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    5393 results match your criteria Cellular and molecular life sciences : CMLS[Journal]

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    Crystal structures of eukaryote glycosyltransferases reveal biologically relevant enzyme homooligomers.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Sep 20. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    Faculty of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, University of Oulu, PO Box 5400, 90014, Oulu, Finland.
    Glycosyltransferases (GTases) transfer sugar moieties to proteins, lipids or existing glycan or polysaccharide molecules. GTases form an important group of enzymes in the Golgi, where the synthesis and modification of glycoproteins and glycolipids take place. Golgi GTases are almost invariably type II integral membrane proteins, with the C-terminal globular catalytic domain residing in the Golgi lumen. Read More

    Ablation of kallikrein 7 (KLK7) in adipose tissue ameliorates metabolic consequences of high fat diet-induced obesity by counteracting adipose tissue inflammation in vivo.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Sep 20. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    Institute of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biosciences, Pharmacy and Psychology, University of Leipzig, Brüderstr. 34, 04103, Leipzig, Germany.
    Vaspin is an adipokine which improves glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity in obesity. Kallikrein 7 (KLK7) is the first known protease target inhibited by vaspin and a potential target for the treatment of metabolic disorders. Here, we tested the hypothesis that inhibition of KLK7 in adipose tissue may beneficially affect glucose metabolism and adipose tissue function. Read More

    TUSC3: functional duality of a cancer gene.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Sep 19. Epub 2017 Sep 19.
    Department of Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Kamenice 126/3, 625 00, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Two decades ago, following a systematic screening of LOH regions on chromosome 8p22, TUSC3 has been identified as a candidate tumor suppressor gene in ovarian, prostate and pancreatic cancers. Since then, a growing body of evidence documented its clinical importance in various other types of cancers, and first initial insights into its molecular function and phenotypic effects have been gained, though the precise role of TUSC3 in different cancers remains unclear. As a part of the oligosaccharyltransferase complex, TUSC3 localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum and functions in final steps of N-glycosylation of proteins, while its loss evokes the unfolded protein response. Read More

    Platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta identifies mesenchymal stem cells with enhanced engraftment to tissue injury and pro-angiogenic property.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Sep 19. Epub 2017 Sep 19.
    The Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Health Sciences and Technology, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, L406A, Tsinghua Campus, The University Town, Shenzhen, 518055, China.
    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are heterogeneous likely consisting of subpopulations with various therapeutic potentials. Here we attempted to acquire a subset of MSCs with enhanced effect in wound healing. We found that human placental MSCs expressing platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor (PDGFR)-β exhibited greater proliferation rates and generated more colony-forming unit-fibroblast (CFU-F), compared to PDGFR-β(-) MSCs. Read More

    C3aR and C5aR1 act as key regulators of human and mouse β-cell function.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Sep 18. Epub 2017 Sep 18.
    Diabetes Research Group, Division of Diabetes and Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine, Hodgkin Building, King's College London, Guy's Campus, London, SE1 1UL, UK.
    Aims: Complement components 3 and 5 (C3 and C5) play essential roles in the complement system, generating C3a and C5a peptides that are best known as chemotactic and inflammatory factors. In this study we characterised islet expression of C3 and C5 complement components, and the impact of C3aR and C5aR1 activation on islet function and viability.

    Materials And Methods: Human and mouse islet mRNAs encoding key elements of the complement system were quantified by qPCR and distribution of C3 and C5 proteins was determined by immunohistochemistry. Read More

    The role of periostin in lung fibrosis and airway remodeling.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Sep 16. Epub 2017 Sep 16.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, University of Michigan, 4053 BSRB, 109 Zina Pitcher Place, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109-2200, USA.
    Periostin is a protein that plays a key role in development and repair within the biological matrix of the lung. As a matricellular protein that does not contribute to extracellular matrix structure, periostin interacts with other extracellular matrix proteins to regulate the composition of the matrix in the lung and other organs. In this review, we discuss the studies exploring the role of periostin to date in chronic respiratory diseases, namely asthma and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Read More

    Periostin in the pathogenesis of skin diseases.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Sep 15. Epub 2017 Sep 15.
    Department of Dermatology, Course of Integrated Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka, 5650871, Japan.
    Skin is an organ that is susceptible to damage by external injury, chronic inflammation, and autoimmunity. Tissue damage causes alterations in both the configuration and type of cells in lesional skin. This phenomenon, called tissue remodeling, is a universal biological response elicited by programmed cell death, inflammation, immune disorders, and tumorigenic, tumor proliferative, and cytoreductive activity. Read More

    Role of noncoding RNAs in regulation of cardiac cell death and cardiovascular diseases.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Sep 14. Epub 2017 Sep 14.
    Institute for Translational Medicine, Qingdao University, Deng Zhou Road 38, Qingdao, 266021, China.
    Loss of functional cardiomyocytes is a major underlying mechanism for myocardial remodeling and heart diseases, due to the limited regenerative capacity of adult myocardium. Apoptosis, programmed necrosis, and autophagy contribute to loss of cardiac myocytes that control the balance of cardiac cell death and cell survival through multiple intricate signaling pathways. In recent years, non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) have received much attention to uncover their roles in cell death of cardiovascular diseases, such as myocardial infarction, cardiac hypertrophy, and heart failure. Read More

    The function of endocytosis in Wnt signaling.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Sep 14. Epub 2017 Sep 14.
    Living Systems Institute, School of Biosciences, College of Life and Environmental Science, University of Exeter, Exeter, EX4 4QD, UK.
    Wnt growth factors regulate one of the most important signaling networks during development, tissue homeostasis and disease. Despite the biological importance of Wnt signaling, the mechanism of endocytosis during this process is ill described. Wnt molecules can act as paracrine signals, which are secreted from the producing cells and transported through neighboring tissue to activate signaling in target cells. Read More

    Periostin in vitreoretinal diseases.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Sep 14. Epub 2017 Sep 14.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka, 812-8582, Japan.
    Proliferative vitreoretinal diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR), and age-related macular degeneration are a leading cause of decreased vision and blindness in developed countries. In these diseases, retinal fibro(vascular) membrane (FVM) formation above and beneath the retina plays an important role. Gene expression profiling of human FVMs revealed significant upregulation of periostin. Read More

    Evaluation and control of miRNA-like off-target repression for RNA interference.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Sep 13. Epub 2017 Sep 13.
    Division of Life Sciences, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul, 02841, Korea.
    RNA interference (RNAi) has been widely adopted to repress specific gene expression and is easily achieved by designing small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) with perfect sequence complementarity to the intended target mRNAs. Although siRNAs direct Argonaute (Ago), a core component of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), to recognize and silence target mRNAs, they also inevitably function as microRNAs (miRNAs) and suppress hundreds of off-targets. Such miRNA-like off-target repression is potentially detrimental, resulting in unwanted toxicity and phenotypes. Read More

    Ammonium trichloro [1,2-ethanediolato-O,O']-tellurate cures experimental visceral leishmaniasis by redox modulation of Leishmania donovani trypanothione reductase and inhibiting host integrin linked PI3K/Akt pathway.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Sep 12. Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    Division of Parasitology, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Jankipuram Extension, Sitapur Road, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, 226031, India.
    In an endeavor to search for affordable and safer therapeutics against debilitating visceral leishmaniasis, we examined antileishmanial potential of ammonium trichloro [1,2-ethanediolato-O,O']-tellurate (AS101); a tellurium based non toxic immunomodulator. AS101 showed significant in vitro efficacy against both Leishmania donovani promastigotes and amastigotes at sub-micromolar concentrations. AS101 could also completely eliminate organ parasite load from L. Read More

    Functions of Periostin in dental tissues and its role in periodontal tissues' regeneration.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Sep 9. Epub 2017 Sep 9.
    Department of Bone Metabolism, School of Stomatology, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Oral Tissue Regeneration, Shandong University, Jinan, 250012, China.
    The goal of periodontal regenerative therapy is to predictably restore the tooth's supporting periodontal tissues and form a new connective tissue attachment of periodontal ligament (PDL) fibers and new alveolar bone. Periostin is a matricellular protein so named for its expression primarily in the periosteum and PDL of adult mice. Its biological functions have been widely studied in areas such as cardiovascular physiology and oncology. Read More

    Periostin in inflammation and allergy.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Sep 8. Epub 2017 Sep 8.
    Division of Medical Biochemistry, Department of Biomolecular Sciences, Saga Medical School, 5-1-1, Nabeshima, Saga, 849-8501, Japan.
    We found for the first time that IL-4 and IL-13, signature type 2 cytokines, are able to induce periostin expression. We and others have subsequently shown that periostin is highly expressed in chronic inflammatory diseases-asthma, atopic dermatitis, eosinophilc chronic sinusitis/chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyp, and allergic conjunctivitis-and that periostin plays important roles in the pathogenesis of these diseases. The epithelial/mesenchymal interaction via periostin is important for the onset of allergic inflammation, in which periostin derived from fibroblasts acts on epithelial cells or fibroblasts, activating their NF-κB. Read More

    Periostin and its interacting proteins in the construction of extracellular architectures.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Sep 8. Epub 2017 Sep 8.
    Pathophysiological and Health Science Team, Imaging Platform and Innovation Group, Division of Bio-Function Dynamics Imaging, RIKEN Center for Life Science Technologies, 6-7-3 Minatojima-minamimachi, Chuo-ku, Kobe, 650-0047, Japan.
    Periostin is a matricellular protein that is composed of a multi-domain structure with an amino-terminal EMI domain, a tandem repeat of four FAS 1 domains, and a carboxyl-terminal domain. These distinct domains have been demonstrated to bind to many proteins including extracellular matrix proteins (Collagen type I and V, fibronectin, tenascin, and laminin), matricellular proteins (CCN3 and βig-h3), and enzymes that catalyze covalent crosslinking between extracellular matrix proteins (lysyl oxidase and BMP-1). Adjacent binding sites on periostin have been suggested to put the interacting proteins in close proximity, promoting intermolecular interactions between each protein, and leading to their assembly into extracellular architectures. Read More

    The multifaceted role of periostin in priming the tumor microenvironments for tumor progression.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Sep 7. Epub 2017 Sep 7.
    State Key Laboratory of Cellular Stress Biology, Innovation Center for Cell Signaling Network, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, 361102, China.
    Tumor microenvironment consists of tumor cells, stromal cells, extracellular matrix and a plethora of soluble components. The complex array of interactions between tumor cells and their surrounding tumor microenvironments contribute to the determination of the fate of tumor cells during tumorigenesis and metastasis. Matricellular protein periostin is generally absent in most adult tissues but is highly expressed in tumor microenvironments. Read More

    Periostin in kidney diseases.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Sep 7. Epub 2017 Sep 7.
    Institut National de la Santé Et de la Recherche Médicale UMRS 1155, Tenon Hospital, 4 rue de la Chine, 75020, Paris, France.
    Chronic kidney disease is an incurable to date pathology, with renal replacement therapy through dialysis or transplantation being the only available option for end-stage patients. A deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms governing the progression of kidney diseases will permit the identification of unknown mediators and potential novel markers or targets of therapy which promise more efficient diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Over the last years, periostin was established by several studies as a novel key player in the progression of renal disease. Read More

    Introductory review: periostin-gene and protein structure.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Sep 7. Epub 2017 Sep 7.
    International Frontier, Tokyo Institute of Technology, S3-8, 2-12-1 Oookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo, 152-8550, Japan.
    Although many studies have described the role of periostin in various diseases, the function of the periostin protein structures derived from alternative splicing and proteinase cleavage at the C-terminal remain unknown. Further experiments revealing the protein structures that are highly related to diseases are essential to understand the function of periostin in depth, which would accelerate its clinical application by establishing new approaches for curing intractable diseases. Furthermore, this understanding would enhance our knowledge of novel functions of periostin related to stemness and response to mechanical stress. Read More

    CBP-mediated SMN acetylation modulates Cajal body biogenesis and the cytoplasmic targeting of SMN.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Sep 6. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, "Centro de Investigación en Red de Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas" (CIBERNED), University of Cantabria-IDIVAL, 39011, Santander, Spain.
    The survival of motor neuron (SMN) protein plays an essential role in the biogenesis of spliceosomal snRNPs and the molecular assembly of Cajal bodies (CBs). Deletion of or mutations in the SMN1 gene cause spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) with degeneration and loss of motor neurons. Reduced SMN levels in SMA lead to deficient snRNP biogenesis with consequent splicing pathology. Read More

    ALK1 signaling in development and disease: new paradigms.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Sep 4. Epub 2017 Sep 4.
    Department of Structural Biology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
    Activin A receptor like type 1 (ALK1) is a transmembrane serine/threonine receptor kinase in the transforming growth factor-beta receptor family that is expressed on endothelial cells. Defects in ALK1 signaling cause the autosomal dominant vascular disorder, hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), which is characterized by development of direct connections between arteries and veins, or arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Although previous studies have implicated ALK1 in various aspects of sprouting angiogenesis, including tip/stalk cell selection, migration, and proliferation, recent work suggests an intriguing role for ALK1 in transducing a flow-based signal that governs directed endothelial cell migration within patent, perfused vessels. Read More

    Autophagy in diabetic kidney disease: regulation, pathological role and therapeutic potential.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Sep 4. Epub 2017 Sep 4.
    Department of Nephrology, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, 410011, Hunan, People's Republic of China.
    Diabetic kidney disease, a leading cause of end-stage renal disease, has become a serious public health problem worldwide and lacks effective therapies. Autophagy is a highly conserved lysosomal degradation pathway that removes protein aggregates and damaged organelles to maintain cellular homeostasis. As important stress-responsive machinery, autophagy is involved in the pathogenesis of various diseases. Read More

    Gene therapy for chondral and osteochondral regeneration: is the future now?
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Sep 1. Epub 2017 Sep 1.
    Innovative Technology Platforms for Tissue Engineering, Theranostic and Oncology, Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, Via Divisi 83, 90133, Palermo, Italy.
    Gene therapy might represent a promising strategy for chondral and osteochondral defects repair by balancing the management of temporary joint mechanical incompetence with altered metabolic and inflammatory homeostasis. This review analysed preclinical and clinical studies on gene therapy for the repair of articular cartilage defects performed over the last 10 years, focussing on expression vectors (non-viral and viral), type of genes delivered and gene therapy procedures (direct or indirect). Plasmids (non-viral expression vectors) and adenovirus (viral vectors) were the most employed vectors in preclinical studies. Read More

    Melatonin as a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant: one of evolution's best ideas.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Sep 1. Epub 2017 Sep 1.
    Department of Cell Systems and Anatomy, UT Health San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, 78229, USA.
    Melatonin is an ancient antioxidant. After its initial development in bacteria, it has been retained throughout evolution such that it may be or may have been present in every species that have existed. Even though it has been maintained throughout evolution during the diversification of species, melatonin's chemical structure has never changed; thus, the melatonin present in currently living humans is identical to that present in cyanobacteria that have existed on Earth for billions of years. Read More

    Transcriptional regulation of CRMP5 controls neurite outgrowth through Sox5.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Sep 1. Epub 2017 Sep 1.
    Institut NeuroMyoGène, UMR, CNRS 5310, INSERM U1217, 69000, Lyon, France.
    Transcriptional regulation of proteins involved in neuronal polarity is a key process that underlies the ability of neurons to transfer information in the central nervous system. The Collapsin Response Mediator Protein (CRMP) family is best known for its role in neurite outgrowth regulation conducting to neuronal polarity and axonal guidance, including CRMP5 that drives dendrite differentiation. Although CRMP5 is able to control dendritic development, the regulation of its expression remains poorly understood. Read More

    Secretogranin III: a diabetic retinopathy-selective angiogenic factor.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Aug 30. Epub 2017 Aug 30.
    Everglades Biopharma, Miami, FL, 33156, USA.
    Secretogranin III (Scg3) is a member of the granin protein family that regulates the biogenesis of secretory granules. Scg3 was recently discovered as an angiogenic factor, expanding its functional role to extrinsic regulation. Unlike many other known angiogenic factors, the pro-angiogenic actions of Scg3 are restricted to pathological conditions. Read More

    Vertebrate GAF/ThPOK: emerging functions in chromatin architecture and transcriptional regulation.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Aug 30. Epub 2017 Aug 30.
    CSIR-Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology (CCMB), Uppal Road, Hyderabad, 500007, India.
    GAGA factor of Drosophila melanogaster (DmGAF) is a multifaceted transcription factor with diverse roles in chromatin regulation. Recently, ThPOK/c-Krox was identified as its vertebrate homologue (vGAF), which has a basic domain structure similar to DmGAF and is decorated with a number of post-translationally modified residues. In vertebrate genomes, vGAF associates with purine-rich GAGA sequences and performs diverse chromatin-mediated functions, viz. Read More

    Pathogenic mutation in the ALS/FTD gene, CCNF, causes elevated Lys48-linked ubiquitylation and defective autophagy.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Aug 29. Epub 2017 Aug 29.
    Centre for Motor Neuron Disease Research, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Macquarie University, 2 Technology Place, North Ryde, NSW, 2109, Australia.
    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) are fatal neurodegenerative disorders that have common molecular and pathogenic characteristics, such as aberrant accumulation and ubiquitylation of TDP-43; however, the mechanisms that drive this process remain poorly understood. We have recently identified CCNF mutations in familial and sporadic ALS and FTD patients. CCNF encodes cyclin F, a component of an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase (SCF(cyclin F)) complex that is responsible for ubiquitylating proteins for degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Read More

    Mechanisms of ciliary targeting: entering importins and Rabs.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Aug 29. Epub 2017 Aug 29.
    School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore, 637551, Singapore.
    Primary cilium is a rod-like plasma membrane protrusion that plays important roles in sensing the cellular environment and initiating corresponding signaling pathways. The sensory functions of the cilium critically depend on the unique enrichment of ciliary residents, which is maintained by the ciliary diffusion barrier. It is still unclear how ciliary cargoes specifically enter the diffusion barrier and accumulate within the cilium. Read More

    Protein levels of clusterin and glutathione synthetase in platelets allow for early detection of colorectal cancer.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Aug 28. Epub 2017 Aug 28.
    Section for Translational Surgical Oncology and Biobanking, Department of Surgery, University of Lübeck and University Medical Center Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Lübeck, Ratzeburger Allee 160, 23538, Lübeck, Germany.
    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most frequent malignancies in the Western world. Early tumor detection and intervention are important determinants on CRC patient survival. During early tumor proliferation, dissemination and angiogenesis, platelets store and segregate proteins actively and selectively. Read More

    Interaction and cross-talk between non-coding RNAs.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Aug 24. Epub 2017 Aug 24.
    Department of Urology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.
    Non-coding RNA (ncRNA) has been shown to regulate diverse cellular processes and functions through controlling gene expression. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) act as a competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) where microRNAs (miRNAs) and lncRNAs regulate each other through their biding sites. Interactions of miRNAs and lncRNAs have been reported to trigger decay of the targeted lncRNAs and have important roles in target gene regulation. Read More

    Melatonin transport into mitochondria.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Aug 21. Epub 2017 Aug 21.
    Departamento de Morfología y Biología Celular, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Oviedo, C/Julián Clavería, 6, 33006, Oviedo, Asturias, Spain.
    Melatonin is a well-known, nighttime-produced indole found in bacteria, eukaryotic unicellulars, animals or vascular plants. In vertebrates, melatonin is the major product of the pineal gland, which accounts for its increase in serum during the dark phase, but it is also produced by many other organs and cell types. Such a wide distribution is consistent with its multiple and well-described functions which include from the circadian regulation and adaptation to seasonal variations to immunomodulatory and oncostatic actions in different types of tumors. Read More

    Access to the odor world: olfactory receptors and their role for signal transduction in insects.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Aug 21. Epub 2017 Aug 21.
    Department of Animal Physiology, Institute of Biology/Zoology, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, 06120, Halle (Saale), Germany.
    The sense of smell enables insects to recognize and discriminate a broad range of volatile chemicals in their environment originating from prey, host plants and conspecifics. These olfactory cues are received by olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) that relay information about food sources, oviposition sites and mates to the brain and thus elicit distinct odor-evoked behaviors. Research over the last decades has greatly advanced our knowledge concerning the molecular basis underlying the reception of odorous compounds and the mechanisms of signal transduction in OSNs. Read More

    Coordination of cardiac rhythmic output and circadian metabolic regulation in the heart.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Aug 21. Epub 2017 Aug 21.
    Department of Medicine, Case Cardiovascular Research Institute, Case Western Reserve University, 2103 Cornell Road, Room 4-503, Cleveland, OH, USA.
    Over the course of a 24-h day, demand on the heart rises and falls with the sleep/wake cycles of the organism. Cardiac metabolism oscillates appropriately, with the relative contributions of major energy sources changing in a circadian fashion. The cardiac peripheral clock is hypothesized to drive many of these changes, yet the precise mechanisms linking the cardiac clock to metabolism remain a source of intense investigation. Read More

    Exploiting non-canonical translation to identify new targets for T cell-based cancer immunotherapy.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Aug 19. Epub 2017 Aug 19.
    Institute for Research in Immunology and Cancer, Université de Montréal, Station Centre-Ville, PO Box 6128, Montreal, QC, H3C 3J7, Canada.
    Cryptic MHC I-associated peptides (MAPs) are produced via two mechanisms: translation of protein-coding genes in non-canonical reading frames and translation of allegedly non-coding sequences. In general, cryptic MAPs are coded by relatively short open reading frames whose translation can be regulated at the level of initiation, elongation or termination. In contrast to conventional MAPs, the processing of cryptic MAPs is frequently proteasome independent. Read More

    Developmentally regulated signaling pathways in glioma invasion.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Aug 18. Epub 2017 Aug 18.
    Division of Neurobiology, Barrow Brain Tumor Research Center, Barrow Neurological Institute, Phoenix, AZ, 85013, USA.
    Malignant gliomas are the most common, infiltrative, and lethal primary brain tumors affecting the adult population. The grim prognosis for this disease is due to a combination of the presence of highly invasive tumor cells that escape surgical resection and the presence of a population of therapy-resistant cancer stem cells found within these tumors. Several studies suggest that glioma cells have cleverly hijacked the normal developmental program of neural progenitor cells, including their transcriptional programs, to enhance gliomagenesis. Read More

    Melatonin, mitochondria, and the metabolic syndrome.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Aug 17. Epub 2017 Aug 17.
    BIOMED-UCA-CONICET and Department of Teaching and Research, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Pontificia Universidad Católica Argentina, Av. Alicia Moreau de Justo 1500, 4o piso, 1107, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    A number of risk factors for cardiovascular disease including hyperinsulinemia, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, obesity, and elevated blood pressure are collectively known as metabolic syndrome (MS). Since mitochondrial activity is modulated by the availability of energy in cells, the disruption of key regulators of metabolism in MS not only affects the activity of mitochondria but also their dynamics and turnover. Therefore, a link of MS with mitochondrial dysfunction has been suspected since long. Read More

    Molecular processes involved in B cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Aug 17. Epub 2017 Aug 17.
    MRC Centre for Regenerative Medicine, The University of Edinburgh, 5 Little France Drive, Edinburgh, EH16 4UU, UK.
    B cell leukaemia is one of the most frequent malignancies in the paediatric population, but also affects a significant proportion of adults in developed countries. The majority of infant and paediatric cases initiate the process of leukaemogenesis during foetal development (in utero) through the formation of a chromosomal translocation or the acquisition/deletion of genetic material (hyperdiploidy or hypodiploidy, respectively). This first genetic insult is the major determinant for the prognosis and therapeutic outcome of patients. Read More

    IP3 receptor signaling and endothelial barrier function.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Aug 12. Epub 2017 Aug 12.
    Department of Pharmacology and The Center for Lung and Vascular Biology, University of Illinois College of Medicine, Chicago, IL, 60612, USA.
    The endothelium, a monolayer of endothelial cells lining vessel walls, maintains tissue-fluid homeostasis by restricting the passage of the plasma proteins and blood cells into the interstitium. The ion Ca(2+), a ubiquitous secondary messenger, initiates signal transduction events in endothelial cells that is critical to control of vascular tone and endothelial permeability. The ion Ca(2+) is stored inside the intracellular organelles and released into the cytosol in response to environmental cues. Read More

    Melatonin, mitochondria, and the skin.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Aug 12. Epub 2017 Aug 12.
    Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, USA.
    The skin being a protective barrier between external and internal (body) environments has the sensory and adaptive capacity to maintain local and global body homeostasis in response to noxious factors. An important part of the skin response to stress is its ability for melatonin synthesis and subsequent metabolism through the indolic and kynuric pathways. Indeed, melatonin and its metabolites have emerged as indispensable for physiological skin functions and for effective protection of a cutaneous homeostasis from hostile environmental factors. Read More

    Expression profiling of Tas2r genes reveals a complex pattern along the mouse GI tract and the presence of Tas2r131 in a subset of intestinal Paneth cells.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Aug 11. Epub 2017 Aug 11.
    Department of Molecular Genetics, German Institute for Human Nutrition Potsdam-Rehbruecke, Nuthetal, Germany.
    The chemical variability of the intestinal lumen requires the presence of molecular receptors detecting the various substances naturally occurring in the diet and as a result of the activity of the microbiota. Despite their early discovery, intestinal bitter taste receptors (Tas2r) have not yet been assigned an unambiguous physiological function. Recently, using a CRE-recombinant approach we showed that the Tas2r131 gene is expressed in a subset of mucin-producing goblet cells in the colon of mice. Read More

    Dimerization leads to changes in APP (amyloid precursor protein) trafficking mediated by LRP1 and SorLA.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Aug 10. Epub 2017 Aug 10.
    Department of Human Biology and Human Genetics, University of Kaiserslautern, Erwin-Schrödinger-Str. 13, 67663, Kaiserslautern, Germany.
    Proteolytic cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) by α-, β- and γ-secretases is a determining factor in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Imbalances in the activity of all three enzymes can result in alterations towards pathogenic Aβ production. Proteolysis of APP is strongly linked to its subcellular localization as the secretases involved are distributed in different cellular compartments. Read More

    Melatonin and mitochondrial function during ischemia/reperfusion injury.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Aug 9. Epub 2017 Aug 9.
    Key Laboratory of Resource Biology and Biotechnology in Western China, Ministry of Education, Faculty of Life Sciences, UT Health San Antonio, 229 Taibai North Road, Xi'an, 710069, China.
    Ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury occurs in many organs and tissues, and contributes to morbidity and mortality worldwide. Melatonin, an endogenously produced indolamine, provides a strong defense against IR injury. Mitochondrion, an organelle for ATP production and a decider for cell fate, has been validated to be a crucial target for melatonin to exert its protection against IR injury. Read More

    Glycine receptors and glycine transporters: targets for novel analgesics?
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Aug 8. Epub 2017 Aug 8.
    Department of Physiology, University of Concepción, Concepción, Chile.
    Glycinergic neurotransmission has long been known for its role in spinal motor control. During the last two decades, additional functions have become increasingly recognized-among them is a critical contribution to spinal pain processing. Studies in rodent pain models provide proof-of-concept evidence that enhancing inhibitory glycinergic neurotransmission reduces chronic pain symptoms. Read More

    Rab44, a novel large Rab GTPase, negatively regulates osteoclast differentiation by modulating intracellular calcium levels followed by NFATc1 activation.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Aug 8. Epub 2017 Aug 8.
    Division of Dental Pharmacology, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, 852-8588, Japan.
    Rab44 is an atypical Rab GTPase that contains some additional domains such as the EF-hand and coiled-coil domains as well as Rab-GTPase domain. Although Rab44 genes have been found in mammalian genomes, no studies concerning Rab44 have been reported yet. Here, we identified Rab44 as an upregulated protein during osteoclast differentiation. Read More

    Melatonin, mitochondria and hypertension.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Aug 8. Epub 2017 Aug 8.
    Department of Physiology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of São Paulo, Av. Lineu Prestes, 1524, room 115/118, São Paulo, SP, 05508-000, Brazil.
    Melatonin, due to its multiple means and mechanisms of action, plays a fundamental role in the regulation of the organismal physiology by fine tunning several functions. The cardiovascular system is an important site of action as melatonin regulates blood pressure both by central and peripheral interventions, in addition to its relation with the renin-angiotensin system. Besides, the systemic management of several processes, melatonin acts on mitochondria regulation to maintain a healthy cardiovascular system. Read More

    Melatonin as a mitochondrial protector in neurodegenerative diseases.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Aug 8. Epub 2017 Aug 8.
    Research Center for Neuroscience, Institute of Molecular Biosciences, Mahidol University, Nakhon Pathom, 73170, Thailand.
    Mitochondria are crucial organelles as their role in cellular energy production of eukaryotes. Because the brain cells demand high energy for maintaining their normal activities, disturbances in mitochondrial physiology may lead to neuropathological events underlying neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease. Melatonin is an endogenous compound with a variety of physiological roles. Read More

    Melatonin, clock genes and mitochondria in sepsis.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Aug 7. Epub 2017 Aug 7.
    Departamento de Fisiología, Facultad de Medicina, Instituto de Biotecnología, Centro de Investigación Biomédica, Parque Tecnológico de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad de Granada, Avenida del Conocimiento s/n, 18016, Granada, Spain.
    After the characterization of the central pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, the expression of clock genes was identified in several peripheral tissues including the immune system. The hierarchical control from the central clock to peripheral clocks extends to other functions including endocrine, metabolic, immune, and mitochondrial responses. Increasing evidence links the disruption of the clock genes expression with multiple diseases and aging. Read More

    Melatonin, mitochondria, and the cancer cell.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Aug 7. Epub 2017 Aug 7.
    Department of Experimental Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, Viale Regina Elena 324, 00161, Rome, Italy.
    The long-recognized fact that oxidative stress within mitochondria is a hallmark of mitochondrial dysfunction has stimulated the development of mitochondria-targeted antioxidant therapies. Melatonin should be included among the pharmacological agents able to modulate mitochondrial functions in cancer, given that a number of relevant melatonin-dependent effects are triggered by targeting mitochondrial functions. Indeed, melatonin may modulate the mitochondrial respiratory chain, thus antagonizing the cancer highly glycolytic bioenergetic pathway of cancer cells. Read More

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