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Respiratory viral infections in pediatric patients with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

Bol Med Hosp Infant Mex 2021 ;78(3):191-199

Departamento de Laboratorio Clínico, Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez, Mexico City. Mexico.

Background: Viral respiratory infections in pediatric patients with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) significantly impact morbidity and mortality. It is necessary to determine the viral agents and their frequency of presentation to understand their impact on transplantation patients' evolution.

Methods: From January 2017 to December 2019, we conducted a cross-sectional, descriptive, and observational study of patients who underwent HSCT with a viral respiratory infection. Read More

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January 2021

Paediatric Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis Disease: Long-Term Sequelae in the Hypothalamic Endocrine System.

Horm Res Paediatr 2021 Jun 24:1-9. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Endocrine Department, Hospital de Pediatría J.P. Garrahan, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a disorder of the mononuclear phagocyte system that can affect almost any organ and system. The most common central nervous system (CNS) manifestation in LCH is the infiltration of the hypothalamic-pituitary region leading to destruction and neurodegeneration of CNS tissue. The latter causes the most frequent endocrinological manifestation, that is, central diabetes insipidus (CDI), and less often anterior pituitary hormone deficiency (APD). Read More

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Possible Mechanism of Human Recombinant Leptin-Induced VEGF A Synthesis via PI3K/Akt/mTOR/S6 Kinase Signaling Pathway while Inducing Angiogenesis: An Analysis Using Chicken Chorioallantoic Membrane Model.

J Vasc Res 2021 Jun 24:1-18. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Department of Genetics, Dr. ALM PG IBMS, Taramani Campus, University of Madras, Chennai, India.

Introduction: The present study aimed to realize human recombinant leptin 's ability to synthesize VEGF A while inducing neovascularization through PI3K/Akt/mTOR/S6 kinase involved signaling pathway.

Methods: To examine the PI3K/Akt/mTOR/S6 kinase pathway involvement in leptin-induced VEGF A synthesis, the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) was incubated with human recombinant leptin and specific inhibitors of the proposed signaling molecules (rapamycin and wortmannin). We analyzed the role of specified signaling molecules in human recombinant leptin-induced physiological angiogenesis via VEGF A synthesis in detail with the support of various methodologies. Read More

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Electronic and Optical Properties of Boron-based Hybrid Monolayers.

Nanotechnology 2021 Jun 24. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Department of Physics, Michigan Technological University, 1400 Townsend Drive, Houghton, Michigan, 49931-1295, UNITED STATES.

Anisotropic 2D Dirac cone materials are important for the fabrication of nanodevices having direction-dependent characteristics since the anisotropic Dirac cones lead to different values of Fermi velocities yielding variable carrier concentrations. In this work, the feasibility of the B-based hybrid monolayers, BX (X = As, Sb, and Bi), as anisotropic Dirac cone materials is investigated. Calculations based on density functional theory and molecular dynamics method find the stability of these monolayers exhibiting unique electronic properties. Read More

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A model-based source separation algorithm for lung perfusion imaging using electrical impedance tomography.

Physiol Meas 2021 Jun 24. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Medical Information Technology, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Nordrhein-Westfalen, GERMANY.

Objective: Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) for lung perfusion imaging is attracting considerable interest in intensive care, as it might open up entirely new ways to adjust ventilation therapy. A promising technique is bolus injection of a conductive indicator to the central venous catheter, which yields the indicator-based signal (IBS). Lung perfusion images are then typically obtained from the IBS using the maximum slope technique. Read More

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Trends in small organic fluorescent scaffolds for detection of oxidoreductase.

Biosens Bioelectron 2021 Jun 15;191:113441. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Ropar, Rupnagar, Punjab, 140001, India. Electronic address:

Oxidoreductases are diverse class of enzymes engaged in modulating the redox homeostasis and cellular signaling cascades. Abnormal expression of oxidoreductases including thioredoxin reductase, azoreductase, cytochrome oxidoreductase, tyrosinase and monoamine oxidase leads to the initiation of numerous disorders. Thus, enzymes are the promising biomarkers of the diseased cells and their accurate detection has utmost significance for clinical diagnosis. Read More

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Loss of Selenov predisposes mice to extra fat accumulation and attenuated energy expenditure.

Redox Biol 2021 Jun 17;45:102048. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Department of Animal Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, 14853, USA. Electronic address:

Selenoprotein V (SELENOV) is a new and the least conserved member of the selenoprotein family. Herein we generated Selenov knockout (KO) mice to determine its in vivo function. The KO led to 16-19% increases (P < 0. Read More

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Virtual and experimental high throughput screening of substituted hydrazones on β-Tubulin polymerization.

Bioorg Chem 2021 Jun 13;114:105094. Epub 2021 Jun 13.

Department of Chemistry, National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Mangalore 575025, India.

Microtubule targeting agents that disrupt the dynamic functioning of the mitotic spindle are some of the best chemotherapeutic agents. Interruption of microtubule dynamics through polymerization or depolymerization causes cell arrest leading to apoptosis. We report a novel class of aroylhydrazones with anticancer properties. Read More

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Treatment-emergent central sleep apnea associated with non-positive airway pressure therapies in obstructive sleep apnea patients: A systematic review.

Sleep Med Rev 2021 Jun 5;58:101513. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital and University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.

This systematic review summarizes the prevalence of treatment-emergent central sleep apnea (TECSA) occurring with therapies other than positive airway pressure (PAP) for the management of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We describe its natural course as well as the proposed underlying pathophysiological mechanisms and the clinical management of affected patients. A systematic search of PubMed, Embase, Web of science, and the Cochrane Library was performed until June 2020. Read More

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Cognitive dysfunction in central disorders of hypersomnolence: A systematic review.

Sleep Med Rev 2021 Jun 3;59:101510. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

IRCCS Istituto Delle Scienze Neurologiche di Bologna, Bologna, Italy; Department of Biomedical, Metabolic and Neural Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy. Electronic address:

Central disorders of hypersomnolence (CDH) are characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness not related to comorbid sleep or medical disturbances. We systematically examined scientific literature on cognitive functions in patients suffering from CDH. Forty-eight studies proved eligible and were analyzed separately for Narcolepsy Type 1 (NT1), Narcolepsy Type 2 (NT2), Idiopathic hypersomnia (IH) and Kleine-Levin syndrome (KLS). Read More

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Multiple sclerosis and immune system biomarkers: Novel comparison in glatiramer acetate and interferon beta-1a-treated patient groups.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2021 Jun 15;53:103082. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Neurology, Masaryk University, Faculty of Medicine and University Brno, Brno, Czech Republic.

Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). T cells and B lymphocytes are involved in the development of this disease.

Methods: The following biomarkers were determined in peripheral blood in 28 patients treated with glatiramer acetate (GA) and 21 patients treated with interferon beta 1-a (IFN): IL-10, BAFF, Mx1, IgG, IgG1, IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4 (at baseline and after 6 months of treatment). Read More

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Plant hormone signaling: Is upside down right side up?

Curr Opin Plant Biol 2021 Jun 21;63:102070. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Department of Cell and Systems Biology, University of Toronto, 25 Willcocks Street, Toronto, M5S 3B2, Canada. Electronic address:

Since the early days of plant biology, small molecule hormones have held a central place in our understanding of development. A key feature of plant hormone action is the ability to regulate multiple developmental processes. Despite this pleiotropy, decades of genetic and molecular studies have shown that plant hormone signaling is often canalized through a core pathway. Read More

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Identification of genes for variable regions of immunoglobulins that recognize sialylated glycans.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 Jun 21;567:201-207. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

NGK Spark Plug-AIST Healthcare Materials Cooperative Research Laboratory, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 2266-98 Anagahora, Shimoshidami, Moriyama-ku, Nagoya, 463-8560, Japan.

We previously reported an antibody (clone ID: FR9, IgM-κ) that recognizes the sialyl oligosaccharide Neu5Acα2,6Galβ1,4GlcNAc as an epitope on glycoproteins and glycolipids. In the present study, we developed an antibody (clone ID: AFR45, IgM-κ) that recognizes Neu5Acα2,3Galβ1,4GlcNAc/Glc as an epitope on glycoproteins and glycolipids and compared the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the immunoglobulin gene variable regions with those of FR9. The heavy chain variable (V) regions of FR9 and AFR45 were encoded by different V gene segments, each of which was composed of a characteristic D gene segment. Read More

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Estimation of Prevalence and Incremental Costs of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in a Middle-Income Country Using Machine Learning on Administrative Health Data.

Value Health Reg Issues 2021 Jun 21;26:98-104. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Industrial Engineering Department, University of los Andes, Bogotá, Colombia. Electronic address:

Objectives: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic, autoimmune disease that may cause physical and functional disability. The objective of this study is to measure prevalence and estimate incremental cost of SLE treatment using information from administrative databases in Colombia.

Methods: We use data from the patients on the Colombian contributive health system with a period of study from 2015 to 2017. Read More

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Selecting the Right Criteria and Proper Classification to Diagnose Mast Cell Activation Syndromes: A Critical Review.

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Rheumatology, Allergy & Immunology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA.

In recent years, our knowledge about mechanisms underlying mast cell activation (MCA) and accumulation in various pathologic conditions increased substantially. In addition, criteria and a classification of MCA syndromes (MCAS) have been set forth. MCAS is defined by typical clinical symptoms, a substantial increase in serum tryptase level during an attack over the patient´s baseline tryptase, and a response of the symptoms to drugs targeting mast cells, mediator production and/or mediator effects. Read More

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AI-based monitoring of retinal fluid in disease activity and under therapy.

Prog Retin Eye Res 2021 Jun 21:100972. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Department of Ophthalmology Medical University of Vienna, Spitalgasse 23, 1090, Vienna, Austria. Electronic address:

Retinal fluid as the major biomarker in exudative macular disease is accurately visualized by high-resolution three-dimensional optical coherence tomography (OCT), which is used world-wide as a diagnostic gold standard largely replacing clinical examination. Artificial intelligence (AI) with its capability to objectively identify, localize and quantify fluid introduces fully automated tools into OCT imaging for personalized disease management. Deep learning performance has already proven superior to human experts, including physicians and certified readers, in terms of accuracy and speed. Read More

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Increasing proportions of relapsing parasite species among imported malaria in China's Guangxi Province from Western and Central Africa.

Travel Med Infect Dis 2021 Jun 21:102130. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Department of Pathogen Biology and Immunology, Kunming Medical University, Kunming, Yunnan Province, 650500, China. Electronic address:

Background: Travel-related malaria in non-endemic areas returning from endemic areas presents important challenges to diagnosis and treatment. Imported malaria to newly malaria-free countries poses further threats of malaria re-introduction and potential resurgence. For those traveling to places with high Plasmodium falciparum prevalence, prophylaxis against this parasite is recommended, whereas causal prophylaxis against relapsing malaria is often overlooked. Read More

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Rapid immunohistological measurement of tyrosine hydroxylase in rat midbrain by near-infrared instrument-based detection.

J Chem Neuroanat 2021 Jun 21:101992. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

College of Health Professions and Sciences, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL, USA; Science Department, Valencia College, Orlando, FL, USA. Electronic address:

We present a robust, fresh-frozen approach to immunohistochemistry (IHC), without committing the tissue to IHC via fixation and cryopreservation while maintaining long-term storage, using LiCor-based infrared (IR) quantification for sensitive assessment of TH in immunoreacted midbrain sections for quantitative comparison across studies. In fresh-frozen tissue stored up to 1 year prior to IHC reaction, we found our method to be highly sensitive to rotenone treatment in 3-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats, and correlated with a significant decline in rotarod latency-to-fall measurement by approximately 2.5 fold. Read More

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RAGE and αVβ3-integrin are essential for suPAR signaling in podocytes.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis 2021 Jun 21:166186. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Houston, Houston, TX, USA 77204; Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Houston College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA, 77204. Electronic address:

The soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of kidney diseases including primary and recurrent focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), diabetic nephropathy, and acute kidney injuries (AKI). Elevated serum suPAR concentration is a negative prognostic indicator in multiple critical clinical conditions. This study has examined the initial transduction steps used by suPAR in cultured mouse podocytes. Read More

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Modulation of proteoglycan receptor regulates RhoA/CRMP2 pathways and promotes axonal myelination.

Neurosci Lett 2021 Jun 21:136079. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Department of Neurosurgery, Shenzhen University General Hospital, Shenzhen University Clinical Medical Academy, Shenzhen, 518055, China. Electronic address:

The function of the myelinating system is important because a defective myelin sheath results in various nervous disorders, including multiple sclerosis and peripheral neuropathies. The dorsal root entry zone (DREZ) is a transitional area between the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS) that is generated by two types of cells-oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells (SCs). It is well known that after injury the extracellular matrix, including the CSPG, impairs axonal myelination by activating protein tyrosine phosphatase-σ (PTPσ) in both cells. Read More

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IDENTIFICATION OF OPTIMAL THERAPEUTIC WINDOW FOR STEROID USE IN SEVERE ALCOHOL-ASSOCIATED HEPATITIS: A WORLDWIDE STUDY.

J Hepatol 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Department of Gastroenterology, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, CIBERehd, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: Corticosteroids are the only effective therapy for severe alcohol-associated hepatitis (AH), defined as MELD score >20. However, there are patients who may be too sick to benefit from therapy.

Aim: To identify the range of MELD score within which steroids are effective treatment for AH. Read More

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Quantification of relative neurite tortuosity using Fourier transforms.

J Neurosci Methods 2021 Jun 21:109266. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

School of Optometry, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA; Graduate Program in Vision Science, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.

Background: The tortuosity of nerve fibers has been shown to be important for identifying and monitoring clinically relevant manifestations resulting from of a variety of ocular and systemic disease pathologies and disorders. However, quantifying tortuosity in dense neurite networks can prove challenging, as existing methods require manual scoring and/or complete segmentation of the neurite network.

New Method: We measured neurite tortuosity by quantifying the degree of directional coherence in the Fourier transform of segmented neurite masks. Read More

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Distribution of planar cell polarity proteins in the developing avian retina.

Exp Eye Res 2021 Jun 21:108681. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Área de Biología Celular, Departamento de Anatomía, Biología Celular y Zoología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Extremadura, Badajoz, Spain. Electronic address:

Planar cell polarity (PCP) is evolutionary conserved and play a critical role in proper tissue development and function. During central nervous system development, PCP proteins exhibit specific patterns of distribution and are indispensable for axonal growth, dendritogenesis, neuronal migration, and neuronal differentiation. The retina constitutes an excellent model in which to study molecular mechanisms involved in neural development. Read More

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Association of vitamin D deficiency and insulin resistance with breast cancer in premenopausal Algerian women: A cross-sectional study.

Ann Endocrinol (Paris) 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

USTHB, Endocrinology team, Laboratory of Biology and Physiology Faculty of Biological Sciences, DZ-16111 Algiers, Algeria. Electronic address:

Background: Low 25(OH)D levels are mainly related to breast cancer (BC) risk in postmenopausal women, while the impact of insulin resistance (IR) on BC prognosis is controversial.

Objective: Considering the high prevalence of BC in younger Algerian women, this cross-sectional study analyzed whether vitamin D status and IR are biomarkers for breast tumor status in premenopausal women.

Methods: In 96 women (mean age, 40. Read More

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Once-daily savolitinib in Chinese patients with pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinomas and other non-small-cell lung cancers harbouring MET exon 14 skipping alterations: a multicentre, single-arm, open-label, phase 2 study.

Lancet Respir Med 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Hutchison MediPharma, Shanghai, China.

Background: Savolitinib is a selective MET tyrosine-kinase inhibitor. We investigated the activity and safety of savolitinib in patients with pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinoma and other non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) subtypes positive for MET exon 14 skipping alterations (METex14-positive).

Methods: We did a multicentre, single-arm, open-label, phase 2 study across 32 hospitals in China. Read More

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Hospital-treated infectious diseases and the risk of dementia: a large, multicohort, observational study with a replication cohort.

Lancet Infect Dis 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Clinicum, Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland; Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, UK.

Background: Infections have been hypothesised to increase the risk of dementia. Existing studies have included a narrow range of infectious diseases, relied on short follow-up periods, and provided little evidence for whether the increased risk is limited to specific dementia subtypes or attributable to specific microbes rather than infection burden. We aimed to compare the risk of Alzheimer's disease and other dementias across a wide range of hospital-treated bacterial and viral infections in two large cohorts with long follow-up periods. Read More

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Growth resistance and resilience of mixed silver fir and Norway spruce forests in central Europe: Contrasting responses to mild and severe droughts.

Glob Chang Biol 2021 Jun 24. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL, Birmensdorf, Switzerland.

Extreme droughts are expected to increase in frequency and severity in many regions of the world, threatening multiple ecosystem services provided by forests. Effective strategies to adapt forests to such droughts require comprehensive information on the effects and importance of the factors influencing forest resistance and resilience. We used a unique combination of inventory and dendrochronological data from a long-term (>30 years) silvicultural experiment in mixed silver fir and Norway spruce mountain forests along a temperature and precipitation gradient in southwestern Germany. Read More

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Roles of age, sex, and weight status in the muscular fitness of Chinese Tibetan children and adolescents living at altitudes over 3600 m: A cross-sectional study.

Am J Hum Biol 2021 Jun 24:e23624. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Key Laboratory of Adolescent Health Assessment and Exercise Intervention of Ministry of Education, East China Normal University, Shanghai, China.

Objective: This study aimed to assess the role of age, sex, and weight status in the development of muscular fitness in a large sample of Chinese Tibetan children and adolescents aged 7-18 years living in areas over 3600 m.

Method: A sample of 4673 Chinese Tibetan children and adolescents aged 7-18 years were recruited from 21 schools in three cities (Lhasa, Naqu, and Anduo) of Tibet, China. Grip strength, standing long jump, 30-s sit-ups, and 50-m dash were conducted to determine muscular fitness. Read More

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