Aims: The protective effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) extract on IL-1β-mediated oxidative stress and mitochondrial apoptosis were investigated in C28I2 human chondrocytes.
Methods: The effects of various concentrations of ginger extract on C28I2 human chondrocyte viability were evaluated in order to obtain noncytotoxic concentrations of the drug by methylthiotetrazole assay. The cells were pretreated with 5 and 25 μg/mL ginger extract for 24 h, followed by incubation with IL-1β (10 ng/mL) for 24 h. Read More
Recently, a novel substrate known as an electrospun polylactic acid (PLLA) microtube array membrane (MTAM) was successfully developed as a cell coculture platform. Structurally, this substrate is made up of one-to-one connected, ultrathin, submicron scale fibers that are arranged in an arrayed formation. Its unique structure confers several key advantages which are beneficial in a cell coculture system. Read More
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare the proliferation and differentiation potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from palatal adipose tissue (PAT) and lipoaspirated adipose tissue (LAT).
Materials And Methods: PATs were obtained from 2 healthy female patients undergoing surgery for gingival recession, and LATs were obtained from 2 healthy female patients undergoing plastic surgery. LAT- and PAT-derived MSCs were confirmed by flow cytometry using MSC-specific surface markers. Read More
The treatment and regeneration of bone defects caused by traumatism or diseases have not been completely addressed by current therapies. Lately, advanced tools and technologies have been successfully developed for bone tissue regeneration. Functional scaffolding materials such as biopolymers and bioresorbable fillers have gained particular attention, owing to their ability to promote cell adhesion, proliferation, and extracellular matrix production, which promote new bone growth. Read More
It has been reported that carbon nanotubes (CNTs) serve as nucleation sites for the deposition of bone matrix and cell proliferation. Here, we evaluated the effects of multi-walled CNTs (MWCNTs) on bone repair of rat tibiae. Furthermore, because sodium hyaluronate (HY) accelerates bone restoration, we associated CNTs with HY (HY-MWCNTs) in an attempt to boost bone repair. Read More
Cells Tissues Organs 2017 Aug 5;204(3):164-178. Epub 2017 Aug 5.
In this study, different collagen-blend membranes were successfully constructed by blending collagen with chitosan (CHT) or poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) to enhance their properties and thus create new biofunctional materials with great potential use for neuronal tissue engineering and regeneration. Collagen blending strongly affected membrane properties in the following ways: (i) it improved the surface hydrophilicity of both pure CHT and PLGA membranes, (ii) it reduced the stiffness of CHT membranes, but (iii) it did not modify the good mechanical properties of PLGA membranes. Then, we investigated the effect of the different collagen concentrations on the neuronal behavior of the membranes developed. Read More
Valvular repair or transplantation, designed to restore the venous valve function of the legs, has been proposed as treatment in chronic venous insufficiency. Available grafts or surgeries have provided limited durability so far. Generating venous valve substitutes by means of tissue engineering could be a solution. Read More
Spheroid cultures are among the most explored cellular biomaterials used in cardiovascular research, due to their improved integration of biochemical and physiological features of the heart in a defined architectural three-dimensional microenvironment when compared to monolayer cultures. To further explore the potential use of spheroid cultures for research, we engineered a novel in vitro model of the heart with vascularized cardiac spheroids (VCSs), by coculturing cardiac myocytes, endothelial cells, and fibroblasts isolated from dissociated rat neonatal hearts (aged 1-3 days) in hanging drop cultures. To evaluate the validity of VCSs in recapitulating pathophysiological processes typical of the in vivo heart, such as cardiac fibrosis, we then treated VCSs with transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1), a known profibrotic agent. Read More
Integrating bioartificial tissues into the host vasculature is a prerequisite for tissue engineering applications. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) display a high angiogenic potential and a low donor-site morbidity, making them ideal for tissue engineering applications. In our study we used a murine EPC cell line (T17b) and rat mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for cocultivation experiments. Read More
The olfactory bulb (OB) is a unique structure in the central nervous system that retains the ability to create new neuronal connections. Glial cells isolated from the OB have been recently considered as a novel and promising tool to establish an effective therapy for central nervous system injuries. Due to the hindered access to autologous tissue for cell isolation, an allogeneic source of tissues obtained postmortem has been proposed. Read More
Division of Dento-Oral Anesthesiology, Graduate School of Dentistry, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan.
TRPC (transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily C) members are nonselective monovalent cation channels and control Ca2+ inflow. In this study, immunohistochemistry for TRPC1, TRPC3, and TRPC4 was performed on rat oral and craniofacial structures to elucidate their distribution and function in the peripheries. In the trigeminal ganglion (TG), 56. Read More
Cells Tissues Organs 2017 24;204(2):59-83. Epub 2017 Jun 24.
Department of Pathology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran.
Healing and regeneration of bone injuries, particularly those that are associated with large bone defects, are a complicated process. There is growing interest in the application of osteoinductive and osteogenic growth factors and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in order to significantly improve bone repair and regeneration. MSCs are multipotent stromal stem cells that can be harvested from many different sources and differentiated into a variety of cell types, such as preosteogenic chondroblasts and osteoblasts. Read More
Cells Tissues Organs 2017 24;204(2):93-104. Epub 2017 Jun 24.
Department of Otolaryngology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN, USA.
We investigated the timeline of tissue repair of vocal fold epithelium after acute vibration exposure using an in vivo rabbit model. Sixty-five New Zealand white breeder rabbits were randomized to 120 min of modal- or raised-intensity phonation. After the larynges were harvested at 0, 4, 8, and 24 h, and at 3 and 7 days, the vocal fold tissue was evaluated using electron microscopy and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Read More
Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signaling plays a major role in and is essential for regulation, patterning, and proliferation during renal development. Smoothened (Smo) plays a pivot role in transducing the Shh-glioma-associated oncogene Kruppel family member. However, the cellular and molecular mechanism underlying the role of sustained Smo activation in postnatal kidney development is still not clearly understood. Read More
Aim: To introduce embryoid bodies derived from mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells, which differentiate blood vessel-like structures and leukocytes, as a novel in vitro model system for biocompatibility, inflammation, and angiogenesis studies.
Methodology/results: Punched spherical discs of bioabsorbable polymers (ε-caprolactone and L-lactide in different compositions) with a diameter of 2 mm and a thickness of 0.2 mm were inoculated with embryoid bodies for cocultivation. Read More
To establish the influence of fetal bovine serum (FBS) and bovine serum lipids (BSL) on cell differentiation marker expression, bovine adipose-derived stem cells from subcutaneous tissue were incubated for 14 days in 4 types of differentiation media containing 10% FBS and 10 µL/mL BSL (TRT-1), no FBS and 10 µL/mL of BSL (TRT-2), 10% FBS and no BSL (TRT-3), or no supplements (TRT-4). Cells were subjected to Nile red staining, immunocytochemistry (CD73, CD90, CD105, DLK1, FabP4), and quantitative real-time PCR (CD73, CD90, CD105, FabP4). The number of cells presenting FabP4 and the percentage of mature adipocytes with large lipid droplets were increased in TRT-2, accompanied by a robust increase in FabP4 mRNA abundance and a decrease in DLK1-positive cells. Read More
Animal studies have reported on the benefits of ARB on bone mass. However, the underlying mechanism for angiotensin II (AngII)/AngII receptor blockade (ARB) in regulating bone mass remains elusive. Since high levels of plasma and urine cAMP are observed in osteoporotic and hypertensive patients, we hypothesized that cAMP may be an important molecule for the downstream events of the activation of AT receptors, members of the G-protein-coupled receptor family, in regulating bone turnover. Read More
The geniculate ganglion (GG) contains visceral and somatic sensory neurons of the facial nerve. In this study, the number and cell size of sensory neurons in the human GG were investigated. The estimated number of GG neurons ranged from 1,580 to 2,561 (mean ± SD = 1,960 ± 364. Read More
Purpose: To investigate in a large sample the prevalence rates of accessory spleens located in the greater omentum and to explain the embryological background and the vascular supply of this rare congenital disorder.
Methods: Evaluation of the presence of accessory spleens located in the greater omentum was performed in 5 different international anatomical centers investigating a total of 1,045 body donors. Arterial and venous blood supply and the precise location of the respective vasculature within the splenic ligaments are described based on dissection of this rare condition in a male specimen. Read More
Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) osteoarthritis (OA) is a complex disease that affects both cartilage and subchondral bone. It is accompanied by loss of extracellular matrix (ECM) and may be controlled by bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2). We analyzed the effect of BMP-2 in both cartilage and subchondral bone in a TMJ-OA animal model that is deficient in biglycan (Bgn) and fibromodulin (Fmod) (Bgn-/-Fmod-/-). Read More
We evaluated the bone-forming potential of a mixture of atelocollagen and bone marrow aspirate concentrate which was transplanted into bone defects. Radial shaft defects of about 10 mm in size were created in 30 New Zealand white rabbits. Ten rabbits in the control group were not treated further, 10 rabbits in the first experimental group (E1) received an atelocollagen injection, and 10 rabbits in the second experimental group (E2) received an injection of a mixture of atelocollagen and bone marrow aspirate concentrate. Read More
It is crucial but challenging to keep physiologic conditions during the cultivation of 3D cell scaffold constructs for the optimization of 3D cell culture processes. Therefore, we demonstrate the benefits of a recently developed miniaturized perfusion bioreactor together with a specialized incubator system that allows for the cultivation of multiple samples while screening different conditions. Hence, a decellularized bone matrix was tested towards its suitability for 3D osteogenic differentiation under flow perfusion conditions. Read More
Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury of the small intestine caused by occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery affects the intestinal tissue as well as components of the blood circulatory system from the microvasculature to mesenteric vessels. The aim of this work was to study the correlation between the dynamics of destruction development in the intestinal tissue, microvasculature, and mesenteric vessels in I/R of the small intestine. The microvasculature was analyzed by whole-organ continuous monitoring of the intestinal mucosal blood perfusion by laser Doppler flowmetry during the entire I/R. Read More
Objectives: The infrapatellar fat pad (IPFP) represents intra-articular adipose tissue that may contribute to intra-articular inflammation and pain by secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. Here we examined the impact of weight loss by diet and/or exercise interventions on the IPFP volume.
Methods: Intensive Diet and Exercise for Arthritis (IDEA) was a single-blinded, single-center, 18-month, prospective, randomized controlled trial that enrolled 454 overweight and obese older adults with knee pain and radiographic osteoarthritis. Read More
Mounting data points to epithelial plasticity programs such as the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) as clinically relevant therapeutic targets for the treatment of malignant tumors. In addition to the widely realized role of EMT in increasing cancer cell invasiveness during cancer metastasis, the EMT has also been implicated in allowing cancer cells to avoid tumor suppressor pathways during early tumorigenesis. In addition, data linking EMT to innate and acquired treatment resistance further points towards the desire to develop pharmacological therapies to target epithelial plasticity in cancer. Read More
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is recognized as a relevant process during the progression of carcinomas towards metastatic disease. Epithelial cancer cells undergoing an EMT program may acquire mesenchymal features, motility, invasiveness, and resistance to a variety of anticancer therapeutics. Preventing or reverting the EMT process in carcinomas has the potential to minimize tumor dissemination and the emergence of therapeutic resistance. Read More
Transitions between mesenchymal and epithelial cells are underpinned by changes in motility, adhesion, and polarity. Netrins and their receptors can control each of these cellular properties, and are emerging as important regulators of epithelial mesenchymal plasticity (EMP). Netrins were first identified in the worm Caenorhabditis elegans as secreted chemoattractants/repellents that could guide migrating mesodermal cells and axonal growth cones. Read More
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of mortality worldwide, and there is currently no treatment that can halt the progression of the disease. Over the last decade there has been increasing interest in the idea that epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) may be active in COPD. Here we review the evidence for EMT in COPD as well as the current progress being made on understanding the drivers and mechanisms involved. Read More
Snail family proteins are key inducers of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a critical process required for normal embryonic development. They have also been strongly implicated in regulating the EMT-like processes required for tumour cell invasion, migration, and metastasis. Whether these proteins also contribute to normal blood cell development, however, remains to be clearly defined. Read More
In neoplastic cell growth, clones and subclones are variable both in size and mutational spectrum. The largest of these clones are believed to represent those cells with mutations that make them the most "fit," in a Darwinian sense, for expansion in their microenvironment. Thus, the degree of quantitative clonal expansion is regarded as being determined by innate qualitative differences between the cells that originate each clone. Read More
The goal of this study is to clarify the development of the long head of the biceps brachii tendon (LHBT) and to verify the existence and development of the coracoglenoid ligament. Histological preparations of 22 human embryos (7-8 weeks of development) and 43 human fetuses (9-12 weeks of development) were studied bilaterally using a conventional optical microscope. The articular interzone gives rise to the LHBT, glenoid labrum, and articular capsule. Read More
A significant number of patients undergo mastectomies and breast reconstructions every year using many surgical-based techniques to reconstruct the nipple-areolar complex (NAC). Described herein is a tissue engineering approach that may permit a human NAC onlay graft during breast reconstruction procedures. By applying decellularization, which is the removal of cellular components from tissue, to an intact whole donor NAC, the extracellular matrix (ECM) structure of the NAC is preserved. Read More
Background: Though methotrexate (MTX) is known to inhibit proliferation of trophoblasts derived from ectopic and intrauterine pregnancies, its action on trophoblasts derived from postpartum placenta remains questionable. This study was designed to ascertain the efficacy of MTX in inducing cell death of postpartum placental cytotrophoblasts (PPTC).
Methodology: Primary human cytotrophoblasts were isolated from placentae of 1st and 2nd trimester intrauterine pregnancies and from postpartum placentae. Read More
To develop a clinically effective bone regeneration strategy, we compared bone regeneration using allogeneic cancellous bone granule scaffolds loaded with autologous bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSC) with or without autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP). Critical-sized segmental bone defects were made at the mid-shaft of both radiuses in 41 New Zealand White rabbits. Small-sized allogeneic cancellous bone granules (300-700 μm in diameter) loaded with BM-MSC were implanted on one side, and PRP was added. Read More
Continuous cell lines have become indispensable tools that have enabled investigations into cellular mechanisms by increasing experimental reproducibility and sample availability, and decreasing the use of experimental animals. To facilitate studies of epithelial barrier function of the porcine colon, we aimed to establish an epithelial cell line with an extended replicative capacity. Cells were isolated from the proximal colon of a 3-week-old piglet and transduced using a recombinant retroviral vector construct containing the simian virus 40 large T antigen (SV40 TAg). Read More
Liver transplantation from deceased or living human donors remains the only proven option for patients with end-stage liver disease. However, the shortage of donor organs is a significant clinical concern that has led to the pursuit of tissue-engineered liver grafts generated from decellularized liver extracellular matrix and functional cells. Investigative efforts on optimizing both liver decellularization and recellularization protocols have been made in recent decades. Read More
Telocytes are a special type of interstitial cells characterized by distinctive cellular extensions with alternating thin segments (podomers) and dilations (podoms). Telocytes establish contact with various cells and structures, but their role in the regulation of the function of many cell types is still obscure. The aim of the current study was to investigate the morphology, histochemistry, and immunohistochemistry of telocytes, and their distribution, organization, and morphometric measurements in different layers of the adult bovine uterine tube. Read More
Binucleate trophoblast giant cells (BNC) are the characteristic feature of the ruminant placenta. During their development, BNC pass through 2 acytokinetic mitoses and become binucleate with 2 tetraploid nuclei. In this study, we investigate the number and location of centrosomes in bovine BNC. Read More
The endothelium of liver sinusoids in relation to the endothelium of other blood vessels has specific antigen expression similar to the endothelium of lymphatic vessels. Bearing in mind that there is no consensus as to the period or intensity of the expression of certain antigens in the endothelium of blood and lymphatic vessels in the liver, the aim of our study was to immunohistochemically investigate the dynamic patterns of the expression of CD31, CD34, D2-40, and LYVE-1 antigens during liver development and in adulthood on paraffin tissue sections of human livers of 4 embryos, 38 fetuses, 6 neonates, and 6 adults. The results show that, in a histologically immature liver at the end of the embryonic period, CD34 molecules are expressed only on vein endothelium localized in developing portal areas, whereby the difference between portal venous branches and CD34-negative central veins belongs to the collecting venous system. Read More
The physiological effects of acetylcholine on keratinocytes depend on the presence of nicotinic and muscarinic receptors. The role of nonneuronal acetylcholine in keratinocytes could have important clinical implications for patients with various skin disorders such as nonhealing wounds. In order to evaluate the efficacy of highly diluted acetylcholine solutions obtained by sequential kinetic activation, we aimed to investigate the effects of these solutions on normal human keratinocytes. Read More
In an 80-year-old Caucasian woman, both radial arteries were found to be replaced by an enlarged anterior interosseous artery. Additionally, the right forearm revealed a persistent median artery which formed the superficial palmar arch together with the ulnar artery. In both hands, the replaced radial artery was connected only to the deep but not the superficial palmar arch. Read More
Volumetric muscle loss (VML) injuries are prevalent in civilian and military trauma patients and are known to impart chronic functional deficits. The frank loss of muscle tissue that defines VML injuries is beyond the robust reparative and regenerative capacities of mammalian skeletal muscle. Given the nature of VML injuries, there is a clear need to develop therapies that promote de novo regeneration of skeletal muscle fibers, which can integrate with the remaining musculature and restore muscle strength. Read More
Although we recognize the many advantages of improved musculoskeletal health, we also note that our ability to sustain this health and to maintain quality of life in an aging population is currently deficient. However, global efforts have produced numerous advances in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine that will collectively serve to fill this deficiency in the near future. The purpose of this review is to highlight our current knowledge, to outline our recent advances, and to discuss the evolving paradigms in skeletal muscle injury and repair. Read More
Tissue-engineered skeletal muscle holds promise as a source of graft tissue for repair of volumetric muscle loss and as a model system for pharmaceutical testing. To reach this potential, engineered tissues must advance past the neonatal phenotype that characterizes the current state of the art. In this review, we describe native skeletal muscle development and identify important growth factors controlling this process. Read More
Despite the robust regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle, there are a variety of congenital and acquired conditions in which the volume of skeletal muscle loss results in major permanent functional and cosmetic deficits. These latter injuries are referred to as volumetric muscle loss (VML) injuries or VML-like conditions, and they are characterized by the simultaneous absence of multiple tissue components (i.e. Read More