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    5532 results match your criteria Cellular and molecular life sciences : CMLS[Journal]

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    The pleiotropic roles of ADAM9 in the biology of solid tumors.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2018 Mar 17. Epub 2018 Mar 17.
    Institute of Molecular Medicine and Cell Research, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.
    A disintegrin and a metalloprotease (ADAM) 9 is a metzincin cell-surface protease involved in several biological processes such as myogenesis, fertilization, cell migration, inflammatory response, proliferation, and cell-cell interactions. ADAM9 has been found over-expressed in several solid tumors entities such as glioma, melanoma, prostate cancer, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, gastric, breast, lung, and liver cancers. Immunohistochemical analyses highlight ADAM9 expression by actual cancer cells and associate its abundant presence with clinicopathological features such as shortened overall survival, poor tumor grade, de-differentiation, therapy resistance, and metastasis formation. Read More

    Amyloid and the origin of life: self-replicating catalytic amyloids as prebiotic informational and protometabolic entities.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2018 Mar 17. Epub 2018 Mar 17.
    Department of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    A crucial stage in the origin of life was the emergence of the first molecular entity that was able to replicate, transmit information, and evolve on the early Earth. The amyloid world hypothesis posits that in the pre-RNA era, information processing was based on catalytic amyloids. The self-assembly of short peptides into β-sheet amyloid conformers leads to extraordinary structural stability and novel multifunctionality that cannot be achieved by the corresponding nonaggregated peptides. Read More

    UDP-glucose ceramide glucosyltransferase activates AKT, promoted proliferation, and doxorubicin resistance in breast cancer cells.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2018 Mar 17. Epub 2018 Mar 17.
    pharmazentrum frankfurt/ZAFES, Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, House 74, Theodor Stern-Kai 7, 60590, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.
    The UDP-glucose ceramide glucosyltransferase (UGCG) is a key enzyme in the synthesis of glycosylated sphingolipids, since this enzyme generates the precursor for all complex glycosphingolipids (GSL), the GlcCer. The UGCG has been associated with several cancer-related processes such as maintaining cancer stem cell properties or multidrug resistance induction. The precise mechanisms underlying these processes are unknown. Read More

    Impact of atypical mitochondrial cyclic-AMP level in nephropathic cystinosis.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2018 Mar 16. Epub 2018 Mar 16.
    Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Neurosciences and Sense Organs, University of Bari "Aldo Moro", Policlinico, Piazza G. Cesare, 11, 70124, Bari, Italy.
    Nephropathic cystinosis (NC) is a rare disease caused by mutations in the CTNS gene encoding for cystinosin, a lysosomal transmembrane cystine/Hsymporter, which promotes the efflux of cystine from lysosomes to cytosol. NC is the most frequent cause of Fanconi syndrome (FS) in young children, the molecular basis of which is not well established. Proximal tubular cells have very high metabolic rate due to the active transport of many solutes. Read More

    Nestin-expressing progenitor cells: function, identity and therapeutic implications.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2018 Mar 14. Epub 2018 Mar 14.
    Stem Cell Aging and Cancer Research Group, Department of Medical Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences, UiT, The Arctic University of Norway, MH Building Level 6, 9019, Tromsø, Norway.
    The neuroepithelial stem cell protein, or Nestin, is a cytoskeletal intermediate filament initially characterized in neural stem cells. However, current extensive evidence obtained in in vivo models and humans shows presence of Nestincells with progenitor and/or regulatory functions in a number of additional tissues, remarkably bone marrow. This review presents the current knowledge on the role of Nestin in essential stem cell functions, including self-renewal/proliferation, differentiation and migration, in the context of the cytoskeleton. Read More

    Ion and metabolite transport in the chloroplast of algae: lessons from land plants.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2018 Mar 14. Epub 2018 Mar 14.
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, 40530, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Chloroplasts are endosymbiotic organelles and play crucial roles in energy supply and metabolism of eukaryotic photosynthetic organisms (algae and land plants). They harbor channels and transporters in the envelope and thylakoid membranes, mediating the exchange of ions and metabolites with the cytosol and the chloroplast stroma and between the different chloroplast subcompartments. In secondarily evolved algae, three or four envelope membranes surround the chloroplast, making more complex the exchange of ions and metabolites. Read More

    Bridging the molecular and biological functions of the oxysterol-binding protein family.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2018 Mar 13. Epub 2018 Mar 13.
    Atlantic Research Center, C306 CRC Bldg, Department of Pediatrics, and Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Dalhousie University, 5849 University Av., Halifax, NS, B3H4R2, Canada.
    Oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP) and OSBP-related proteins (ORPs) constitute a large eukaryotic gene family that transports and regulates the metabolism of sterols and phospholipids. The original classification of the family based on oxysterol-binding activity belies the complex dual lipid-binding specificity of the conserved OSBP homology domain (OHD). Additional protein- and membrane-interacting modules mediate the targeting of select OSBP/ORPs to membrane contact sites between organelles, thus positioning the OHD between opposing membranes for lipid transfer and metabolic regulation. Read More

    Redundant regulation of localization and protein stability of DmPar3.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2018 Mar 10. Epub 2018 Mar 10.
    Molecular and Cellular Anatomy, University of Regensburg, Universitätsstr. 31, 93053, Regensburg, Germany.
    Apical-basal polarity is an important characteristic of epithelia and Drosophila neural stem cells. The conserved Par complex, which consists of the atypical protein kinase C and the scaffold proteins Baz and Par6, is a key player in the establishment of apical-basal cell polarity. Membrane recruitment of Baz has been reported to be accomplished by several mechanisms, which might function in redundancy, to ensure the correct localization of the complex. Read More

    Challenges and approaches to understand cholesterol-binding impact on membrane protein function: an NMR view.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2018 Mar 8. Epub 2018 Mar 8.
    German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE), Von-Siebold-Str. 3a, 37075, Göttingen, Germany.
    Experimental evidence for a direct role of lipids in determining the structure, dynamics, and function of membrane proteins leads to the term 'functional lipids'. In particular, the sterol molecule cholesterol modulates the activity of many membrane proteins. The precise nature of cholesterol-binding sites and the consequences of modulation of local membrane micro-viscosity by cholesterol, however, is often unknown. Read More

    In vivo regulation of the A disintegrin and metalloproteinase 10 (ADAM10) by the tetraspanin 15.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2018 Mar 8. Epub 2018 Mar 8.
    Institute of Biochemistry, Christian Albrechts University Kiel, Olshausenstrasse 40, 24118, Kiel, Germany.
    A disintegrin and metalloproteinase 10 (ADAM10) plays a major role in the ectodomain shedding of important surface molecules with physiological and pathological relevance including the amyloid precursor protein (APP), the cellular prion protein, and different cadherins. Despite its therapeutic potential, there is still a considerable lack of knowledge how this protease is regulated. We have previously identified tetraspanin15 (Tspan15) as a member of the TspanC8 family to specifically associate with ADAM10. Read More

    Regulatory functions of γδ T cells.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2018 Mar 8. Epub 2018 Mar 8.
    Institute of Immunology, Christian-Albrechts University of Kiel, Arnold-Heller Strasse 3, Haus 17, 24105, Kiel, Germany.
    γδ T cells share characteristics of innate and adaptive immune cells and are involved in a broad spectrum of pro-inflammatory functions. Nonetheless, there is accumulating evidence that γδ T cells also exhibit regulatory functions. In this review, we describe the different phenotypes of regulatory γδ T cells in correlation with the identified mechanisms of suppression. Read More

    Mechanistic insights into the efficacy of cell penetrating peptide-based cancer vaccines.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2018 Mar 5. Epub 2018 Mar 5.
    Amal Therapeutics, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Immunotherapies are increasingly used to treat cancer, with some outstanding results. Immunotherapy modalities include therapeutic vaccination to eliminate cancer cells through the activation of patient's immune system against tumor-derived antigens. Nevertheless, the full potential of therapeutic vaccination has yet to be demonstrated clinically because many early generation vaccines elicited low-level immune responses targeting only few tumor antigens. Read More

    Biochemistry of proinflammatory macrophage activation.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2018 Mar 3. Epub 2018 Mar 3.
    Department of Bioinformatics and Biochemistry and Braunschweig Integrated Center of Systems Biology (BRICS), Technische Universität Braunschweig, Rebenring 56, 38106, Brunswick, Germany.
    In the last decade, metabolism has been recognized as a major determinant of immunological processes. During an inflammatory response, macrophages undergo striking changes in their metabolism. This metabolic reprogramming is governed by a complex interplay between metabolic enzymes and metabolites of different pathways and represents the basis for proper macrophage function. Read More

    Transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of the genes encoding the small GTPases RhoA, RhoB, and RhoC: implications for the pathogenesis of human diseases.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2018 Mar 2. Epub 2018 Mar 2.
    Laboratory of Biochemistry, Department of Medicine, University of Crete, 71003, Heraklion, Greece.
    Rho GTPases are highly conserved proteins that play critical roles in many cellular processes including actin dynamics, vesicular trafficking, gene transcription, cell-cycle progression, and cell adhesion. The main mode of regulation of Rho GTPases is through guanine nucleotide binding (cycling between an active GTP-bound form and an inactive GDP-bound form), but transcriptional, post-transcriptional, and post-translational modes of Rho regulation have also been described. In the present review, we summarize recent progress on the mechanisms that control the expression of the three members of the Rho-like subfamily (RhoA, RhoB, and RhoC) at the level of gene transcription as well as their post-transcriptional regulation by microRNAs. Read More

    The TRPM7 kinase limits receptor-induced calcium release by regulating heterotrimeric G-proteins.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2018 Mar 2. Epub 2018 Mar 2.
    Center for Biomedical Research, The Queen's Medical Center, 1301 Punchbowl St., Honolulu, HI, 96813, USA.
    The melastatin-related transient receptor potential member 7 (TRPM7) is a unique fusion protein with both ion channel function and enzymatic α-kinase activity. TRPM7 is essential for cellular systemic magnesium homeostasis and early embryogenesis; it promotes calcium transport during global brain ischemia and emerges as a key player in cancer growth. TRPM7 channels are negatively regulated through G-protein-coupled receptor-stimulation, either by reducing cellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) or depleting phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate (PIP) levels in the plasma membrane. Read More

    Exchange of genetic material: a new paradigm in bone cell communications.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2018 Feb 27. Epub 2018 Feb 27.
    Department of Orthopaedics, Chinese PLA General Hospital, No. 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing, 100853, People's Republic of China.
    An emerging concept in intercellular communication in mammals is that communication can be mediated by exchange of genetic material, mainly in the form of RNAs. In this review, we discuss recent studies that describe the trafficking of genetic material with a focus on bone cell communication. Three major carriers are discussed: gap junctions, protein-binding complexes, and genetic material exchange mediated by extracellular vesicles. Read More

    Enhancer DNA methylation in acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndromes.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2018 Feb 26. Epub 2018 Feb 26.
    Molecular Biology Laboratory, Ioannina University Hospital, Ioannina, Greece.
    DNA methylation (CpG methylation) exerts an important role in normal differentiation and proliferation of hematopoietic stem cells and their differentiated progeny, while it has also the ability to regulate myeloid versus lymphoid fate. Mutations of the epigenetic machinery are observed in hematological malignancies including acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) resulting in hyper- or hypo-methylation affecting several different pathways. Enhancers are cis-regulatory elements which promote transcription activation and are characterized by histone marks including H3K27ac and H3K4me1/2. Read More

    Aurora kinase B regulates axonal outgrowth and regeneration in the spinal motor neurons of developing zebrafish.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2018 Feb 21. Epub 2018 Feb 21.
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, Centre for Motor Neuron Disease Research, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Aurora kinase B (AurkB) is a serine/threonine protein kinase with a well-characterised role in orchestrating cell division and cytokinesis, and is prominently expressed in healthy proliferating and cancerous cells. However, the role of AurkB in differentiated and non-dividing cells has not been extensively explored. Previously, we have described a significant upregulation of AurkB expression in cultured cortical neurons following an experimental axonal transection. Read More

    Revisiting the metabolic syndrome: the emerging role of aquaglyceroporins.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2018 Feb 20. Epub 2018 Feb 20.
    Faculty of Pharmacy, Research Institute for Medicines (iMed.ULisboa), Universidade de Lisboa, 1649-003, Lisbon, Portugal.
    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) includes a group of medical conditions such as insulin resistance (IR), dyslipidemia and hypertension, all associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Increased visceral and ectopic fat deposition are also key features in the development of IR and MetS, with pathophysiological sequels on adipose tissue, liver and muscle. The recent recognition of aquaporins (AQPs) involvement in adipose tissue homeostasis has opened new perspectives for research in this field. Read More

    Degradation of the mitochondrial complex I assembly factor TMEM126B under chronic hypoxia.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2018 Feb 20. Epub 2018 Feb 20.
    Faculty of Medicine, Institute of Biochemistry I, Goethe-University Frankfurt, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590, Frankfurt, Germany.
    Cell stress such as hypoxia elicits adaptive responses, also on the level of mitochondria, and in part is mediated by the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) 1α. Adaptation of mitochondria towards acute hypoxic conditions is reasonably well understood, while regulatory mechanisms, especially of respiratory chain assembly factors, under chronic hypoxia remains elusive. One of these assembly factors is transmembrane protein 126B (TMEM126B). Read More

    Defining G protein-coupled receptor peptide ligand expressomes and signalomes in human and mouse islets.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2018 Feb 17. Epub 2018 Feb 17.
    Department of Diabetes, Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine, King's College London, London, UK.
    Introduction: Islets synthesise and secrete numerous peptides, some of which are known to be important regulators of islet function and glucose homeostasis. In this study, we quantified mRNAs encoding all peptide ligands of islet G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in isolated human and mouse islets and carried out in vitro islet hormone secretion studies to provide functional confirmation for the species-specific role of peptide YY (PYY) in mouse islets.

    Materials And Methods: GPCR peptide ligand mRNAs in human and mouse islets were quantified by quantitative real-time PCR relative to the reference genes ACTB, GAPDH, PPIA, TBP and TFRC. Read More

    Author Correction: Beta cell connectivity in pancreatic islets: a type 2 diabetes target?
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2018 Apr;75(7):1303-1305
    Section of Cell Biology, Department of Medicine, Imperial College London, Imperial Centre for Translational and Experimental Medicine, Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London, W12 0NN, UK.
    The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. Legends of Figures 1 and 2 were interchanged. The correct versions are given below. Read More

    Folding and assembly defects of pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency-related variants in the E1α subunit of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2018 Feb 14. Epub 2018 Feb 14.
    Centre for Stochastic Geometry and Advanced Bioimaging, Aarhus University, 8000, Aarhus C, Denmark.
    The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) bridges glycolysis and the citric acid cycle. In human, PDC deficiency leads to severe neurodevelopmental delay and progressive neurodegeneration. The majority of cases are caused by variants in the gene encoding the PDC subunit E1α. Read More

    Conformational change of the extracellular parts of the CFTR protein during channel gating.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2018 Feb 14. Epub 2018 Feb 14.
    Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Dalhousie University, PO Box 15000, Halifax, NS, B3H 4R2, Canada.
    Cystic fibrosis can be treated by potentiators, drugs that interact directly with the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Clchannel to increase its open probability. These substances likely target key conformational changes occurring during channel opening and closing, however, the molecular bases of these conformational changes, and their susceptibility to manipulation are poorly understood. We have used patch clamp recording to identify changes in the three-dimensional organization of the extracellularly accessible parts of the CFTR protein during channel opening and closing. Read More

    Detailed analysis of the plasma extracellular vesicle proteome after separation from lipoproteins.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2018 Feb 13. Epub 2018 Feb 13.
    Krefting Research Centre, Institute of Medicine at Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    The isolation of extracellular vesicles (EVs) from blood is of great importance to understand the biological role of circulating EVs and to develop EVs as biomarkers of disease. Due to the concurrent presence of lipoprotein particles, however, blood is one of the most difficult body fluids to isolate EVs from. The aim of this study was to develop a robust method to isolate and characterise EVs from blood with minimal contamination by plasma proteins and lipoprotein particles. Read More

    RIPK4 activity in keratinocytes is controlled by the SCFubiquitin ligase to maintain cortical actin organization.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2018 Feb 12. Epub 2018 Feb 12.
    Molecular Signaling and Cell Death Unit, VIB-UGent Center for Inflammation Research, Technologiepark 927, 9052, Gent, Belgium.
    RIPK4 is a key player in epidermal differentiation and barrier formation. RIPK4 signaling pathways controlling keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation depend on its kinase activity leading to Dvl2, Pkp1 and IRF6 phosphorylation and NF-κB activation. However, the mechanism regulating RIPK4 activity levels remains elusive. Read More

    SLC52A3 expression is activated by NF-κB p65/Rel-B and serves as a prognostic biomarker in esophageal cancer.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2018 Feb 10. Epub 2018 Feb 10.
    The Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology for High Cancer Incidence Coastal Chaoshan Area, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, China.
    The human riboflavin transporter-3 (encoded by SLC52A3) plays a prominent role in riboflavin absorption. Interestingly, abnormal expression patterns of SLC52A3 in multiple types of human cancers have been recently noted. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying its dysregulation remain unclear. Read More

    The product of the γ-secretase processing of ephrinB2 regulates VE-cadherin complexes and angiogenesis.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2018 Feb 10. Epub 2018 Feb 10.
    Center for Molecular Biology and Genetics of Neurodegeneration, Departments of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA.
    Presenilin-1 (PS1) gene encodes the catalytic component of γ-secretase, which proteolytically processes several type I transmembrane proteins. We here present evidence that the cytosolic peptide efnB2/CTF2 produced by the PS1/γ-secretase cleavage of efnB2 ligand promotes EphB4 receptor-dependent angiogenesis in vitro. EfnB2/CTF2 increases endothelial cell sprouting and tube formation, stimulates the formation of angiogenic complexes that include VE-cadherin, Raf-1 and Rok-α, and increases MLC2 phosphorylation. Read More

    An emerging link between LIM domain proteins and nuclear receptors.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2018 Feb 10. Epub 2018 Feb 10.
    Department of Biochemistry, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.
    Nuclear receptors are ligand-activated transcription factors that partake in several biological processes including development, reproduction and metabolism. Over the last decade, evidence has accumulated that group 2, 3 and 4 LIM domain proteins, primarily known for their roles in actin cytoskeleton organization, also partake in gene transcription regulation. They shuttle between the cytoplasm and the nucleus, amongst other as a consequence of triggering cells with ligands of nuclear receptors. Read More

    Post-translational regulation of the maternal-to-zygotic transition.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2018 Feb 9. Epub 2018 Feb 9.
    State Key Laboratory of Stem Cell and Reproductive Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1 Beichen West Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing, 100101, People's Republic of China.
    The maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT) is essential for the developmental control handed from maternal products to newly synthesized zygotic genome in the earliest stages of embryogenesis, including maternal component (mRNAs and proteins) degradation and zygotic genome activation (ZGA). Various protein post-translational modifications have been identified during the MZT, such as phosphorylation, methylation and ubiquitination. Precise post-translational regulation mechanisms are essential for the timely transition of early embryonic development. Read More

    Giant fish-killing water bug reveals ancient and dynamic venom evolution in Heteroptera.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2018 Feb 9. Epub 2018 Feb 9.
    Institute for Molecular Bioscience, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD, 4072, Australia.
    True Bugs (Insecta: Heteroptera) produce venom or saliva with diverse bioactivities depending on their feeding strategies. However, little is known about the molecular evolution of the venom toxins underlying these biological activities. We examined venom of the giant fish-killing water bug Lethocerus distinctifemur (Insecta: Belostomatidae) using infrared spectroscopy, transcriptomics, and proteomics. Read More

    Autophagy as a target for glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis therapy.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2018 Feb 9. Epub 2018 Feb 9.
    Department of Spinal Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, 510405, China.
    Autophagy takes part in regulating the eukaryotic cells function and the progression of numerous diseases, but its clinical utility has not been fully developed yet. Recently, mounting evidences highlight an important correlation between autophagy and bone homeostasis, mediated by osteoclasts, osteocytes, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, and osteoblasts, and autophagy plays a vital role in the pathogenesis of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIOP). The combinations of autophagy activators/inhibitors with anti-GIOP first-line drugs or some new autophagy-based manipulators, such as regulation of B cell lymphoma 2 family proteins and caspase-dependent clearance of autophagy-related gene proteins, are likely to be the promising approaches for GIOP clinical treatments. Read More

    Lipids in the cell: organisation regulates function.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2018 Feb 9. Epub 2018 Feb 9.
    Institute of Biochemistry, Vilnius University, Sauletekio 7, LT-10257, Vilnius, Lithuania.
    Lipids are fundamental building blocks of all cells and play important roles in the pathogenesis of different diseases, including inflammation, autoimmune disease, cancer, and neurodegeneration. The lipid composition of different organelles can vary substantially from cell to cell, but increasing evidence demonstrates that lipids become organised specifically in each compartment, and this organisation is essential for regulating cell function. For example, lipid microdomains in the plasma membrane, known as lipid rafts, are platforms for concentrating protein receptors and can influence intra-cellular signalling. Read More

    Dissecting the biochemical architecture and morphological release pathways of the human platelet extracellular vesiculome.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2018 Feb 9. Epub 2018 Feb 9.
    Laboratory of Cellular Hematology, Office of Blood Research and Review, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 10903 New Hampshire Avenue, WO Bldg. 52/72, Room 4210, Silver Spring, MD, USA.
    Platelet extracellular vesicles (PEVs) have emerged as potential mediators in intercellular communication. PEVs exhibit several activities with pathophysiological importance and may serve as diagnostic biomarkers. Here, imaging and analytical techniques were employed to unveil morphological pathways of the release, structure, composition, and surface properties of PEVs derived from human platelets (PLTs) activated with the thrombin receptor activating peptide (TRAP). Read More

    Cellular functions of stem cell factors mediated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2018 Feb 8. Epub 2018 Feb 8.
    Department of Biomedical Science, CHA Stem Cell Institute, CHA University, 335 Pangyo-Ro, Bundang-Gu, Seongnam-Si, Gyeonggi-Do, 13488, Republic of Korea.
    Stem cells undergo partitioning through mitosis and separate into specific cells of each of the three embryonic germ layers: endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm. Pluripotency, reprogramming, and self-renewal are essential elements of embryonic stem cells (ESCs), and it is becoming evident that regulation of protein degradation mediated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is one of the key cellular mechanisms in ESCs. Although the framework of that mechanism may seem simple, it involves complicated proteolytic machinery. Read More

    The DNA double-strand "breakome" of mouse spermatids.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2018 Feb 7. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC, Canada.
    De novo germline mutations arise preferentially in male owing to fundamental differences between spermatogenesis and oogenesis. Post-meiotic chromatin remodeling in spermatids results in the elimination of most of the nucleosomal supercoiling and is characterized by transient DNA fragmentation. Using three alternative methods, DNA from sorted populations of mouse spermatids was used to confirm that double-strand breaks (DSB) are created in elongating spermatids and repaired at later steps. Read More

    Cellular and molecular mechanisms of HIV-1 integration targeting.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2018 Feb 7. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    Department of Cancer Immunology and Virology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, 450 Brookline Avenue, CLS-1010, Boston, MA, 02215, USA.
    Integration is central to HIV-1 replication and helps mold the reservoir of cells that persists in AIDS patients. HIV-1 interacts with specific cellular factors to target integration to interior regions of transcriptionally active genes within gene-dense regions of chromatin. The viral capsid interacts with several proteins that are additionally implicated in virus nuclear import, including cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor 6, to suppress integration into heterochromatin. Read More

    Stem cells from human apical papilla decrease neuro-inflammation and stimulate oligodendrocyte progenitor differentiation via activin-A secretion.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2018 Feb 7. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    Louvain Drug Research Institute (LDRI), Advanced Drug Delivery and Biomaterials (ADDB), Université Catholique de Louvain, Avenue E. Mounier 73, B1 73.12, 1200, Brussels, Belgium.
    Secondary damage following spinal cord injury leads to non-reversible lesions and hampering of the reparative process. The local production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α can exacerbate these events. Oligodendrocyte death also occurs, followed by progressive demyelination leading to significant tissue degeneration. Read More

    Mechanisms of autophagy and relevant small-molecule compounds for targeted cancer therapy.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2018 Feb 7. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, and Collaborative Innovation Center of Biotherapy, Chengdu, 610041, China.
    Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved, multi-step lysosomal degradation process for the clearance of damaged or superfluous proteins and organelles. Accumulating studies have recently revealed that autophagy is closely related to a variety of types of cancer; however, elucidation of its Janus role of either tumor-suppressive or tumor-promoting still remains to be discovered. In this review, we focus on summarizing the context-dependent role of autophagy and its complicated molecular mechanisms in different types of cancer. Read More

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator-emerging regulator of cancer.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2018 Feb 6. Epub 2018 Feb 6.
    Faculty of Medicine, Epithelial Cell Biology Research Center, School of Biomedical Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Sha Tin, Hong Kong SAR, People's Republic of China.
    Mutations of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) cause cystic fibrosis, the most common life-limiting recessive genetic disease among Caucasians. CFTR mutations have also been linked to increased risk of various cancers but remained controversial for a long time. Recent studies have begun to reveal that CFTR is not merely an ion channel but also an important regulator of cancer development and progression with multiple signaling pathways identified. Read More

    Bidirectional motility of kinesin-5 motor proteins: structural determinants, cumulative functions and physiological roles.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2018 Feb 3. Epub 2018 Feb 3.
    Department of Chemistry and Ilse Katz Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, PO Box 653, 84105, Beer-Sheva, Israel.
    Mitotic kinesin-5 bipolar motor proteins perform essential functions in mitotic spindle dynamics by crosslinking and sliding antiparallel microtubules (MTs) apart within the mitotic spindle. Two recent studies have indicated that single molecules of Cin8, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae kinesin-5 homolog, are minus end-directed when moving on single MTs, yet switch directionality under certain experimental conditions (Gerson-Gurwitz et al., EMBO J 30:4942-4954, 2011; Roostalu et al. Read More

    Nanos genes and their role in development and beyond.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2018 Feb 3. Epub 2018 Feb 3.
    VIB-UGent Center for Inflammation Research, Technologiepark 927, 9052, Ghent, Belgium.
    The hallmark of Nanos proteins is their typical (CCHC)zinc finger motif (zf-nanos). Animals have one to four nanos genes. For example, the fruit fly and demosponge have only one nanos gene, zebrafish and humans have three, and Fugu rubripes has four. Read More

    TSC1 and TSC2 regulate cilia length and canonical Hedgehog signaling via different mechanisms.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2018 Feb 2. Epub 2018 Feb 2.
    Applied Human Molecular Genetics, Clinical Genetic Clinic, Kennedy Center, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Gl. Landevej 7, 2600, Glostrup, Denmark.
    Primary cilia are sensory organelles that coordinate multiple cellular signaling pathways, including Hedgehog (HH), Wingless/Int (WNT) and Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGF-β) signaling. Similarly, primary cilia have been implicated in regulation of mTOR signaling, in which Tuberous Sclerosis Complex proteins 1 and 2 (TSC1/2) negatively regulate protein synthesis by inactivating the mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) at energy limiting states. Here we report that TSC1 and TSC2 regulate Smoothened (SMO)-dependent HH signaling in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). Read More

    Retinoic acid signaling and neurogenic niche regulation in the developing peripheral nervous system of the cephalochordate amphioxus.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2018 Jan 31. Epub 2018 Jan 31.
    Laboratoire de Biologie du Développement de Villefranche-sur-Mer, Observatoire Océanologique de Villefranche-sur-Mer, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Université Paris 06, CNRS, 181 Chemin du Lazaret, 06230, Villefranche-sur-Mer, France.
    The retinoic acid (RA) signaling pathway regulates axial patterning and neurogenesis in the developing central nervous system (CNS) of chordates, but little is known about its roles during peripheral nervous system (PNS) formation and about how these roles might have evolved. This study assesses the requirement of RA signaling for establishing a functional PNS in the cephalochordate amphioxus, the best available stand-in for the ancestral chordate condition. Pharmacological manipulation of RA signaling levels during embryogenesis reduces the ability of amphioxus larvae to respond to sensory stimulation and alters the number and distribution of ectodermal sensory neurons (ESNs) in a stage- and context-dependent manner. Read More

    Structure and dynamics of rotary Vmotor.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2018 Jan 31. Epub 2018 Jan 31.
    Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Chiba University, Chiba, 263-8522, Japan.
    Rotary ATPases are unique rotary molecular motors that function as energy conversion machines. Among all known rotary ATPases, F-ATPase is the best characterized rotary molecular motor. There are many high-resolution crystal structures and the rotation dynamics have been investigated in detail by extensive single-molecule studies. Read More

    Lnc-ing non-coding RNAs with metabolism and diabetes: roles of lncRNAs.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2018 Jan 31. Epub 2018 Jan 31.
    CSIR-Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology, Mall Road, Delhi, 110007, India.
    Type 2 diabetes is a complex metabolic disorder characterized by insulin resistance and pancreatic β-cell dysfunction. Deregulated glucose and lipid metabolism are the primary underlying manifestations associated with this disease and its complications. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a novel class of functional RNAs that regulate a variety of biological processes by a diverse interplay of mechanisms including recruitment of epigenetic modifiers, transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation, control of mRNA decay, and sequestration of transcription factors. Read More

    Analysis of novel endosome-to-Golgi retrieval genes reveals a role for PLD3 in regulating endosomal protein sorting and amyloid precursor protein processing.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2018 Jan 24. Epub 2018 Jan 24.
    Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, University of Cambridge, Wellcome Trust/MRC Building, Hills Road, Cambridge, CB2 0XY, UK.
    The processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) to the neurotoxic pro-aggregatory Aβ peptide is controlled by the mechanisms that govern the trafficking and localisation of APP. We hypothesised that genes involved in endosomal protein sorting could play an important role in regulating APP processing and, therefore, analysed ~ 40 novel endosome-to-Golgi retrieval genes previously identified in a genome-wide siRNA screen. We report that phospholipase D3 (PLD3), a type II membrane protein, functions in endosomal protein sorting and plays an important role in regulating APP processing. Read More

    Tumor suppressor C-RASSF proteins.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2018 Jan 20. Epub 2018 Jan 20.
    Department of Medical Biochemistry, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8519, Japan.
    Human genome has ten genes that are collectedly called Ras association domain family (RASSF). RASSF is composed of two subclasses, C-RASSF and N-RASSF. Both N-RASSF and C-RASSF encode Ras association domain-containing proteins and are frequently suppressed by DNA hypermethylation in human cancers. Read More

    HBeAg induces the expression of macrophage miR-155 to accelerate liver injury via promoting production of inflammatory cytokines.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2018 Jan 18. Epub 2018 Jan 18.
    Shandong Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan, 250021, Shandong, China.
    Activation of Kupffer cells (KCs) induced that inflammatory cytokine production plays a central role in the pathogenesis of HBV infection. The previous studies from our and other laboratory demonstrated miRNAs can regulate TLR-inducing inflammatory responses to macrophage. However, the involvement of miRNAs in HBV-associated antigen-induced macrophage activation is still not thoroughly understood. Read More

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