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    Extracellular vesicles from early-stage P. falciparum-infected red blood cells contain PfEMP1 and induce transcriptional changes in human monocytes.
    Cell Microbiol 2018 Jan 18. Epub 2018 Jan 18.
    Population Health and Immunity Division, Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Parkville, Victoria, Australia.
    Pathogens can release extracellular vesicles (EVs) for cell-cell communication and host modulation. EVs from Plasmodium falciparum, the deadliest malaria parasite species, can transfer drug resistance genes between parasites. EVs from late-stage parasite-infected RBC (iRBC-EVs) are immunostimulatory and affect endothelial cell permeability, but little is known about EVs from early-stage iRBC. Read More

    Lysosome remodelling and adaptation during phagocyte activation.
    Cell Microbiol 2018 Jan 19. Epub 2018 Jan 19.
    Department of Chemistry and Biology and the Graduate Program in Molecular Science, Ryerson University, Toronto, ON, Canada.
    Lysosomes are acidic and hydrolytic organelles responsible for receiving and digesting cargo acquired during endocytosis, phagocytosis, and autophagy. For macrophages and dendritic cells, the lysosome is kingpin, playing a direct role in microbe killing and antigen processing for presentation. Strikingly, the historic view that lysosomes are homogeneous and static organelles is being replaced with a more elegant paradigm, in which lysosomes are heterogeneous, dynamic and respond to cellular needs. Read More

    Tailored environments to study motile cells and pathogens.
    Cell Microbiol 2018 Jan 7. Epub 2018 Jan 7.
    Integrative Parasitology, Center for Infectious Diseases, Heidelberg University, Germany.
    Motile cells and pathogens migrate in complex environments and yet are mostly studied on simple 2D substrates. In order to mimic the diverse environments of motile cells a set of assays including substrates of defined elasticity, microfluidics, micropatterns, organotypic cultures and 3D gels have been developed. We briefly introduce these and then focus on the use of micro-patterned pillar arrays, which help to bridge the gap between 2D and 3D. Read More

    A male gametocyte osmiophilic body and microgamete surface protein of the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium yoelii (PyMiGS) plays a critical role in male osmiophilic body formation and exflagellation.
    Cell Microbiol 2018 Jan 5. Epub 2018 Jan 5.
    Division of Molecular Parasitology, Proteo-Science Center, Ehime University, Toon Ehime, Japan.
    Anopheles mosquitoes transmit Plasmodium parasites of mammals, including the species that cause malaria in humans. Malaria pathology is caused by rapid multiplication of parasites in asexual intraerythrocytic cycles. Sexual stage parasites are also produced during the intraerythrocytic cycle, and are ingested by the mosquito, initiating gametogenesis and subsequent sporogonic stage development. Read More

    Interferon regulatory factor 1 is essential for pathogenic CD8+ T cell migration and retention in the brain during experimental cerebral malaria.
    Cell Microbiol 2017 Dec 27. Epub 2017 Dec 27.
    Singapore Immunology Network, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR), Singapore.
    Host immune response has a key role in controlling the progression of malaria infection. In the well-established murine model of experimental cerebral malaria (ECM) with Plasmodium berghei ANKA infection, proinflammatory Th1 and CD8+ T cell response are essential for disease development. Interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF1) is a transcription factor that promotes Th1 responses, and its absence was previously shown to protect from ECM death. Read More

    Sialic acid-dependent interaction of group B streptococci with influenza virus-infected cells reveals a novel adherence and invasion mechanism.
    Cell Microbiol 2017 Dec 22. Epub 2017 Dec 22.
    Institute of Virology, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Hannover, Germany.
    Group B streptococci (GBS) contain a capsular polysaccharide with side chains terminating in α2,3-linked sialic acids. Because of this linkage type, the sialic acids of GBS are recognised by lectins of immune cells. This interaction results in a dampening of the host immune response and thus promotes immune evasion. Read More

    Plasmodium yoelii S4/CelTOS is important for sporozoite gliding motility and cell traversal.
    Cell Microbiol 2017 Dec 18. Epub 2017 Dec 18.
    Center for Infectious Disease Research, formerly Seattle Biomedical Research Institute, Seattle, Washington, USA.
    Gliding motility and cell traversal by the Plasmodium ookinete and sporozoite invasive stages allow penetration of cellular barriers to establish infection of the mosquito vector and mammalian host, respectively. Motility and traversal are not observed in red cell infectious merozoites, and we have previously classified genes that are expressed in sporozoites but not merozoites (S genes) in order to identify proteins involved in these processes. The S4 gene has been described as criticaly involved in Cell Traversal for Ookinetes and Sporozoites (CelTOS), yet knockout parasites (s4/celtos¯) do not generate robust salivary gland sporozoite numbers, precluding a thorough analysis of S4/CelTOS function during host infection. Read More

    The entry of Salmonella in a distinct tight compartment revealed at high temporal and ultrastructural resolution.
    Cell Microbiol 2017 Dec 18. Epub 2017 Dec 18.
    Institut Pasteur, Unité "Dynamique des interactions hôte-pathogène", Paris, France.
    Salmonella enterica induces membrane ruffling and genesis of macropinosomes during its interactions with epithelial cells. This is achieved through the type three secretion system-1 (T3SS-1), which first mediates bacterial attachment to host cells and then injects bacterial effector proteins to alter host behavior. Next, Salmonella enters into the targeted cell within an early membrane-bound compartment that matures into a slow growing, replicative niche called the Salmonella Containing Vacuole (SCV). Read More

    Treponema denticola increases MMP-2 expression and activation in the periodontium via reversible DNA and histone modifications.
    Cell Microbiol 2017 Dec 4. Epub 2017 Dec 4.
    Department of Biologic and Materials Sciences, University of Michigan School of Dentistry, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.
    Host-derived matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and bacterial proteases mediate destruction of extracellular matrices and supporting alveolar bone in periodontitis. The Treponema denticola dentilisin protease induces MMP-2 expression and activation in periodontal ligament (PDL) cells, and dentilisin-mediated activation of pro-MMP-2 is required for cellular fibronectin degradation. Here, we report that T. Read More

    The bile salt sodium taurocholate induces Campylobacter jejuni outer membrane vesicle production and increases OMV-associated proteolytic activity.
    Cell Microbiol 2017 Dec 4. Epub 2017 Dec 4.
    Faculty of Infectious & Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
    Campylobacter jejuni, the leading cause of bacterial acute gastroenteritis worldwide, secretes an arsenal of virulence-associated proteins within outer membrane vesicles (OMVs). C. jejuni OMVs contain three serine proteases (HtrA, Cj0511, and Cj1365c) that cleave the intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) tight and adherens junction proteins occludin and E-cadherin, promoting enhanced C. Read More

    The blood-brain barrier internalises Cryptococcus neoformans via the EphA2-tyrosine kinase receptor.
    Cell Microbiol 2017 Dec 2. Epub 2017 Dec 2.
    Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Genome and Biomedical Sciences Facility, University of California, Davis, California, USA.
    Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that causes life-threatening meningitis most commonly in populations with impaired immunity. Here, we resolved the transcriptome of the human brain endothelium challenged with C. neoformans to establish whether C. Read More

    Lipocalin 2 (Lcn2) interferes with iron uptake by Brucella abortus and dampens immunoregulation during infection of RAW 264.7 macrophages.
    Cell Microbiol 2017 Nov 22. Epub 2017 Nov 22.
    Institute of Animal Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, Republic of Korea.
    Lipocalin 2 (Lcn2) is an important innate immunity component against bacterial pathogens. In this study, we report that Lcn2 is induced by Brucella (B.) abortus infection and significantly contributes to the restriction of intracellular survival of Brucella in macrophages. Read More

    An adherent mucus layer attenuates the genotoxic effect of colibactin.
    Cell Microbiol 2018 Feb 5;20(2). Epub 2017 Dec 5.
    Institute for Molecular Infection Biology (IMIB), University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany.
    The human gastrointestinal tract is a complex ecosystem in which epithelial cells and microorganisms of the intestinal microbiota live in symbiosis. Certain members of the microbiota, in particular Escherichia coli strains of the B2 phylotype, carry the polyketide synthase-island encoding the genotoxin colibactin. Colibactin is a nonribosomal peptide or polyketide-nonribosomal peptide hybrid of still unsolved structure, which induces DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) in eukaryotic cells. Read More

    Modelling persistent Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection of human airway epithelium.
    Cell Microbiol 2017 Nov 20. Epub 2017 Nov 20.
    Department of Microbiology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA.
    Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a human respiratory tract pathogen causing acute and chronic airway disease states that can include long-term carriage and extrapulmonary spread. The mechanisms of persistence and migration beyond the conducting airways, however, remain poorly understood. We previously described an acute exposure model using normal human bronchial epithelium (NHBE) in air-liquid interface culture, showing that M. Read More

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis Mce3C promotes mycobacteria entry into macrophages through activation of β2 integrin-mediated signalling pathway.
    Cell Microbiol 2018 Feb 24;20(2). Epub 2017 Nov 24.
    CAS Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Establishment of infection by facultative intracellular pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) requires adherence to and internalisation by macrophages. However, the effector molecules exploited by Mtb for entry into macrophages remain to be fully understood. The mammalian cell entry (Mce) proteins play an essential role in facilitating the internalisation of mycobacteria into mammalian cells. Read More

    Toxoplasma gondii infection shifts dendritic cells into an amoeboid rapid migration mode encompassing podosome dissolution, secretion of TIMP-1, and reduced proteolysis of extracellular matrix.
    Cell Microbiol 2017 Nov 8. Epub 2017 Nov 8.
    Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Dendritic cells (DCs) infected by Toxoplasma gondii rapidly acquire a hypermigratory phenotype that promotes systemic parasite dissemination by a "Trojan horse" mechanism in mice. Recent paradigms of leukocyte migration have identified the amoeboid migration mode of DCs as particularly suited for rapid locomotion in extracellular matrix and tissues. Here, we have developed a microscopy-based high-throughput approach to assess motility and matrix degradation by Toxoplasma-challenged murine and human DCs. Read More

    Targeting host mitochondria: A role for the Trypanosoma cruzi amastigote flagellum.
    Cell Microbiol 2018 Feb 28;20(2). Epub 2017 Nov 28.
    Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
    Trypanosoma cruzi is the kinetoplastid protozoan parasite that causes human Chagas disease, a chronic disease with complex outcomes including severe cardiomyopathy and sudden death. In mammalian hosts, T. cruzi colonises a wide range of tissues and cell types where it replicates within the host cell cytoplasm. Read More

    Chlamydia trachomatis regulates growth and development in response to host cell fatty acid availability in the absence of lipid droplets.
    Cell Microbiol 2018 Feb 12;20(2). Epub 2017 Dec 12.
    Center for Immunobiology and Vaccine Development, UCSF Benioff Children's Hospital Oakland Research Institute, Oakland, CA, USA.
    Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) is a Gram-negative obligate intracellular pathogen of humans that causes significant morbidity from sexually transmitted and ocular diseases globally. Ct acquires host fatty acids (FA) to meet the metabolic and growth requirements of the organism. Lipid droplets (LDs) are storehouses of FAs in host cells and have been proposed to be a source of FAs for the parasitophorous vacuole, termed inclusion, in which Ct replicates. Read More

    PtaB, a lim-domain binding protein in Aspergillus fumigatus regulates biofilm formation and conidiation through distinct pathways.
    Cell Microbiol 2018 Jan 17;20(1). Epub 2017 Nov 17.
    Departments of Medicine and of Microbiology and Immunology, McGill University, Montreal, Canada.
    The exopolysaccharide galactosaminogalactan (GAG) plays an important role in mediating adhesion, biofilm formation, and virulence in the pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus. The developmental modifiers MedA, StuA, and SomA regulate GAG biosynthesis, but the mechanisms underlying this regulation are poorly understood. PtaB is a lim-domain binding protein that interacts with the transcription factor SomA and is required for normal conidiation and biofilm formation. Read More

    Cryptococcal dissemination to the central nervous system requires the vacuolar calcium transporter Pmc1.
    Cell Microbiol 2018 Feb 23;20(2). Epub 2017 Nov 23.
    Centro de Biotecnologia, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.
    Cryptococcus neoformans is a basidiomycetous yeast and the cause of cryptococcosis in immunocompromised individuals. The most severe form of the disease is meningoencephalitis, which is one of the leading causes of death in HIV/AIDS patients. In order to access the central nervous system, C. Read More

    Aspergillus fumigatus adhesion factors in dormant conidia revealed through comparative phenotypic and transcriptomic analyses.
    Cell Microbiol 2017 Nov 7. Epub 2017 Nov 7.
    Medical Mycology Research Center, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan.
    Aspergillus fumigatus is an important fungal pathogen of humans. Inhaled conidia of A. fumigatus adhere to pulmonary epithelial cells, causing opportunistic infection. Read More

    Identification of GBF1 as a cellular factor required for hepatitis E virus RNA replication.
    Cell Microbiol 2018 Jan 17;20(1). Epub 2017 Nov 17.
    Pasteur Institute of Lille, U1019-UMR 8204-CIIL- Center for Infection and Immunity of Lille, University of Lille, CNRS, INSERM, CHU Lille, Lille, France.
    The hepatitis E virus (HEV) genome is a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA that encodes three proteins including the ORF1 replicase. Mechanisms of HEV replication in host cells are unclear, and only a few cellular factors involved in this step have been identified so far. Here, we used brefeldin A (BFA) that blocks the activity of the cellular Arf guanine nucleotide exchange factors GBF1, BIG1, and BIG2, which play a major role in reshuffling of cellular membranes. Read More

    Activation of lpxR gene through enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli virulence regulators mediates lipid A modification to attenuate innate immune response.
    Cell Microbiol 2018 Jan 17;20(1). Epub 2017 Nov 17.
    Department of Biomedical Informatics, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan.
    During the course of infection, pathogens must overcome a variety of host defence systems. Modulation of lipid A, which is a strong stimulant for host immune systems, is one of the strategies used by microorganisms to evade the host response. The lpxR gene, which encodes a lipid A 3'-O-deacylase, is commonly found in several pathogens and has been shown to reduce the inflammatory response. Read More

    Live Faecalibacterium prausnitzii induces greater TLR2 and TLR2/6 activation than the dead bacterium in an apical anaerobic co-culture system.
    Cell Microbiol 2018 Feb 6;20(2). Epub 2017 Dec 6.
    Food Nutrition & Health Team, Food & Bio-based Products Group, AgResearch Grasslands, Palmerston North, New Zealand.
    Inappropriate activation of intestinal innate immune receptors, such as toll-like receptors (TLRs), by pathogenic bacteria is linked to chronic inflammation. In contrast, a "tonic" level of TLR activation by commensal bacteria is required for intestinal homeostasis. A technical challenge when studying this activation in vitro is the co-culturing of oxygen-requiring mammalian cells with obligate anaerobic commensal bacteria. Read More

    Neutrophils differentially attenuate immune response to Aspergillus infection through complement receptor 3 and induction of myeloperoxidase.
    Cell Microbiol 2017 Oct 31. Epub 2017 Oct 31.
    Division of Infectious Diseases, University Medicine Cluster, National University Health System, Singapore, Singapore.
    Invasive aspergillosis (IA) remains a major cause of morbidity in immunocompromised hosts. This is due to the inability of the host immunity to respond appropriately to Aspergillus. An established risk factor for IA is neutropenia that is encountered by patients undergoing chemotherapy. Read More

    Tracking elusive cargo: Illuminating spatio-temporal Type 3 effector protein dynamics using reporters.
    Cell Microbiol 2018 Jan 23;20(1). Epub 2017 Nov 23.
    Institute of Infection, Immunity & Inflammation, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.
    Type 3 secretion systems form an integral part of the arsenal of many pathogenic bacteria. These injection machines, together with their cargo of subversive effector proteins, are capable of manipulating the cellular environment of the host in order to ensure persistence of the pathogen. In order to fully appreciate the functions of Type 3 effectors, it is necessary to gain spatio-temporal knowledge of each effector during the process of infection. Read More

    Proteomics analysis of Medicago truncatula response to infection by the phytopathogenic bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum points to jasmonate and salicylate defence pathways.
    Cell Microbiol 2017 Oct 30. Epub 2017 Oct 30.
    EcoLab, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, INPT, UPS, Toulouse, France.
    The infection of the model legume Medicago truncatula with Ralstonia solanacearum GMI1000 gives rise to bacterial wilt disease via colonisation of roots. The root and leaf responses to early infection (1 and 3 days post infection) were characterised to investigate the molecular mechanisms of plant resistance or susceptibility. A proteomics approach based on pools of susceptible and resistant recombinant inbred lines was used to specifically target the mechanisms for tolerance. Read More

    Bacterial lipoproteins and other factors released by Francisella tularensis modulate human neutrophil lifespan: Effects of a TLR1 SNP on apoptosis inhibition.
    Cell Microbiol 2018 Feb 21;20(2). Epub 2017 Nov 21.
    Inflammation Program, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, USA.
    Francisella tularensis infects several cell types including neutrophils, and aberrant neutrophil accumulation contributes to tissue destruction during tularaemia. We demonstrated previously that F. tularensis strains Schu S4 and live vaccine strain markedly delay human neutrophil apoptosis and thereby prolong cell lifespan, but the bacterial factors that mediate this aspect of virulence are undefined. Read More

    Functional analysis of Toxoplasma lactate dehydrogenases suggests critical roles of lactate fermentation for parasite growth in vivo.
    Cell Microbiol 2018 Jan 9;20(1). Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei, China.
    Glycolysis was thought to be the major pathway of energy supply in both fast-replicating tachyzoites and slowly growing bradyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii. However, its biological significance has not been clearly verified. The genome of T. Read More

    Novel T3SS effector EseK in Edwardsiella piscicida is chaperoned by EscH and EscS to express virulence.
    Cell Microbiol 2018 Jan 2;20(1). Epub 2017 Nov 2.
    State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, China.
    Bacterium usually utilises type III secretion systems (T3SS) to deliver effectors directly into host cells with the aids of chaperones. Hence, it is very important to identify bacterial T3SS effectors and chaperones for better understanding of host-pathogen interactions. Edwardsiella piscicida is an invasive enteric bacterium, which infects a wide range of hosts from fish to human. Read More

    Mechanisms and functions of guanylate-binding proteins and related interferon-inducible GTPases: Roles in intracellular lysis of pathogens.
    Cell Microbiol 2017 Dec 19;19(12). Epub 2017 Oct 19.
    Department of Immunology and Infectious Disease, The John Curtin School of Medical Research, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia.
    Guanylate-binding proteins (GBPs) are a group interferon-inducible GTPases within the constellation of the dynamin GTPase superfamily. These proteins restrict the replication of intracellular pathogens in both immune and non-immune cells. GBPs and their related family members immunity-related GTPases target and lyse the membrane of the pathogen-containing vacuole, destroying the residential niche of vacuolar protozoal and bacterial pathogens. Read More

    Leucocyte recruitment and molecular fortification of keratinocytes triggered by streptococcal M1 protein.
    Cell Microbiol 2018 Jan 19;20(1). Epub 2017 Oct 19.
    Division of Infection Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Biomedical Center, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Streptococcus pyogenes of the M1 serotype is commonly associated with invasive streptococcal infections and development of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. The M1 protein is a powerful inducer of inflammatory responses for several human cell types, but the reason why M1 protein-related strains is over-represented in invasive streptococcal diseases is still not understood. This study was undertaken to investigate if soluble M1 protein can aggravate the severity of streptococcal skin infections in respect to inflammation, leucocyte recruitment, and tissue remodelling as seen in patients with cellulitis and necrotizing fasciitis. Read More

    Sweet host revenge: Galectins and GBPs join forces at broken membranes.
    Cell Microbiol 2017 Dec 17;19(12). Epub 2017 Oct 17.
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, 27710, USA.
    Most bacterial pathogens enter and exit eukaryotic cells during their journey through the vertebrate host. In order to endure inside a eukaryotic cell, bacterial invaders commonly employ bacterial secretion systems to inject host cells with virulence factors that co-opt the host's membrane trafficking systems and thereby establish specialised pathogen-containing vacuoles (PVs) as intracellular niches permissive for microbial growth and survival. To defend against these microbial adversaries hiding inside PVs, host organisms including humans evolved an elaborate cell-intrinsic armoury of antimicrobial weapons that include noxious gases, antimicrobial peptides, degradative enzymes, and pore-forming proteins. Read More

    A genetic screen in rodent malaria parasites identifies five new apicoplast putative membrane transporters, one of which is essential in human malaria parasites.
    Cell Microbiol 2018 Jan 9;20(1). Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    School of BioSciences, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia.
    The malaria-causing parasite, Plasmodium, contains a unique non-photosynthetic plastid known as the apicoplast. The apicoplast is an essential organelle bound by four membranes. Although membrane transporters are attractive drug targets, only two transporters have been characterised in the malaria parasite apicoplast membranes. Read More

    Bcl10 synergistically links CEACAM3 and TLR-dependent inflammatory signalling.
    Cell Microbiol 2018 Jan 9;20(1). Epub 2017 Oct 9.
    Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
    The neutrophil-specific innate immune receptor CEACAM3 functions as a decoy to capture Gram-negative pathogens, such as Neisseria gonorrhoeae, that exploit CEACAM family members to adhere to the epithelium. Bacterial binding to CEACAM3 results in their efficient engulfment and triggers activation of an nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB)-dependent inflammatory response by human neutrophils. Herein, we report that CEACAM3 cross-linking is not sufficient for induction of cytokine production and show that the inflammatory response induced by Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection is elicited by an integration of signals from CEACAM3 and toll-like receptors. Read More

    N-(3-Oxo-acyl)-homoserine lactone induces apoptosis primarily through a mitochondrial pathway in fibroblasts.
    Cell Microbiol 2018 Jan 9;20(1). Epub 2017 Oct 9.
    Molecular Targets Program, James Graham Brown Cancer Center, Departments of Medicine, Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA.
    N-(3-Oxododecanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone (C12) is produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa to function as a quorum-sensing molecule for bacteria-bacteria communication. C12 is also known to influence many aspects of human host cell physiology, including induction of cell death. However, the signalling pathway(s) leading to C12-triggered cell death is (are) still not completely known. Read More

    Borrelia burgdorferi outer surface protein C (OspC) binds complement component C4b and confers bloodstream survival.
    Cell Microbiol 2017 Dec 26;19(12). Epub 2017 Sep 26.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Center for Infectious Disease Research, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, USA.
    Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb) is the causative agent of Lyme disease in the United States, a disease that can result in carditis, and chronic and debilitating arthritis and/or neurologic symptoms if left untreated. Bb survives in the midgut of the Ixodes scapularis tick, or within tissues of immunocompetent hosts. In the early stages of infection, the bacteria are present in the bloodstream where they must resist clearance by the innate immune system of the host. Read More

    A novel in vitro model for haematogenous spreading of S. aureus device biofilms demonstrating clumping dispersal as an advantageous dissemination mechanism.
    Cell Microbiol 2017 Dec 4;19(12). Epub 2017 Oct 4.
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, University of Southern Denmark and Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark.
    Staphylococcus aureus is able to disseminate from vascular device biofilms to the blood and organs, resulting in life-threatening infections such as endocarditis. The mechanisms behind spreading are largely unknown, especially how the bacterium escapes immune effectors and antibiotics in the process. Using an in vitro catheter infection model, we studied S. Read More

    Caveolin 1 restricts Group A Streptococcus invasion of nonphagocytic host cells.
    Cell Microbiol 2017 Dec 6;19(12). Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    Australian Infectious Diseases Research Centre and School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Queensland, Australia.
    Caveolae are composed of 2 major proteins, caveolin 1 (CAV1) and cavin 1 or polymerase transcript release factor I (CAVIN1). Here, we demonstrate that CAV1 levels modulate invasion of Group A Streptococcus (GAS) into nonphagocytic mammalian cells. GAS showed enhanced internalisation into CAV1-knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts and CAV1 knockdown human epithelial HEp-2 cells, whereas overexpression of CAV1 in HEp-2 cells reduced GAS invasion. Read More

    Helicobacter pylori outer inflammatory protein A (OipA) suppresses apoptosis of AGS gastric cells in vitro.
    Cell Microbiol 2017 Dec 25;19(12). Epub 2017 Aug 25.
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
    Outer inflammatory protein A (OipA) is an important virulence factor associated with gastric cancer and ulcer development; however, the results have not been well established and turned out to be controversial. This study aims to elucidate the role of OipA in Helicobacter pylori infection using clinical strains harbouring oipA "on" and "off" motifs. Proteomics analysis was performed on AGS cell pre-infection and postinfection with H. Read More

    Aspergillus fumigatus protein phosphatase PpzA is involved in iron assimilation, secondary metabolite production, and virulence.
    Cell Microbiol 2017 Dec 17;19(12). Epub 2017 Aug 17.
    Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil.
    Metal restriction imposed by mammalian hosts during an infection is a common mechanism of defence to reduce or avoid the pathogen infection. Metals are essential for organism survival due to its involvement in several biological processes. Aspergillus fumigatus causes invasive aspergillosis, a disease that typically manifests in immunocompromised patients. Read More

    Subversion of innate immune responses by Francisella involves the disruption of TRAF3 and TRAF6 signalling complexes.
    Cell Microbiol 2017 Nov 16;19(11). Epub 2017 Aug 16.
    Department of Molecular Biology, The Laboratory for Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS), Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR), Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    The success of pathogens depends on their ability to circumvent immune defences. Francisella tularensis is one of the most infectious bacteria known. The remarkable virulence of Francisella is believed to be due to its capacity to evade or subvert the immune system, but how remains obscure. Read More

    A role for host cell exocytosis in InlB-mediated internalisation of Listeria monocytogenes.
    Cell Microbiol 2017 Nov 25;19(11). Epub 2017 Aug 25.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
    The bacterial surface protein InlB mediates internalisation of Listeria monocytogenes into human cells through interaction with the host receptor tyrosine kinase, Met. InlB-mediated entry requires localised polymerisation of the host actin cytoskeleton. Apart from actin polymerisation, roles for other host processes in Listeria entry are unknown. Read More

    Distinct roles of the 7-transmembrane receptor protein Rta3 in regulating the asymmetric distribution of phosphatidylcholine across the plasma membrane and biofilm formation in Candida albicans.
    Cell Microbiol 2017 Dec 4;19(12). Epub 2017 Oct 4.
    Yeast Molecular Genetics Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India.
    Fungal pathogens such as Candida albicans exhibit several survival mechanisms to evade attack by antifungals and colonise host tissues. Rta3, a member of the Rta1-like family of lipid-translocating exporters has a 7-transmembrane domain topology, similar to the G-protein-coupled receptors and is unique to the fungal kingdom. Our findings point towards a role for the plasma membrane localised Rta3 in providing tolerance to miltefosine, an analogue of alkylphosphocholine, by maintaining mitochondrial energetics. Read More

    Genome packaging of reovirus is mediated by the scaffolding property of the microtubule network.
    Cell Microbiol 2017 Dec 21;19(12). Epub 2017 Jul 21.
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Virology, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Reovirus replication occurs in the cytoplasm of the host cell, in virally induced mini-organelles called virus factories. On the basis of the serotype of the virus, the virus factories can manifest as filamentous (type 1 Lang strain) or globular structures (type 3 Dearing strain). The filamentous factories morphology is dependent on the microtubule cytoskeleton; however, the exact function of the microtubule network in virus replication remains unknown. Read More

    Intracellular Salmonella metabolism.
    Cell Microbiol 2017 Oct 4;19(10). Epub 2017 Aug 4.
    Focal Area Infection Biology, Biozentrum, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.
    Growth of Salmonella inside infected host cells is a key aspect of their ability to cause local enteritis or systemic disease. This growth depends on exploitation of host nutrients through a large Salmonella metabolism network with hundreds of metabolites and enzymes. Studies in cell culture infection models are unravelling more and more of the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms but also show striking Salmonella metabolic plasticity depending on host cell line and experimental conditions. Read More

    ATP prevents Woronin bodies from sealing septal pores in unwounded cells of the fungus Zymoseptoria tritici.
    Cell Microbiol 2017 Nov 9;19(11). Epub 2017 Aug 9.
    Bioimaging Centre, University of Exeter, Exeter, UK.
    Septa of filamentous ascomycetes are perforated by septal pores that allow communication between individual hyphal compartments. Upon injury, septal pores are plugged rapidly by Woronin bodies (WBs), thereby preventing extensive cytoplasmic bleeding. The mechanism by which WBs translocate into the pore is not known, but it has been suggested that wound-induced cytoplasmic bleeding "flushes" WBs into the septal opening. Read More

    Adaptive immunity is essential in preventing recrudescence of Plasmodium yoelii malaria parasites after artesunate treatment.
    Cell Microbiol 2017 Nov 20;19(11). Epub 2017 Jul 20.
    Singapore Immunology Network (SIgN), A*STAR, Singapore.
    Artemisinin-based antimalarials, such as artesunate (ART), alone or in combination, are the mainstay of the therapy against malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum. However, the emergence and spread of artemisinin resistance threatens the future success of its global malaria eradication. Although much of the reported artemisinin resistance can be attributed to mutations intrinsic to the parasite, a significant proportion of treatment failures are thought to be due to other factors such as the host's immune system. Read More

    Listeria monocytogenes cytosolic metabolism promotes replication, survival, and evasion of innate immunity.
    Cell Microbiol 2017 Oct 21;19(10). Epub 2017 Jul 21.
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, USA.
    Listeria monocytogenes, the causative agent of listeriosis, is an intracellular pathogen that is exquisitely evolved to survive and replicate in the cytosol of eukaryotic cells. Eukaryotic cells typically restrict bacteria from colonising the cytosol, likely through a combination of cell autonomous defences, nutritional immunity, and innate immune responses including induction of programmed cell death. This suggests that L. Read More

    Adherens junctions and desmosomes are damaged by Entamoeba histolytica: Participation of EhCPADH complex and EhCP112 protease.
    Cell Microbiol 2017 Nov 18;19(11). Epub 2017 Jul 18.
    Departamento de Infectómica y Patogénesis Molecular, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Mexico City, Mexico.
    Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites adhere to epithelium at the cell-cell contact and perturb tight junctions disturbing the transepithelial electrical resistance. Behind tight junctions are the adherens junctions (AJs) that reinforce them and the desmosomes (DSMs) that maintain the epithelium integrity. The damage produced to AJs and DMSs by this parasite is unknown. Read More

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