371 results match your criteria Centipede Envenomation


Team reasoning-Experimental evidence on cooperation from centipede games.

PLoS One 2018 28;13(11):e0206666. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Faculty of Business Administration and Economics, University of Passau, Passau, Germany.

Previous laboratory studies on the centipede game have found that subjects exhibit surprisingly high levels of cooperation. Across disciplines, it has recently been highlighted that these high levels of cooperation might be explained by "team reasoning", the willingness to think as a team rather than as an individual. We run an experiment with a standard centipede game as a baseline. Read More

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November 2018

sp. n., the first subterranean species of centipede from southern China (Lithobiomorpha, Lithobiidae).

Zookeys 2018 8(795):83-91. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Guizhou Institute of Biology, Guiyang, Guizhou 550001, PR China.

(Lithobiomorpha: Lithobiidae) was recently discovered from the Cave of the brickyard of Gaofeng village, in the Guizhou Province, southwest China, and it is described here. Morphologically the new species is similar to (Trozina>, 1894) from north-western China. The new species can be easily distinguished from those by the trachea connected to the valve of the TIII clearly visible from the dorsal side, the absence of ocelli on each side of the cephalic plate, the DaC spine being only present on the XIII-XV legs. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

BiFET: sequencing Bias-free transcription factor Footprint Enrichment Test.

Nucleic Acids Res 2018 Nov 14. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

The Jackson Laboratory for Genomic Medicine, Farmington, CT 06032, USA.

Transcription factor (TF) footprinting uncovers putative protein-DNA binding via combined analyses of chromatin accessibility patterns and their underlying TF sequence motifs. TF footprints are frequently used to identify TFs that regulate activities of cell/condition-specific genomic regions (target loci) in comparison to control regions (background loci) using standard enrichment tests. However, there is a strong association between the chromatin accessibility level and the GC content of a locus and the number and types of TF footprints that can be detected at this site. Read More

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November 2018
6 Reads

The first record of the anopsobiid genus Shinohara, 1982 in continental Asia, with the description of a new species from the Altais, southwestern Siberia, Russia (Chilopoda, Lithobiomorpha, Anopsobiidae).

Zookeys 2018 29(793):15-28. Epub 2018 Oct 29.

Department of Ecology, Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Altai State University, Lenina 61, Barnaul 656049, Russia Altai State University Barnaul Russia.

A new lithobiomorph species, , is described from the Altai Mountains in southwestern Siberia, Russia. This is the first record of the genus Shinohara, 1982 in continental Asia, all previous reports being from Japan. The distribution of is mapped. Read More

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October 2018
2 Reads

A synopsis of Estonian myriapod fauna (Myriapoda: Chilopoda, Diplopoda, Symphyla and Pauropoda).

Zookeys 2018 29(793):63-96. Epub 2018 Oct 29.

Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi st 5D, 51006 Tartu, Estonia Estonian University of Life Sciences Tartu Estonia.

The data on Estonian Myriapoda are scattered in various publications and there has been no overview of the fauna up to the present. A critical summary of the previous information on Estonian Myriapoda is given, supplemented by new records and distribution maps. Altogether, 5784 specimens from 276 collecting sites were studied. Read More

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October 2018
4 Reads

A contribution to the knowledge of scolopendromorph centipedes of Martinique Island, with descriptions of two new species (Chilopoda: Scolopendromorpha).

Zootaxa 2018 Sep 30;4486(4):559-574. Epub 2018 Sep 30.

Zoological Museum of the Moscow Lomonosov State University, Bolshaya Nikitskaja Str. 6, Moscow, 103009, Russia..

The paper provides new data on seven scolopendromorph centipede species collected in Martinique Island. Two new species are described: Otostigmus (Parotostigmus) salticus n. sp. Read More

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September 2018

The centipede family Anopsobiidae new to North America, with the description of a new genus and species and notes on the Henicopidae of North America and the Anopsobiidae of the Northern Hemisphere (Chilopoda, Lithobiomorpha).

Authors:
William A Shear

Zootaxa 2018 May 23;4422(2):259-283. Epub 2018 May 23.

Professor Emeritus, Department of Biology, Hampden-Sydney College, Hampden-Sydney VA 23943 USA. 1950 Price Drive, Farmville VA 23901).

Speleopsobius weaveri, n. gen., n. Read More

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Taxonomic reassessment and redescription of Scolopendra arthrorhabdoides Ribaut, 1913, with a discussion on its related species (Scolopendromorpha, Scolopendridae).

Zootaxa 2018 May 29;4425(1):153-164. Epub 2018 May 29.

Departamento de Biologia e Zoologia, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso. Avenida Fernando Correa da Costa, 2367, Boa Esperança, CEP-78060-900, Cuiabá, MT, Brasil.

Scolopendra arthrorhabdoides Ribaut, 1913 is redescribed based on fresh material. Its taxonomic status is evaluated and compared with Scolopendra armata Kraepelin, 1903 and Scolopendra alternans Leach, 1816. The geographical distribution of S. Read More

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A contribution to the knowledge of the centipedes of Saint Barthélemy Island (French Antilles), with re-descriptions of Newportia heteropoda Chamberlin, 1918 and Cormocephalus impressus Porat, 1876 (Chilopoda: Scolopendromorpha).

Zootaxa 2018 Jun 20;4438(1):59-78. Epub 2018 Jun 20.

Zoological Museum of the Moscow Lomonosov State University, Bolshaya Nikitskaja Str. 6, Moscow, 103009, Russia..

The paper provides descriptions of three scolopendromorph centipede species collected in Saint Barthélemy Island. Two of them, Newportia heteropoda Chamberlin, 1918 and Cormocephalus impressus Porat, 1876 are redescribed and their systematic position is discussed. The taxonomic status of Newportia cubana Chamberlin, 1915 is revised, this nominal taxon being treated as the subspecies N. Read More

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June 2018
1 Read

Representation effects in the centipede game.

PLoS One 2018 4;13(10):e0204422. Epub 2018 Oct 4.

DEMS, Università degli studi di Milano Bicocca, P.za dell'Ateneo Nuovo 1, 20126 Milan, Italy.

We explore the effects on strategic behavior of alternative representations of a centipede game that differ in terms of complexity. In a laboratory experiment, we manipulate the way in which payoffs are presented to subjects in two different ways. In both cases, information is made less accessible relative to the standard representation of the game. Read More

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October 2018

A novel antimicrobial peptide acting via formyl peptide receptor 2 shows therapeutic effects against rheumatoid arthritis.

Sci Rep 2018 Oct 2;8(1):14664. Epub 2018 Oct 2.

Department of Biological Sciences, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, 16419, Korea.

In oriental medicine, centipede Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans has long been used as a remedy for rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a well-known chronic autoimmune disorder. However, the molecular identities of its bioactive components have not yet been extensively investigated. We sought to identify bioactive molecules that control RA with a centipede. Read More

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October 2018
6 Reads

Centipede envenomation: Clinical importance and the underlying molecular mechanisms.

Toxicon 2018 Nov 29;154:60-68. Epub 2018 Sep 29.

Key Laboratory of Animal Models and Human Disease Mechanisms of Chinese Academy of Sciences/Key Laboratory of Bioactive Peptides of Yunnan Province, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Kunming 650223, Yunnan, China. Electronic address:

Centipede bites are usually characterized by mildly to moderately painful encounters with humans, however, they are relatively infrequent. The vast majority of centipede envenomations do not cause severe symptoms and only in very rare cases more serious symptoms such as myocardial ischemia and infarction, hematuria, hemoglobinuria, rhabdomyolysis, hemorrhage, pruritus, eosinophilic cellulitis, as well as anaphylaxis are observed. More prevalent are symptoms including pain, paresthesia, lethargy, localized necrosis, headache, dizziness and nausea. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

Comparing the Effects of Two Tillage Operations on Beneficial Epigeal Arthropod Communities and Their Associated Ecosystem Services in Sugar Beets.

J Econ Entomol 2018 Sep 27. Epub 2018 Sep 27.

Department of Entomology, Panhandle Research and Extension Center, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, 405 Avenue I, Scottsbluff, NE, USA.

Beneficial arthropods provide important ecosystem services in terms of arthropod pest and weed management, but these services can be adversely affected by farming practices such as tillage. This study investigated the impact of two tillage operations (zone tillage and moldboard plow) on the activity density of several beneficial, epigeal arthropod taxa, and postdispersal weed seed and prey removal in sugar beet agroecosystems. In addition, four omnivorous ground beetle species were selected for a weed-seed choice feeding assay, whereas a single species was selected for a weed-seed age preference assay. Read More

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September 2018
1 Read

Neuromuscular transmitter candidates of a centipede (, Chilopoda).

Front Zool 2018 1;15:28. Epub 2018 Aug 1.

University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Division of Cell Biology, Bischofsholer Damm 15/102, D-30173 Hannover, Germany.

Background: The neuromuscular junction is the chemical synapse where motor neurons communicate with skeletal muscle fibers. Whereas vertebrates and many invertebrates use acetylcholine as transmitter at the neuromuscular junction, in those arthropods examined up to now, glutamate and GABA are used instead. With respect to taxon sampling in a phylogenetic context, there is, however, only a limited amount of data available, focusing mainly on crustaceans and hexapods, and neglecting other, arthropod groups. Read More

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August 2018
5 Reads

Venom-gland transcriptomics and venom proteomics of the giant Florida blue centipede, Scolopendra viridis.

Toxicon 2018 Sep 4;152:121-136. Epub 2018 Aug 4.

Department of Biological Science, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306, USA. Electronic address:

The limited number of centipede venom characterizations have revealed a rich diversity of toxins, and recent work has suggested centipede toxins may be more rapidly diversifying than previously considered. Additionally, many identified challenges in venomics research, including assembly and annotation methods, toxin quantification, and the ability to provide biological or technical replicates, have yet to be addressed in centipede venom characterizations. We performed high-throughput, quantifiable transcriptomic and proteomic methods on two individual Scolopendra viridis centipedes from North Florida. Read More

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September 2018
6 Reads

Eating Centipedes Can Result in Infection: Two Case Reports and Pathogen Investigation.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2018 Sep 26;99(3):743-748. Epub 2018 Jul 26.

Department of Pathogen Biology and Experimental Teaching Centre of Preventive Medicine, Key Laboratory of Prevention and Control for Emerging Infectious Diseases of Guangdong Higher Institutes, Key Laboratory for Tropical Disease Research of Guangdong Province, School of Public Health, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Angiostrongyliasis is a food-borne parasitic disease caused by the nematode that can lead to eosinophilic meningitis (EM) or meningoencephalitis in humans. is prevalent in the Pacific Islands. In recent years, a large number of outbreaks and severe cases have occurred. Read More

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September 2018
6 Reads
2.700 Impact Factor

granules for the treatment of Parkinson's disease: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

Neural Regen Res 2018 Jul;13(7):1269-1275

Acupuncture and Tuina College of Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Levodopa preparations remain the preferred drug for Parkinson's disease. However, long-term use of levodopa may lead to a series of motor complications. Previous studies have shown that the combination of levodopa and Zishenpingchan granules (consisting of Radix Rehmanniae preparata, Lycium barbarum, Herba Taxilli, Rhizoma Gastrodiae, Stiff Silkorm, Curcuma phaeocaulis, Radix Paeoniae Alba, Rhizoma Arisaematis, Scorpio and Centipede) can markedly improve dyskinesia and delay the progression of Parkinson's disease, with especially dramatic improvements of non-motor symptoms. Read More

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July 2018
23 Reads

Diversity, evolution, and function of myriapod hemocyanins.

BMC Evol Biol 2018 07 5;18(1):107. Epub 2018 Jul 5.

Institute of Zoology, University of Hamburg, D-20146, Hamburg, Germany.

Background: Hemocyanin transports O in the hemolymph of many arthropod species. Such respiratory proteins have long been considered unnecessary in Myriapoda. As a result, the presence of hemocyanin in Myriapoda has long been overlooked. Read More

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July 2018
10 Reads

New avatars for Myriapods: Complete 3D morphology of type specimens transcends conventional species description (Myriapoda, Chilopoda).

PLoS One 2018 3;13(7):e0200158. Epub 2018 Jul 3.

Department of Theoretical Biology, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

We present high-resolution X-ray microtomography (microCT) to enhance the standard morphological description of a recently described centipede, Eupolybothrus liburnicus Akkari, Komerički, Weigand, Edgecombe and Stoev, 2017. The 3D images of the holotype and paratype specimens are considered here as cybertypes for the species-a universal and virtual representation of the type material. This 'avatar' of the holotype is the first published male centipede cybertype. Read More

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July 2018
6 Reads

A TALE of shrimps: Genome-wide survey of homeobox genes in 120 species from diverse crustacean taxa.

F1000Res 2018 17;7:71. Epub 2018 Jan 17.

Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX3 7FZ, UK.

The homeodomain-containing proteins are an important group of transcription factors found in most eukaryotes including animals, plants and fungi. Homeobox genes are responsible for a wide range of critical developmental and physiological processes, ranging from embryonic development, innate immune homeostasis to whole-body regeneration. With continued fascination on this key class of proteins by developmental and evolutionary biologists, multiple efforts have thus far focused on the identification and characterization of homeobox orthologs from key model organisms in attempts to infer their evolutionary origin and how this underpins the evolution of complex body plans. Read More

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January 2018

Evaluation of Aristolochia indica L. and Piper nigrum L. methanol extract against centipede Scolopendra moristans L. using Wistar albino rats and screening of bioactive compounds by high pressure liquid chromatography: a polyherbal formulation.

Biomed Pharmacother 2018 Jan 28;97:1603-1612. Epub 2017 Nov 28.

Department of Pharmacy, Federal University of Sergipe, Cristovao, Sergipe, CEP, 49100-000, Sao Cristovao, Brazil.

The present study was aimed to explore the anti-venom activity of Aristolochia indica and Piper nigrum plants against the centipede (Scolopendra moristans) envenomation in animal model. In vtiro phytochemical, antioxidant and blocking of proteolysis were carried out by using standard spectrophotometric methods. In vivo anti-venom activity of methanol extracts was determined using Wistar albino rats after fixing lethal and effective doses. Read More

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January 2018
8 Reads

Guided Policy Exploration for Markov Decision Processes Using an Uncertainty-Based Value-of-Information Criterion.

IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst 2018 Jun;29(6):2080-2098

Reinforcement learning in environments with many action-state pairs is challenging. The issue is the number of episodes needed to thoroughly search the policy space. Most conventional heuristics address this search problem in a stochastic manner. Read More

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Millipede and centipede assemblages on the northern and southern slopes of the lowland Altais, southwestern Siberia, Russia (Diplopoda, Chilopoda).

Zookeys 2018 7(741):219-254. Epub 2018 Mar 7.

Department of Ecology, Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Altai State University, Lenina avenue 61, Barnaul,656049, Russia.

The total species richness in the myriapod assemblages of the lowland Altais near Charyshskoe Village, Altai Province, southwestern Siberia, Russia is estimated to be at least 19 species from ten genera, eight families, five orders, and two classes. The following species are new to SW Siberia: Lithobius (Ezembius) ostiacorum Stuxberg, 1876, Stuxberg, 1876, and L. (Monotarsobius) nordenskioeldii Stuxberg, 1876, while L. Read More

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March 2018
2 Reads

Lithobius (Ezembius) tetraspinus, a new species of centipede from northwest China (Lithobiomorpha, Lithobiidae).

Zookeys 2018 7(741):203-217. Epub 2018 Mar 7.

Scientific Research Office, Hengshui University, Hengshui, Hebei 053000, P. R. China.

Lithobius (Ezembius) tetraspinus (Lithobiomorpha: Lithobiidae), recently discovered from Hami City, Xinjiang Autonomous Region, NW China, is described. Morphologically this species resembles L. (E. Read More

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March 2018
3 Reads

The peristomatic structures as a source of systematic characters in the genus Leach, 1814 (Myriapoda, Chilopoda).

Zookeys 2018 7(741):49-75. Epub 2018 Mar 7.

Natural History Museum Vienna, 3rd Zoological Department, Burgring 7, 1010 Vienna, Austria.

Morphological characters have been widely used in centipede systematics. Here, we aim to obtain morphological information from the preoral chamber and peristomatic structures of lithobiomorph centipedes, with taxonomic sampling focused on the species-rich genus Leach, 1814. Towards this goal, we (i) examined the epipharynx and hypopharynx of 32 species belonging to four subgenera of the genus , viz. Read More

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March 2018
3 Reads

A review of Newportia species in the subgenus Newportides Chamberlin, 1921 (Scolopendromorpha, Scolopocryptopidae, Newportiinae).

Authors:
Amazonas Chagas

Zootaxa 2018 04 3;4403(1):154-170. Epub 2018 Apr 3.

Departamento de Biologia e Zoologia, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Cuiabá, Brasil..

Five Newportia species with a claw-shaped pretarsus of the ultimate legs are revised. Newportia amazonica Brolemann, 1904, N. unguifer Chamberlin, 1921, and N. Read More

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A new high-altitude species of centipede from the Andes of Ecuador (Chilopoda, Geophilomorpha, Schendylidae).

Zootaxa 2018 Jan 18;4374(3):409-426. Epub 2018 Jan 18.

National Council for Scientific and Technological Research (CONICET) and Natural Sciences Faculty and Museum (Division of Invertebrate Zoology), National University of La Plata, La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina..

Pectiniunguis aequatorialis sp. nov. (Chilopoda: Geophilomorpha: Schendylidae) is described and illustrated on the basis of specimens collected in the Cayambe-Coca Ecological Reserve in the High Andes of Ecuador. Read More

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January 2018
1 Read

Vietnamese centipede envenomation.

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2018 Apr 24:1-2. Epub 2018 Apr 24.

a Division of Emergency Medicine , Washington University School of Medicine , St. Louis , MO , USA.

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April 2018
1 Read

Lithobius (Monotarsobius) meifengensis, a new species of centipede from high altitude forest in central Taiwan (Chilopoda, Lithobiomorpha, Lithobiidae).

Zookeys 2018 7(741):181-192. Epub 2018 Mar 7.

Department of Biological Sciences, National Sun Yat-Sen University, 70 Lien-Hai Road, Kaohsiung, Taiwan 804, R.O.C.

Lithobius (Monotarsobius) meifengensis occurring at Mei-Feng Farm, Highland Experimental Farm of National Taiwan University, Nantou, Taiwan, is characterised by a male secondary sexual character on leg 15, a very large ventral swelling occupying almost 50% of the ventral surface of the femur; the gently curved apical region bearing approximately 20 short setae and numerous very small pores of flexo-canal epidermal glands. This male secondary sexual character is described for the first time in the genus . Read More

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March 2018
1 Read

A synopsis of centipedes in Brazilian caves: hidden species diversity that needs conservation (Myriapoda, Chilopoda).

Zookeys 2018 12(737):13-56. Epub 2018 Feb 12.

Laboratório de Estudos Subterrâneos, Departamento de Ecologia e Biologia Evolutiva, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Rodovia Washington Luis, Km 235, CP 676, 13565-905 São Carlos, SP, Brasil.

This study revises centipede fauna found in Brazilian caves, focusing on troglomorphic taxa and emphasizing conservation status. We present 563 centipede specimens from 274 caves across eleven Brazilian states. Of these, 22 records were derived from existing literature and 252 are newly collected. Read More

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February 2018

Amidated Scolopin-2 inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis of Hela cells in vitro and in vivo.

Biotechnol Appl Biochem 2018 Sep 27;65(5):672-679. Epub 2018 Apr 27.

Jiangsu Province Key Laboratory for Molecular and Medical Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, People's Republic of China.

This study aimed to investigate the effect of Scolopin-2, a cationic antimicrobial peptide from centipede venoms, and amidated Scolopin-2 on Hela cell viability in vitro and in vivo. The cellular proliferation was investigated with the MTT assay. Confocal laser scanning, flow cytometry, and Western blot analysis were employed to localize Scolopin-2-NH in Hela cells and to study the caused cells apoptosis. Read More

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September 2018
3 Reads

Impact of windstorm on a community of centipedes (Chilopoda) in a beech forest in Western Poland.

Biologia (Bratisl) 2018 26;73(2):165-173. Epub 2018 Mar 26.

Department of General Zoology, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 89, 61614 Poznań, Poland.

The study was carried out in the years 2016-2017, five years after a windstorm which destroyed 1/3 of the protected beech forest area in the west of Poland. The community of centipedes in the area affected by the windstorm was depleted in terms of the species richness, diversity, and population density. The dominance structures were shortened and the species composition was rebuilt. Read More

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Dynamic probability of reinforcement for cooperation: Random game termination in the centipede game.

J Exp Anal Behav 2018 03;109(2):349-364

Department of Neuroscience, Psychology and Behaviour, University of Leicester, U.K.

Experimental games have previously been used to study principles of human interaction. Many such games are characterized by iterated or repeated designs that model dynamic relationships, including reciprocal cooperation. To enable the study of infinite game repetitions and to avoid endgame effects of lower cooperation toward the final game round, investigators have introduced random termination rules. Read More

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Anaphylaxis caused by a centipede bite: A "true" type-I allergic reaction.

Allergol Int 2018 Jul 5;67(3):419-420. Epub 2018 Mar 5.

Department of Dermatology, Hyogo College of Medicine, Hyogo, Japan.

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July 2018
5 Reads

Clinico-epidemiology of arthropod stings and bites in primary hospitals of North Western province of Sri Lanka.

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2018 Oct 6;56(10):880-885. Epub 2018 Mar 6.

b South Asian Clinical Toxicology Research Collaboration , University of Peradeniya , Peradeniya , Sri Lanka.

Objective: Arthropod stinging and bites are common environmental hazards in Sri Lanka. However, their medical importance has not been fully evaluated yet. This study aims to study the burden, epidemiology, and outcome of stings and bites in primary hospitals in the Kurunegala district in North Western Province (NWP) of Sri Lanka. Read More

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October 2018
75 Reads
1 Citation
3.120 Impact Factor

True Lies: Using Proteomics to Assess the Accuracy of Transcriptome-Based Venomics in Centipedes Uncovers False Positives and Reveals Startling Intraspecific Variation in Scolopendra Subspinipes.

Toxins (Basel) 2018 Feb 28;10(3). Epub 2018 Feb 28.

Institute for Molecular Bioscience, University of Queensland, Brisbane 4072, Australia.

Centipede venoms have emerged as a rich source of novel bioactive compounds. However, most centipede species are commonly considered too small for venom extraction and transcriptomics is likely to be an attractive way of probing the molecular diversity of these venoms. Examining the venom composition of , we test the accuracy of this approach. Read More

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February 2018
1 Read

Targeting breast cancer cells with a CuInS/ZnS quantum dot-labeled Ki-67 bioprobe.

Oncol Lett 2018 Feb 14;15(2):2471-2476. Epub 2017 Dec 14.

College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin 130013, P.R. China.

The aim of the present study was to develop a water-soluble biomarker for the detection of breast cancer using quantum dots (QDs) conjugated to Ki-67, a nuclear protein associated with the cell cycle. Ki-67 is also a marker of cell proliferation, with expression levels categorizing good and poor prognosis in invasive breast cancer. Ki-67 is a clinically used biomarker for breast cancer diagnosis, treatment and prognosis. Read More

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February 2018

Centipedes subdue giant prey by blocking KCNQ channels.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2018 02 22;115(7):1646-1651. Epub 2018 Jan 22.

Key Laboratory of Animal Models and Human Disease Mechanisms of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Kunming 650223, Yunnan, China;

Centipedes can subdue giant prey by using venom, which is metabolically expensive to synthesize and thus used frugally through efficiently disrupting essential physiological systems. Here, we show that a centipede (, ∼3 g) can subdue a mouse (∼45 g) within 30 seconds. We found that this observation is largely due to a peptide toxin in the venom, SsTx, and further established that SsTx blocks KCNQ potassium channels to exert the lethal toxicity. Read More

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February 2018
11 Reads

Proteotranscriptomic Analysis and Discovery of the Profile and Diversity of Toxin-like Proteins in Centipede.

Mol Cell Proteomics 2018 Apr 16;17(4):709-720. Epub 2018 Jan 16.

From the ‡Key Laboratory of Animal Models and Human Disease Mechanisms of the Chinese Academy of Sciences/Key Laboratory of Bioactive Peptides of Yunnan Province, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 32 East Jiao-Chang Road, Kunming, Yunnan 650223, China;

Centipedes are one of the oldest venomous animals and use their venoms as weapons to attack prey or protect themselves. Their venoms contain various components with different biomedical and pharmacological properties. However, little attention has been paid to the profiles and diversity of their toxin-like proteins/peptides. Read More

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April 2018
12 Reads

Novel fern- and centipede-like (Selaginellaceae) species and a new combination from South America.

PhytoKeys 2017 28(91):13-38. Epub 2017 Nov 28.

Departamento de Botánica, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales, Exactas y Tecnología, Universidad de Panamá, Apartado Postal 0824-00073, Panama.

Two new species (i.e. Valdespino and Valdespino) and a novel combination [i. Read More

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November 2017
1 Read

Terrestrial invertebrates in the Rhynie chert ecosystem.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2018 Feb;373(1739)

School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, UK.

The Early Devonian Rhynie and Windyfield cherts remain a key locality for understanding early life and ecology on land. They host the oldest unequivocal nematode worm (Nematoda), which may also offer the earliest evidence for herbivory via plant parasitism. The trigonotarbids (Arachnida: Trigonotarbida) preserve the oldest book lungs and were probably predators that practiced liquid feeding. Read More

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February 2018
39 Reads

MicroRNAs regulate the sesquiterpenoid hormonal pathway in and other arthropods.

Proc Biol Sci 2017 Dec;284(1869)

School of Life Sciences, Simon F.S. Li Marine Science Laboratory, Partner State Key Laboratory of Agrobiotechnology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Sha Tin, Hong Kong

Arthropods comprise the majority of all described animal species, and understanding their evolution is a central question in biology. Their developmental processes are under the precise control of distinct hormonal regulators, including the sesquiterpenoids juvenile hormone (JH) and methyl farnesoate. The control of the synthesis and mode of action of these hormones played important roles in the evolution of arthropods and their adaptation to diverse habitats. Read More

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December 2017
17 Reads

Taxonomy and Identification of the Genus Scolopendra in China Using Integrated Methods of External Morphology and Molecular Phylogenetics.

Sci Rep 2017 Nov 22;7(1):16032. Epub 2017 Nov 22.

Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing, 100700, P.R. China.

The centipede Scolopendra has important medicinal value and high toxicity, making it to be an interesting subject for evolutionary studies. However, species identification in China is difficult because of limited resource exploration and lack of recent taxonomic revision. To improve the identification and taxonomy of the genus Scolopendra in China, an in-depth investigation was conducted, and an integrated method that combined morphological characteristics with molecular data was applied. Read More

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November 2017
9 Reads

The ultimate legs of Chilopoda (Myriapoda): a review on their morphological disparity and functional variability.

PeerJ 2017 14;5:e4023. Epub 2017 Nov 14.

Zoological Institute and Museum, Cytology and Evolutionary Biology, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt Universität Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany.

The arthropodium is the key innovation of arthropods. Its various modifications are the outcome of multiple evolutionary transformations, and the foundation of nearly endless functional possibilities. In contrast to hexapods, crustaceans, and even chelicerates, the spectrum of evolutionary transformations of myriapod arthropodia is insufficiently documented and rarely scrutinized. Read More

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November 2017

A new cave centipede from Croatia, sp. n., with notes on the subgenus Schizopolybothrus Verhoeff, 1934 (Chilopoda, Lithobiomorpha, Lithobiidae).

Zookeys 2017 1(687):11-43. Epub 2017 Aug 1.

National Museum of Natural History and Pensoft Publishers, Sofia, Bulgaria.

A new species of Verhoeff, 1907 discovered in caves of Velebit Mountain in Croatia is described. exhibits a few morphological differences from its most similar congeners, all of which are attributed to the subgenus Schizopolybothrus Verhoeff, 1934, and two approaches to species delimitation using the COI barcode region identify it as distinct from the closely allied Stoev & Komerički, 2013. (Latzel, 1888) is redescribed and a lectotype is designated for it as well as (Verhoeff, 1899) to stabilize their respective taxonomic status. Read More

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August 2017
5 Reads

Formation and subdivision of the head field in the centipede , as revealed by the expression of head gap gene orthologues and dynamics.

Evodevo 2017 23;8:18. Epub 2017 Oct 23.

Laboratory for Development and Evolution, Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge, CB23EJ UK.

Background: There have been few studies of head patterning in non-insect arthropods, and even in the insects, much is not yet understood. In the fly three head gap genes, (), () and () are essential for patterning the head. However, they do not act through the same pair-rule genes that pattern the trunk from the mandibular segment backwards. Read More

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October 2017

Animal Toxins Providing Insights into TRPV1 Activation Mechanism.

Toxins (Basel) 2017 10 16;9(10). Epub 2017 Oct 16.

The Institute for Drug Research (IDR), School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 9112001, Israel.

Beyond providing evolutionary advantages, venoms offer unique research tools, as they were developed to target functionally important proteins and pathways. As a key pain receptor in the nociceptive pathway, transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) of the TRP superfamily has been shown to be a target for several toxins, as a way of producing pain to deter predators. Importantly, TRPV1 is involved in thermoregulation, inflammation, and acute nociception. Read More

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October 2017
12 Reads

A novel antimicrobial peptide isolated from centipede Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans stimulates neutrophil activity through formyl peptide receptor 2.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2017 12 5;494(1-2):352-357. Epub 2017 Oct 5.

Department of Biological Sciences, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 16419, Republic of Korea; Department of Health Sciences and Technology, SAIHST, Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul 06351, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

In this study, we identified scolopendrasin X, a novel antimicrobial peptide (AMP), from centipede Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans. Scolopendrasin X strongly stimulated mouse neutrophils, resulting in intracellular calcium increase, chemotactic migration through pertussis toxin-sensitive G-protein and phospholipase C pathway, and increased superoxide anion production in neutrophils. Target receptor for scolopendrasin X, formyl peptide receptor (FPR)2 mediated scolopendrasin X-induced neutrophil activation. Read More

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December 2017
7 Reads

Arthropod toxins acting on neuronal potassium channels.

Neuropharmacology 2017 Dec 20;127:139-160. Epub 2017 Sep 20.

Illawarra Health and Medical Research Institute, University of Wollongong, Northfields Avenue, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia. Electronic address:

Arthropod venoms are a rich mixture of biologically active compounds exerting different physiological actions across diverse phyla and affecting multiple organ systems including the central nervous system. Venom compounds can inhibit or activate ion channels, receptors and transporters with high specificity and affinity providing essential insights into ion channel function. In this review, we focus on arthropod toxins (scorpions, spiders, bees and centipedes) acting on neuronal potassium channels. Read More

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December 2017
10 Reads

The subgenus Monotarsobius in the Iberian Peninsula with a description of a new pseudo-cryptic species from Northern Spain revealed by an integrative revision of L. Koch, 1862 (Chilopoda, Lithobiomorpha, Lithobiidae).

Zookeys 2017 21(681):1-38. Epub 2017 Jun 21.

Bavarian State Collection of Zoology, Münchhausenstraße 21, 81247 Munich, Germany.

The widespread European centipede species Lithobius (Monotarsobius) crassipes L. Koch, 1862 was revised using an integrative approach incorporating sequence data and morphology. The partial mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) barcoding gene was amplified and sequenced for 21 individuals from northern Spain, France and Germany as well as for individuals of three other species of the subgenus Monotarsobius Verhoeff, 1905. Read More

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June 2017
4 Reads