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    2513 results match your criteria Cellular microbiology[Journal]

    1 OF 51

    Binding to type I collagen is essential for the infectivity of Vibrio parahaemolyticus to host cells.
    Cell Microbiol 2018 May 15:e12856. Epub 2018 May 15.
    State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Resources of Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, China.
    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a globally present marine bacterium that often leads to acute gastroenteritis. Two type III secretion systems (T3SSs), T3SS1 and T3SS2, are important for host infection. Type I collagen is a component of the extracellular matrix and is abundant in the small intestine. Read More

    Bacteria-induced susceptibility to Candida albicans super-infection in mice via monocyte methyltransferase Setdb2.
    Cell Microbiol 2018 May 11:e12860. Epub 2018 May 11.
    State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Department of Nosocomial Infection, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China.
    Systemic bacterial infections are prone to secondary Candida albicans super-infection. However, the molecular mechanisms involved remain poorly understood. In this study, a model comprising sublethal cecal ligation and puncture plus C. Read More

    Genome-wide mRNA-miRNA profiling uncovers a role of the microRNA miR-29b-1-5p/PHLPP1 signalling pathway in Helicobacter pylori-driven matrix metalloproteinase production in gastric epithelial cells.
    Cell Microbiol 2018 May 11:e12859. Epub 2018 May 11.
    Department of Chemistry, Bose Institute, Kolkata, India.
    Aberrant expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) is associated with tumour progression, extracellular matrix remodelling, and cell proliferation. miRNAs modulate host gene expression during infection by pathogens such as Helicobacter pylori, which is associated with varying degrees of gastric pathology. In order to gain insight into the regulation of gene expression by miRNAs during H. Read More

    Mycobacteria employ two different mechanisms to cross the blood-brain barrier.
    Cell Microbiol 2018 May 10:e12858. Epub 2018 May 10.
    Medical Microbiology & Infection control, VU Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Central nervous system (CNS) infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis is one of the most devastating complications of tuberculosis, in particular in early childhood. In order to induce CNS infection, M. tuberculosis needs to cross specialized barriers protecting the brain. Read More

    Borrelia burgdorferi surface-located Lmp1 protein processed into region-specific polypeptides that are critical for microbial persistence.
    Cell Microbiol 2018 May 10:e12855. Epub 2018 May 10.
    Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA.
    One of the Borrelia burgdorferi virulence determinants, annotated as Lmp1, is a surface-exposed, conserved, and potential multi-domain protein involved in various functions in spirochete infectivity. Lmp1 contributes to host-pathogen interactions and evasion of host adaptive immunity by spirochetes. Here, we show that in diverse B. Read More

    The recycling endosome and bacterial pathogens.
    Cell Microbiol 2018 May 10:e12857. Epub 2018 May 10.
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware, USA.
    Bacterial pathogens have developed a wide range of strategies to survive within human cells. A number of pathogens multiply in a vacuolar compartment, while others can rupture the vacuole and replicate in the host cytosol. A common theme among many bacterial pathogens is the use of specialized secretion systems to deliver effector proteins into the host cell. Read More

    Actin-based motility allows Listeria monocytogenes to avoid autophagy in the macrophage cytosol.
    Cell Microbiol 2018 May 3:e12854. Epub 2018 May 3.
    Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA.
    Listeria monocytogenes grows in the host cytosol and uses the surface protein ActA to promote actin polymerization and mediate actin-based motility. ActA, along with two secreted bacterial phospholipases C (PLCs), also mediates avoidance from autophagy, a degradative process that targets intracellular microbes. Although it is known that ActA prevents autophagic recognition of L. Read More

    Increased Ca uptake by erythrocytes infected with malaria parasites: Evidence for exported proteins and novel inhibitors.
    Cell Microbiol 2018 May 3:e12853. Epub 2018 May 3.
    The Laboratory of Malaria and Vector Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, Maryland, USA.
    Malaria parasites export many proteins into their host erythrocytes and increase membrane permeability to diverse solutes. Although most solutes use a broad-selectivity channel known as the plasmodial surface anion channel, increased Ca uptake is mediated by a distinct, poorly characterised mechanism that appears to be essential for the intracellular parasite. Here, we examined infected cell Ca uptake with a kinetic fluorescence assay and the virulent human pathogen, Plasmodium falciparum. Read More

    Targeting of RNA Polymerase II by a nuclear Legionella pneumophila Dot/Icm effector SnpL.
    Cell Microbiol 2018 Apr 24. Epub 2018 Apr 24.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Melbourne at the Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, Melbourne, Australia.
    The intracellular pathogen Legionella pneumophila influences numerous eukaryotic cellular processes through the Dot/Icm-dependent translocation of more than 300 effector proteins into the host cell. Although many translocated effectors localise to the Legionella replicative vacuole, other effectors can affect remote intracellular sites. Following infection, a subset of effector proteins localises to the nucleus where they subvert host cell transcriptional responses to infection. Read More

    EhRho1 regulates phagocytosis by modulating actin dynamics through EhFormin1 and EhProfilin1 in Entamoeba histolytica.
    Cell Microbiol 2018 Apr 17:e12851. Epub 2018 Apr 17.
    School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India.
    The protist parasite Entamoeba histolytica causes amoebiasis, a major public health problem in developing countries and a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Invasive infection in amoebiasis mostly affects intestinal epithelial cell lining but can also involve other organs, such as liver, lungs, or brain. Phagocytosis is an essential mode of nutrition in amoeba and has often been associated with virulence behaviour of E. Read More

    The Rho signalling pathway mediates the pathogenicity of AHPND-causing V. parahaemolyticus in shrimp.
    Cell Microbiol 2018 Apr 6:e12849. Epub 2018 Apr 6.
    Department of Biotechnology and Bioindustry Sciences, College of Biosciences and Biotechnology, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan.
    An emerging bacterial disease, acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND), is caused by strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus with an additional AHPND-associated plasmid pVA1 encoding a virulent toxin (Pir ) that damages the shrimp's hepatopancreas. Like other species of Vibrio, these virulent strains initially colonise the shrimp's stomach, but it is not yet understood how the bacteria or toxins are subsequently able to cross the epithelial barrier and reach the hepatopancreas. Here, by using transcriptomics and system biology methods, we investigate AHPND-induced changes in the stomach of AHPND-causing V. Read More

    Cyclic β-glucans at the bacteria-host cells interphase: One sugar ring to rule them all.
    Cell Microbiol 2018 Apr 6. Epub 2018 Apr 6.
    CNRS, INSERM, CIML, Aix Marseille Univ, Marseille, France.
    Cyclic β-1,2-D-glucans (CβG) are natural bionanopolymers present in the periplasmic space of many Proteobacteria. These molecules are sugar rings made of 17 to 25 D-glucose units linked exclusively by β-1,2-glycosidic bonds. CβG are important for environmental sensing and osmoadaptation in bacteria, but most importantly, they play key roles in complex host-cell interactions such as symbiosis, pathogenesis, and immunomodulation. Read More

    Molecular mechanisms of Streptococcus pneumoniae-targeted autophagy via pneumolysin, Golgi-resident Rab41, and Nedd4-1-mediated K63-linked ubiquitination.
    Cell Microbiol 2018 Mar 26:e12846. Epub 2018 Mar 26.
    Department of Bacteriology I, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan.
    Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common causative agent of community-acquired pneumonia and can penetrate epithelial barriers to enter the bloodstream and brain. We investigated intracellular fates of S. pneumoniae and found that the pathogen is entrapped by selective autophagy in pneumolysin- and ubiquitin-p62-LC3 cargo-dependent manners. Read More

    Microglial immune response is impaired against the neurotropic fungus Lomentospora prolificans.
    Cell Microbiol 2018 Mar 26:e12847. Epub 2018 Mar 26.
    Fungal and Bacterial Biomics Research Group, Department of Immunology, Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Leioa, Spain.
    Lomentospora (Scedosporium) prolificans is an opportunistic pathogen capable of causing invasive infections in immunocompromised patients. The fungus is able to disseminate via the bloodstream finally arriving at the central nervous system producing neurological symptoms and, in many cases, patient death. In this context, microglial cells, which are the resident immune cells in the central nervous system, may play an important role in these infections. Read More

    The malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum Sortilin is essential for merozoite formation and apical complex biogenesis.
    Cell Microbiol 2018 Mar 26:e12844. Epub 2018 Mar 26.
    Centre de recherche en infectiologie, CHU de Québec-Université Laval, Quebec City, QC, Canada.
    The inner membrane complex and the apical secretory organelles are defining features of apicomplexan parasites. Despite their critical roles, the mechanisms behind the biogenesis of these structures in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum are still poorly defined. We here show that decreasing expression of the P. Read More

    Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of the West Nile virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase NS5 is critical to infection.
    Cell Microbiol 2018 Mar 26:e12848. Epub 2018 Mar 26.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
    West Nile virus (WNV) is a single-stranded, positive sense RNA virus of the family Flaviviridae and is a significant pathogen of global medical importance. Flavivirus replication is known to be exclusively cytoplasmic, but we show here for the first time that access to the nucleus of the WNV strain Kunjin (WNV ) RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (protein NS5) is central to WNV virus production. We show that treatment of cells with the specific nuclear export inhibitor leptomycin B (LMB) results in increased NS5 nuclear accumulation in WNV -infected cells and NS5-transfected cells, indicative of nucleocytoplasmic shuttling under normal conditions. Read More

    Extracellular HtrA serine proteases: An emerging new strategy in bacterial pathogenesis.
    Cell Microbiol 2018 Mar 26:e12845. Epub 2018 Mar 26.
    Department of Biosciences, Division of Microbiology, Paris Lodron University of Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria.
    The HtrA family of chaperones and serine proteases is important for regulating stress responses and controlling protein quality in the periplasm of bacteria. HtrA is also associated with infectious diseases since inactivation of htrA genes results in significantly reduced virulence properties by various bacterial pathogens. These virulence features of HtrA can be attributed to reduced fitness of the bacteria, higher susceptibility to environmental stress and/or diminished secretion of virulence factors. Read More

    Identification of a Golgi apparatus protein complex important for the asexual erythrocytic cycle of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.
    Cell Microbiol 2018 Mar 26:e12843. Epub 2018 Mar 26.
    Centre de recherche en infectiologie, CHU de Québec-Université Laval, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada.
    Compared with other eukaryotic cell types, malaria parasites appear to possess a more rudimentary Golgi apparatus being composed of dispersed, unstacked cis and trans-cisternae. Despite playing a central role in the secretory pathway of the parasite, few Plasmodium Golgi resident proteins have been characterised. We had previously identified a new Golgi resident protein of unknown function, which we had named Golgi Protein 1, and now show that it forms a complex with a previously uncharacterised transmembrane protein (Golgi Protein 2, GP2). Read More

    Identification of Candida albicans regulatory genes governing mucosal infection.
    Cell Microbiol 2018 Mar 25:e12841. Epub 2018 Mar 25.
    Interdisciplinary Center for Clinical Research, University Hospital Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany.
    The fungus Candida albicans thrives on a variety of human mucosae, yet the fungal determinants that contribute to fitness on these surfaces remain underexplored. Here, by screening a collection of C. albicans deletion strains in a mouse model of oral infection (oropharyngeal candidiasis), we identify several novel regulatory genes that modulate the fitness of the fungus in this locale. Read More

    Pleiotropic effects of the histone deacetylase Hos2 linked to H4-K16 deacetylation, H3-K56 acetylation, and H2A-S129 phosphorylation in Beauveria bassiana.
    Cell Microbiol 2018 Mar 15:e12839. Epub 2018 Mar 15.
    Institute of Microbiology, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, People's Republic of China.
    Histone acetyltransferases and deacetylases maintain dynamics of lysine acetylation/deacetylation on histones and nonhistone substrates involved in gene regulation and cellular events. Hos2 is a Class I histone deacetylases that deacetylates unique histone H4-K16 site in yeasts. Here, we report that orthologous Hos2 deacetylates H4-K16 and is also involved in the acetylation of histone H3-K56 and the phosphorylation of histone H2A-S129 and cyclin-dependent kinase 1 CDK1-Y15 in Beauveria bassiana, a filamentous fungal insect pathogen. Read More

    LotA, a Legionella deubiquitinase, has dual catalytic activity and contributes to intracellular growth.
    Cell Microbiol 2018 Mar 15:e12840. Epub 2018 Mar 15.
    Department of Microbiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Gifu University, Gifu, Japan.
    The intracellular bacterial pathogen, Legionella pneumophila, establishes the replicative niche as a result of the actions of a large array of effector proteins delivered via the Legionella Type 4 secretion system. Many effector proteins are expected to be involved in biogenesis and regulation of the Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV) that is highly decorated with ubiquitin. Here, we identified a Legionella deubiquitinase, designated LotA, by carrying out a genome analysis to find proteins resembling the eukaryotic ovarian tumour superfamily of cysteine proteases. Read More

    Bovine adenovirus-3 protein VIII associates with eukaryotic initiation factor-6 during infection.
    Cell Microbiol 2018 Mar 15:e12842. Epub 2018 Mar 15.
    VIDO-InterVac, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada.
    Adenovirus protein VIII appears to connect core with the inner surface of the adenovirus capsid. Because protein-protein interactions are central to virus replication, identification of proteins interacting with protein VIII may help in understanding their role in adenovirus infection. Our yeast 2-hybrid assay indicated that protein VIII interacts with eukaryotic initiation factor 6 (eIF6). Read More

    Identification and characterisation of a Theileria annulata proline-rich microtubule and SH3 domain-interacting protein (TaMISHIP) that forms a complex with CLASP1, EB1, and CD2AP at the schizont surface.
    Cell Microbiol 2018 Mar 8:e12838. Epub 2018 Mar 8.
    Institute for Animal Pathology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
    Theileria annulata is an apicomplexan parasite that modifies the phenotype of its host cell completely, inducing uncontrolled proliferation, resistance to apoptosis, and increased invasiveness. The infected cell thus resembles a cancer cell, and changes to various host cell signalling pathways accompany transformation. Most of the molecular mechanisms leading to Theileria-induced immortalization of leukocytes remain unknown. Read More

    Interplay between Porphyromonas gingivalis and EGF signalling in the regulation of CXCL14.
    Cell Microbiol 2018 Mar 5:e12837. Epub 2018 Mar 5.
    Oral Health Cooperative Research Centre, Melbourne Dental School, Bio21 Molecular Science and Biotechnology Institute, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
    Porphyromonas gingivalis is a keystone pathogen in chronic periodontitis. Its expression of gingipain proteases (Kgp and RgpA/B) is central to the stimulation of chronic inflammation. In this study, we investigated the inflammatory response of oral epithelial cells to P. Read More

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors and innate immunity.
    Cell Microbiol 2018 May 23;20(5):e12836. Epub 2018 Mar 23.
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, USA.
    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a signalling lipid that regulates many cellular processes in mammals. One well-studied role of S1P signalling is to modulate T-cell trafficking, which has a major impact on adaptive immunity. Compounds that target S1P signalling pathways are of interest for immune system modulation. Read More

    Receptor-ligand and parasite protein-protein interactions in Plasmodium vivax: Analysing rhoptry neck proteins 2 and 4.
    Cell Microbiol 2018 Feb 27:e12835. Epub 2018 Feb 27.
    Fundación Instituto de Inmunología de Colombia (FIDIC), Bogotá, Colombia.
    Elucidating receptor-ligand and protein-protein interactions represents an attractive alternative for designing effective Plasmodium vivax control methods. This article describes the ability of P. vivax rhoptry neck proteins 2 and 4 (RON2 and RON4) to bind to human reticulocytes. Read More

    Leishmania donovani inhibits ferroportin translation by modulating FBXL5-IRP2 axis for its growth within host macrophages.
    Cell Microbiol 2018 Feb 22:e12834. Epub 2018 Feb 22.
    Special Centre for Molecular Medicine, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India.
    Hepcidin mediated ferroportin (Fpn) degradation in macrophages is a well adopted strategy to limit iron availability towards invading pathogens. Leishmania donovani (LD), a protozoan parasite, resides within macrophage and competes with host for availing iron. Using in vitro and in vivo model of infection, we reveal that LD decreases Fpn abundance in host macrophages by hepcidin independent mechanism. Read More

    A coiled-coil protein is required for coordination of karyokinesis and cytokinesis in Toxoplasma gondii.
    Cell Microbiol 2018 Feb 15. Epub 2018 Feb 15.
    CNRS, Inserm, CHU Lille, Institut Pasteur de Lille, U1019 - UMR 8204 - CIIL - Centre d'Infection et d'Immunité de Lille, Univ. Lille, Lille, France.
    Toxoplasma gondii is a unicellular eukaryotic pathogen that belongs to the Apicomplexa phylum, which encompasses some of the deadliest pathogens of medical and veterinary importance. The centrosome is key to the organisation and coordination of the cell cycle and division of apicomplexan parasites. The T. Read More

    NK cells inhibit anti-Mycobacterium bovis BCG T cell responses and aggravate pulmonary inflammation in a direct lung infection mouse model.
    Cell Microbiol 2018 Feb 15. Epub 2018 Feb 15.
    CAS Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Tuberculosis remains a threat to public health. The major problem for curing this disease is latent infection, of which the underlying mechanisms are still not fully understood. Previous studies indicate that natural killer (NK) cells do not play a role in inhibiting the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the lung, and recent studies have revealed that NK cells regulate the adaptive immunity during mycobacterial infection. Read More

    Cryptosporidium parvum disrupts intestinal epithelial barrier function via altering expression of key tight junction and adherens junction proteins.
    Cell Microbiol 2018 Feb 14:e12830. Epub 2018 Feb 14.
    Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, UIC and Jesse Brown VA Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA.
    Infection with the protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium parvum (CP) causes cryptosporidiosis, a widespread diarrhoeal disease. Impaired intestinal epithelial barrier function and increased permeability are most commonly associated with diarrhoeal diseases caused by enteric infections. However, studies on barrier disruption and underlying mechanisms in cryptosporidiosis are extremely limited. Read More

    Rotaviral nonstructural protein 4 triggers dynamin-related protein 1-dependent mitochondrial fragmentation during infection.
    Cell Microbiol 2018 Feb 14. Epub 2018 Feb 14.
    Division of Virology, National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases, Kolkata, India.
    Dynamic equilibrium between mitochondrial fission and mitochondrial fusion serves as an important quality control system within cells ensuring cellular vitality and homeostasis. Viruses often target mitochondrial dynamics as a part of their obligatory cellular reprogramming. The present study was undertaken to assess the status and regulation of mitochondrial dynamics during rotavirus infection. Read More

    NOD1 is required for Helicobacter pylori induction of IL-33 responses in gastric epithelial cells.
    Cell Microbiol 2018 May 15;20(5):e12826. Epub 2018 Feb 15.
    Centre for Innate Immunity and Infectious Diseases, The Hudson Institute of Medical Research, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia.
    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) causes chronic inflammation which is a key precursor to gastric carcinogenesis. It has been suggested that H. Read More

    Exposure of helices α4 and α5 is required for insecticidal activity of Cry2Ab by promoting assembly of a prepore oligomeric structure.
    Cell Microbiol 2018 Jan 30. Epub 2018 Jan 30.
    State Key Laboratory of Cellular Stress Biology, Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Coastal and Wetland Ecosystems, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian, People's Republic of China.
    Cry2Ab, a pore-forming toxin derived from Bacillus thuringiensis, is widely used as a bio-insecticide to control lepidopteran pests around the world. A previous study revealed that proteolytic activation of Cry2Ab by Plutella xylostella midgut juice was essential for its insecticidal activity against P. xylostella, although the exact molecular mechanism remained unknown. Read More

    Association of Vibrio cholerae 569B outer membrane vesicles with host cells occurs in a GM1-independent manner.
    Cell Microbiol 2018 Jan 27. Epub 2018 Jan 27.
    Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA, USA.
    The primary virulence factor of Vibrio cholerae, cholera toxin (CT), initiates a pathway in epithelial cells that leads to the severe diarrhoea characteristic of cholera. Secreted CT binds to GM1 on the surface of host cells to facilitate internalisation. Many bacterial toxins, including CT, have been shown to be additionally delivered via outer membrane vesicles (OMVs). Read More

    Filifactor alocis modulates human neutrophil antimicrobial functional responses.
    Cell Microbiol 2018 Jan 28. Epub 2018 Jan 28.
    Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA.
    Filifactor alocis is a newly appreciated pathogen in periodontal diseases. Neutrophils are the predominant innate immune cell in the gingival crevice. In this study, we examined modulation of human neutrophil antimicrobial functions by F. Read More

    A novel kinase function of a nucleoside-diphosphate-kinase homologue in Porphyromonas gingivalis is critical in subversion of host cell apoptosis by targeting heat-shock protein 27.
    Cell Microbiol 2018 May 7;20(5):e12825. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    Department of Oral Health Sciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina, USA.
    We have previously shown that a homologue of a conserved nucleoside-diphosphate-kinase (Ndk) family of multifunctional enzymes and secreted molecule in Porphyromonas gingivalis can modulate select host molecular pathways including downregulation of reactive-oxygen-species generation to promote bacterial survival in human gingival epithelial cells (GECs). In this study, we describe a novel kinase function for bacterial effector, P. gingivalis-Ndk, in abrogating epithelial cell death by phosphorylating heat-shock protein 27 (HSP27) in GECs. Read More

    Extracellular vesicles from early stage Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells contain PfEMP1 and induce transcriptional changes in human monocytes.
    Cell Microbiol 2018 May 15;20(5):e12822. Epub 2018 Feb 15.
    Population Health and Immunity Division, Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Parkville, Victoria, Australia.
    Pathogens can release extracellular vesicles (EVs) for cell-cell communication and host modulation. EVs from Plasmodium falciparum, the deadliest malaria parasite species, can transfer drug resistance genes between parasites. EVs from late-stage parasite-infected RBC (iRBC-EVs) are immunostimulatory and affect endothelial cell permeability, but little is known about EVs from early stage iRBC. Read More

    Lysosome remodelling and adaptation during phagocyte activation.
    Cell Microbiol 2018 Apr 12;20(4). Epub 2018 Feb 12.
    Department of Chemistry and Biology and the Graduate Program in Molecular Science, Ryerson University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
    Lysosomes are acidic and hydrolytic organelles responsible for receiving and digesting cargo acquired during endocytosis, phagocytosis, and autophagy. For macrophages and dendritic cells, the lysosome is kingpin, playing a direct role in microbe killing and antigen processing for presentation. Strikingly, the historic view that lysosomes are homogeneous and static organelles is being replaced with a more elegant paradigm, in which lysosomes are heterogeneous, dynamic, and respond to cellular needs. Read More

    Tailored environments to study motile cells and pathogens.
    Cell Microbiol 2018 Mar 29;20(3). Epub 2018 Jan 29.
    Integrative Parasitology, Center for Infectious Diseases, Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Motile cells and pathogens migrate in complex environments and yet are mostly studied on simple 2D substrates. In order to mimic the diverse environments of motile cells, a set of assays including substrates of defined elasticity, microfluidics, micropatterns, organotypic cultures, and 3D gels have been developed. We briefly introduce these and then focus on the use of micropatterned pillar arrays, which help to bridge the gap between 2D and 3D. Read More

    A male gametocyte osmiophilic body and microgamete surface protein of the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium yoelii (PyMiGS) plays a critical role in male osmiophilic body formation and exflagellation.
    Cell Microbiol 2018 May 23;20(5):e12821. Epub 2018 Jan 23.
    Division of Molecular Parasitology, Proteo-Science Center, Ehime University, Toon, Ehime, Japan.
    Anopheles mosquitoes transmit Plasmodium parasites of mammals, including the species that cause malaria in humans. Malaria pathology is caused by rapid multiplication of parasites in asexual intraerythrocytic cycles. Sexual stage parasites are also produced during the intraerythrocytic cycle and are ingested by the mosquito, initiating gametogenesis and subsequent sporogonic stage development. Read More

    Interferon regulatory factor 1 is essential for pathogenic CD8+ T cell migration and retention in the brain during experimental cerebral malaria.
    Cell Microbiol 2018 May 18;20(5):e12819. Epub 2018 Jan 18.
    Singapore Immunology Network, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR), Singapore.
    Host immune response has a key role in controlling the progression of malaria infection. In the well-established murine model of experimental cerebral malaria (ECM) with Plasmodium berghei ANKA infection, proinflammatory Th1 and CD8+ T cell response are essential for disease development. Interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF1) is a transcription factor that promotes Th1 responses, and its absence was previously shown to protect from ECM death. Read More

    Sialic acid-dependent interaction of group B streptococci with influenza virus-infected cells reveals a novel adherence and invasion mechanism.
    Cell Microbiol 2018 Apr 16;20(4). Epub 2018 Jan 16.
    Institute of Virology, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Hannover, Germany.
    Group B streptococci (GBS) contain a capsular polysaccharide with side chains terminating in α2,3-linked sialic acids. Because of this linkage type, the sialic acids of GBS are recognised by lectins of immune cells. This interaction results in a dampening of the host immune response and thus promotes immune evasion. Read More

    Plasmodium yoelii S4/CelTOS is important for sporozoite gliding motility and cell traversal.
    Cell Microbiol 2018 Apr 12;20(4). Epub 2018 Jan 12.
    Center for Infectious Disease Research, formerly Seattle Biomedical Research Institute, Seattle, Washington, USA.
    Gliding motility and cell traversal by the Plasmodium ookinete and sporozoite invasive stages allow penetration of cellular barriers to establish infection of the mosquito vector and mammalian host, respectively. Motility and traversal are not observed in red cell infectious merozoites, and we have previously classified genes that are expressed in sporozoites but not merozoites (S genes) in order to identify proteins involved in these processes. The S4 gene has been described as criticaly involved in Cell Traversal for Ookinetes and Sporozoites (CelTOS), yet knockout parasites (s4/celtos¯) do not generate robust salivary gland sporozoite numbers, precluding a thorough analysis of S4/CelTOS function during host infection. Read More

    The entry of Salmonella in a distinct tight compartment revealed at high temporal and ultrastructural resolution.
    Cell Microbiol 2018 Apr 23;20(4). Epub 2018 Jan 23.
    Unité "Dynamique des interactions hôte-pathogène", Institut Pasteur, Paris, France.
    Salmonella enterica induces membrane ruffling and genesis of macropinosomes during its interactions with epithelial cells. This is achieved through the type three secretion system-1, which first mediates bacterial attachment to host cells and then injects bacterial effector proteins to alter host behaviour. Next, Salmonella enters into the targeted cell within an early membrane-bound compartment that matures into a slow growing, replicative niche called the Salmonella Containing Vacuole (SCV). Read More

    Treponema denticola increases MMP-2 expression and activation in the periodontium via reversible DNA and histone modifications.
    Cell Microbiol 2018 Apr 8;20(4). Epub 2018 Jan 8.
    Department of Biologic and Materials Sciences, University of Michigan School of Dentistry, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.
    Host-derived matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and bacterial proteases mediate destruction of extracellular matrices and supporting alveolar bone in periodontitis. The Treponema denticola dentilisin protease induces MMP-2 expression and activation in periodontal ligament (PDL) cells, and dentilisin-mediated activation of pro-MMP-2 is required for cellular fibronectin degradation. Here, we report that T. Read More

    The bile salt sodium taurocholate induces Campylobacter jejuni outer membrane vesicle production and increases OMV-associated proteolytic activity.
    Cell Microbiol 2018 Mar 28;20(3). Epub 2017 Dec 28.
    Faculty of Infectious & Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
    Campylobacter jejuni, the leading cause of bacterial acute gastroenteritis worldwide, secretes an arsenal of virulence-associated proteins within outer membrane vesicles (OMVs). C. jejuni OMVs contain three serine proteases (HtrA, Cj0511, and Cj1365c) that cleave the intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) tight and adherens junction proteins occludin and E-cadherin, promoting enhanced C. Read More

    The blood-brain barrier internalises Cryptococcus neoformans via the EphA2-tyrosine kinase receptor.
    Cell Microbiol 2018 Mar 18;20(3). Epub 2018 Jan 18.
    Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Genome and Biomedical Sciences Facility, University of California, Davis, California, USA.
    Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that causes life-threatening meningitis most commonly in populations with impaired immunity. Here, we resolved the transcriptome of the human brain endothelium challenged with C. neoformans to establish whether C. Read More

    Lipocalin 2 (Lcn2) interferes with iron uptake by Brucella abortus and dampens immunoregulation during infection of RAW 264.7 macrophages.
    Cell Microbiol 2018 Mar 18;20(3). Epub 2017 Dec 18.
    Institute of Animal Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, Republic of Korea.
    Lipocalin 2 (Lcn2) is an important innate immunity component against bacterial pathogens. In this study, we report that Lcn2 is induced by Brucella (B.) abortus infection and significantly contributes to the restriction of intracellular survival of Brucella in macrophages. Read More

    An adherent mucus layer attenuates the genotoxic effect of colibactin.
    Cell Microbiol 2018 Feb 5;20(2). Epub 2017 Dec 5.
    Institute for Molecular Infection Biology (IMIB), University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany.
    The human gastrointestinal tract is a complex ecosystem in which epithelial cells and microorganisms of the intestinal microbiota live in symbiosis. Certain members of the microbiota, in particular Escherichia coli strains of the B2 phylotype, carry the polyketide synthase-island encoding the genotoxin colibactin. Colibactin is a nonribosomal peptide or polyketide-nonribosomal peptide hybrid of still unsolved structure, which induces DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) in eukaryotic cells. Read More

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