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    2443 results match your criteria Cellular microbiology[Journal]

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    A genetic screen in rodent malaria parasites identifies five new apicoplast putative membrane transporters, one of which is essential in human malaria parasites.
    Cell Microbiol 2017 Sep 13. Epub 2017 Sep 13.
    School of BioSciences, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia.
    The malaria-causing parasite, Plasmodium, contains a unique non-photosynthetic plastid known as the apicoplast. The apicoplast is an essential organelle bound by four membranes. Although membrane transporters are attractive drug targets, only two transporters have been characterised in the malaria parasite apicoplast membranes. Read More

    Bcl10 synergistically links CEACAM3 and TLR-dependent inflammatory signalling.
    Cell Microbiol 2017 Sep 8. Epub 2017 Sep 8.
    Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
    The neutrophil-specific innate immune receptor CEACAM3 functions as a decoy to capture Gram-negative pathogens, such as Neisseria gonorrhoeae, that exploit CEACAM family members to adhere to the epithelium. Bacterial binding to CEACAM3 results in their efficient engulfment and triggers activation of an NF-κB-dependent inflammatory response by human neutrophils. Herein, we report that CEACAM3 cross-linking is not sufficient for induction of cytokine production, and show that the inflammatory response induced by N. Read More

    N-(3-oxo-acyl)-homoserine lactone induces apoptosis primarily through a mitochondrial pathway in fibroblasts.
    Cell Microbiol 2017 Sep 6. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    Molecular Targets Program James Graham Brown Cancer Center, Departments of Medicine, Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY.
    N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-homoserine lactone (C12) is produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa to function as a quorum-sensing molecule for bacteria-bacteria communication. C12 is also known to influence many aspects of human host cell physiology, including induction of cell death. However, the signaling pathway(s) leading to C12-triggered cell death is (are) still not completely known. Read More

    Borrelia burgdorferi outer surface protein C (OspC) binds complement component C4b and confers bloodstream survival.
    Cell Microbiol 2017 Sep 5. Epub 2017 Sep 5.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Center for Infectious Disease Research, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI.
    Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb) is the causative agent of Lyme disease in the US, a disease that can result in carditis, and chronic and debilitating arthritis and/or neurologic symptoms if left untreated. Bb survives in the midgut of the Ixodes scapularis tick, or within tissues of immunocompetent hosts. In the early stages of infection, the bacteria are present in the bloodstream where they must resist clearance by the innate immune system of the host. Read More

    A novel in vitro model for hematogenous spreading of S. aureus device biofilms demonstrating clumping dispersal as an advantageous dissemination mechanism.
    Cell Microbiol 2017 Sep 5. Epub 2017 Sep 5.
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, University of Southern Denmark & Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark.
    Staphylococcus aureus is able to disseminate from vascular device biofilms to the blood and organs, resulting in life-threatening infections such as endocarditis. The mechanisms behind spreading are largely unknown, especially how the bacterium escapes immune effectors and antibiotics in the process. Using an in vitro catheter infection model, we studied S. Read More

    Caveolin 1 restricts Group A Streptococcus invasion of nonphagocytic host cells.
    Cell Microbiol 2017 Aug 4. Epub 2017 Aug 4.
    Australian Infectious Diseases Research Centre and School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Queensland, Australia.
    Caveolae are composed of 2 major proteins, caveolin 1 (CAV1) and cavin 1 or polymerase transcript release factor I (CAVIN1). Here, we demonstrate that CAV1 levels modulate invasion of Group A Streptococcus (GAS) into nonphagocytic mammalian cells. GAS showed enhanced internalisation into CAV1-knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts and CAV1 knockdown human epithelial HEp-2 cells, whereas overexpression of CAV1 in HEp-2 cells reduced GAS invasion. Read More

    Helicobacter pylori outer inflammatory protein A (OipA) suppresses apoptosis of AGS gastric cells in vitro.
    Cell Microbiol 2017 Aug 3. Epub 2017 Aug 3.
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
    Outer inflammatory protein A (OipA) is an important virulence factor associated with gastric cancer and ulcer development; however, the results have not been well established and turned out to be controversial. This study aims to elucidate the role of OipA in Helicobacter pylori infection using clinical strains harbouring oipA "on" and "off" motifs. Proteomics analysis was performed on AGS cell pre-infection and postinfection with H. Read More

    Aspergillus fumigatus protein phosphatase PpzA is involved in iron assimilation, secondary metabolite production, and virulence.
    Cell Microbiol 2017 Jul 28. Epub 2017 Jul 28.
    Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil.
    Metal restriction imposed by mammalian hosts during an infection is a common mechanism of defence to reduce or avoid the pathogen infection. Metals are essential for organism survival due to its involvement in several biological processes. Aspergillus fumigatus causes invasive aspergillosis, a disease that typically manifests in immunocompromised patients. Read More

    Subversion of innate immune responses by Francisella involves the disruption of TRAF3 and TRAF6 signalling complexes.
    Cell Microbiol 2017 Jul 26. Epub 2017 Jul 26.
    Department of Molecular Biology, The Laboratory for Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS), Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR), Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    The success of pathogens depends on their ability to circumvent immune defences. Francisella tularensis is one of the most infectious bacteria known. The remarkable virulence of Francisella is believed to be due to its capacity to evade or subvert the immune system, but how remains obscure. Read More

    A role for host cell exocytosis in InlB-mediated internalisation of Listeria monocytogenes.
    Cell Microbiol 2017 Jul 26. Epub 2017 Jul 26.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
    The bacterial surface protein InlB mediates internalisation of Listeria monocytogenes into human cells through interaction with the host receptor tyrosine kinase, Met. InlB-mediated entry requires localised polymerisation of the host actin cytoskeleton. Apart from actin polymerisation, roles for other host processes in Listeria entry are unknown. Read More

    Distinct roles of the 7-transmembrane receptor protein Rta3 in regulating the asymmetric distribution of phosphatidylcholine across the plasma membrane and biofilm formation in Candida albicans.
    Cell Microbiol 2017 Jul 25. Epub 2017 Jul 25.
    Yeast Molecular Genetics Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India.
    Fungal pathogens like Candida albicans exhibit several survival mechanisms to evade attack by antifungals and colonize host tissues. Rta3, a member of the Rta1-like family of lipid-translocating exporters has a 7-transmembrane domain (7TMD) topology, similar to the G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) and is unique to the fungal kingdom. Our findings point towards a role for the plasma membrane localized Rta3 in providing tolerance to miltefosine, an analog of alkylphosphocholine, by maintaining mitochondrial energetics. Read More

    Genome packaging of reovirus is mediated by the scaffolding property of the microtubule network.
    Cell Microbiol 2017 Jul 3. Epub 2017 Jul 3.
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Virology, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Reovirus replication occurs in the cytoplasm of the host cell, in virally induced mini-organelles called virus factories. On the basis of the serotype of the virus, the virus factories can manifest as filamentous (type 1 Lang strain) or globular structures (type 3 Dearing strain). The filamentous factories morphology is dependent on the microtubule cytoskeleton; however, the exact function of the microtubule network in virus replication remains unknown. Read More

    Intracellular Salmonella metabolism.
    Cell Microbiol 2017 Oct 4;19(10). Epub 2017 Aug 4.
    Focal Area Infection Biology, Biozentrum, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.
    Growth of Salmonella inside infected host cells is a key aspect of their ability to cause local enteritis or systemic disease. This growth depends on exploitation of host nutrients through a large Salmonella metabolism network with hundreds of metabolites and enzymes. Studies in cell culture infection models are unravelling more and more of the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms but also show striking Salmonella metabolic plasticity depending on host cell line and experimental conditions. Read More

    ATP prevents Woronin bodies from sealing septal pores in unwounded cells of the fungus Zymoseptoria tritici.
    Cell Microbiol 2017 Jul 3. Epub 2017 Jul 3.
    Bioimaging Centre, University of Exeter, Exeter, UK.
    Septa of filamentous ascomycetes are perforated by septal pores that allow communication between individual hyphal compartments. Upon injury, septal pores are plugged rapidly by Woronin bodies (WBs), thereby preventing extensive cytoplasmic bleeding. The mechanism by which WBs translocate into the pore is not known, but it has been suggested that wound-induced cytoplasmic bleeding "flushes" WBs into the septal opening. Read More

    Adaptive immunity is essential in preventing recrudescence of Plasmodium yoelii malaria parasites after artesunate treatment.
    Cell Microbiol 2017 Jun 30. Epub 2017 Jun 30.
    Singapore Immunology Network (SIgN), A*STAR, Singapore.
    Artemisinin-based antimalarials, such as artesunate (ART), alone or in combination, are the mainstay of the therapy against malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum. However, the emergence and spread of artemisinin resistance threatens the future success of its global malaria eradication. Although much of the reported artemisinin resistance can be attributed to mutations intrinsic to the parasite, a significant proportion of treatment failures are thought to be due to other factors such as the host's immune system. Read More

    Listeria monocytogenes cytosolic metabolism promotes replication, survival, and evasion of innate immunity.
    Cell Microbiol 2017 Oct 21;19(10). Epub 2017 Jul 21.
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, USA.
    Listeria monocytogenes, the causative agent of listeriosis, is an intracellular pathogen that is exquisitely evolved to survive and replicate in the cytosol of eukaryotic cells. Eukaryotic cells typically restrict bacteria from colonising the cytosol, likely through a combination of cell autonomous defences, nutritional immunity, and innate immune responses including induction of programmed cell death. This suggests that L. Read More

    Adherens junctions and desmosomes are damaged by Entamoeba histolytica: Participation of EhCPADH complex and EhCP112 protease.
    Cell Microbiol 2017 Jun 27. Epub 2017 Jun 27.
    Departamento de Infectómica y Patogénesis Molecular, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Mexico City, Mexico.
    Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites adhere to epithelium at the cell-cell contact and perturb tight junctions disturbing the transepithelial electrical resistance. Behind tight junctions are the adherens junctions (AJs) that reinforce them and the desmosomes (DSMs) that maintain the epithelium integrity. The damage produced to AJs and DMSs by this parasite is unknown. Read More

    Delivery of parasite Cdg7_Flc_0990 RNA transcript into intestinal epithelial cells during Cryptosporidium parvum infection suppresses host cell gene transcription through epigenetic mechanisms.
    Cell Microbiol 2017 Jun 27. Epub 2017 Jun 27.
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Creighton University School of Medicine, Omaha, NE, USA.
    Cryptosporidial infection causes dysregulated transcription of host genes key to intestinal epithelial homeostasis, but the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. Previous studies demonstrate that several Cryptosporidium parvum (C. parvum) RNA transcripts are selectively delivered into epithelial cells during host cell invasion and may modulate gene transcription in infected cells. Read More

    Retroviruses and microtubule-associated motor proteins.
    Cell Microbiol 2017 Sep 12;19(9). Epub 2017 Jul 12.
    Departamento de Ciencias Biologicas, Facultad de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidad Andres Bello, Viña del Mar, Chile.
    Retroviruses are obligate intracellular parasites of eukaryotic cells. After reverse transcription, the viral DNA contained in the preintegration complex is delivered to the nucleus of the host cell, where it integrates. Before reaching the nucleus, the incoming particle and the preintegration complex must travel throughout the cytoplasm. Read More

    Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli produces outer membrane vesicles as an active defence system against antimicrobial peptide LL-37.
    Cell Microbiol 2017 Jun 16. Epub 2017 Jun 16.
    Department of Biomedical Informatics, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan.
    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are important components of the innate immune system. Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), a food-borne pathogen causing serious diarrheal diseases, must overcome attack by AMPs. Here, we show that resistance of EHEC against human cathelicidin LL-37, a primary AMP, was enhanced by butyrate, which has been shown to act as a stimulant for the expression of virulence genes. Read More

    Vaccinia virus A11 is required for membrane rupture and viral membrane assembly.
    Cell Microbiol 2017 Oct 7;19(10). Epub 2017 Jul 7.
    EM Core Facility & Department of Infectious Diseases, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Although most enveloped viruses acquire their membrane from the host by budding or by a wrapping process, collective data argue that nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDVs) may be an exception. The prototype member of NCLDVs, vaccinia virus (VACV) may induce rupture of endoplasmic-reticulum-derived membranes to build an open-membrane sphere that closes after DNA uptake. This unconventional membrane assembly pathway is also used by at least 3 other members of the NCLDVs. Read More

    EPEC effector EspF promotes Crumbs3 endocytosis and disrupts epithelial cell polarity.
    Cell Microbiol 2017 Jun 15. Epub 2017 Jun 15.
    Department of Medicine and Division of Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Loyola University Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.
    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) uses a type III secretion system to inject effector proteins into host intestinal epithelial cells causing diarrhoea. EPEC infection redistributes basolateral proteins β1-integrin and Na(+) /K(+) ATPase to the apical membrane of host cells. The Crumbs (Crb) polarity complex (Crb3/Pals1/Patj) is essential for epithelial cell polarisation and tight junction (TJ) assembly. Read More

    The midgut microbiota plays an essential role in sand fly vector competence for Leishmania major.
    Cell Microbiol 2017 Oct 19;19(10). Epub 2017 Jun 19.
    Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.
    For many arthropod vectors, the diverse bacteria and fungi that inhabit the gut can negatively impact pathogen colonization. Our attempts to exploit antibiotic treatment of colonized Phlebotomus duboscqi sand flies in order to improve their vector competency for Leishmania major resulted instead in flies that were refractory to the development of transmissible infections due to the inability of the parasite to survive and to colonize the anterior midgut with infective, metacyclic stage promastigotes. The parasite survival and development defect could be overcome by feeding the flies on different symbiont bacteria but not by feeding them on bacterial supernatants or replete medium. Read More

    LC3-association with the parasitophorous vacuole membrane of Plasmodium berghei liver stages follows a noncanonical autophagy pathway.
    Cell Microbiol 2017 Oct 19;19(10). Epub 2017 Jun 19.
    Institute of Cell Biology, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
    Eukaryotic cells can employ autophagy to defend themselves against invading pathogens. Upon infection by Plasmodium berghei sporozoites, the host hepatocyte targets the invader by labelling the parasitophorous vacuole membrane (PVM) with the autophagy marker protein LC3. Until now, it has not been clear whether LC3 recruitment to the PVM is mediated by fusion of autophagosomes or by direct incorporation. Read More

    The cellular ceramide transport protein CERT promotes Chlamydia psittaci infection and controls bacterial sphingolipid uptake.
    Cell Microbiol 2017 Oct 15;19(10). Epub 2017 Jun 15.
    Junior Research Group "Sexually Transmitted Bacterial Pathogens" (NG 5), Robert Koch Institute, Berlin, Germany.
    Chlamydiaceae are bacterial pathogens that cause diverse diseases in humans and animals. Despite their broad host and tissue tropism, all Chlamydia species share an obligate intracellular cycle of development and have evolved sophisticated mechanisms to interact with their eukaryotic host cells. Here, we have analysed interactions of the zoonotic pathogen Chlamydia psittaci with a human epithelial cell line. Read More

    Expression patterns of sterol transporters NPC1 and NPC2 in the cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis.
    Cell Microbiol 2017 Oct 22;19(10). Epub 2017 Jun 22.
    Institut de Biologie Valrose (iBV), Université Côte d'Azur, Nice, France.
    The symbiotic interaction between cnidarians (e.g., corals and sea anemones) and photosynthetic dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium is triggered by both host-symbiont recognition processes and metabolic exchange between the 2 partners. Read More

    EhRho1 regulates plasma membrane blebbing through PI3 kinase in Entamoeba histolytica.
    Cell Microbiol 2017 Oct 22;19(10). Epub 2017 Jun 22.
    School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India.
    The protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica causes amoebiasis, a major public health problem in developing countries. Motility of E. histolytica is important for its pathogenesis. Read More

    Down the rabbit hole: Is necroptosis truly an innate response to infection?
    Cell Microbiol 2017 Aug 13;19(8). Epub 2017 Jun 13.
    The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Parkville, Victoria, Australia.
    Pathogenic microbes have evolved countless sophisticated mechanisms to subvert host immune responses and cause disease. Understanding evasion strategies employed by pathogens has led to numerous discoveries on specific host cell processes that are critical for controlling infection. Programmed cell death (PCD) is a key host defence to microbial infection, as well as being critical for organ development and cellular homeostasis in multicellular organisms. Read More

    A novel dense granule protein, GRA41, regulates timing of egress and calcium sensitivity in Toxoplasma gondii.
    Cell Microbiol 2017 Sep 17;19(9). Epub 2017 May 17.
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA.
    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular apicomplexan parasite with high seroprevalence in humans. Repeated lytic cycles of invasion, replication, and egress drive both the propagation and the virulence of this parasite. Key steps in this cycle, including invasion and egress, depend on tightly regulated calcium fluxes and, although many of the calcium-dependent effectors have been identified, the factors that detect and regulate the calcium fluxes are mostly unknown. Read More

    Plasmodium falciparum OTU-like cysteine protease (PfOTU) is essential for apicoplast homeostasis and associates with noncanonical role of Atg8.
    Cell Microbiol 2017 Sep 17;19(9). Epub 2017 May 17.
    International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, New Delhi, India.
    The metabolic pathways associated with the mitochondrion and the apicoplast in Plasmodium, 2 parasite organelles of prokaryotic origin, are considered as suitable drug targets. In the present study, we have identified functional role of a novel ovarian tumour unit (OTU) domain-containing cysteine protease of Plasmodium falciparum (PfOTU). A C-terminal regulatable fluorescent affinity tag on native protein was utilised for its localization and functional characterization. Read More

    P. falciparum RH5-Basigin interaction induces changes in the cytoskeleton of the host RBC.
    Cell Microbiol 2017 Sep 9;19(9). Epub 2017 May 9.
    Division of Molecular Genetics and Cell biology, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.
    The successful invasion of Plasmodium is an essential step in their life cycle. The parasite reticulocyte-binding protein homologues (RHs) and erythrocyte-binding like proteins are two families involved in the invasion leading to merozoite-red blood cell (RBC) junction formation. Ca(2+) signaling has been shown to play a critical role in the invasion. Read More

    The Yin and Yang of regulatory T cells in infectious diseases and avenues to target them.
    Cell Microbiol 2017 Jun 26;19(6). Epub 2017 Apr 26.
    Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, Paris, France.
    CD4(+) CD25(+) FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) are key players for maintaining immune tolerance and for reducing the inflammation-mediated tissue damage following infection. However, Tregs also suppress protective immune responses to pathogens (including virus, bacteria, parasites, and fungi) and vaccines and enhance pathogen persistence by inhibiting the activation and functions of both innate and adaptive immune cells such as dendritic cells, macrophages, and T and B lymphocytes and by promoting immunosuppressive environment. Therefore, equilibrium in the Treg number and function is important to ensure pathogen clearance and protection from infection-associated immunopathologies. Read More

    PfAP2Tel, harbouring a non-canonical DNA-binding AP2 domain, binds to Plasmodium falciparum telomeres.
    Cell Microbiol 2017 Sep 3;19(9). Epub 2017 May 3.
    Departamento de Biomedicina Molecular, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, México, México.
    The telomeres of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum are essential not only for chromosome end maintenance during blood stage development in humans but also to generate genetic diversity by facilitating homologous recombination of subtelomeric, multigene virulence families such as var and rifin. However, other than the telomerase PfTERT, proteins that act at P. falciparum telomeres are poorly characterised. Read More

    AMA1 and MAEBL are important for Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite infection of the liver.
    Cell Microbiol 2017 Sep 18;19(9). Epub 2017 May 18.
    The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Parkville, Victoria, Australia.
    The malaria sporozoite injected by a mosquito migrates to the liver by traversing host cells. The sporozoite also traverses hepatocytes before invading a terminal hepatocyte and developing into exoerythrocytic forms. Hepatocyte infection is critical for parasite development into merozoites that infect erythrocytes, and the sporozoite is thus an important target for antimalarial intervention. Read More

    Investigating chitin deacetylation and chitosan hydrolysis during vegetative growth in Magnaporthe oryzae.
    Cell Microbiol 2017 Sep 26;19(9). Epub 2017 Apr 26.
    Department of Plant Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.
    Chitin deacetylation results in the formation of chitosan, a polymer of β1,4-linked glucosamine. Chitosan is known to have important functions in the cell walls of a number of fungal species, but its role during hyphal growth has not yet been investigated. In this study, we have characterized the role of chitin deacetylation during vegetative hyphal growth in the filamentous phytopathogen Magnaporthe oryzae. Read More

    Zika infection and the development of neurological defects.
    Cell Microbiol 2017 Jun 3;19(6). Epub 2017 May 3.
    Department of Surgery, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.
    Starting with the outbreak in Brazil, Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has been correlated with severe syndromes such as congenital Zika syndrome and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Here, we review the status of Zika virus pathogenesis in the central nervous system (CNS). One of the main concerns about ZIKV exposure during pregnancy is abnormal brain development, which results in microcephaly in newborns. Read More

    Blastomyces dermatitidis serine protease dipeptidyl peptidase IVA (DppIVA) cleaves ELR(+) CXC chemokines altering their effects on neutrophils.
    Cell Microbiol 2017 Sep 30;19(9). Epub 2017 May 30.
    Departments of Pediatrics, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, USA.
    Blastomycosis elicits a pyogranulomatous inflammatory response that involves a prominent recruitment of neutrophils to the site of infection. Although neutrophils are efficiently recruited to the site of infection, this event is paradoxically coupled with the host's inability to control infection by Blastomyces dermatitidis, the causative agent. The mechanisms underlying this characteristic pyogranulomatous response and inability of neutrophils to kill the yeast are poorly understood. Read More

    Zika virus induced cellular remodelling.
    Cell Microbiol 2017 Aug 18;19(8). Epub 2017 Apr 18.
    Department of Physiology & Biophysics, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA.
    Zika virus (ZIKV) has been associated with morbidities such as Guillain-Barré, infant microcephaly, and ocular disease. The spread of this positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus and its growing public health threat underscore gaps in our understanding of basic ZIKV virology. To advance knowledge of the virus replication cycle within mammalian cells, we use serial section 3-dimensional electron tomography to demonstrate the widespread remodelling of intracellular membranes upon infection with ZIKV. Read More

    Botulinum neurotoxin type B uses a distinct entry pathway mediated by CDC42 into intestinal cells versus neuronal cells.
    Cell Microbiol 2017 Aug 10;19(8). Epub 2017 Apr 10.
    Bactéries anaérobies et Toxines, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France.
    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are responsible for severe flaccid paralysis by inhibiting the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junctions. BoNT type B (BoNT/B) most often induces mild forms of botulism with predominant dysautonomic symptoms. In food borne botulism and botulism by intestinal colonisation such as infant botulism, which are the most frequent naturally acquired forms of botulism, the digestive tract is the main entry route of BoNTs into the organism. Read More

    Flagellin phase-dependent swimming on epithelial cell surfaces contributes to productive Salmonella gut colonisation.
    Cell Microbiol 2017 Aug 18;19(8). Epub 2017 Apr 18.
    Junior Research Group Infection Biology of Salmonella, Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany.
    The flagellum is a sophisticated nanomachine and an important virulence factor of many pathogenic bacteria. Flagellar motility enables directed movements towards host cells in a chemotactic process, and near-surface swimming on cell surfaces is crucial for selection of permissive entry sites. The long external flagellar filament is made of tens of thousands subunits of a single protein, flagellin, and many Salmonella serovars alternate expression of antigenically distinct flagellin proteins, FliC and FljB. Read More

    Inhibition of type I interferon induction and signalling by mosquito-borne flaviviruses.
    Cell Microbiol 2017 May 22;19(5). Epub 2017 Mar 22.
    MRC-University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research, Glasgow, Scotland, UK.
    The Flavivirus genus (Flaviviridae family) contains a number of important human pathogens, including dengue and Zika viruses, which have the potential to cause severe disease. In order to efficiently establish a productive infection in mammalian cells, flaviviruses have developed key strategies to counteract host immune defences, including the type I interferon response. They employ different mechanisms to control interferon signal transduction and effector pathways, and key research generated over the past couple of decades has uncovered new insights into their abilities to actively decrease interferon antiviral activity. Read More

    Laser capture microdissection enables transcriptomic analysis of dividing and quiescent liver stages of Plasmodium relapsing species.
    Cell Microbiol 2017 Aug 13;19(8). Epub 2017 Mar 13.
    Centre d'Immunologie et des Maladies Infectieuses, CNRS ERL8255, INSERM U1135, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, Paris, France.
    Dormant liver stage forms (hypnozoites) of the malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax present major hurdles to control and eradicate infection. Despite major research efforts, the molecular composition of hypnozoites remains ill defined. Here, we applied a combination of state-of-the-art technologies to generate the first transcriptome of hypnozoites. Read More

    The Ralstonia solanacearum effector RipAK suppresses plant hypersensitive response by inhibiting the activity of host catalases.
    Cell Microbiol 2017 Aug 29;19(8). Epub 2017 Mar 29.
    School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China.
    The destructive bacterial pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum delivers effector proteins via a type-III secretion system for its pathogenesis of plant hosts. However, the biochemical functions of most of these effectors remain unclear. RipAK of R. Read More

    The role of the unfolded protein response in dengue virus pathogenesis.
    Cell Microbiol 2017 May 8;19(5). Epub 2017 Mar 8.
    Antiviral Research Unit, Oxford Glycobiology Institute, Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.
    Symptomatic dengue virus (DENV) infections range from mild fever to severe haemorrhagic disease and death. Host-viral interactions play a significant role in deciding the fate of the infection. The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a prosurvival cellular reaction induced in response to DENV-mediated endoplasmic reticulum stress. Read More

    The Plasmodium rhoptry associated protein complex is important for parasitophorous vacuole membrane structure and intraerythrocytic parasite growth.
    Cell Microbiol 2017 Aug 8;19(8). Epub 2017 Mar 8.
    School of Medicine, Deakin University, Waurn Ponds, Victoria, Australia.
    Plasmodium parasites must invade erythrocytes in order to cause the disease malaria. The invasion process involves the coordinated secretion of parasite proteins from apical organelles that include the rhoptries. The rhoptry is comprised of two compartments: the neck and the bulb. Read More

    Complement-activated vitronectin enhances the invasion of nonphagocytic cells by bacterial pathogens Burkholderia and Klebsiella.
    Cell Microbiol 2017 Aug 21;19(8). Epub 2017 Mar 21.
    Department of Biochemistry, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore, 117597, Singapore.
    Burkholderia pseudomallei is a serum-resistant Gram-negative bacterium capable of causing disseminated infections with metastatic complications. However, its interaction with nonphagocytic cells is poorly understood. We observed that exposure of B. Read More

    A fibronectin-binding protein (FbpA) of Weissella cibaria inhibits colonization and infection of Staphylococcus aureus in mammary glands.
    Cell Microbiol 2017 Aug 2;19(8). Epub 2017 Mar 2.
    College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi Province, People's Republic of China.
    Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a frequent cause of infections in both humans and animals. Probiotics are known to inhibit colonization of pathogens on host tissues. Read More

    Noncanonical inflammasomes: Antimicrobial defense that does not play by the rules.
    Cell Microbiol 2017 Apr 15;19(4). Epub 2017 Feb 15.
    Paul G. Allen School for Global Animal Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, Washington State University, Pullman, WA, USA.
    Although much research has focused on defining the actions of caspase-1 containing canonical inflammasomes in promoting host defense, noncanonical inflammasomes have received comparatively little attention. Exciting new concepts have recently emerged detailing their atypical mechanism of activation, importance in defending against cytosolic Gram-negative pathogens, and role in innate immune defenses of nonmyeloid cells, which has revamped interest in the study of noncanonical inflammmasomes. Here, we will discuss these latest findings about caspase-4, -5, and -11 containing inflammasomes in the context of their role in pathogen elimination in mice and humans. Read More

    Acidic and uncharged polar residues in the consensus motifs of the yeast Ca(2+) transporter Gdt1p are required for calcium transport.
    Cell Microbiol 2017 Jul 15;19(7). Epub 2017 Feb 15.
    Institut des Sciences de la Vie, Université catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium.
    The UPF0016 family is a recently identified group of poorly characterized membrane proteins whose function is conserved through evolution and that are defined by the presence of 1 or 2 copies of the E-φ-G-D-[KR]-[TS] consensus motif in their transmembrane domain. We showed that 2 members of this family, the human TMEM165 and the budding yeast Gdt1p, are functionally related and are likely to form a new group of Ca(2+) transporters. Mutations in TMEM165 have been demonstrated to cause a new type of rare human genetic diseases denominated as Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation. Read More

    Helicobacter hepaticus cytolethal distending toxin promotes intestinal carcinogenesis in 129Rag2-deficient mice.
    Cell Microbiol 2017 Jul 20;19(7). Epub 2017 Feb 20.
    Division of Comparative Medicine, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA02139, USA.
    Multiple pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria produce the cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) with activity of DNase I; CDT can induce DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), G2/M cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis in cultured mammalian cells. However, the link of CDT to in vivo tumorigenesis is not fully understood. In this study, 129/SvEv Rag2(-/-) mice were gavaged with wild-type Helicobacter hepatics 3B1(Hh) and its isogenic cdtB mutant HhcdtBm7, followed by infection for 10 and 20 weeks (WPI). Read More

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