U.P., India. Electronic address:

Proteome represents the set of proteins being produced by an organism at a given time. Comparative proteomic profiling of a healthy and diseased state is likely to reflect the dynamics of a disease process. Proteomic techniques are widely used to discover novel biomarkers and decipher mechanisms of HIV-1 pathogenesis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2019.01.025DOI Listing
January 2019

FGF23, hypophosphatemia and genetic disorders.

Metabolism 2019 Jan 18. Epub 2019 Jan 18.

Paris Descartes University of Medicine, Necker-Enfants Malades Institute, INSERM U1151, France; Functional Exploration Department, Necker-Enfants Malades Hospital, AP-, HP, Paris, France.

Phosphate is a cornerstone of several physiological pathways including skeletal development, bone mineralization, membrane composition, nucleotide structure, maintenance of plasma pH, and cellular signaling. The kidneys have a key role in phosphate homeostasis with three hormones having important functions in renal phosphate handling or intestinal absorption: parathyroid hormone (PTH), fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), and 1-25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D). FGF23 is mainly synthesized by osteocytes; it is a direct phosphaturic factor that also inhibits 1,25(OH)2D and PTH. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.metabol.2019.01.006DOI Listing
January 2019

In vitro phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) binding in whole hemisphere human brain using the PET radioligand [F]MNI-659.

Brain Res 2019 Jan 18. Epub 2019 Jan 18.

CHDI Foundation/CHDI Management, Inc., Princeton, New York, USA.

Highly specific and sensitive biomarkers for pathologies related to dysfunctions in the basal ganglia circuit are of great value to assess therapeutic efficacy not only clinically to establish an early diagnosis, but also in terms of monitoring the efficacy of therapeutic interventions and decelerated neurodegeneration. The phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) enzyme plays a central role in striatal signaling and is implicated in several neuropsychiatric disorders involving striatal pathology, such as Huntingtońs disease (HD) and schizophrenia. Inhibition of PDE10A activates the neurons in the striatum and consequently leads to alteration of behavioral aspects modulated by the striatal circuit. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2019.01.021DOI Listing
January 2019

Post-weaning social isolation exacerbates aggression in both sexes and affects the vasopressin and oxytocin system in a sex-specific manner.

Neuropharmacology 2019 Jan 18. Epub 2019 Jan 18.

Department of Behavioral and Molecular Neurobiology, University of Regensburg, Germany; Medische Biobank Noord-Nederland B.V. Groningen, Netherlands. Electronic address:

Post-weaning social isolation (PWSI) is known to induce exaggerated and abnormal aggression in male rats. Here we aimed to assess the effects of PWSI on aggressiveness and social behavior in both male and female rats. Furthermore, we evaluated how PWSI affects the central oxytocin (OXT) and vasopressin (AVP) systems in both sexes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropharm.2019.01.019DOI Listing
January 2019

Structure-Based Specific Detection and Inhibition of Monoamine Oxidases and Their Applications in Central Nervous System Diseases.

Chembiochem 2019 Jan 21. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

CHINA.

Monoamine oxidases (MAOs) are the enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of monoamines such as dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin, which serve as the key neurotransmitters in the central nervous system (CNS). MAOs play important roles in maintaining the homeostasis of monoamines and aberrant expression or activation of MAOs underlies the pathogenesis of monoamine neurotransmitter disorders including neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases. Obviously, detecting and inhibiting activities of MAOs is of great value for the diagnosis and therapeutics of these diseases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cbic.201800813DOI Listing
January 2019

Effectiveness of a Physical Activity Intervention in Preschoolers: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial.

Scand J Med Sci Sports 2019 Jan 21. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

Medical School Berlin, Calandrellistraße 1-9, D-12247, Berlin, Germany.

Several activity interventions in preschool settings exist, but little attention has been paid to effects on hemodynamic factors. The study aimed to assess the effectiveness of an exercise program on health-related outcomes including blood pressure (BP) and markers of vascular function in preschoolers, with focus on socioeconomic background. A cluster-randomized controlled trial, with preschool as unit of randomization and children as unit of analysis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sms.13390DOI Listing
January 2019

ALK phosphorylates SMAD4 on tyrosine to disable TGF-β tumour suppressor functions.

Nat Cell Biol 2019 Jan 21. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

MOE Key Laboratory of Biosystems Homeostasis & Protection and Innovation Center for Cell Signaling Network, Life Sciences Institute, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Loss of TGF-β tumour suppressive response is a hallmark of human cancers. As a central player in TGF-β signal transduction, SMAD4 (also known as DPC4) is frequently mutated or deleted in gastrointestinal and pancreatic cancer. However, such genetic alterations are rare in most cancer types and the underlying mechanism for TGF-β resistance is not understood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41556-018-0264-3DOI Listing
January 2019

γδ TCR ligands: the quest to solve a 500-million-year-old mystery.

Nat Immunol 2019 Feb 21;20(2):121-128. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

Birmingham Cancer Research UK Cancer Centre, School of Cancer Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK.

γδ T cells have been retained as a lineage over the majority of vertebrate evolution, are able to respond to immune challenges in unique ways, and are of increasing therapeutic interest. However, one central mystery has endured: the identity of the ligands recognized by the γδ T cell antigen receptor. Here we discuss the inherent challenges in answering this question, the new opportunities provided by recent studies, and the criteria by which the field might judge success. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41590-018-0304-yDOI Listing
February 2019

An integrated chromatin accessibility and transcriptome landscape of human pre-implantation embryos.

Nat Commun 2019 Jan 21;10(1):364. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

Institute of Reproductive and Stem Cell Engineering, School of Basic Medical Science, Central South University, Changsha, 410078, China.

Human pre-implantation embryonic development involves extensive changes in chromatin structure and transcriptional activity. Here, we report on LiCAT-seq, a technique that enables simultaneous profiling of chromatin accessibility and gene expression with ultra-low input of cells, and map the chromatin accessibility and transcriptome landscapes for human pre-implantation embryos. We observed global difference in chromatin accessibility between sperm and all stages of embryos, finding that the accessible regions in sperm tend to occur in gene-poor genomic regions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-08244-0DOI Listing
January 2019

Metabolic rewiring of macrophages by CpG potentiates clearance of cancer cells and overcomes tumor-expressed CD47-mediated 'don't-eat-me' signal.

Nat Immunol 2019 Jan 21. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

Abramson Cancer Center, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Macrophages enforce antitumor immunity by engulfing and killing tumor cells. Although these functions are determined by a balance of stimulatory and inhibitory signals, the role of macrophage metabolism is unknown. Here, we study the capacity of macrophages to circumvent inhibitory activity mediated by CD47 on cancer cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41590-018-0292-yDOI Listing
January 2019

Memory CD4 T cells are generated in the human fetal intestine.

Nat Immunol 2019 Jan 21. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

Department of Immunohematology and Blood Transfusion, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands.

The fetus is thought to be protected from exposure to foreign antigens, yet CD45RO T cells reside in the fetal intestine. Here we combined functional assays with mass cytometry, single-cell RNA sequencing and high-throughput T cell antigen receptor (TCR) sequencing to characterize the CD4 T cell compartment in the human fetal intestine. We identified 22 CD4 T cell clusters, including naive-like, regulatory-like and memory-like subpopulations, which were confirmed and further characterized at the transcriptional level. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41590-018-0294-9DOI Listing
January 2019

The persistence of carbon in the African forest understory.

Nat Plants 2019 Jan 21. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

Service of Wood Biology, Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Belgium.

Quantifying carbon dynamics in forests is critical for understanding their role in long-term climate regulation. Yet little is known about tree longevity in tropical forests, a factor that is vital for estimating carbon persistence. Here we calculate mean carbon age (the period that carbon is fixed in trees) in different strata of African tropical forests using (1) growth-ring records with a unique timestamp accurately demarcating 66 years of growth in one site and (2) measurements of diameter increments from the African Tropical Rainforest Observation Network (23 sites). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41477-018-0316-5DOI Listing
January 2019

Global plant-symbiont organization and emergence of biogeochemical cycles resolved by evolution-based trait modelling.

Nat Ecol Evol 2019 Jan 21. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, USA.

One of the most distinct but unresolved global patterns is the apparent variation in plant-symbiont nutrient strategies across biomes. This pattern is central to our understanding of plant-soil-nutrient feedbacks in the land biosphere, which, in turn, are essential for our ability to predict the future dynamics of the Earth system. Here, we present an evolution-based trait-modelling approach for resolving (1) the organization of plant-symbiont relationships across biomes worldwide and (2) the emergent consequences for plant community composition and land biogeochemical cycles. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41559-018-0759-0DOI Listing
January 2019

Mixed lineage kinase 3 promotes breast tumorigenesis via phosphorylation and activation of p21-activated kinase 1.

Oncogene 2019 Jan 21. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

Department of Surgery, Division of Surgical Oncology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, 60612, USA.

Mixed lineage kinase 3 (MLK3), a MAP3K member has been envisioned as a viable drug target in cancer, yet its detailed function and signaling is not fully elucidated. We identified that MLK3 tightly associates with an oncogene, PAK1. Mammalian PAK1 being a Ste20 (MAP4K) member, we tested whether it is an upstream regulator of MLK3. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41388-019-0690-0DOI Listing
January 2019

Psychiatric adverse events and effects on mood with prolonged-release naltrexone/bupropion combination therapy: a pooled analysis.

Int J Obes (Lond) 2019 Jan 21. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, USA.

Background/objectives: Prolonged-release (PR) naltrexone 32 mg/bupropion 360 mg (NB) is approved for chronic weight management as an adjunct to reduced-calorie diet and increased physical activity. Central nervous system-active medications have the potential to affect mood; therefore, post hoc analysis of clinical trial data was conducted to evaluate psychiatric adverse events (PAEs) and effects on mood of NB therapy versus placebo.

Subjects/methods: Data were pooled from 5 prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials (duration range, 24-56 weeks) of NB in subjects with overweight or obesity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41366-018-0302-zDOI Listing
January 2019

Rescue of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells formation in plcg1 zebrafish mutant.

Sci Rep 2019 Jan 21;9(1):244. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

The Biomedical/Biotechnology Research Institute, North Carolina Central University, North Carolina Research Campus, Nutrition Research Building, Kannapolis, NC, 28081, USA.

Hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPC) in zebrafish emerge from the aortic hemogenic endothelium (HE) and migrate towards the caudal hematopoietic tissue (CHT), where they expand and differentiate during definitive hematopoiesis. Phospholipase C gamma 1 (Plcγ1) has been implicated for hematopoiesis in vivo and in vitro and is also required to drive arterial and HSPC formation. Genetic mutation in plcg1 (y10 allele) completely disrupts the aortic blood flow, specification of arterial fate, and HSPC formation in zebrafish embryos. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-36338-8DOI Listing
January 2019

Penaeid shrimp genome provides insights into benthic adaptation and frequent molting.

Nat Commun 2019 Jan 21;10(1):356. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

CAS Key Laboratory of Experimental Marine Biology, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, 266071, China.

Crustacea, the subphylum of Arthropoda which dominates the aquatic environment, is of major importance in ecology and fisheries. Here we report the genome sequence of the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, covering ~1.66 Gb (scaffold N50 605. Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-018-08197-4
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-08197-4DOI Listing
January 2019

A brain-wide functional map of the serotonergic responses to acute stress and fluoxetine.

Nat Commun 2019 Jan 21;10(1):350. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

Neuroscience Center Zurich, Winterthurerstr. 190, CH-8057, Zurich, Switzerland.

Central serotonin (5-HT) orchestrates myriad cognitive processes and lies at the core of many stress-related psychiatric illnesses. However, the basic relationship between its brain-wide axonal projections and functional dynamics is not known. Here we combine optogenetics and fMRI to produce a brain-wide 5-HT evoked functional map. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-08256-wDOI Listing
January 2019

Reproducible grey matter patterns index a multivariate, global alteration of brain structure in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

Transl Psychiatry 2019 Jan 17;9(1):12. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Central Institute of Mental Health, Medical Faculty Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim, Germany.

Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder characterized by numerous subtle changes in brain structure and function. Machine learning allows exploring the utility of combining structural and functional brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures for diagnostic application, but this approach has been hampered by sample size limitations and lack of differential diagnostic data. Here, we performed a multi-site machine learning analysis to explore brain structural patterns of T1 MRI data in 2668 individuals with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder, and healthy controls. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41398-018-0225-4DOI Listing
January 2019
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