110 results match your criteria Central Osteosarcoma Low-Grade


Pediatric Osteosarcoma: Pearls and Pitfalls.

Semin Ultrasound CT MR 2022 Feb 15;43(1):97-114. Epub 2021 May 15.

Department of Radiology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Dept. of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH. Electronic address:

Osteosarcoma is a malignant bone tumor most commonly presenting in children. It has a bimodal distribution with a peak incidence occurring during the ages of 10-14 years old and in adults greater than age 65. The first peak of osteosarcoma correlates with the increased proliferation of bone during the pubertal growth period. Read More

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February 2022

Dedifferentiated Low-Grade Central Osteosarcoma of the Mandible.

Case Rep Dent 2022 21;2022:9321728. Epub 2022 Jan 21.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Japan.

We present the first, to our knowledge, case of a dedifferentiated low-grade central osteosarcoma (LCOS) of the mandible. A 48-year-old Japanese woman underwent enucleation under general anesthesia after a diagnosis of ossifying fibroma. At the second recurrence, the pathological diagnosis after biopsy was of sarcoma with MDM2(+) and CDK4(+) immunohistochemical staining results. Read More

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January 2022

Osteosarcoma: Old and New Challenges.

Authors:
Akihiko Yoshida

Surg Pathol Clin 2021 Dec 7;14(4):567-583. Epub 2021 Oct 7.

Department of Diagnostic Pathology, National Cancer Center Hospital, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045, Japan. Electronic address:

Diagnosis of osteosarcoma can be challenging because of its diverse histological patterns and the lack of diagnostic biomarkers for most examples. This review summarizes the key pathologic findings of osteosarcoma subtypes (high-grade central, parosteal, low-grade central, periosteal, high-grade surface, and secondary) with an emphasis on describing and illustrating histological heterogeneity to help general pathologists. Differential diagnoses are listed for each entity, and histological subtype and distinguishing features, including molecular genetic findings (eg, MDM2, IDH, H3F3A, FOS, and USP6), are discussed. Read More

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December 2021

Dedifferentiated Osteosarcoma of the Distal Ulna: A Case Report.

Case Rep Oncol 2021 May-Aug;14(2):1228-1236. Epub 2021 Aug 16.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Osteosarcoma is the most common malignant primary bone tumor that occurs most frequently in the second decade of life but rarely in patients over 40 years of age. The most common primary sites of osteosarcoma are the distal femur followed by proximal tibia and proximal humerus, and involvement of the wrist is extremely rare. Moreover, dedifferentiated osteosarcoma is also a rare condition that progresses to high-grade osteosarcoma from low-grade osteosarcoma, usually central low-grade osteosarcoma or parosteal osteosarcoma that bears MDM2 and/or CDK4 gene amplifications. Read More

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Ossifying Fibroma of Non-odontogenic Origin: A Fibro-osseous Lesion in the Craniofacial Skeleton to be (Re-)considered.

Head Neck Pathol 2022 Mar 26;16(1):257-267. Epub 2021 Jun 26.

Department of Radiology, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Brockley Hill, Stanmore, Greater London, HA7 4LP, UK.

In the cranio-facial skeleton, a heterogeneous group of well characterized fibro-osseous lesions can be distinguished. Whereas fibrous dysplasia can affect any skeletal bone, ossifying fibroma and cemento-osseous dysplasia exclusively develop in the cranio-facial region, with most subtypes restricted to the tooth bearing areas of the jaws. Herein we present a series of 20 fibro-osseous lesions that developed mostly in the frontal bone and in the mandible, presenting as expansile intramedullary tumors with a unique histologic appearance and an indolent clinical course. Read More

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3D printing guide plate for accurate hemicortical bone tumor resection in metaphysis of distal femoral: a technical note.

J Orthop Surg Res 2021 May 28;16(1):343. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Orthopedics, Hunan Cancer Hospital and The Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Xiangya School of Medicine, Central South University, 283 Tongzipo Road, Changsha, Hunan, 410013, People's Republic of China.

Background: Surgical resection and reconstruction for low-grade bone sarcoma in the metaphysis of the distal femur remain challenging. We hypothesized that 3D printing osteotomy guide plate could assist to accurately resect the tumor lesion and save the joint function.

Methods: From January 2017 to August 2019, five patients diagnosed with low-grade bone sarcoma in the metaphysis of the distal femur were treated with hemicortical resection using 3D printing guide plate. Read More

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Low-grade osteosarcoma is predominant in gnathic osteosarcomas: A report of seven cases of osteosarcoma of the jaw.

Clin Exp Dent Res 2021 12 19;7(6):1175-1182. Epub 2021 May 19.

Division of Diagnostic Pathology, Keio University Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

Objective: Primary osteosarcoma of the jaw bones is very rare, and histological features of gnathic osteosarcoma remain obscure. The purpose of this study was to describe the clinicopathological features of gnathic osteosarcoma.

Materials And Methods: Seven cases of gnathic osteosarcoma from Japan diagnosed during the period between 2000 and 2016 were examined retrospectively. Read More

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December 2021

Parosteal osteosarcoma with a manifestation of subperiosteal low-grade central osteosarcoma.

Skeletal Radiol 2021 Sep 11;50(9):1903-1907. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Anatomic Pathology, Pathological Sciences, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Maidashi 3-1-1, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka, 812-8582, Japan.

We report the peculiar case of a parosteal osteosarcoma arising beneath the periosteum in a 12-year-old boy. He complained of difficulty in left knee flexion. Plain radiography showed a uniformly dense mineralized mass in the bone cortex and parosteal ossified nodules at the metaphysis and diaphysis of the left distal femur. Read More

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September 2021

[Imaging findings in low-grade central osteosarcoma].

Rofo 2021 07 21;193(7):747-751. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Universitätsklinikum Tübingen, Germany.

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A phase 1 study of entinostat in children and adolescents with recurrent or refractory solid tumors, including CNS tumors: Trial ADVL1513, Pediatric Early Phase-Clinical Trial Network (PEP-CTN).

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2021 04 12;68(4):e28892. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota Masonic Cancer Center, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Background: Entinostat is an oral small molecule inhibitor of class I histone deacetylases (HDAC), which has not previously been evaluated in pediatrics. We conducted a phase I trial to determine the maximum tolerated dose/recommended phase 2 dose (MTD/RP2D), toxicity profile, pharmacokinetics (PK), and pharmacodynamics (PD) of entinostat in children with relapsed or refractory solid tumors including central nervous system (CNS) malignancies.

Methods: A rolling six dose escalation design evaluated two dose levels. Read More

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Atypical Enostoses-Series of Ten Cases and Literature Review.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2020 Oct 13;56(10). Epub 2020 Oct 13.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery 1, SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, New York, NY 13210, USA.

Bone islands (BI; enostoses) may be solitary or occur in the setting of osteopoikilosis (multiple bone islands) and are sometimes associated with Gardner's Syndrome (osteopoikilosis and colonic polyposis). Characteristic features of bone islands are (1) absence of pain or local tenderness, (2) typical radio dense central appearance with peripheral radiating spicules (rose thorn), (3) Mean CT (computerized tomography) attenuation values above 885 Hounsfield units (HU) (4) absence of uptake on bone scan and (5) radiographic stability over time. However, when enostoses display atypical features of pain, unusual radiographic appearance, aberrant HU, increased radiotracer uptake, and/or enlargement, they can be difficult to differentiate from more sinister bony lesions such as osteoblastic metastasis, low grade central osteosarcoma, osteoid osteoma and osteoblastoma. Read More

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October 2020

[Comparison of radiological and clinicopathological features of craniofacial fibro-osseous lesions].

Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi 2020 Feb;49(2):122-128

Department of Maxillofacial Surgery, Sichuan Academy of Medical Sciences & Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital, Chengdu 610072, China.

To investigate the clinicopathological and radiological features of benign fibro-osseous lesion (BFOL). Sixty-five cases of craniofacial BFOL, eight cases of peripheral ossifying fibroma (POF) and one case of low-grade central osteosarcoma diagnosed at Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital between January 2010 and March 2019 were collected. The clinicopathologic features, hematoxylin-eosin and immunohistochemical (IHC) staining and radiographic features were analyzed. Read More

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February 2020

Dedifferentiated low-grade central osteosarcoma with extensive cystic change initially treated as a simple bone cyst.

Pathol Res Pract 2020 Apr 20;216(4):152832. Epub 2020 Jan 20.

Department of Anatomic Pathology, Pathological Sciences, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1, Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka, 815-8582, Japan. Electronic address:

Low-grade central osteosarcoma (LG-COS) is an uncommon variant of osteosarcoma (OS) that sometimes progresses to high-grade OS post-recurrence. We herein present a case of dedifferentiated LG-COS with extensive cystic change arising in the right iliac bone of a 26-year-old man. The LG-COS was initially diagnosed and managed as a simple bone cyst. Read More

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Chondromyxoid fibroma-like osteosarcoma: a case series and literature review.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2020 Jan 29;21(1):53. Epub 2020 Jan 29.

Department of Imaging, Tongren Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, 1111 Xian Xia Road, Shanghai, 200050, China.

Background: Chondromyxoid fibroma-like osteosarcoma (CMF-OS) is an exceedingly rare subtype of low-grade central osteosarcoma (LGCO), accounting for up to 10% of cases and making it difficult to diagnose. CMF-OS is frequently misdiagnosed on a radiological examination and biopsy, even after the initial operation. Its treatment is a controversial issue due to its low-grade classification and actual high-grade behavior. Read More

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January 2020

TREX1 suppression imparts cancer-stem-cell-like characteristics to CD133 osteosarcoma cells through the activation of E2F4 signaling.

Int J Clin Exp Pathol 2019 1;12(4):1134-1153. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Department of Orthopaedics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University Fuzhou, Fujian, China.

There is ongoing debate whether cancer stem cells (CSCs) could arise from the transformation of non-CSCs under specific conditions. In the present study, the role of the three prime repair exonuclease 1 (TREX1) in regulating CSC generation form human osteosarcoma cells was investigated. High, intermediate and low levels of TREX1 expression were respectively observed in low-grade, high-grade and metastatic human osteosarcoma samples, while the opposite tendency was observed for E2F4, a transcription factor associated with G2 arrest. Read More

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A clinical comparison between dedifferentiated low-grade osteosarcoma and conventional osteosarcoma.

Bone Joint J 2019 Jun;101-B(6):745-752

Department of Musculoskeletal Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo, Japan; Rare Cancer Center, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

Aims: The purpose of this study was to clarify the clinical behaviour, prognosis, and optimum treatment of dedifferentiated low-grade osteosarcoma (DLOS) diagnosed based on molecular pathology.

Patients And Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 13 DLOS patients (six men, seven women; median age 32 years (interquartile range (IQR) 27 to 38)) diagnosed using the following criteria: the histological coexistence of low-grade and high-grade osteosarcoma components in the lesion, and positive immunohistochemistry of mouse double minute 2 homolog (MDM2) and cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) associated with MDM2 amplification. These patients were then compared with 51 age-matched consecutive conventional osteosarcoma (COS) patients (33 men, 18 women; median age 25 years (IQR 20 to 38)) regarding their clinicopathological features. Read More

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Low-grade intramedullary osteosarcoma presenting with multiple sclerotic bone lesions.

Radiol Case Rep 2018 Oct 1;13(5):1042-1047. Epub 2018 Jun 1.

Department of Orthopaedic and Traumatology, Cipto Mangunkusumo National Central Hospital and Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia, Jalan Diponegoro No. 71, Central Jakarta 10430, Indonesia.

Low-grade intramedullary osteosarcoma is a less-aggressive type of osteosarcoma for which delays in diagnosis are common. We present the case of a 42-year-old woman with complaints of low back pain. Multiple imaging evaluations and biopsy procedures were necessary to make the final diagnosis. Read More

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October 2018

Low-grade central fibroblastic osteosarcoma may be differentiated from its mimicker desmoplastic fibroma by genetic analysis.

Clin Sarcoma Res 2018 23;8:16. Epub 2018 Aug 23.

Department of Pathology and Medical Biology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 30.001, 9700 RB Groningen, The Netherlands.

Background: We studied two cases of rare fibrous bone tumors, namely desmoplastic fibroma (DF) and low-grade central osteosarcoma (LGCOS) resembling desmoplastic fibroma (DF-like LGCOS). As the clinical presentation, imaging features and histopathology of DF and DF-like LGOS show much overlap, the objective of this study was to investigate the value of cytogenetic analysis, molecular pathology and immunohistochemistry in discrimination of these two mimickers.

Case Presentation: A mutation in (S45F) and nuclear beta-catenin immunostaining were observed in DF. Read More

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Consistent Amplification of FRS2 and MDM2 in Low-grade Osteosarcoma: A Genetic Study of 22 Cases With Clinicopathologic Analysis.

Am J Surg Pathol 2018 09;42(9):1143-1155

Department of Pathology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University.

Low-grade osteosarcoma (LGOS) encompasses low-grade central osteosarcoma (LGCOS) and parosteal osteosarcoma (POS). LGOSs are characterized by a supernumerary ring and giant rod chromosomes containing the 12q13-15 amplicon. The fibroblast growth factor receptor substrate 2 (FRS2) gene is located close to MDM2 and CDK4. Read More

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September 2018

Low-Grade Central Osteosarcoma: Report of Two Unusual Morphologic Variants.

Indian J Surg Oncol 2018 Mar 13;9(1):74-78. Epub 2017 Nov 13.

IBS Hospital, New Delhi, India.

Low-grade central osteosarcoma (LGCO) is a rare subtype of osteosarcoma, constituting < 2% of all osteosarcomas. If not treated appropriately, the tumor can recur with higher-grade disease. We report two cases of low-grade central osteosarcoma with unusual morphologic features and belonging to different age groups. Read More

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Clinical, radiological, and pathological features of extraskeletal osteosarcoma.

Skeletal Radiol 2018 Sep 3;47(9):1213-1220. Epub 2018 Mar 3.

Division of Musculoskeletal Imaging and Intervention, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, 55 Fruit Street, Boston, MA, 02114, USA.

Objective: To evaluate clinical and radiological features of pathology-proven extraskeletal osteosarcomas.

Methods: This retrospective study was IRB-approved and HIPAA-compliant. Our pathology database was queried for cases of extraskeletal osteosarcoma. Read More

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September 2018

Denosumab-Treated Giant Cell Tumor of the Bone Mimicking Low-Grade Central Osteosarcoma.

J Pathol Transl Med 2018 Mar 12;52(2):133-135. Epub 2018 Feb 12.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

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Low-grade central osteosarcoma in proximal humerus: a rare entity.

Onco Targets Ther 2017 24;10:5165-5172. Epub 2017 Oct 24.

Department of Orthopedics, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, People's Republic of China.

Low-grade central osteosarcoma is a rare subtype of tumor with low-grade malignancy. Currently, wide resection with negative resection margin is the standard treatment for this disease. The role of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in low-grade central osteosarcoma was controversial and was mostly considered for tumors containing high-grade focal areas. Read More

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October 2017

Paravertebral Well-Differentiated Liposarcoma with Low-Grade Osteosarcomatous Component: Case Report with 11-Year Follow-Up, Radiological, Pathological, and Genetic Data, and Literature Review.

Case Rep Pathol 2017 9;2017:2346316. Epub 2017 Mar 9.

Department of Pathology, APHM, Marseille, France.

Despite being one of the most frequent soft-tissue sarcomas, well-differentiated liposarcoma has never been reported near the spine. The authors present the case of a 67-year-old man with progressive history of back pain. Physical examination revealed a mass located within the right paravertebral muscles. Read More

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Denosumab-treated giant cell tumor of bone. Its histologic spectrum and potential diagnostic pitfalls.

Hum Pathol 2017 05 22;63:89-97. Epub 2017 Feb 22.

Institute of Orthopedics "Carlos E. Ottolenghi,", Italian Hospital of Buenos Aires, 1199 Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Giant cell tumor (GCT) of bone is a locally aggressive, rarely metastasizing primary bone neoplasm that occurs most frequently in the epiphysis of long bones of young adults. It is composed of round, oval, or elongated mononuclear cells admixed with osteoclast-like giant cells that express receptor activator of nuclear factor κB (RANK). The mononuclear stromal cells express RANK ligand, a mediator of osteoclast activation. Read More

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Advances in the management of osteosarcoma.

F1000Res 2016 25;5:2767. Epub 2016 Nov 25.

St. Anna Children's Hospital, Department of Paediatrics, Medical University Vienna and Children's Cancer Research Institute CCRI, Vienna, Austria.

Osteosarcoma, a bone cancer most commonly seen in adolescents and young adults, is usually a high-grade malignancy characterized by a very high risk for the development of pulmonary metastases. High-grade osteosarcomas are usually treated by preoperative and postoperative chemotherapy and surgery, with a very limited number of active agents available. Rarer lower-grade variants such as parosteal and periosteal osteosarcoma or low-grade central osteosarcoma are treated by surgery only. Read More

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November 2016

B7-H3 protein expression in a murine model of osteosarcoma.

Oncol Lett 2016 Jul 2;12(1):383-386. Epub 2016 Jun 2.

Department of Orthopedics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215006, P.R. China.

Osteosarcoma is an aggressive type of bone tumor that commonly occurs in pediatric age groups. The complete molecular mechanisms behind osteosarcoma formation and progression require elucidation. B7-H3 is a protein of the B7 family that acts as a co-stimulatory molecule with a significant role in adaptive immune responses. Read More

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[Value of MDM2, CDK4 and SATB2 immunohistochemistry in histologic diagnosis of low-grade osteosarcoma].

Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi 2016 Jun;45(6):387-92

Department of Pathology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital, Shanghai 200233, China.

Objective: To investigate the value of combined application of MDM2, CDK4 and SATB2 immunohistochemistry in pathological diagnosis of low-grade osteosarcoma.

Methods: Forty-seven cases of low grade osteosarcoma, including low grade central osteosarcoma (n=20) and parosteal osteosarcoma (n=27), were selected from Shanghai Jiaotong University Affiliated the Sixth People's Hospital. The clinical, radiography and histopathology were reviewed. Read More

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Multifocal low-grade central osteosarcoma: a rare case.

Skeletal Radiol 2016 Jul 5;45(7):997-1006. Epub 2016 Apr 5.

Douglass Hanly Moir Pathology, 14 Giffnock Avenue, Macquarie Park, NSW, 2113, USA.

Low-grade central osteosarcoma (LGCOS) is a rare variant of osteosarcoma. We present a rare case of multifocal LGCOS located in two distinct skeletal sites, initially noted as incidental findings on imaging for distant traumatic pathology. Both sites seemed small and innocuous on initial imaging, and were quiescent clinically, illustrating the value of close interval multimodal surveillance scanning. Read More

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