Transcription factors regulate various developmental and functional aspects of B cells. T-bet is a recently appreciated transcription factor associated with "Age-associated B cells" or ABCs, the development of autoimmunity, and viral infections. T-bet expression is favored by nucleic acid-containing antigens and immune complexes and is regulated by interplay between various cytokines, notably, the TFH cytokines IL-21, IL-4 and IFNγ. Read More
In the recent years, many studies have shown that MSCs must be stimulated by pro-inflammatory cytokines or other immune mediators before they can modulate immune cells in inflamed and damaged tissues. MSCs appear to be involved in inducing several regulatory immune cells, such as Tregs, Bregs, and regulatory NK cells. This new immune milieu created by MSCs may establish a tolerogenic environment that leads to an optimal condition for the treatment of immune diseases. Read More
Related studies demonstrate that type 1 diabetes (T1D) is caused by β-cell antigen specific autoreactive CD8+ T cells. ChgA has recently been identified as the autoantigen in NOD mice and T1D patients. Therefore, attenuating the activation of ChgA specific CD8+ T cells might be a promising target for T1D therapy. Read More
Adeno-associated viral (AAV) gene delivery to skeletal muscle is being explored for systemic delivery of therapeutic proteins. To better understand the signals that govern antibody formation against secreted transgene products in this approach, we administered an intramuscular dose of AAV1 vector expressing human coagulation factor IX (hFIX), which does not cause antibody formation against hFIX in C57BL/6 mice. Interestingly, co-administration of a TLR9 agonist (CpG-deoxyoligonucleotide, ODN) but not of lipopolysaccharide, caused a transient anti-hFIX response. Read More
Department of Immunology, Binzhou Medical University, Yantai, Shandong Province 264003, People's Republic of China; Taishan Scholar Immunology program, Binzhou Medical university, Yantai, Shandong Province 264003, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:
We investigate the effects of interferon (IFN)-γ on human placenta-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hPMSCs), in particular, their adhesion, proliferation and migration and modulatory effects on the CD4(+)CXCR5(+)Foxp3(+)Treg subset. And we compared hPMSCs ability to induce the generation of different Treg subsets in response to treatment with IFN-γ. We found that IFN-γ suppressed the proliferation and migration for hPMSCs. Read More
Langerhans cells (LCs) from melanoma patients sentinel lymph nodes (SLN) are poor T cell activators mostly due to an immature immunophenotype. However Antigen Presenting Machinery (APM) role is unknown. We investigated HLA-class I APM components (Delta, LMP-7/10, TAP-1, Calnexin, Tapasin, β2-microglobulin and HLA-A,B,C) in LCs from healthy donors skin and melanoma patients SLN. Read More
State Key Laboratory of Cell Biology, Center of Excellence in Molecular and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 320 Yueyang Road, Shanghai 200031, China. Electronic address:
The muscle regeneration is a complicated bioprocess that involved in many cell types, including necrotic muscle cells, satellite cells, mesenchymal cells, pericytes, immune cells, and other cell types present at the injury site. Immune cells involved in both innate and adaptive immune responses regulate the progress of muscle regeneration. In this review, we discussed the roles of different immune cells in muscle regeneration. Read More
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China; State Key Laboratory of Stem Cell and Reproductive Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China. Electronic address:
Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) promise a foreseeing future for regeneration medicine and cell replacement therapy with their abilities to produce almost any types of somatic cells of the body. The complicated immunogenicity of hPSC derivatives and context dependent responses in variable transplantations greatly hurdle the practical application of hPSCs in clinic. Especially for applications of hPSCs, induction of immune tolerance at the same time increases the risks of tumorigenesis. Read More
Cell Immunol 2017 Sep 21;319:43-52. Epub 2017 Aug 21.
Center for Health Disparities and Molecular Medicine, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, Mortensen Hall, Loma Linda, CA, USA; Division of Biochemistry, Department of Basic Sciences, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, Loma Linda, CA, USA. Electronic address:
Cholera toxin B subunit fusion to autoantigens such as proinsulin (CTB-INS) down regulate dendritic cell (DC) activation and stimulate synthesis of DC immunosuppressive cytokines. Recent studies of CTB-INS induction of immune tolerance in human DCs indicate that increased biosynthesis of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO1) may play an important role in CTB-INS vaccine suppression of DC activation. Studies in murine models suggest a role for transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) in the stimulation of IDO1 biosynthesis, for the induction of tolerance in DCs. Read More
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a typical inflammation-related cancer. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are well-known leading causes of HCC. However, the mechanism of the induction of HCC by these virus is still being debated. Read More
Chronic skin inflammation in atopic eczema is associated with elevated expression of proinflammatory genes and activation of innate immune responses in keratinocytes. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, single-stranded RNA molecules that silence genes via the degradation of target mRNAs or inhibition of translation. Recent studies have demonstrated that miR-124 is associated with regulation of inflammation factors in several diseases. Read More
Cell Immunol 2017 Sep 18;319:3-9. Epub 2017 Aug 18.
Immune Tolerance Network, Bethesda, MD, USA. Electronic address:
The immunological mechanism(s) of action whereby teplizumab preserves C-peptide levels in the progression of patients with recent onset type 1 diabetes (T1D) is still not well understood. In the present study, we evaluated the kinetics of T cell modulation in peripheral blood following two 14-day courses of teplizumab therapy one year apart in recent onset T1D participants in the AbATE clinical trial. Transient rises in PD-1+Foxp3+ Treg and potentially anergic (CD57-KLRG1-PD-1+) cells in the circulating CD4 T cell compartment were paralleled by more profound increases in circulating CD8 T cells with traits of exhaustion (CD57-KLRG1+PD-1+, TIGIT+KLRG1+, and persistent down-modulation of CD127). Read More
Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, NY 13210, United States.
CD11c+ T-bet+ B cells have now been detected and characterized in different experimental and clinical settings, in both mice and humans. Whether such cells are monolithic, or define subsets of B cells with different functions is not yet known. Our studies have identified CD11c+ IgM+ CD19(hi) splenic IgM memory B cells that appear at approximately three weeks post-ehrlichial infection, and persist indefinitely, during low-level chronic infection. Read More
Autoimmunity and Inflammation Program, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY, USA; Graduate Program in Immunology and Microbial Pathogenesis, Weill Cornell Graduate School of Medical Sciences, New York, NY, USA; David Z. Rosensweig Genomics Research Center, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY, USA; Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, Cornell University, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address:
Recent studies have revealed the existence of a T-bet dependent subset of B cells, which expresses unique phenotypic and functional characteristics including high levels of CD11c and CD11b. In the murine system this B cell subset has been termed Age/autoimmune-associated B cells (ABCs) since it expands with age in non-autoimmune mice and it prematurely accumulates in autoimmune-prone strains. The molecular mechanisms that promote the expansion and function of ABCs are largely unknown. Read More
The immune modulatory properties of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are mostly controlled by the particular microenvironment. Cancer stem cells (CSCs), which can initiate a clinical tumor, have been the subject of intense research. This review article discusses investigative studies of the roles of MSCs on cancer biology including on CSCs, and the potential as drug delivery to tumors. Read More
Stem cells are characterized by self-renew and multipotent differentiation abilities. Besides their roles in cell compensation, stem cells are also rich sources of growth factors, cytokines, chemokines, micro-RNAs and exosomes and serve as drug stores to maintain tissue homeostasis. Recent studies have revealed that the secretome of stem cells is regulated by the local inflammatory cues and highlighted the roles of these secretory factors in stem cell based therapies. Read More
Key Laboratory of Stem Cell Biology, Institute of Health Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences/Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, 320 Yueyang Road, Shanghai 200031, China. Electronic address:
Dysfunction of immune responses has been identified to involve in the pathogenesis of various neurodegenerative diseases. Abnormal activation of glia cells and/or infiltration of peripheral adaptive immune cells always sustains neuroinflammation and the disease progression. Obviously, the regulation of neuroinflammation has become a potential therapeutic strategy against neurodegenerative diseases. Read More
A growing body of evidence suggests that when B cells are chronically stimulated, a phenotypically unique subset expands. Data suggest that this atypical population contains B cell receptor (BCR) specificities capable of binding the antigen, or sets of antigens that initiated the expansion of these cells. These B cells have been given various names, including double negative B cells, atypical memory B cells, tissue-like memory B cells, or age associated B cells (ABCs). Read More
While IgE is considered the primary mediator of mast cell activation, IL-33 contributes substantially in asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis. To develop effective treatments for allergic disease, it is important to understand the role of therapeutic agents on IL-33 activation. We examined the effect of Didox (3,4-dihydroxybenzohydroxamic acid), an antioxidant and ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) inhibitor, on IL-33-mediated mast cell activation. Read More
T-bet-expressing B cells, first identified as perpetuators of autoimmunity, were recently shown to be critical for murine antiviral responses. While their role in human viral infections remains unclear, B cells expressing T-bet or demonstrating a related phenotype have been described in individuals chronically infected with HIV or HCV, suggesting these cells represent a component of human antiviral responses. In this review, we discuss the induction of T-bet in B cells following both HIV and HCV infections, the factors driving T-bet(+) B cell expansions, T-bet's relationship to atypical memory B cells, and the consequences of T-bet induction. Read More
Background: Trastuzumab is an anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapy capable of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) and used in the treatment of HER2+ breast cancer. Through interactions with FcƴR+ immune cell subsets, trastuzumab functions as a passive immunotherapy. The EGFR/HER2-targeting tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) lapatinib and the next generation TKIs afatinib and neratinib, can alter HER2 levels, potentially modulating the ADCC response to trastuzumab. Read More
Immunological memory is a remarkable phenomenon in which survival of an initial infection by a pathogen leads to life-long protection from disease upon subsequent exposure to that same pathogen. For many infectious diseases, long-lived protective humoral immunity is induced after only a single infection in a process that depends on the generation of memory B cells (MBCs) and long-lived plasma cells. However, over the past decade it has become increasingly evident that many chronic human infectious diseases to which immunity is not readily established, including HIV-AIDS, malaria and TB, are associated with fundamental alterations in the composition and functionality of MBC compartments. Read More
In aged mice, conventional naive B cells decrease and a new population of age-associated B cells (ABC)(3) develops. When aged unprimed mice are infected with influenza virus, there is a reduced generation of helper CD4 T cell subsets and germinal center B cells, leading to limited production of IgG Ab and less generation of conventional long-lived plasma cells, compared to young. However, we find an enhanced non-follicular (GL7(-)) ABC response that is helper T cell-independent, but requires high viral dose and pathogen recognition pathways. Read More
CD28 is the major costimulatory receptor on T cells regulating proliferation, survival and effector function. Acquired mutations in the extracellular domain of CD28 have been identified in patients with cutaneous T cell lymphoma, angioimmunoblastic T cell lymphoma and other T cell neoplasms, suggesting it may contribute to disease pathogenesis. We used a heterologous system in which mutant human CD28 was expressed on primary murine T cells deficient in CD28 to ascertain how specific mutations identified in a genetic screen of patients with cutaneous T cell lymphoma affected normal T cell function. Read More
Department of Medicine and Bioregulatory Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan; Department of Molecular Endocrinology and Metabolism, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan; Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development, AMED-CREST, Tokyo, Japan.
Perforin-2 is constitutively expressed in macrophages that are required for bacterial control. In this study, we found that perforin-2 is expressed in human macrophages with two isoforms: full-length perforin-2a and a splice variant, perforin-2b. Two isoforms show different subcellular distributions. Read More
Basophils (BAs) are the least common granulocytes of all leukocytes, but they play an important role in orchestrating of chronic allergic inflammation. The Notch signaling pathway is a highly conserved pathway that influences cell lineage decisions and differentiation during various stages of development. However, the relationship between Notch signaling and BA remains to be elucidate. Read More
Cell Immunol 2017 Aug 7;318:35-41. Epub 2017 Jun 7.
Key Laboratory of Zoonoses Research, Ministry of Education, Institute of Zoonosis, Department of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery, First Hospital, Jilin University, Changchun 130062, PR China. Electronic address:
Adoptive immunotherapy and targeted gene therapy have been extensively used to eliminate tumor cells. The combination treatment is capable of efficiently generating an effective antitumor immune response and disrupting tumor-induced tolerance. Moreover, effective antitumor immune responses are dependent on coordinate interaction among various effector cells. Read More
Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling drives the innate immune response by activating nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and interferon regulatory factor (IRF). We have previously shown that STRAP interacts with TAK1 and IKKα along with NF-κB subunit p65, leading to the activation of pro-inflammatory cytokines. However, the roles of STRAP in TRIF/TBK1-mediated TLR3 activation and the subsequent type I interferon (IFN) production are not fully elucidated. Read More
After two decades of research, in vivo gene transfer with adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors has now resulted in successful treatments and even cures for several human diseases. However, the potential for immune responses against the therapeutic gene products remains one of the concerns as this approach is broadened to more patients, diverse diseases, and target organs. Immune responses following gene transfer of coagulation factor IX (FIX) for the treatment of the bleeding disorder hemophilia B has been extensively investigated in multiple animal models. Read More
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Denver, CO 80206, USA; Department of Biomedical Science, National Jewish Health and Department of Immunology and Microbiology, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO 80206, USA. Electronic address:
Autoimmune diseases affect more than 23.5million Americans. Traditional therapies for autoimmune diseases involve immunosuppressive drugs that globally dampen immune responses or target and kill large populations of normal immune cells. Read More
Severe aplastic anemia (SAA) is an autoimmune disease characterized by severe pancytopenia and bone marrow failure. In our previous studies, we found natural killer (NK) cells were aberrant in SAA patients. T cell immunoglobulin mucin-3 (TIM-3), an important regulator of immunity, is widely detected on NK cells and may contribute as a marker of activation and maturation of NK cells. Read More
Cell Immunol 2017 Sep 10;319:17-27. Epub 2017 Jun 10.
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Anhui Medical University, 81 Meishan Road, Hefei 230032, Anhui, China; Anhui Province Key Laboratory of Major Autoimmune Disease, Hefei, Anhui, China. Electronic address:
Long non-coding RNAs can regulate gene transcription, modulate protein function, and act as competing endogenous RNA. Yet, their roles in systemic lupus erythematosus remain to be elucidated. We determined the expression profiles of lncRNAs in T cells of SLE patients and healthy controls using microarrays. Read More
Cell Immunol 2017 Aug 8;318:49-54. Epub 2017 Jun 8.
Neuroimmunology Research, VA Portland Health Care System, Portland, OR, USA; Department of Neurology, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, USA; Department of Anesthesiology & Perioperative Medicine, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, USA. Electronic address:
Stroke is the leading cause of disability in the United States. Sex differences, including smaller infarcts in females and greater involvement of immune-mediated inflammation in males may affect the efficacy of immune-modulating interventions. To address these differences, we sought to identify distinct stroke-modifying mechanisms in female vs. Read More
Cell Immunol 2017 Aug 8;318:42-48. Epub 2017 Jun 8.
Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências da Saúde: Infectologia e Medicina Tropical, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte 30130-100, Minas Gerais, Brazil; Departamento de Patologia Clínica, COLTEC, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte 31270-901, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Electronic address:
In the present study, a conserved Leishmania hypothetical protein, namely LiHypA, was evaluated for the serodiagnosis of visceral and tegumentary leishmaniasis in dogs and humans. This protein showed a high amino acid sequence homology between viscerotropic and cutaneotropic Leishmania species. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed using the recombinant antigen (rLiHypA), in addition to the A2 protein and two parasite antigenic preparations, which were used as controls. Read More
Osteopontin (OPN) is a multifunctional protein involved in various pathophysiological processes. However, the role of OPN in Pseudomonas aeruginosa-related sepsis is not yet clear. Here, we found that OPN expression was elevated in plasma and spleen samples from P. Read More
Tregs are believed to be important for maintaining self-tolerance and immune homeostasis. It is well established that Tregs maintain self-tolerance and immune homeostasis by directly suppressing and modulating the effector function of T cells. However, there are a small number of studies that suggest Tregs also directly suppress and modulate B cells. Read More
Germ-free (GF) mice have increased bone mass that is normalized by colonization with gut microbiota (GM) from conventionally raised (CONV-R) mice. To determine if innate immune signaling pathways mediated the effect of the GM, we studied the skeleton of GF and CONV-R mice with targeted inactivation of MYD88, NOD1 or NOD2. In contrast to WT and Myd88(-/-) mice, cortical bone thickness in mice lacking Nod1 or Nod2 was not increased under GF conditions. Read More
With old age (∼2y old), mice show substantial differences in B cell composition within the lymphoid tissues. In particular, a novel subset of IgM(+) CD21/35(lo/-) CD23(-) mature B cells, the age-associated B cells or ABC, increases numerically and proportionately. This occurs at the expense of other B cell subsets, including B2 follicular B cells in spleen and recirculating primary B cells in bone marrow. Read More
Cell Immunol 2017 Jul 10;317:1-8. Epub 2017 May 10.
Blood Research Institute, BloodCenter of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, United States; Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Pharmacy, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, United States. Electronic address:
Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is the most toxic enzyme found in the azurophilic granules of neutrophils. MPO utilizes H2O2 to generate hypochlorous acid (HClO) and other reactive moieties, which kill pathogens during infections. In contrast, in the setting of sterile inflammation, MPO and MPO-derived oxidants are thought to be pathogenic, promoting inflammation and causing tissue damage. Read More
Whole sporozoite vaccine (WSV) is shown to induce sterile protection that targets Plasmodium liver-stage infection. There are many underlying issues associated with induction of effective sterile protracted protection. In this study, we have addressed how the alterations in successive vaccine regimen could possibly affect the induction of sterile protection. Read More
The effects of LTs are mediated by GPCRs: cysLTs interact with CYSLTR1, CYSLTR2, or GPR17, and LTB4 acts via BLT1R or BLT2R. Data relating to the presence of these receptors in mature tissue mast cells are not entirely known. By confocal microscopy with image analyses and flow cytometry, we established that native rat mast cells isolated from peritoneal cavity constitutively express all studied receptors. Read More
Department of Infectious Diseases, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN 38105, United States; Children's Foundation Research Institute, Le Bonheur Children's Hospital, Memphis, TN 38103, United States; Department of Pediatrics, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38103, United States. Electronic address:
Parasite infections in the developing world have been considered to promote resistance to immune-mediated diseases such as asthma. Mouse studies have shown that helminths and their products reduce the development of allergic asthma. Since epidemiologic studies that show similar protection are in relation to geohelminth infections that occur in early life, we hypothesized that the parasite-mediated protection against asthma may differ by age. Read More
In order to compare human and mouse B cell subset markers, we evaluated T-bet expression in human B cell subsets from individuals of different ages. We found T-bet expressed in unstimulated memory more than naïve B cells, and more in young individuals. TLR7 stimulation up-regulated T-bet in all B cell subsets from young and elderly individuals, and more in the elderly. Read More
Cell Immunol 2017 Jun 22;316:61-69. Epub 2017 Apr 22.
Graduate Group in Immunology, University of California at Davis, USA; Division of Rheumatology, Allergy and Clinical Immunology, University of California at Davis, USA; Institute for Pediatric Regenerative Medicine, Shriners Hospitals for Children, Northern California, USA. Electronic address:
WDFY3 is a master regulator of selective autophagy that we recently showed to interact with TRAF6 and augment RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in vitro and in vivo via the NF-κB pathway. Since the NF-κB pathway plays a major role in inflammation herein, we investigate the role of WDFY3 in an arthritis animal model. Our data show that WDFY3 conditional knockout mice (Wdfy3(loxP/loxP)-LysM-Cre+) were protected in the K/BxN serum transfer-induced arthritis animal model. Read More
Our current aim was to investigate whether injection of TGF-β1 played an important role in improving abnormal pregnancy outcomes with T. gondii infection and how the TGF-β1 regulated. Results showed that TGF-β1 exhibited improved pregnancy outcomes induced by T. Read More
Recent demonstrations of exacerbation of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) by high salt diets prompted us to study whether EAE stimulated Na absorption by the renal cortex, a primary regulatory site for Na balance, even under a normal NaCl diet. We found that as EAE progressed from mild to severe symptoms, there were parallel increases in the protein abundance of NHE3 and αENaC and the Na,K-ATPase activity with an affiliated elevation of its β1-subunit protein. These effects are associated with increases in the protein levels of the well-known regulators SGK1 and scaffold NHERF2, and phosphorylation of ERK1/2. Read More
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is an increasingly common disorder that is strongly linked to short- and long-term morbidity and mortality. During AKI process, macrophages, one of the important immune response cells, can polarize into M1 and M2 subtype from M0 subtype. It is well-known that M1 macrophages play a pro inflammatory role while M2 macrophages play an anti-inflammatory role. Read More
Recent advances in tumor biology demand detailed analysis of the complex interaction of tumor cells with their adjacent microenvironment (tumor stroma) to understand the various mechanisms involved in tumor growth and metastasis. Mononuclear phagocytes or macrophages, a type of innate immune cells, defend the organism against infection and injury. On the otherhand, tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) constitute a significant part of the tumor-infiltrating immune cells, have been linked to the growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis of a variety of cancers, most likely through polarization of TAMs to the M2 (alternative) phenotype. Read More