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    Correlation of graft immune composition with outcomes after allogeneic stem cell transplantation: Moving towards a perfect transplant.
    Cell Immunol 2017 Nov 7. Epub 2017 Nov 7.
    Department of Hematology, Third Affiliated Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, China. Electronic address:
    Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) offers an important curative therapy for hematological malignancies and other diseases. A number of studies have demonstrated the association of immune compositions in allografts with outcomes after allo-SCT, which promote graft engineering to improve transplant prognosis. This review summarizes the advances in investigating the correlation of the graft immune compositions with transplant outcomes in different transplant modalities, focusing on the immune subsets likely to have the greatest impact on clinical outcomes. Read More

    The phenotype of peritoneal mouse macrophages depends on the mitochondria and ATP/ADP homeostasis.
    Cell Immunol 2017 Nov 7. Epub 2017 Nov 7.
    Houston Methodist Research Institute, Houston, TX, USA; Houston Methodist Hospital, Department of Surgery, Houston, TX, USA; University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Genetics, Houston, TX, USA. Electronic address:
    Different macrophage subtypes have different morphologies/shapes and functions. Naïve M0 macrophages are elongated. Pro-inflammatory M1 that produce the bactericidal molecule iNos are round. Read More

    Targeting myeloid cells in the tumor sustaining microenvironment.
    Cell Immunol 2017 Nov 2. Epub 2017 Nov 2.
    Department of Dermatology, University Medical Center, Mainz, Germany.
    Myeloid cells are the most abundant cells in the tumor microenvironment (TME). The tumor recruits and modulates endogenous myeloid cells to tumor-associated macrophages (TAM), dendritic cells (DC), myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) and neutrophils (TAN), to sustain an immunosuppressive environment. Pathologically overexpressed mediators produced by cancer cells like granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating- and vascular endothelial growth factor induce myelopoiesis in the bone marrow. Read More

    Recombinant prohibitin protein of Leishmania infantum acts as a vaccine candidate and diagnostic marker against visceral leishmaniasis.
    Cell Immunol 2017 Nov 9. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências da Saúde: Infectologia e Medicina Tropical, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil; Departamento de Patologia Clínica, COLTEC, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) represents a serious public health problem, as Leishmania infantum is one of main disease causative agents in the Americas. In a previous immunoproteomic study, the prohibitin (PHB) protein was identified in L. infantum promastigote and amastigote extracts by antibodies in asymptomatic and symptomatic VL dog sera. Read More

    The contribution of immune infiltrates and the local microenvironment in the pathogenesis of osteosarcoma.
    Cell Immunol 2017 Nov 2. Epub 2017 Nov 2.
    Institut de Cancérologie de l'Ouest, site René Gauducheau, INSERM, UMR1232, Boulevard Professeur Jacques Monod, 44805 Saint-Herblain, France; University of Sheffield, Department of Oncology and Metabolism, INSERM, European Associated Laboratory "Sarcoma Research Unit", Medical School, Beech Hill Road, S10 2RX, Sheffield, UK; University of Nantes, Faculty of Medicine, 44035 Nantes, France. Electronic address:
    Osteosarcoma is a rare primary bone cancer characterized by cancer cells producing calcified osteoid extracellular matrix and inducing lung metastases with a high frequency. The local microenvironment defined several tumor niches controlling the tumor growth and cell extravasation. The immune infiltrate composes one of these niches. Read More

    Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis induces transient changes within the liver macrophage pool.
    Cell Immunol 2017 Oct 16. Epub 2017 Oct 16.
    Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Ghent University, Belgium.
    Kupffer cells (KCs) and monocyte-derived macrophages are implicated in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) pathogenesis but their functions remain unclear due to the lack of specific markers to distinguish between the different cell types. Additionally, it is unclear if multiple subsets of KCs are present during NASH. Here, we characterized the liver macrophage subsets during methionine/choline deficient (MCD) diet-induced NASH and recovery. Read More

    Sequential delivery of VEGF, FGF-2 and PDGF from the polymeric system enhance HUVECs angiogenesis in vitro and CAM angiogenesis.
    Cell Immunol 2017 Oct 23. Epub 2017 Oct 23.
    Chongqing Research Center for Pharmaceutical Engineering, School of Pharmacy, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, PR China. Electronic address:
    Angiogenesis is an organized series of events, beginning with vessel destabilization, followed by endothelial cell re-organization, and ending with vessel maturation. The formation of a mature vascular network requires precise spatial and temporal regulation of a large number of angiogenic factors, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), basic fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). VEGF aids in vascular permeability and endothelial cell recruitment, FGF-2 activates endothelial cell proliferation and migration while PDGF stimulates vascular stability. Read More

    Cyclosporin A indirectly attenuates activation of group 2 innate lymphoid cells in papain-induced lung inflammation.
    Cell Immunol 2017 Oct 27. Epub 2017 Oct 27.
    Department of Immune Regulation, Research Center for Hepatitis and Immunology, Research Institute, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Chiba, Japan. Electronic address:
    Cyclosporin A (CsA) is a well-known immunosuppressant that is used against steroid-resistant asthma. Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) and type 2 helper T (Th2) cells produce Th2 cytokines including IL-5 and play important roles in asthma pathogenesis. Here, we studied the effects of CsA in allergen-induced lung inflammation in mice and found that CsA decreased the number of lung ILC2s and attenuated papain-induced activation of ILC2s accompanied with IL-5 expression. Read More

    Conditioned media from the renal cell carcinoma cell line 786.O drives human blood monocytes to a monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cell phenotype.
    Cell Immunol 2017 Oct 31. Epub 2017 Oct 31.
    ZymoGenetics, a Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, 1201 Eastlake Ave. East, Seattle, WA 98102, United States.
    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are immature myeloid cells critical in mediating immune suppression in cancer patients. To develop an in vitro assay system that functionally mimics the tumor microenvironment, we cultured human monocytes with conditioned media from several cancer cell lines. Conditioned media from five tumor cell lines induced survival and differentiation of monocytes into cells characteristically similar to macrophages and MDSCs. Read More

    The paradox of Th17 cell functions in tumor immunity.
    Cell Immunol 2017 Oct 31. Epub 2017 Oct 31.
    Immunology Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. Electronic address:
    Immune system acts as a host defensive mechanism protecting against attacking pathogens and transformed cells, including cancer cells. Th17 cells are a specific subset of T helper lymphocytes determined by high secretion of IL-17 and other inflammatory cytokines. Th17 cells increase tumor progression by activating angiogenesis and immunosuppressive activities. Read More

    Tumor necrosis factor superfamily member (TNFSF) 13 (APRIL) and TNFSF13B (BAFF) downregulate homeostatic immunoglobulin production in the intestines.
    Cell Immunol 2017 Oct 27. Epub 2017 Oct 27.
    Department of Immunology, Dokkyo Medical University School of Medicine, Japan.
    Intestinal immunoglobulins (Igs) protect against microbes. However, the regulation of intestinal Ig production is poorly understood. In this study, we have investigated the roles of APRIL (tumor necrosis factor superfamily member [TNFSF] 13) and BAFF (TNFSF13B) in intestinal Ig induction. Read More

    Exhaustion of T lymphocytes in the tumor microenvironment: Significance and effective mechanisms.
    Cell Immunol 2017 Oct 10. Epub 2017 Oct 10.
    Immunology Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:
    T lymphocytes play crucial roles in adaptive immune responses to tumors. However, due to different tolerance mechanisms and inhibitory effects of the tumor microenvironment (TME) on T cells, responses to tumors are insufficient. In fact, cellular and molecular suppressive mechanisms repress T cell responses in the TME, resulting in senescent, anergic and exhausted lymphocytes. Read More

    ESC-derived thymic epithelial cells expressing MOG prevents EAE by central and peripheral tolerance mechanisms.
    Cell Immunol 2017 Oct 18. Epub 2017 Oct 18.
    Department of Allied Health Sciences, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, USA; University of Connecticut Stem Cell Institute, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, USA. Electronic address:
    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an animal model for multiple sclerosis (MS), and is induced by immunization with disease-causative self-antigens such as myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG). We have previously reported that transplantation of MOG expressing thymic epithelial progenitors (TEPs) derived from 129S6SvEv Tac mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) prevented the development of EAE. In this study, we expand our previous studies to show that transplantation of MOG expressing mESC-TEPs derived from C57BL/6 mice also prevents EAE development. Read More

    Piper nigrum extract ameliorated allergic inflammation through inhibiting Th2/Th17 responses and mast cells activation.
    Cell Immunol 2017 Oct 16. Epub 2017 Oct 16.
    Department of Anatomy, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 54896, Republic of Korea; Institute for Medical Sciences, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 54896, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:
    Piper nigrum (Piperaceae) is commonly used as a spice and traditional medicine in many countries. P. nigrum has been reported to have anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-tumor, anti-mutagenic, anti-diabetic, and anti-inflammatory properties. Read More

    Vitamin D-deficiency induces eosinophil spontaneous activation.
    Cell Immunol 2017 Oct 12. Epub 2017 Oct 12.
    The Research Center of Allergy & Immunology, Shenzhen University School of Medicine, Shenzhen 518060, China. Electronic address:
    Eosinophils (Eo) play a critical role in immunity and immune inflammation. The maintenance of Eo homeostasis is not fully understood yet. Vitamin D (VitD) is involved in the regulation of a large number of biochemical reactions. Read More

    Mechanism underlying the suppressor activity of retinoic acid on IL4-induced IgE synthesis and its physiological implication.
    Cell Immunol 2017 Oct 3. Epub 2017 Oct 3.
    Department of Molecular Bioscience, School of Biomedical Science and Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:
    The present study extends an earlier report that retinoic acid (RA) down-regulates IgE Ab synthesis in vitro. Here, we show the suppressive activity of RA on IgE production in vivo and its underlying mechanisms. We found that RA down-regulated IgE class switching recombination (CSR) mainly through RA receptor α (RARα). Read More

    SH3 dependent cell death signaling of the avian chB6 alloantigen.
    Cell Immunol 2017 Sep 28. Epub 2017 Sep 28.
    Department of Biological Sciences, DePaul University, 2325N Clifton, Chicago IL 60614, United States. Electronic address:
    In chickens, B cells develop in the bursa of Fabricius, a unique organ for B cell development. Most B cells will die within the bursa, mirroring cell losses seen in mammalian bone marrow as central tolerance is enforced at the transition to mature cells. B cell responses are shaped by a complex interplay of signals. Read More

    Didox (3,4-dihydroxybenzohydroxamic acid) suppresses IgE-mediated mast cell activation through attenuation of NFκB and AP-1 transcription.
    Cell Immunol 2017 Sep 21. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    Department of Biology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, 23284, United States. Electronic address:
    Mast cell activation via the high-affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI) elicits production of inflammatory mediators central to allergic disease. As a synthetic antioxidant and a potent ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) inhibitor, Didox (3,4-dihyroxybenzohydroxamic acid) has been tested in clinical trials for cancer and is an attractive therapeutic for inflammatory disease. We found that Didox treatment of mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMC) reduced IgE-stimulated degranulation and cytokine production, including IL-6, IL-13, TNF and MIP-1a (CCL3). Read More

    Cervical cancer cells suppress effector functions of cytotoxic T cells through the adenosinergic pathway.
    Cell Immunol 2017 Oct 7;320:46-55. Epub 2017 Sep 7.
    Laboratorio de Inmunobiología, Unidad de Diferenciación Celular y Cáncer, FES-Zaragoza, UNAM, Ciudad de México, Mexico; Laboratorio de Inmunología y Cáncer, Unidad de Investigación Médica en Enfermedades Oncológicas, Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI, IMSS, Ciudad de México, Mexico. Electronic address:
    Background: The expression of CD73 in tumor cells plays a significant role in the production of adenosine (Ado) that suppresses antitumor effector cells.

    Methods: In this study we analyzed the capability of HPV-positive (HPV+) cervical cancer (CeCa) cell lines CaSki, SiHa, HeLa, and RoVa; and HPV-negative (HPV-) cell lines C33A and ViBo to produce Ado and inhibit effector functions of CD8+ T cells.

    Results: HPV+ CeCa cells expressed significantly higher levels of CD73 in the membrane (p<0. Read More

    Decreased TNF family receptor expression on B-cells is associated with reduced humoral responses to Streptococcus pneumoniae infections in young children.
    Cell Immunol 2017 Oct 21;320:11-19. Epub 2017 Jul 21.
    Center for Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Rochester General Hospital Research Institute, Rochester, NY 14621, USA. Electronic address:
    An underdeveloped or impaired immune response in young children is associated with increased susceptibility to Streptococcus pneumonia (Spn) infections. We determined serum antibody titers against 3 Spn vaccine candidate proteins and vaccine serotype polysaccharide antigens in a group of Spn infection prone 9-18months old and found lower IgG antibody titers to all tested antigens compared to age-matched non-infection-prone children. We also found the children had significantly reduced percentages of total memory B-cells, switched memory B-cells and plasma cells. Read More

    Polysaccharides derived from Ganoderma lucidum fungus mycelia ameliorate indomethacin-induced small intestinal injury via induction of GM-CSF from macrophages.
    Cell Immunol 2017 Oct 4;320:20-28. Epub 2017 Aug 4.
    Department of Medicine and Molecular Science, Hiroshima University, Japan.
    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs often cause ulcers in the human small intestine, but few effective agents exist to treat such injury. Ganoderma lucidum Karst, also known as "Reishi" or "Lingzhi", is a mushroom. We previously reported that a water-soluble extract from G. Read More

    Death Receptor 3 regulates distinct pathological attributes of acute versus chronic murine allergic lung inflammation.
    Cell Immunol 2017 Oct 15;320:62-70. Epub 2017 Sep 15.
    Division of Infection & Immunity, School of Medicine, Cardiff University, Heath Park, Cardiff CF14 4XN, UK. Electronic address:
    The Death Receptor 3 (DR3)/Tumour Necrosis Factor-like cytokine 1A (TL1A) axis stimulates effector T cells and type 2 innate lymphocytes (ILC2) that trigger cytokine release and drive disease pathology in several inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, including murine models of acute allergic lung inflammation (ALI). The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of DR3 in chronic ALI compared to acute ALI, using mice genetically deficient in the DR3 gene (DR3(ko)). Results showed DR3 expression in the lungs of wild-type mice was up-regulated following induction of acute ALI and this increased expression was maintained in chronic disease. Read More

    Evaluation of peripheral blood T lymphocyte surface activation markers and transcription factors in patients with early stage non-small cell lung cancer.
    Cell Immunol 2017 Sep 18. Epub 2017 Sep 18.
    Department of Clinical Oncology and Radiotherapy, Medical University of Gdansk, Poland.
    Lung cancer cells harboring multiple mutations as a consequence of long-term damage by different etiologic factors are responsible for high immunogenicity. Immune checkpoint inhibitors significantly improve treatment results in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Unfortunately, the role of T-lymphocytes in early NSCLC has not been sufficiently elucidated. Read More

    Engineered cells for costimulatory enhancement combined with IL-21 enhance the generation of PD-1-disrupted CTLs for adoptive immunotherapy.
    Cell Immunol 2017 Oct 7;320:38-45. Epub 2017 Sep 7.
    The Comprehensive Cancer Center of Drum Tower Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University & Clinical Cancer Institute of Nanjing University, Nanjing 210008, China. Electronic address:
    Blockade of the immune cell checkpoint inhibitors programmed death 1 (PD-1) and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) has become a powerful tool in cancer treatment, which is effective across various solid cancer types and hematologic malignancies. Our previous studies showed that by reducing immune tolerance, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-associated protein 9 (CRISPR-Cas9) modified cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) rank highly in terms of immune responses and cytotoxicity. In this study, a genetically modified K562 cell line with surface expression of 4-1BBL was developed to expand PD-1-disrupted CTLs in vitro for further adoptive immunotherapy against cancer. Read More

    Signals that drive T-bet expression in B cells.
    Cell Immunol 2017 Sep 11. Epub 2017 Sep 11.
    Institute for Immunology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, United States. Electronic address:
    Transcription factors regulate various developmental and functional aspects of B cells. T-bet is a recently appreciated transcription factor associated with "Age-associated B cells" or ABCs, the development of autoimmunity, and viral infections. T-bet expression is favored by nucleic acid-containing antigens and immune complexes and is regulated by interplay between various cytokines, notably, the TFH cytokines IL-21, IL-4 and IFNγ. Read More

    Immunomodulatory mechanisms of mesenchymal stem cells and their therapeutic applications.
    Cell Immunol 2017 Sep 11. Epub 2017 Sep 11.
    Dept. of Integrated Biomedical Sciences, Inha University School of Medicine, Incheon 22332 Republic of Korea; SCM Lifesciences Co. Ltd., Incheon 22332 Republic of Korea. Electronic address:
    In the recent years, many studies have shown that MSCs must be stimulated by pro-inflammatory cytokines or other immune mediators before they can modulate immune cells in inflamed and damaged tissues. MSCs appear to be involved in inducing several regulatory immune cells, such as Tregs, Bregs, and regulatory NK cells. This new immune milieu created by MSCs may establish a tolerogenic environment that leads to an optimal condition for the treatment of immune diseases. Read More

    A novel mimovirus encoding ChgA10-19 peptide with PD-L1 induces T cell tolerance and ameliorates the severity of diabetes.
    Cell Immunol 2017 Oct 7;320:56-61. Epub 2017 Sep 7.
    Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, The Third People's Hospital of Linyi, Linyi, Shangdong 276000, China. Electronic address:
    Related studies demonstrate that type 1 diabetes (T1D) is caused by β-cell antigen specific autoreactive CD8+ T cells. ChgA has recently been identified as the autoantigen in NOD mice and T1D patients. Therefore, attenuating the activation of ChgA specific CD8+ T cells might be a promising target for T1D therapy. Read More

    Regulatory T cells and TLR9 activation shape antibody formation to a secreted transgene product in AAV muscle gene transfer.
    Cell Immunol 2017 Aug 1. Epub 2017 Aug 1.
    Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cellular and Molecular Therapy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, United States. Electronic address:
    Adeno-associated viral (AAV) gene delivery to skeletal muscle is being explored for systemic delivery of therapeutic proteins. To better understand the signals that govern antibody formation against secreted transgene products in this approach, we administered an intramuscular dose of AAV1 vector expressing human coagulation factor IX (hFIX), which does not cause antibody formation against hFIX in C57BL/6 mice. Interestingly, co-administration of a TLR9 agonist (CpG-deoxyoligonucleotide, ODN) but not of lipopolysaccharide, caused a transient anti-hFIX response. Read More

    Interferon-γ suppresses the proliferation and migration of human placenta-derived mesenchmal stromal cells and enhances their ability to induce the generation of CD4(+)CXCR5(+)Foxp3(+)Treg subset.
    Cell Immunol 2017 Jul 25. Epub 2017 Jul 25.
    Department of Immunology, Binzhou Medical University, Yantai, Shandong Province 264003, People's Republic of China; Taishan Scholar Immunology program, Binzhou Medical university, Yantai, Shandong Province 264003, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:
    We investigate the effects of interferon (IFN)-γ on human placenta-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hPMSCs), in particular, their adhesion, proliferation and migration and modulatory effects on the CD4(+)CXCR5(+)Foxp3(+)Treg subset. And we compared hPMSCs ability to induce the generation of different Treg subsets in response to treatment with IFN-γ. We found that IFN-γ suppressed the proliferation and migration for hPMSCs. Read More

    High Antigen Processing Machinery component expression in Langerhans cells from melanoma patients' sentinel lymph nodes.
    Cell Immunol 2017 Oct 30;320:29-37. Epub 2017 Aug 30.
    Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Unit, Regional Melanoma Referral Center and Melanoma & Skin Cancer Unit, Tuscan Tumour Institute (ITT) - S.M. Annunziata Hospital, Florence, Italy.
    Langerhans cells (LCs) from melanoma patients sentinel lymph nodes (SLN) are poor T cell activators mostly due to an immature immunophenotype. However Antigen Presenting Machinery (APM) role is unknown. We investigated HLA-class I APM components (Delta, LMP-7/10, TAP-1, Calnexin, Tapasin, β2-microglobulin and HLA-A,B,C) in LCs from healthy donors skin and melanoma patients SLN. Read More

    Hierarchical signaling transduction of the immune and muscle cell crosstalk in muscle regeneration.
    Cell Immunol 2017 Aug 24. Epub 2017 Aug 24.
    State Key Laboratory of Cell Biology, Center of Excellence in Molecular and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 320 Yueyang Road, Shanghai 200031, China. Electronic address:
    The muscle regeneration is a complicated bioprocess that involved in many cell types, including necrotic muscle cells, satellite cells, mesenchymal cells, pericytes, immune cells, and other cell types present at the injury site. Immune cells involved in both innate and adaptive immune responses regulate the progress of muscle regeneration. In this review, we discussed the roles of different immune cells in muscle regeneration. Read More

    Precise immune tolerance for hPSC derivatives in clinical application.
    Cell Immunol 2017 Aug 30. Epub 2017 Aug 30.
    University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China; State Key Laboratory of Stem Cell and Reproductive Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China. Electronic address:
    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) promise a foreseeing future for regeneration medicine and cell replacement therapy with their abilities to produce almost any types of somatic cells of the body. The complicated immunogenicity of hPSC derivatives and context dependent responses in variable transplantations greatly hurdle the practical application of hPSCs in clinic. Especially for applications of hPSCs, induction of immune tolerance at the same time increases the risks of tumorigenesis. Read More

    Mechanism of chimeric vaccine stimulation of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase biosynthesis in human dendritic cells is independent of TGF-β signaling.
    Cell Immunol 2017 Sep 21;319:43-52. Epub 2017 Aug 21.
    Center for Health Disparities and Molecular Medicine, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, Mortensen Hall, Loma Linda, CA, USA; Division of Biochemistry, Department of Basic Sciences, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, Loma Linda, CA, USA. Electronic address:
    Cholera toxin B subunit fusion to autoantigens such as proinsulin (CTB-INS) down regulate dendritic cell (DC) activation and stimulate synthesis of DC immunosuppressive cytokines. Recent studies of CTB-INS induction of immune tolerance in human DCs indicate that increased biosynthesis of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO1) may play an important role in CTB-INS vaccine suppression of DC activation. Studies in murine models suggest a role for transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) in the stimulation of IDO1 biosynthesis, for the induction of tolerance in DCs. Read More

    Immune response involved in liver damage and the activation of hepatic progenitor cells during liver tumorigenesis.
    Cell Immunol 2017 Aug 24. Epub 2017 Aug 24.
    Tumor Immunology and Gene Therapy Center, Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital, The Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:
    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a typical inflammation-related cancer. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are well-known leading causes of HCC. However, the mechanism of the induction of HCC by these virus is still being debated. Read More

    MicroRNA-124 alleviates chronic skin inflammation in atopic eczema via suppressing innate immune responses in keratinocytes.
    Cell Immunol 2017 Sep 25;319:53-60. Epub 2017 Aug 25.
    Department of Dermatology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Hunan University of Chinese Medicine, Changsha, Hunan Province 410005, China.
    Chronic skin inflammation in atopic eczema is associated with elevated expression of proinflammatory genes and activation of innate immune responses in keratinocytes. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, single-stranded RNA molecules that silence genes via the degradation of target mRNAs or inhibition of translation. Recent studies have demonstrated that miR-124 is associated with regulation of inflammation factors in several diseases. Read More

    Remodeling T cell compartments during anti-CD3 immunotherapy of type 1 diabetes.
    Cell Immunol 2017 Sep 18;319:3-9. Epub 2017 Aug 18.
    Immune Tolerance Network, Bethesda, MD, USA. Electronic address:
    The immunological mechanism(s) of action whereby teplizumab preserves C-peptide levels in the progression of patients with recent onset type 1 diabetes (T1D) is still not well understood. In the present study, we evaluated the kinetics of T cell modulation in peripheral blood following two 14-day courses of teplizumab therapy one year apart in recent onset T1D participants in the AbATE clinical trial. Transient rises in PD-1+Foxp3+ Treg and potentially anergic (CD57-KLRG1-PD-1+) cells in the circulating CD4 T cell compartment were paralleled by more profound increases in circulating CD8 T cells with traits of exhaustion (CD57-KLRG1+PD-1+, TIGIT+KLRG1+, and persistent down-modulation of CD127). Read More

    CD11c+ T-bet+ memory B cells: Immune maintenance during chronic infection and inflammation?
    Cell Immunol 2017 Jul 19. Epub 2017 Jul 19.
    Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, NY 13210, United States.
    CD11c+ T-bet+ B cells have now been detected and characterized in different experimental and clinical settings, in both mice and humans. Whether such cells are monolithic, or define subsets of B cells with different functions is not yet known. Our studies have identified CD11c+ IgM+ CD19(hi) splenic IgM memory B cells that appear at approximately three weeks post-ehrlichial infection, and persist indefinitely, during low-level chronic infection. Read More

    Regulation of systemic autoimmunity and CD11c(+) Tbet(+) B cells by SWEF proteins.
    Cell Immunol 2017 Jul 11. Epub 2017 Jul 11.
    Autoimmunity and Inflammation Program, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY, USA; Graduate Program in Immunology and Microbial Pathogenesis, Weill Cornell Graduate School of Medical Sciences, New York, NY, USA; David Z. Rosensweig Genomics Research Center, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY, USA; Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, Cornell University, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address:
    Recent studies have revealed the existence of a T-bet dependent subset of B cells, which expresses unique phenotypic and functional characteristics including high levels of CD11c and CD11b. In the murine system this B cell subset has been termed Age/autoimmune-associated B cells (ABCs) since it expands with age in non-autoimmune mice and it prematurely accumulates in autoimmune-prone strains. The molecular mechanisms that promote the expansion and function of ABCs are largely unknown. Read More

    Immune modulation by a cellular network of mesenchymal stem cells and breast cancer cell subsets: Implication for cancer therapy.
    Cell Immunol 2017 Aug 1. Epub 2017 Aug 1.
    Rutgers, New Jersey Medical School, Department of Medicine-Hematology-Oncology, Newark, NJ 07103, USA. Electronic address:
    The immune modulatory properties of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are mostly controlled by the particular microenvironment. Cancer stem cells (CSCs), which can initiate a clinical tumor, have been the subject of intense research. This review article discusses investigative studies of the roles of MSCs on cancer biology including on CSCs, and the potential as drug delivery to tumors. Read More

    The role of secreted factors in stem cells-mediated immune regulation.
    Cell Immunol 2017 Jul 29. Epub 2017 Jul 29.
    Key Laboratory of Stem Cell Biology, Institute of Health Sciences of Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine and Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200025, China. Electronic address:
    Stem cells are characterized by self-renew and multipotent differentiation abilities. Besides their roles in cell compensation, stem cells are also rich sources of growth factors, cytokines, chemokines, micro-RNAs and exosomes and serve as drug stores to maintain tissue homeostasis. Recent studies have revealed that the secretome of stem cells is regulated by the local inflammatory cues and highlighted the roles of these secretory factors in stem cell based therapies. Read More

    Mesenchymal stem cell-mediated immunomodulation in cell therapy of neurodegenerative diseases.
    Cell Immunol 2017 Jul 11. Epub 2017 Jul 11.
    Key Laboratory of Stem Cell Biology, Institute of Health Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences/Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, 320 Yueyang Road, Shanghai 200031, China. Electronic address:
    Dysfunction of immune responses has been identified to involve in the pathogenesis of various neurodegenerative diseases. Abnormal activation of glia cells and/or infiltration of peripheral adaptive immune cells always sustains neuroinflammation and the disease progression. Obviously, the regulation of neuroinflammation has become a potential therapeutic strategy against neurodegenerative diseases. Read More

    Role of CD11c(+) T-bet(+) B cells in human health and disease.
    Cell Immunol 2017 Jul 11. Epub 2017 Jul 11.
    Respiratory, Inflammation, and Autoimmunity Group, MedImmune LLC, Gaithersburg, MD 20878, USA. Electronic address:
    A growing body of evidence suggests that when B cells are chronically stimulated, a phenotypically unique subset expands. Data suggest that this atypical population contains B cell receptor (BCR) specificities capable of binding the antigen, or sets of antigens that initiated the expansion of these cells. These B cells have been given various names, including double negative B cells, atypical memory B cells, tissue-like memory B cells, or age associated B cells (ABCs). Read More

    Didox (3,4-dihydroxybenzohydroxamic acid) suppresses IL-33-induced cytokine production in primary mouse mast cells.
    Cell Immunol 2017 Sep 11;319:10-16. Epub 2017 Jul 11.
    Department of Biology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, 23284, United States. Electronic address:
    While IgE is considered the primary mediator of mast cell activation, IL-33 contributes substantially in asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis. To develop effective treatments for allergic disease, it is important to understand the role of therapeutic agents on IL-33 activation. We examined the effect of Didox (3,4-dihydroxybenzohydroxamic acid), an antioxidant and ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) inhibitor, on IL-33-mediated mast cell activation. Read More

    T-bet-expressing B cells during HIV and HCV infections.
    Cell Immunol 2017 Jul 11. Epub 2017 Jul 11.
    Department of Microbiology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA. Electronic address:
    T-bet-expressing B cells, first identified as perpetuators of autoimmunity, were recently shown to be critical for murine antiviral responses. While their role in human viral infections remains unclear, B cells expressing T-bet or demonstrating a related phenotype have been described in individuals chronically infected with HIV or HCV, suggesting these cells represent a component of human antiviral responses. In this review, we discuss the induction of T-bet in B cells following both HIV and HCV infections, the factors driving T-bet(+) B cell expansions, T-bet's relationship to atypical memory B cells, and the consequences of T-bet induction. Read More

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitors as modulators of trastuzumab-mediated antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity in breast cancer cell lines.
    Cell Immunol 2017 Sep 15;319:35-42. Epub 2017 Jul 15.
    National Institute for Cellular Biotechnology, Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9, Ireland; Department of Medical Oncology, St Vincent's University Hospital, Elm Park, Dublin 4, Ireland.
    Background: Trastuzumab is an anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapy capable of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) and used in the treatment of HER2+ breast cancer. Through interactions with FcƴR+ immune cell subsets, trastuzumab functions as a passive immunotherapy. The EGFR/HER2-targeting tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) lapatinib and the next generation TKIs afatinib and neratinib, can alter HER2 levels, potentially modulating the ADCC response to trastuzumab. Read More

    Atypical memory B cells in human chronic infectious diseases: An interim report.
    Cell Immunol 2017 Jul 11. Epub 2017 Jul 11.
    Laboratory of Immunogenetics, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, MD 20852, USA. Electronic address:
    Immunological memory is a remarkable phenomenon in which survival of an initial infection by a pathogen leads to life-long protection from disease upon subsequent exposure to that same pathogen. For many infectious diseases, long-lived protective humoral immunity is induced after only a single infection in a process that depends on the generation of memory B cells (MBCs) and long-lived plasma cells. However, over the past decade it has become increasingly evident that many chronic human infectious diseases to which immunity is not readily established, including HIV-AIDS, malaria and TB, are associated with fundamental alterations in the composition and functionality of MBC compartments. Read More

    The properties of the unique age-associated B cell subset reveal a shift in strategy of immune response with age.
    Cell Immunol 2017 Jul 11. Epub 2017 Jul 11.
    Department of Pathology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, United States.
    In aged mice, conventional naive B cells decrease and a new population of age-associated B cells (ABC)(3) develops. When aged unprimed mice are infected with influenza virus, there is a reduced generation of helper CD4 T cell subsets and germinal center B cells, leading to limited production of IgG Ab and less generation of conventional long-lived plasma cells, compared to young. However, we find an enhanced non-follicular (GL7(-)) ABC response that is helper T cell-independent, but requires high viral dose and pathogen recognition pathways. Read More

    Functional analysis of acquired CD28 mutations identified in cutaneous T cell lymphoma.
    Cell Immunol 2017 Sep 10;319:28-34. Epub 2017 Jul 10.
    Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA. Electronic address:
    CD28 is the major costimulatory receptor on T cells regulating proliferation, survival and effector function. Acquired mutations in the extracellular domain of CD28 have been identified in patients with cutaneous T cell lymphoma, angioimmunoblastic T cell lymphoma and other T cell neoplasms, suggesting it may contribute to disease pathogenesis. We used a heterologous system in which mutant human CD28 was expressed on primary murine T cells deficient in CD28 to ascertain how specific mutations identified in a genetic screen of patients with cutaneous T cell lymphoma affected normal T cell function. Read More

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