26 results match your criteria Cellscience[Journal]

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CFTR is a mechanosensitive anion channel: a real stretch?

Authors:
Michael A Gray

Cellscience 2010 Jan;7(1):1-7

Epithelial Research Group, Institute for Cell & Molecular Biosciences, The Medical School, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE2 4HH, UK.

The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) anion channel represents the rate-limiting step for chloride and fluid secretion in most epithelial tissues in the body. More recently, CFTR activity has also been shown to regulate muscle contraction, neuroendocrine function, and cartilage formation, implicating the channel in many important physiological activities from diverse systems. A major interest in the channel stems from the fact that loss of function mutations in the gene encoding CFTR result in the inherited disease cystic fibrosis, one of the most common, life threatening, diseases found in the Caucasian population. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3000599PMC
January 2010
14 Reads

FGF ligands emerge as potential specifiers of synaptic identity.

Cellscience 2010 Jul;7(1):33-42

King's College London, Department of Craniofacial Development and MRC Centre for Developmental Neurobiology, Floor 27, Guy's Tower, London SE1 9RT, UK.

The central nervous system (CNS) consists of trillions of interconnected neurons. The specialised regions of intercellular contact between neurons where information, usually in chemical form, is transmitted are called synapses. The last decade has seen an unprecedented advance in our understanding of the molecular nature, formation and maintenance of synapses. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2948530PMC
July 2010
1 Read

PD-1 blockade: A promising immunotherapy for HIV?

Cellscience 2009 Apr;5(4):61-65

Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine.

The progressive loss of effector function in the setting of chronic viral infections has been associated with the upregulation of programmed death 1 (PD-1), a negative regulator of activated T cells. In HIV infection, increased levels of PD-1 expression correlate with CD8(+) T cell exhaustion, which has been shown in vitro to be reversible with PD-1 blockade. Velu and colleagues recently reported the first in vivo study showing enhancement of a virus-specific immune response through PD-1 blockade using an anti-PD-1 antibody in an SIV-macaque model. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2872789PMC
April 2009
10 Reads

Roles of retrotransposons in benign and malignant hematologic disease.

Cellscience 2009 Oct;6(2):121-145

Dept. of Molecular Biology & Genetics, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine.

Nearly half of our genomes are repetitive sequences derived from retrotransposons. These repeats have accumulated by a 'copy-and-paste' mechanism whereby: (i.) a genomic template sequence is transcribed to RNA, (ii. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2830787PMC
October 2009
4 Reads

Multi-level control of ionotropic glutamate receptor function.

Authors:
Michel Baudry

Cellscience 2009 Jul;6(1):79

Neuroscience Program, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-2520, USA.

Because ionotropic glutamate receptors play critical roles in numerous CNS functions, there has been considerable interest in understanding molecular mechanisms regulating their properties. In particular, the search for ligands and corresponding binding sites providing allosteric regulation of agonist binding and channel opening and closing has been intensely pursued in the hope of developing new approaches for the treatment of a variety of CNS diseases associated with abnormal functioning of glutamatergic systems. Several recent publications have reported detailed structures of the N-terminal domains of NMDA and AMPA receptors and have generated interesting predictions regarding the possibility of finding new ways to control glutamate receptor function. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2819295PMC
July 2009
2 Reads

The dynamics of excitatory synapse formation on dendritic spines.

Cellscience 2009 Apr;5(4):19-25

Department of Neurobiology, McKnight Brain Institute, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA.

Dendritic spines, the postsynaptic compartments of most functional excitatory synapses in the Central Nervous System (CNS), are highly dynamic structures, having the ability to grow, change shape, or retract in response to varying levels of neuronal activity. This dynamic nature of spines allows modifications in brain circuitry and connectivity, thus participating in fundamental processes such as learning, recall, and emotional behaviors. Although many studies have characterized the precise molecular identities and signaling pathways by which spines initially form, little is known about the actual time course over which they mature into functional postsynaptic compartments of excitatory synapses. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2805008PMC
April 2009
5 Reads

How can studying psychopaths help us understand the neural mechanisms of moral judgment?

Authors:
Andrea L Glenn

Cellscience 2010;6(4):30-35

Department of Psychology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.

There is growing interest in the neural basis of human moral cognition, in hopes that neuroscience can help to explain the general process of moral judgment. The role of emotion and cognition in moral judgment has yet to be determined. The study of psychopathic traits may be able to give us some insight into this because of their deficits in emotional responding. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4583205PMC
January 2010
17 Reads

The role of CCK8 in the inhibition of glucose production.

Cellscience 2009 Oct;6(2):92-97

Dept. of Molecular Physiology & Biophysics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, 704 Robinson Research Bldg, Nashville, TN 37232-0615, USA.

A recent study suggested that a rise of cholecystokinin (CCK8) in the duodenum may bring about an inhibition of hepatic glucose production. The authors made use of the pancreatic clamp technique to characterize a gut-brain-liver signal generated by CCK8 that reduces glucose output by the liver. The pancreatic clamp conditions used created a situation in which the liver was markedly deficient in both insulin and glucagon. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5485841PMC
October 2009
7 Reads

The emerging role of CCN6 in breast cancer invasion.

Cellscience 2009 Oct;6(2):146-157

Dept. of Pathology & Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Michigan Medical School, USA.

The CCN family of matricellular proteins is essential for cell communication and mediation of epithelial stromal cross-talks with roles in development and cancer. In particular, loss of CCN6 messenger RNA expression has been recognized in highly aggressive breast cancers, especially in inflammatory breast cancer and breast cancers with axillary lymph node metastasis. Recent findings can better explain the relevance of CCN6's reduced expression on human invasive breast carcinomas. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5651983PMC
October 2009
15 Reads

The dynamics of HDAC activity on memory formation.

Cellscience 2009 Jul;6(1):44-48

Department of Neurobiology, Evelyn F. McKnight Brain institute, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham AL 35294-2182, USA.

Histone deacetylases (HDACs) have previously been shown to be critical for the formation of long-term memories. Recent findings now show that a specific HDAC isoform, HDAC2, negatively regulates formation of hippocampus-dependent memory. These recent findings published in Nature highlight potential new therapeutic interventions for the treatment of memory impairments associated with human neurological disorders. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2748411PMC
July 2009
4 Reads

Astrocytic 'power-grid': Delivery upon neuronal demand.

Cellscience 2009 Jan;5(3):34-43

Dept. of Neurobiology, Ctr. for Glial Biology in Medicine, Atomic Force Microscopy & Nanotechnology Laboratories, Civitan International Research Center, Evelyn F. McKnight Brain Institute, University of Alabama, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA.

Gap junctions can connect the cytosolic compartments of adjacent astroglia. They allow intercellular flux of low-molecular weight (< ~ 1 kDa) compounds, including metabolites and second messengers. Only recently, however, has it been proposed that gap junctions may serve an additional role in the astrocytic metabolic network which maintains synaptic transmission. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2743111PMC
January 2009
4 Reads

Novel insights into non-image forming visual processing in the retina.

Cellscience 2008 Jul;5(1):77-83

Department of Neuroscience, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA.

A small subset of retinal ganglion cells projecting to the suprachiasmatic nucleus and other brain areas, is implicated in non-image forming visual responses to environmental light such as the pupillary light reflex, seasonal adaptations in physiology, photic inhibition of nocturnal melatonin release, and modulation of sleep, alertness and activity. These cells are intrinsically photosensitive (ipRGCs) and express an opsin-like photopigment called melanopsin. Two recent studies utilizing selective genetic ablation of ipRGCs demonstrate the key role of these inner retinal cells in conveying luminance signals to the brain for non-image forming visual processing. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2890289PMC
July 2008
2 Reads

PIP2: a new key player in Alzheimer's disease.

Authors:
Ottavio Arancio

Cellscience 2008 Jul;5(1):44-47

Department of Pathology, Taub Institute for Research on Alzheimer's Disease and the Aging Brain, Columbia University, New York, New York, 10032, USA.

Amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta) oligomers are likely to underlie the earliest amnesic changes in Alzheimer's disease through impairment of synaptic function. A recent work from the laboratories of Tae-Wan Kim and Gilbert Di Paolo and colleagues implicates the phosphoinositide signaling pathway in synaptic changes due to elevation of Abeta oligomers. Given that phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) is central to many essential processes in neurons including neuronal and synaptic function, reduction in the levels of PIP2 in response to oligomeric Abeta could explain many of the phenotypes that have been observed with oligomeric Abeta. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2890287PMC
July 2008
13 Reads

Psychoneuroimmunology examined: The role of subjective stress.

Cellscience 2006 Apr;2(4):66-91

Stress and Immunity Cancer Projects, 159A Psychology Building, 1835 Neil Avenue, Columbus, Ohio 43210.

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2473865PMC
April 2006
2 Reads

Brain Glucose Metabolism Controls Hepatic Glucose and Lipid Production.

Authors:
Tony K T Lam

Cellscience 2007 ;3(4):63-69

Toronto General Hospital Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, M5G 1L7.

Brain glucose-sensing mechanisms are implicated in the regulation of feeding behavior and hypoglycemic-induced hormonal counter-regulation. This commentary discusses recent findings indicating that the brain senses glucose to regulate both hepatic glucose and lipid production. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2405765PMC
January 2007
3 Reads

Respected Sir(2): magic target for diabetes.

Cellscience 2008 Apr;4(4):82-96

Laboratory of Metabolic Disorders and Alternative Medicine, Dept. of Molecular Biosciences and Bioengineering (MBBE), CTAHR, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii.

The endless quest for the 'fountain of youth' has led to the discovery of a family of molecules known as sirtuins in humans, or silent mating type information regulator 2 (Sir2) in yeast, which are associated with longevity in yeast, nematodes, drosophila and rodents. Although sirtuins have yet to be proven to delay aging and promote longevity in humans, they promise 'healthy aging', an ideal of modern society. This review emphasizes the role of various sirtuins in maintaining glucose homeostasis, the therapeutic potential of sirtuin modulators in the prevention and treatment of diabetes, and the emerging associations of SIRT genetic polymorphisms with human longevity. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2890243PMC
April 2008
10 Reads

Can Sir(2) regulate cancer?

Cellscience 2008 Apr;4(4):50-56

Laboratory of Metabolic Disorders and Alternative Medicine, Dept. of Molecular Biosciences and Bioengineering (MBBE), CTAHR, , University of Hawaii, Honolulu.

Sirtuin activators, including small molecules such as polyphenols and resveratrol, are much desired due to their potential to ameliorate metabolic disorder and delay or prevent aging. In contrast, recent studies demonstrate that targeted silencing of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) expression or activity by the deleted in breast cancer 1 (DBC1) may be beneficial by promoting p53-induced apoptosis in cancer cells, and by sensitizing cancerous cells to radiation therapy. Negative SIRT1 regulation also alleviates gene-repression associated with fragile X mental retardation syndrome. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2741025PMC
April 2008
19 Reads

Hardwiring goes soft: long-term modulation of electrical synapses in the mammalian brain.

Cellscience 2006 Jan;2(3):1-9

School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, CF10 3US, UK.

Following certain patterns of electrical activity the strength of conventional chemical synapses in many areas of the mammalian brain can be subject to long-term modifications. Such modifications have been extensively characterised and are hypothesised to form the basis of learning and memory. A recent study in Science now shows that activity-dependent long-term modifications may also occur in the strength of mammalian electrical synapses. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2211424PMC
January 2006
2 Reads

Potential Role of the AMP-activated Protein Kinase in Regulation of Insulin Action.

Cellscience 2006 Jan;2(3):68-81

Department of Biology, 3507 Laclede Ave., Saint Louis University St. Louis, MO 63103 USA.

Because of the predominant role of skeletal muscle in insulin-stimulated clearance of blood glucose, understanding mechanisms for increasing the ability of muscle to respond to insulin could potentially lead to novel strategies for treatment or prevention of diabetes. Recently, the AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) has emerged as a promising candidate for potentiation of insulin action. Several antidiabetic drugs have been shown to activate AMPK, cellular stresses such as exercise that increase AMPK activity also increase insulin action, and several downstream targets of AMPK seem to be involved in regulation of insulin action. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2099311PMC
January 2006
2 Reads

Cellular interplay between neurons and glia: toward a comprehensive mechanism for excitotoxic neuronal loss in neurodegeneration.

Cellscience 2007 Jul;4(1):111-146

Department of Pathology, School of Dental Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104.

Astrocytes perform vital maintenance, functional enhancement, and protective roles for their associated neurons; however these same mechanisms may become deleterious for neurons under some conditions. In this review, we highlight two normally protective pathways, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response and an endogenous antioxidant response, which may become neurotoxic when activated in astrocytes during the inflammation associated with neurodegeneration. Stimulation of these multifaceted pathways affects a panoply of cellular processes. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2613343PMC
July 2007
4 Reads

Proteomic analyses to identify novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of advanced prostate cancer.

Cellscience 2006 Jul;3(1):61-81

Genome Sciences Centre, BC Cancer Agency, 675 W 10th Ave, Vancouver, BC, V5Z1L3, Canada.

At present there is no cure for advanced prostate cancer once it progresses to an androgen independent stage. Hormonal therapy, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy all have limited durations of efficacy for men diagnosed with androgen independent disease and patients will succumb over a period of several months to two years. The androgen receptor (AR) has been suspected to play an important role in the mechanism of progression to androgen independence. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1901/jaba.2006.3-61DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1762136PMC
July 2006
3 Reads

Membrane Recruitment as a Cancer Mechanism: A Case Study of Akt PH Domain.

Authors:
Joseph J Falke

Cellscience 2007 ;4(2):25-30

Molecular Biophysics Program, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Colorado at Boulder, USA.

Evidence from multiple laboratories has suggested the possibility that defective membrane recruitment, triggered by mutations in conserved lipid binding domains, could be a common molecular mechanism underlying carcinogenesis. Now a recent paper by Carpten et al. in Nature has identified and analyzed one such mutation; specifically, E17K in the lipid binding pocket of the Akt plextrin homology (PH domain). Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2601639PMC
January 2007
1 Read

Forebrain-Cerebellar Interactions During Learning.

Cellscience 2006 Oct 27;3(2):200-230. Epub 2006 Oct 27.

Department of Physiology, Interdepartmental Neuroscience Program, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, 303 East Chicago Ave., Chicago, IL 60611-3008.

The cerebral cortex and cerebellum are high level neural centers that must interact cooperatively to generate coordinated and efficient goal directed movements, including those necessary for a well-timed conditioned response. In this review we describe the progress made in utilizing the forebrain-dependent trace eyeblink conditioning paradigm to understand the neural substrates mediating cerebro-cerebellar interactions during learning and consolidation of conditioned responses. This review expands upon our previous hypothesis that the interaction occurs at sites that project to the pontine nuclei (Weiss & Disterhoft, 1996), by offering more details on the function of the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex during acquisition and the circuitry involved in facilitating pontine input to the cerebellum as a necessary requisite for trace eyeblink conditioning. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4662573PMC
October 2006
5 Reads

Molecular Basis of Steroid Action in the Prostate.

Authors:
Yuan-Shan Zhu

Cellscience 2005 Apr;1(4):27-55

Associate Professor of Medicine, Department of Medicine/Endocrinology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, 1300 York Avenue, Box 149, New York, New York 10021.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1901/jaba.2005.1-27DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1564164PMC
April 2005
2 Reads

The Genetic Basis of Type 2 Diabetes.

Cellscience 2006 Apr;2(4):100-131

University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences and Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System, Little Rock, Arkansas.

Type 2 Diabetes results from a complex physiologic process that includes the pancreatic beta cells, peripheral glucose uptake in muscle, the secretion of multiple cytokines and hormone-like molecules from adipocytes, hepatic glucose production, and likely the central nervous system. Consistent with the complex web of physiologic defects, the emerging picture of the genetics will involve a large number of risk susceptibility genes, each individually with relatively small effect (odds ratios below 1.2 in most cases). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1901/jaba.2006.2-100DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1526773PMC
April 2006
14 Reads
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