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    5446 results match your criteria Cellular and molecular life sciences : CMLS[Journal]

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    Early SIV and HIV infection promotes the LILRB2/MHC-I inhibitory axis in cDCs.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Nov 13. Epub 2017 Nov 13.
    CEA-Université Paris Sud 11-INSERM U1184, Immunology of Viral Infections and Autoimmune Diseases (IMVA), IDMIT Department, IBJF, DRF, Fontenay-aux-Roses, France.
    Classical dendritic cells (cDCs) play a pivotal role in the early events that tip the immune response toward persistence or viral control. In vitro studies indicate that HIV infection induces the dysregulation of cDCs through binding of the LILRB2 inhibitory receptor to its MHC-I ligands and the strength of this interaction was proposed to drive disease progression. However, the dynamics of the LILRB2/MHC-I inhibitory axis in cDCs during early immune responses against HIV are yet unknown. Read More

    The ancient claudin Dni2 facilitates yeast cell fusion by compartmentalizing Dni1 into a membrane subdomain.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Nov 13. Epub 2017 Nov 13.
    Departamento de Microbiología y Genética, Universidad de Salamanca, Calle Zacarías González 2, Lab P1.1, Edificio IBFG, 37007, Salamanca, Spain.
    Dni1 and Dni2 facilitate cell fusion during mating. Here, we show that these proteins are interdependent for their localization in a plasma membrane subdomain, which we have termed the mating fusion domain. Dni1 compartmentation in the domain is required for cell fusion. Read More

    Epigenetic differences between naïve and primed pluripotent stem cells.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Nov 13. Epub 2017 Nov 13.
    Laboratory for Developmental Epigenetics, RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology, 2-2-3 Minatojima-minamimachi, Chuo-ku, Kobe, 650-0047, Japan.
    It has been 8 years since the concept of naïve and primed pluripotent stem cell states was first proposed. Both are states of pluripotency, but exhibit slightly different properties. The naïve state represents the cellular state of the preimplantation mouse blastocyst inner cell mass, while the primed state is representative of the post-implantation epiblast cells. Read More

    BRD7 regulates the insulin-signaling pathway by increasing phosphorylation of GSK3β.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Nov 10. Epub 2017 Nov 10.
    Division of Endocrinology, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, 02115, USA.
    Reduced hepatic expression levels of bromodomain-containing protein 7 (BRD7) have been suggested to play a role in the development of glucose intolerance in obesity. However, the molecular mechanism by which BRD7 regulates glucose metabolism has remained unclear. Here, we show that BRD7 increases phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) in response to activation of the insulin receptor-signaling pathway shortly after insulin stimulation and the nutrient-sensing pathway after feeding. Read More

    Gain of function of TMEM16E/ANO5 scrambling activity caused by a mutation associated with gnathodiaphyseal dysplasia.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Nov 9. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Institute of Biophysics, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Via de Marini 6, 16149, Genova, Italy.
    Mutations in the human TMEM16E (ANO5) gene are associated both with the bone disease gnathodiaphyseal dysplasia (GDD; OMIM: 166260) and muscle dystrophies (OMIM: 611307, 613319). However, the physiological function of TMEM16E has remained unclear. We show here that human TMEM16E, when overexpressed in mammalian cell lines, displayed partial plasma membrane localization and gave rise to phospholipid scrambling (PLS) as well as non-selective ionic currents with slow time-dependent activation at highly depolarized membrane potentials. Read More

    The β6/β7 region of the Hsp70 substrate-binding domain mediates heat-shock response and prion propagation.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Nov 9. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Department of Biology, Maynooth University, Maynooth, Co. Kildare, Ireland.
    Hsp70 is a highly conserved chaperone that in addition to providing essential cellular functions and aiding in cell survival following exposure to a variety of stresses is also a key modulator of prion propagation. Hsp70 is composed of a nucleotide-binding domain (NBD) and substrate-binding domain (SBD). The key functions of Hsp70 are tightly regulated through an allosteric communication network that coordinates ATPase activity with substrate-binding activity. Read More

    Mouse models for human intestinal microbiota research: a critical evaluation.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Nov 9. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Laboratory of Microbiology, Wageningen University, Stippeneng 4, Building 124, 6708 WE, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Since the early days of the intestinal microbiota research, mouse models have been used frequently to study the interaction of microbes with their host. However, to translate the knowledge gained from mouse studies to a human situation, the major spatio-temporal similarities and differences between intestinal microbiota in mice and humans need to be considered. This is done here with specific attention for the comparative physiology of the intestinal tract, the effect of dietary patterns and differences in genetics. Read More

    Re-evaluation of protein kinase CK2 pleiotropy: new insights provided by a phosphoproteomics analysis of CK2 knockout cells.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Nov 9. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Padova, Via U. Bassi 58/B, Padua, Italy.
    CK2 denotes a ubiquitous and pleiotropic protein kinase whose holoenzyme is composed of two catalytic (α and/or α') and two regulatory β subunits. The CK2 consensus sequence, S/T-x-x-D/E/pS/pT is present in numerous phosphosites, but it is not clear how many of these are really generated by CK2. To gain information about this issue, advantage has been taken of C2C12 cells entirely deprived of both CK2 catalytic subunits by the CRISPR/Cas9 methodology. Read More

    The emerging role of galectins in high-fatality cancers.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Nov 8. Epub 2017 Nov 8.
    INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier, 531 Boul. des Prairies, Laval, QC, H7V 1B7, Canada.
    Although we witnessed considerable progress in the prevention and treatment of cancer during the past few decades, a number of cancers remain difficult to treat. The main reasons for this are a lack of effective biomarkers necessary for an early detection and inefficient treatments for cancer that are diagnosed at late stages of the disease. Because of their alarmin-like properties and their protumorigenic role during cancer progression, members of the galectin family are uniquely positioned to provide information that could be used for the exploration of possible avenues for the treatment of high fatality cancer (HFC). Read More

    Macropinocytosis, mTORC1 and cellular growth control.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Nov 8. Epub 2017 Nov 8.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109-5620, USA.
    The growth and proliferation of metazoan cells are driven by cellular nutrient status and by extracellular growth factors. Growth factor receptors on cell surfaces initiate biochemical signals that increase anabolic metabolism and macropinocytosis, an actin-dependent endocytic process in which relatively large volumes of extracellular solutes and nutrients are internalized and delivered efficiently into lysosomes. Macropinocytosis is prominent in many kinds of cancer cells, and supports the growth of cells transformed by oncogenic K-Ras. Read More

    Low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 couples β1 integrin activation to degradation.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Nov 7. Epub 2017 Nov 7.
    Department of Biochemistry, Justus Liebig University, 35392, Giessen, Germany.
    Low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) 1 modulates cell adhesion and motility under normal and pathological conditions. Previous studies documented that LRP1 binds several integrin receptors and mediates their trafficking to the cell surface and endocytosis. However, the mechanism by which LRP1 may regulate integrin activation remains unknown. Read More

    Molecular roles and function of circular RNAs in eukaryotic cells.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Nov 7. Epub 2017 Nov 7.
    Institute of Laboratory Medicine, University Hospital, LMU Munich, Marchioninistr. 15, 81377, Munich, Germany.
    Protein-coding and noncoding genes in eukaryotes are typically expressed as linear messenger RNAs, with exons arranged colinearly to their genomic order. Recent advances in sequencing and in mapping RNA reads to reference genomes have revealed that thousands of genes express also covalently closed circular RNAs. Many of these circRNAs are stable and contain exons, but are not translated into proteins. Read More

    Homologous recombination-mediated repair of DNA double-strand breaks operates in mammalian mitochondria.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Nov 7. Epub 2017 Nov 7.
    Department of Biochemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, 560 012, India.
    Mitochondrial DNA is frequently exposed to oxidative damage, as compared to nuclear DNA. Previously, we have shown that while microhomology-mediated end joining can account for DNA deletions in mitochondria, classical nonhomologous DNA end joining, the predominant double-strand break (DSB) repair pathway in nucleus, is undetectable. In the present study, we investigated the presence of homologous recombination (HR) in mitochondria to maintain its genomic integrity. Read More

    The emerging roles for the chromatin structure regulators CTCF and cohesin in neurodevelopment and behavior.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Nov 6. Epub 2017 Nov 6.
    Molecular and Behavioral Neurosciences Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine in the Galilee, Bar-Ilan University, Hanrietta Sold 8, 1311502, Safed, Israel.
    Recent genetic and technological advances have determined a role for chromatin structure in neurodevelopment. In particular, compounding evidence has established roles for CTCF and cohesin, two elements that are central in the establishment of chromatin structure, in proper neurodevelopment and in regulation of behavior. Genetic aberrations in CTCF, and in subunits of the cohesin complex, have been associated with neurodevelopmental disorders in human genetic studies, and subsequent animal studies have established definitive, although sometime opposing roles, for these factors in neurodevelopment and behavior. Read More

    Master regulatory role of p63 in epidermal development and disease.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Nov 4. Epub 2017 Nov 4.
    Department of Molecular Developmental Biology, Faculty of Science, Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences, Radboud University, 274, Postbus 9101, 6500HB, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    The transcription factor p63 is a master regulator of epidermal development. Mutations in p63 give rise to human developmental diseases that often manifest epidermal defects. In this review, we summarize major p63 isoforms identified so far and p63 mutation-associated human diseases that show epidermal defects. Read More

    RNA cytosine methyltransferase Nsun3 regulates embryonic stem cell differentiation by promoting mitochondrial activity.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Nov 4. Epub 2017 Nov 4.
    Division of Molecular Biology, Biocenter, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innrain 80-82, 6020, Innsbruck, Austria.
    Chemical modifications of RNA have been attracting increasing interest because of their impact on RNA fate and function. Therefore, the characterization of enzymes catalyzing such modifications is of great importance. The RNA cytosine methyltransferase NSUN3 was recently shown to generate 5-methylcytosine in the anticodon loop of mitochondrial tRNA(Met). Read More

    SUMOylation controls stem cell proliferation and regional cell death through Hedgehog signaling in planarians.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Nov 2. Epub 2017 Nov 2.
    Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, 5200 North Lake Road, Merced, CA, 95343, USA.
    Mechanisms underlying anteroposterior body axis differences during adult tissue maintenance and regeneration are poorly understood. Here, we identify that post-translational modifications through the SUMO (Small Ubiquitin-like Modifier) machinery are evolutionarily conserved in the Lophotrocozoan Schmidtea mediterranea. Disruption of SUMOylation in adult animals by RNA-interference of the only SUMO E2 conjugating enzyme Ubc9 leads to a systemic increase in DNA damage and a remarkable regional defect characterized by increased cell death and loss of the posterior half of the body. Read More

    Neurotrophin-conjugated nanoparticles prevent retina damage induced by oxidative stress.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Nov 2. Epub 2017 Nov 2.
    Department of Biology, Università di Pisa, 56127, Pisa, Italy.
    Glaucoma and other optic neuropathies are characterized by a loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), a cell layer located in the posterior eye segment. Several preclinical studies demonstrate that neurotrophins (NTs) prevent RGC loss. However, NTs are rarely investigated in the clinic due to various issues, such as difficulties in reaching the retina, the very short half-life of NTs, and the need for multiple injections. Read More

    Shedding light on mitophagy in neurons: what is the evidence for PINK1/Parkin mitophagy in vivo?
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Oct 30. Epub 2017 Oct 30.
    Clem Jones Centre for Ageing Dementia Research, Queensland Brain Institute, The University of Queensland, St Lucia Campus, Brisbane, QLD, 4072, Australia.
    Neurons are highly specialised cells with a large bioenergetic demand, and so require a healthy mitochondrial network to function effectively. This network is compromised in many neurological disorders, in which damaged mitochondria accumulate. Dysfunctional mitochondria can be removed via an organelle-specific autophagic pathway, a process known as mitophagy. Read More

    Characterizations of PMCA2-interacting complex and its role as a calcium oxalate crystal-binding protein.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Oct 30. Epub 2017 Oct 30.
    Medical Proteomics Unit, Office for Research and Development, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, 6th Floor-SiMR Building, 2 Wanglang Road, Bangkoknoi, Bangkok, 10700, Thailand.
    Three isoforms of plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase (PMCA) are expressed in the kidney. While PMCA1 and PMCA4 play major role in regulating Ca(2+) reabsorption, the role for PMCA2 remains vaguely defined. To define PMCA2 function, PMCA2-interacting complex was characterized by immunoprecipitation followed by nanoLC-ESI-Qq-TripleTOF MS/MS (IP-MS). Read More

    Human endoglin as a potential new partner involved in platelet-endothelium interactions.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Oct 28. Epub 2017 Oct 28.
    Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Ramiro de Maeztu, 9, 28040, Madrid, Spain.
    Complex interactions between platelets and activated endothelium occur during the thrombo-inflammatory reaction at sites of vascular injuries and during vascular hemostasis. The endothelial receptor endoglin is involved in inflammation through integrin-mediated leukocyte adhesion and transmigration; and heterozygous mutations in the endoglin gene cause hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia type 1. This vascular disease is characterized by a bleeding tendency that is postulated to be a consequence of telangiectasia fragility rather than a platelet defect, since platelets display normal functions in vitro in this condition. Read More

    Post-translational add-ons mark the path in exosomal protein sorting.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Oct 27. Epub 2017 Oct 27.
    Vascular Pathophysiology Research Area, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares Carlos III (CNIC), Madrid, Spain.
    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are released by cells to the extracellular environment to mediate inter-cellular communication. Proteins, lipids, nucleic acids and metabolites shuttled in these vesicles modulate specific functions in recipient cells. The enrichment of selected sets of proteins in EVs compared with global cellular levels suggests the existence of specific sorting mechanisms to specify EV loading. Read More

    Flagellin glycosylation with pseudaminic acid in Campylobacter and Helicobacter: prospects for development of novel therapeutics.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Oct 27. Epub 2017 Oct 27.
    Infection and Immunity Program, Monash Biomedicine Discovery Institute and Department of Microbiology, Monash University, Clayton, VIC, Australia.
    Many pathogenic bacteria require flagella-mediated motility to colonise and persist in their hosts. Helicobacter pylori and Campylobacter jejuni are flagellated epsilonproteobacteria associated with several human pathologies, including gastritis, acute diarrhea, gastric carcinoma and neurological disorders. In both species, glycosylation of flagellin with an unusual sugar pseudaminic acid (Pse) plays a crucial role in the biosynthesis of functional flagella, and thereby in bacterial motility and pathogenesis. Read More

    Downregulation of p53 drives autophagy during human trophoblast differentiation.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Oct 27. Epub 2017 Oct 27.
    Institute of Cell Biology, Histology and Embryology, Medical University Graz, Neue Stiftingtalstraße 6, F/03/38, 8010, Graz, Austria.
    The placental barrier is crucial for the supply of nutrients and oxygen to the developing fetus and is maintained by differentiation and fusion of mononucleated cytotrophoblasts into the syncytiotrophoblast, a process only partially understood. Here transcriptome and pathway analyses during differentiation and fusion of cultured trophoblasts yielded p53 signaling as negative upstream regulator and indicated an upregulation of autophagy-related genes. We further showed p53 mRNA and protein levels decreased during trophoblast differentiation. Read More

    Protein kinase D inhibitor CRT0066101 suppresses bladder cancer growth in vitro and xenografts via blockade of the cell cycle at G2/M.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Oct 25. Epub 2017 Oct 25.
    Urologic Oncology Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, 20892, USA.
    The protein kinase D (PKD) family of proteins are important regulators of tumor growth, development, and progression. CRT0066101, an inhibitor of PKD, has antitumor activity in multiple types of carcinomas. However, the effect and mechanism of CRT0066101 in bladder cancer are not understood. Read More

    Microcystin-leucine-arginine causes blood-testis barrier disruption and degradation of occludin mediated by matrix metalloproteinase-8.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Oct 25. Epub 2017 Oct 25.
    Immunology and Reproduction Biology Laboratory & State Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, Medical School, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210093, China.
    Microcystin-leucine-arginine (MC-LR) can cause male reproductive disorders. However, the underlying mechanisms are not yet fully understood. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of MC-LR on the integrity of blood-testis barrier (BTB) and the related molecular mechanisms. Read More

    Cadherin 22 participates in the self-renewal of mouse female germ line stem cells via interaction with JAK2 and β-catenin.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Oct 24. Epub 2017 Oct 24.
    College of Animal Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, 210095, China.
    The self-renewal capacity of the stem cell pool determines tissue function and health. Cadherin-22 (Cdh22), a member of the cadherin superfamily, has two splicing patterns in rats, and the short type that lacks a catenin binding domain is closely related to spermatogonial stem cell self-renewal. Previously, we reported that CDH22 was highly expressed in mouse ovary germ cells, especially in female germ line stem cells (FGSCs). Read More

    Resculpting the binding pocket of APC superfamily LeuT-fold amino acid transporters.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Oct 23. Epub 2017 Oct 23.
    Institute for Cell and Molecular Biosciences, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE2 4HH, UK.
    Amino acid transporters are essential components of prokaryote and eukaryote cells, possess distinct physiological functions, and differ markedly in substrate specificity. Amino acid transporters can be both drug targets and drug transporters (bioavailability, targeting) with many monogenic disorders resulting from dysfunctional membrane transport. The largest collection of amino acid transporters (including the mammalian SLC6, SLC7, SLC32, SLC36, and SLC38 families), across all kingdoms of life, is within the Amino acid-Polyamine-organoCation (APC) superfamily. Read More

    WNT signaling, the development of the sympathoadrenal-paraganglionic system and neuroblastoma.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Oct 22. Epub 2017 Oct 22.
    Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University Medical School Göttingen, 37075, Göttingen, Germany.
    Neuroblastoma (NB) is a tumor of the sympathoadrenal system arising in children under 15 years of age. In Germany, NB accounts for 7% of childhood cancer cases, but 11% of cancer deaths. It originates from highly migratory progenitor cells that leave the dorsal neural tube and contribute neurons and glial cells to sympathetic ganglia, and chromaffin and supportive cells to the adrenal medulla and paraganglia. Read More

    Characterization of a set of abdominal neuroendocrine cells that regulate stress physiology using colocalized diuretic peptides in Drosophila.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Oct 17. Epub 2017 Oct 17.
    Department of Zoology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Multiple neuropeptides are known to regulate water and ion balance in Drosophila melanogaster. Several of these peptides also have other functions in physiology and behavior. Examples are corticotropin-releasing factor-like diuretic hormone (diuretic hormone 44; DH44) and leucokinin (LK), both of which induce fluid secretion by Malpighian tubules (MTs), but also regulate stress responses, feeding, circadian activity and other behaviors. Read More

    CD4 and CD8 T lymphocyte interplay in controlling tumor growth.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Oct 14. Epub 2017 Oct 14.
    Clinic for Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Endocrinology, Hannover Medical School, Carl Neuberg Str. 1, 30625, Hannover, Germany.
    The outstanding clinical success of immune checkpoint blockade has revived the interest in underlying mechanisms of the immune system that are capable of eliminating tumors even in advanced stages. In this scenario, CD4 and CD8 T cell responses are part of the cancer immune cycle and both populations significantly influence the clinical outcome. In general, the immune system has evolved several mechanisms to protect the host against cancer. Read More

    Gut microbiota changes in the extreme decades of human life: a focus on centenarians.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Oct 14. Epub 2017 Oct 14.
    Institute of Neurological Sciences (IRCCS), Via Altura 3, 40139, Bologna, Italy.
    The gut microbiota (GM) is a complex, evolutionarily molded ecological system, which contributes to a variety of physiological functions. The GM is highly dynamic, being sensitive to environmental stimuli, and its composition changes over the host's entire lifespan. However, the basic question of how much these changes may be ascribed to variables such as population, diet, genetics and gender, and/or to the aging process per se is still largely unanswered. Read More

    Epigenetic regulators: multifunctional proteins modulating hypoxia-inducible factor-α protein stability and activity.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Oct 14. Epub 2017 Oct 14.
    Department of Pathology, UT Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Blvd., Dallas, TX, 75390, USA.
    The hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) is a heterodimeric transcription factor governing a transcriptional program in response to reduced O2 availability in metazoans. It contributes to physiology and pathogenesis of many human diseases through its downstream target genes. Emerging studies have shown that the transcriptional activity of HIF is highly regulated at multiple levels and the epigenetic regulators are essential for HIF-mediated transactivation. Read More

    Role of gut microbiota in aging-related health decline: insights from invertebrate models.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Oct 12. Epub 2017 Oct 12.
    Department of Integrative Biology and Physiology, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, 90095, USA.
    Studies in mammals, including humans, have reported age-related changes in microbiota dynamics. A major challenge, however, is to dissect the cause and effect relationships involved. Invertebrate model organisms such as the fruit fly Drosophila and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans have been invaluable in studies of the biological mechanisms of aging. Read More

    Author Correction: Molecular basis of mycobacterial survival in macrophages.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Oct 11. Epub 2017 Oct 11.
    Centre of Molecular Inflammation Research, Department of Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, PB 8905, 7491, Trondheim, Norway.
    One of the author affiliations was missed to include in the original publication. The correct information is given below. Read More

    Molecular components and polarity of radial glial cells during cerebral cortex development.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Oct 10. Epub 2017 Oct 10.
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Kansas Medical Center, 3901 Rainbow Blvd., Kansas City, KS, 66160, USA.
    Originating from ectodermal epithelium, radial glial cells (RGCs) retain apico-basolateral polarity and comprise a pseudostratified epithelial layer in the developing cerebral cortex. The apical endfeet of the RGCs faces the fluid-filled ventricles, while the basal processes extend across the entire cortical span towards the pial surface. RGC functions are largely dependent on this polarized structure and the molecular components that define it. Read More

    Differential gene regulatory networks in development and disease.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Oct 10. Epub 2017 Oct 10.
    Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, 97331, USA.
    Gene regulatory networks, in which differential expression of regulator genes induce differential expression of their target genes, underlie diverse biological processes such as embryonic development, organ formation and disease pathogenesis. An archetypical systems biology approach to mapping these networks involves the combined application of (1) high-throughput sequencing-based transcriptome profiling (RNA-seq) of biopsies under diverse network perturbations and (2) network inference based on gene-gene expression correlation analysis. The comparative analysis of such correlation networks across cell types or states, differential correlation network analysis, can identify specific molecular signatures and functional modules that underlie the state transition or have context-specific function. Read More

    iPSC-derived neural precursor cells: potential for cell transplantation therapy in spinal cord injury.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Oct 9. Epub 2017 Oct 9.
    Department of Physiology, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjukuku, Tokyo, 160-8582, Japan.
    A number of studies have demonstrated that transplantation of neural precursor cells (NPCs) promotes functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI). However, the NPCs had been mostly harvested from embryonic stem cells or fetal tissue, raising the ethical concern. Yamanaka and his colleagues established induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) which could be generated from somatic cells, and this innovative development has made rapid progression in the field of SCI regeneration. Read More

    Do anti-stroma therapies improve extrinsic resistance to increase the efficacy of gemcitabine in pancreatic cancer?
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Oct 9. Epub 2017 Oct 9.
    Department of Pancreatic and Hepatobiliary Surgery, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, 270 Dongan Road, Shanghai, 200032, People's Republic of China.
    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is among the most devastating human malignancies, with approximately 20-30% of PDAC patients receiving the surgical resection with curative intent. Although many studies have focused on finding ideal "drug chaperones" that facilitate and/or potentiate the effects of gemcitabine (GEM) in pancreatic cancer, a significant benefit in overall survival could not be demonstrated for any of these combination therapies in PDAC. Given that pancreatic cancer is characterized by desmoplasia and the dual biological roles of stroma in pancreatic cancer, we reassess the importance of stroma in GEM-based therapeutic approaches in light of current findings. Read More

    Control of HIV infection by IFN-α: implications for latency and a cure.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Oct 7. Epub 2017 Oct 7.
    School of Biochemistry and Immunology, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.
    Viral infections, including HIV, trigger the production of type I interferons (IFNs), which in turn, activate a signalling cascade that ultimately culminates with the expression of anti-viral proteins. Mounting evidence suggests that type I IFNs, in particular IFN-α, play a pivotal role in limiting acute HIV infection. Highly active anti-retroviral treatment reduces viral load and increases life expectancy in HIV positive patients; however, it fails to fully eliminate latent HIV reservoirs. Read More

    Role of cell cycle regulators in adipose tissue and whole body energy homeostasis.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Oct 7. Epub 2017 Oct 7.
    Center for Integrative Genomics, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.
    In the course of the last decades, metabolism research has demonstrated that adipose tissue is not an inactive tissue. Rather, adipocytes are key actors of whole body energy homeostasis. Numerous novel regulators of adipose tissue differentiation and function have been identified. Read More

    Early microbiota, antibiotics and health.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Oct 7. Epub 2017 Oct 7.
    Department of Microbiology and Biochemistry of Dairy Products, Instituto de Productos Lácteos de Asturias, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (IPLA-CSIC), Paseo Rio Linares s/n, 33300, Villaviciosa, Asturias, Spain.
    The colonization of the neonatal digestive tract provides a microbial stimulus required for an adequate maturation towards the physiological homeostasis of the host. This colonization, which is affected by several factors, begins with facultative anaerobes and continues with anaerobic genera. Accumulating evidence underlines the key role of the early neonatal period for this microbiota-induced maturation, being a key determinant factor for later health. Read More

    Selected aspects of the human gut microbiota.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Oct 6. Epub 2017 Oct 6.
    School of Microbiology, APC Microbiome Institute, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
    The gut microbiota represents a highly complex assembly of microbes, which interact with each other and with their host. These interactions have various implications in terms of health and disease, and this multi-author review issue will address a number of selected aspects pertaining to gut microbiota research. Read More

    Microbiome-health interactions in older people.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Oct 6. Epub 2017 Oct 6.
    School of Microbiology and APC Microbiome Institute, University College Cork, Cork, T12 YN60, Ireland.
    Alterations in the composition and function of the gut microbiome have been implicated in a range of conditions and diseases. Culture-dependent and culture-independent studies both showed that older people harbour a gut microbiome that differs in composition from that of younger adults. Detailed analyses have identified discrete microbiota subtypes that characterize intermediates between a high diversity microbiota found in healthy community-dwelling subjects and a low diversity microbiota typical for elderly living in long-term residential care. Read More

    Bifidobacteria and the infant gut: an example of co-evolution and natural selection.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Oct 5. Epub 2017 Oct 5.
    Laboratory of Probiogenomics, Department of Chemistry, Life Sciences and Environmental Sustainability, University of Parma, Parma, Italy.
    Throughout the human life, the gut microbiota interacts with us in a number of different ways, thereby influencing our health status. The acquisition of such an interactive gut microbiota commences at birth. Medical and environmental factors including diet, antibiotic exposure and mode of delivery are major factors that shape the composition of the microbial communities in the infant gut. Read More

    The impact of thyroid hormone in seasonal breeding has a restricted transcriptional signature.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Oct 3. Epub 2017 Oct 3.
    PRC, INRA, CNRS, IFCE, Université de Tours, 37380, Nouzilly, France.
    Thyroid hormone (TH) directs seasonal breeding through reciprocal regulation of TH deiodinase (Dio2/Dio3) gene expression in tanycytes in the ependymal zone of the medio-basal hypothalamus (MBH). Thyrotropin secretion by the pars tuberalis (PT) is a major photoperiod-dependent upstream regulator of Dio2/Dio3 gene expression. Long days enhance thyrotropin production, which increases Dio2 expression and suppresses Dio3 expression, thereby heightening TH signaling in the MBH. Read More

    Mesenchymal stem cells from preterm to term newborns undergo a significant switch from anaerobic glycolysis to the oxidative phosphorylation.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Oct 3. Epub 2017 Oct 3.
    Stem Cell Laboratory and Cell Therapy Center, IRCCS Istituto Giannina Gaslini, 16147, Genoa, Italy.
    We evaluated the energy metabolism of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) isolated from umbilical cord (UC) of preterm (< 37 weeks of gestational age) and term (≥ 37 weeks of gestational age) newborns, using MSC from adult bone marrow as control. A metabolic switch has been observed around the 34th week of gestational age from a prevalently anaerobic glycolysis to the oxidative phosphorylation. This metabolic change is associated with the organization of mitochondria reticulum: preterm MSCs presented a scarcely organized mitochondrial reticulum and low expression of proteins involved in the mitochondrial fission/fusion, compared to term MSCs. Read More

    A double dealing tale of p63: an oncogene or a tumor suppressor.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Oct 3. Epub 2017 Oct 3.
    Center of Growth, Metabolism and Aging, Key Laboratory of Biological Resources and Ecological Environment of Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610065, China.
    As a member of tumor suppressor p53 family, p63, a gene encoding versatile protein variant, has been documented to correlate with cancer formation and progression, though it is rarely mutated in cancer patients. However, it has long been controversial on whether p63 is an oncogene or a tumor suppressor. Here, we comprehensively reviewed reports on roles of p63 in development, tumorigenesis and tumor progression. Read More

    Phoenixin-14: detection and novel physiological implications in cardiac modulation and cardioprotection.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Sep 30. Epub 2017 Sep 30.
    Lab of Cellular and Molecular Cardiac Physiology, Department of Biology, Ecology and Earth Sciences, University of Calabria, 87036, Arcavacata di Rende, CS, Italy.
    Phoenixin-14 (PNX) is a newly identified peptide co-expressed in the hypothalamus with the anorexic and cardioactive Nesfatin-1. Like Nesfatin-1, PNX is able to cross the blood-brain barrier and this suggests a role in peripheral modulation. Preliminary mass spectrography data indicate that, in addition to the hypothalamus, PNX is present in the mammalian heart. Read More

    Vascular stem/progenitor cells: functions and signaling pathways.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Sep 27. Epub 2017 Sep 27.
    The State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510060, People's Republic of China.
    Vascular stem/progenitor cells (VSCs) are an important source of all types of vascular cells needed to build, maintain, repair, and remodel blood vessels. VSCs, therefore, play critical roles in the development, normal physiology, and pathophysiology of numerous diseases. There are four major types of VSCs, including endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), smooth muscle progenitor cells (SMPCs), pericytes, and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Read More

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