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Evaluation of Pulmonary Toxicity of Nanoparticles by Bronchoalveolar Lavage.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1894:313-322

Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health and Information Sciences, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA.

Nanoparticles can enter the body via the lungs, the digestive tract, and the skin. The pulmonary effects of nanoparticles and the underlying mechanisms may be investigated by histopathological examination, immunostaining, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), and so on. BAL is a simple, fast, and inexpensive method that is commonly used to investigate the immune cells and acellular components in the lungs, which reflect the health state of the lungs. Read More

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January 2019
4 Reads

Evaluation of Genotoxicity of Nanoparticles in Mouse Models.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1894:301-312

Cancer Research Center, University at Albany, State University of New York, Rensselaer, NY, USA.

Owing to new and unique properties, engineered nanoparticles (NPs) likely pose different risks than their constituent chemicals and these risks need to be understood. In particular, it is important to assess genotoxicity, since genotoxicity is a precursor to carcinogenicity. Here we describe a battery of tests for the assessment of genotoxicity of NPs in vivo in mice. Read More

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January 2019
1 Read

Methods to Quantify Nanomaterial Association with, and Distribution Across, the Blood-Brain Barrier In Vivo.

Authors:
Robert A Yokel

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1894:281-299

Pharmaceutical Sciences Department, University of Kentucky Academic Medical Center, Lexington, KY, USA.

The role and functional anatomy of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is summarized to enable the investigator to appropriately address evaluation of nanomaterial interaction with, and distribution across, it into brain tissue (parenchyma). Transport mechanisms across the BBB are presented, in relation to nanomaterial physicochemical properties. Measures and test substances to assess BBB integrity/disruption/permeation are introduced, along with how they are used to interpret the results obtained with the presented methods. Read More

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January 2019

Application of Electron Microscopes in Nanotoxicity Assessment.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1894:247-269

Department of Anatomical Sciences and Neurobiology, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA.

In this chapter, we highlight the applications of electron microscopes (EMs) in nanotoxicity assessment. EMs can provide detailed information about the size and morphology of nanomaterials (NMs), their localization in cells and tissues, the nano-bio interactions, as well as the ultrastructural changes induced by NMs exposure. Here, we share with the readers how we prepare the tissue sample, and the different types of EMs used among the nanotoxicologists. Read More

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January 2019

Quantification of Mitochondrial Genome Transcription in Male Reproductive Cells by Real-Time PCR.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1894:171-180

State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine, Institute of Toxicology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Mitochondria are organelles that play a key role in the regulation of cell energy metabolism, biosynthesis, and cell death. Mitochondria are also involved in important physiological processes, such as the three-carboxylic acid cycle, the oxidation of fatty acids and amino acids, and calcium ion homeostasis. The energy demands of male germ cells during mitosis and meiosis are higher than those of somatic cells, suggesting that mitochondria play a critical role in sperm. Read More

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January 2019
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Analysis of Nanomaterial Toxicity by Western Blot.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1894:161-169

Department of Gastroenterology, Affiliated Children's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, China.

Western blot is a routine biochemical technique for the immunodetection of proteins in cells and tissues exposed to nanomaterials (NMs). It is a sensitive method for protein analysis that involves the solubilization and separation of proteins by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), transferring and immobilizing proteins onto a solid support, and targeted immunoprobing of a specific antigen. As a convenient and reliable research tool, the western blot plays an irreplaceable role in the era of proteomics together with mass spectrometry and protein chip. Read More

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January 2019
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Methods for Evaluation of Ovarian Granulosa Cells with Exposure to Nanoparticles.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1894:73-81

Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Environmental Factors and Cancer, School of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, People's Republic of China.

Increasing evidence demonstrates that a substantial number of chemicals including nanoparticles have potential toxic effects on human and wildlife reproductive health. Ovarian granulosa cells (GCs), the functional unit of the ovary, play a pivotal role in the regulation of ovarian reproductive health in females. They are considered to be the main target by the chemicals at all stages of their development. Read More

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January 2019
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Deriving Neural Cells from Pluripotent Stem Cells for Nanotoxicity Testing.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1894:57-72

College of Veterinary Medicine, Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, CA, USA.

Stem cells are undifferentiated biological cells that can differentiate into all lineages under defined control condition. Stem cell neuronal differentiation can faithfully recapitulate stages of neural development and generate neuronal progenitors, mature neurons, and glial cells. Stem cell technology will largely allow for the replacement of animal studies and reduce costs, and will provide a new paradigm for in toxic genomics, bioinformatics, systems biology, and epigenetics studies. Read More

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January 2019

Preparation and Utilization of a 3D Human Liver Microtissue Model for Nanotoxicological Assessment.

Authors:
Ali Kermanizadeh

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1894:47-55

Nano Safety Research Group, School of Engineering and Physical Science, Institute of Biological Chemistry, Biophysics and Bioengineering, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, UK.

The liver is the principal detoxification center of the body, removing xenobiotics and waste products which could potentially include some nanomaterials (NM). With the ever increasing public and occupational exposure associated with accumulative production of nanomaterials, there is an urgent need to consider the possibility of harmful health consequences of engineered NM exposure. It is understood that following exposure via inhalation, ingestion, or direct intravenous injection a fraction of NMs reach the liver. Read More

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January 2019

Methods for Assessing Mast Cell Responses to Engineered Nanomaterial Exposure.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1894:31-45

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Colorado Center for Nanomedicine and Nanosafety, Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado, Aurora, CO, USA.

Mast cells are key effector cells in inflammatory and allergic immune responses such as asthma, rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis. Activation of mast cells leads to immediate release of preformed mediators such as histamine and proteases, which can regulate vascular permeability and the function of a number of immune and nonimmune cells. Engineered nanomaterials (ENM) have been utilized for a wide range of applications and introduced into a number of consumer products; yet the consequent increase in human exposure and any potential adverse effects have not been fully evaluated. Read More

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January 2019

In Vitro Methods for Assessing Nanoparticle Toxicity.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1894:1-29

Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA.

As a consequence of their increase in annual production and widespread distribution in the environment, nanoparticles potentially pose a significant public health risk. The sought-after catalytic activity granted by their physiochemical properties doubles as a hazard to physiological processes following exposure through inhalation, oral, transdermal, subcutaneous, and intravenous uptake. Upon uptake into the body, their size, morphology, surface charge, coating, and chemical composition augment the response of biological systems to the materials and enhance their toxicity. Read More

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January 2019

Mitochondrial Impairment in Oligodendroglial Cells Induces Cytokine Expression and Signaling.

J Mol Neurosci 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Institute of Neuroanatomy, Faculty of Medicine, RWTH Aachen University, Wendlingweg 2, 52074, Aachen, Germany.

Widespread inflammatory lesions within the central nervous system grey and white matter are major hallmarks of multiple sclerosis. The development of full-blown demyelinating multiple sclerosis lesions might be preceded by preactive lesions which are characterized by focal microglia activation in close spatial relation to apoptotic oligodendrocytes. In this study, we investigated the expression of signaling molecules of oligodendrocytes that might be involved in initial microglia activation during preactive lesion formation. Read More

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December 2018

Network Inference from Single-Cell Transcriptomic Data.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1883:235-249

Data Mining and Modelling for Biomedicine, VIB Center for Inflammation Research, Ghent, Belgium.

Recent technological breakthroughs in single-cell RNA sequencing are revolutionizing modern experimental design in biology. The increasing size of the single-cell expression data from which networks can be inferred allows identifying more complex, non-linear dependencies between genes. Moreover, the inter-cellular variability that is observed in single-cell expression data can be used to infer not only one global network representing all the cells, but also numerous regulatory networks that are more specific to certain conditions. Read More

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January 2019

Integrative Approaches for Inference of Genome-Scale Gene Regulatory Networks.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1883:161-194

Wisconsin Institute for Discovery, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, USA.

Transcriptional regulatory networks specify the regulatory proteins of target genes that control the context-specific expression levels of genes. With our ability to profile the different types of molecular components of cells under different conditions, we are now uniquely positioned to infer regulatory networks in diverse biological contexts such as different cell types, tissues, and time points. In this chapter, we cover two main classes of computational methods to integrate different types of information to infer genome-scale transcriptional regulatory networks. Read More

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January 2019

Safety and efficacy of dermal fibroblast conditioned medium (DFCM) fortified collagen hydrogel as acellular 3D skin patch.

Drug Deliv Transl Res 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Tissue Engineering Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Yaccob Latiff, Cheras, 56000, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Skin substitutes are one of the main treatments for skin loss, and a skin substitute that is readily available would be the best treatment option. However, most cell-based skin substitutes require long production times, and therefore, patients endure long waiting times. The proteins secreted from the cells and tissues play vital roles in promoting wound healing. Read More

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December 2018

Nerve grafting for peripheral nerve injuries with extended defect sizes.

Wien Med Wochenschr 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Medical University of Vienna, Währinger Gürtel 18-20, 1090, Vienna, Austria.

Artificial and non-artificial nerve grafts are the gold standard in peripheral nerve reconstruction in cases with extensive loss of nerve tissue, particularly where a direct end-to-end suture or an autologous nerve graft is inauspicious. Different materials are marketed and approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for peripheral nerve graft reconstruction. The most frequently used materials are collagen and poly(DL-lactide-ε-caprolactone). Read More

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December 2018
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Experimental exposure to gasohol impairs sperm quality with recognition of the classification pattern of exposure groups by machine learning algorithms.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Graduate Program in Environment and Regional Development, University of Western São Paulo - UNOESTE, Presidente Prudente, SP, 19067-175, Brazil.

Contamination caused by leakage at gas stations leads to possible exposure of the general population when in contact with contaminated water and soil. The present study aimed to evaluate the reproductive effects of exposure of adult male rats to gasohol and evaluate the performance of machine learning (ML) algorithms for pattern recognition and classification of the exposure groups. Rats were orally exposed to 0 (control), 16 (EA), 160 (EB), or 800 mg kg bw day of gasohol (EC), for 30 consecutive days. Read More

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December 2018

Extension of longevity and reduction of inflammation is ovarian-dependent, but germ cell-independent in post-reproductive female mice.

Geroscience 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Animal, Dairy and Veterinary Sciences, Center for Integrated BioSystems, School of Veterinary Medicine, Utah State University, 4700 Old Main Hill, Logan, UT, 84322, USA.

Cardiovascular disease, rare in premenopausal women, increases sharply at menopause and is typically accompanied by chronic inflammation. Previous work in our laboratory demonstrated that replacing senescent ovaries in post-reproductive mice with young, actively cycling ovaries restored many health benefits, including decreased cardiomyopathy and restoration of immune function. Our objective here was to determine if depletion of germ cells from young transplanted ovaries would alter the ovarian-dependent extension of life and health span. Read More

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December 2018

Melanoma tumour vasculature heterogeneity: from mice models to human.

J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

UMR Inserm 1066, CNRS 6021, Université d'Angers, CHU, IBS, IRIS, MINT, UNIV Angers, INSERM, CNRS, Université Bretagne Loire, IBS-CHU, 4, rue Larrey, 49933, Angers, France.

Tumour angiogenesis is defined by an anarchic vasculature and irregularities in alignment of endothelial cells. These structural abnormalities could explain the variability in distribution of nanomedicines in various tumour models. Then, the main goal of this study was to compare and to characterize the tumour vascular structure in different mouse models of melanoma tumours (B16F10 and SK-Mel-28) and in human melanomas from different patients. Read More

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December 2018
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Phase I dose-escalation study of F14512, a polyamine-vectorized topoisomerase II inhibitor, in patients with platinum-refractory or resistant ovarian cancer.

Invest New Drugs 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Institut Claudius Regaud, IUCT-Oncopole, Departement d'Oncologie Medicale, Toulouse, France.

Purpose To determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of F14512, a topoisomerase II inhibitor designed to target cancer cells through the polyamine transport system, (three-hour daily infusion given for 3 consecutive days every 3 weeks) in platinum-refractory or resistant ovarian cancer. Other objectives were safety, pharmacokinetics (PK), PK/pharmacodynamics relationship, and efficacy. Methods This was an open-label, dose-escalation, multicenter phase I study. Read More

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December 2018

The Role of Vitamins and Minerals in Hair Loss: A Review.

Dermatol Ther (Heidelb) 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Dermatology and Cutaneous Surgery, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, 1475 NW 12th Ave. Suite 2175, Miami, FL, 33136, USA.

People commonly inquire about vitamin and mineral supplementation and diet as a means to prevent or manage dermatological diseases and, in particular, hair loss. Answering these queries is frequently challenging, given the enormous and conflicting evidence that exists on this subject. There are several reasons to suspect a role for micronutrients in non-scarring alopecia. Read More

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December 2018
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Effects of carbendazim and astaxanthin co-treatment on the proliferation of MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Biophysics, Yeditepe University School of Medicine, Yeditepe University, Istanbul, Turkey.

There has been a controversy in the oncology field about the use of antioxidants along with chemotherapeutics in cancer treatment. This study aimed to investigate the effects of a potent antioxidant (astaxanthin) co-treatment with a promising anti-cancer drug (carbendazim), which is in phase I clinical trials, on MCF-7 breast cancer cell proliferation. MCF-7 cells were treated with carbendazim, astaxanthin, or their combinations and incubated for 24 h. Read More

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December 2018
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Microparticulate P2X7 and GSDM-D mediated regulation of functional IL-1β release.

Purinergic Signal 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Physiology and Cell Biology, The Ohio State University, 473 W 12th Avenue, Columbus, OH, 43210, USA.

The pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β is a secreted protein that is cleaved by caspase-1 during inflammasome activation upon recognition of internal and external insults to cells. Purinergic receptor P2X7 has been described to be involved in the release pathway of bioactive mature IL-1β by activated immune cells. Microparticle (MP) shedding has also been recently recognized as a manner of cytokine IL-1β release. Read More

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December 2018
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Frequent discordance in PD-1 and PD-L1 expression between primary breast tumors and their matched distant metastases.

Clin Exp Metastasis 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Pathology, University Medical Center Utrecht, PO Box 85500, 3508 GA, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Programmed death-1 (PD-1) is an immune checkpoint that is able to inhibit the immune system by binding to its ligand programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1). In many cancer types, among which breast cancer, prognostic and/or predictive values have been suggested for both PD-1 and PD-L1. Previous research has demonstrated discrepancies in PD-L1 expression between primary breast tumors and distant metastases, however data so far have been scarce. Read More

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December 2018

Polyphenol-associated oxidative stress and inflammation in a model of LPS-induced inflammation in glial cells: do we know enough for responsible compounding?

Inflammopharmacology 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department Physiological Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland, Stellenbosch, 7602, South Africa.

Cyanidin and chlorogenic acid are polyphenols from plant origin that are present in many common fruits, particularly in berries. To corroborate the protective or detrimental effects of both compounds from a neuro-inflammatory perspective, in vitro experiments were carried out in human astrocytes (U-373). Astrocytes were pre-treated with a range of concentrations of either cyanidin, chlorogenic acid or a combined treatment for a period of 30 min, before exposure to Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge for 23. Read More

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December 2018

Isolation of living apical and basal cell lineages of early proembryos for transcriptome analysis.

Plant Reprod 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

State Key Laboratory of Hybrid Rice, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430072, China.

Plant zygotes usually undergo asymmetrical cell division, giving rise to the formation of two daughter cells with distinct developmental cell fate. The small apical cell will develop into the major part of embryo proper, whereas the larger basal cell will divide to form a transient suspensor. Thus, the apical and basal cell lineages are an excellent model to study cell fate determination in relation to zygote polarity. Read More

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December 2018

Glaucoma - Next Generation Therapeutics: Impossible to Possible.

Pharm Res 2018 Dec 13;36(2):25. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Ophthalmology Research, Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research, 22 Windsor Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 02139, USA.

The future of next generation therapeutics for glaucoma is strong. The recent approval of two novel intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering drugs with distinct mechanisms of action is the first in over 20 years. However, these are still being administered as topical drops. Read More

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December 2018

Bone marrow cell homing to sites of acute tibial fracture: Zr-oxine cell labeling with positron emission tomographic imaging in a mouse model.

EJNMMI Res 2018 Dec 13;8(1):109. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Molecular Imaging Program, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, NIH, Building 10, Room B3B406, Bethesda, MD, 20892-1002, USA.

Background: Bone fracture healing is dependent upon the rapid migration and engraftment of bone marrow (BM) progenitor and stem cells to the site of injury. Stromal cell-derived factor-1 plays a crucial role in recruiting BM cells expressing its receptor CXCR4. Recently, a CXCR4 antagonist, plerixafor, has been used to mobilize BM cells into the blood in efforts to enhance cell migration to sites of injury presumably improving healing. Read More

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December 2018

Enhancing tetrandrine cytotoxicity in human lung carcinoma A549 cells by suppressing mitochondrial ATP production.

Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Anesthesiology, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan.

ATP depletion induced by inhibiting glycolysis or mitochondrial ATP production has been demonstrated to cause cancer cell death. Whether ATP depletion can enhance the efficacy and potency of anti-cancer effects of herbal compounds is so far unknown. We examined the enhancing effect of ATP depletion on anti-cancer actions of tetrandrine (TET) in human lung carcinoma A549 cells. Read More

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December 2018

Enhanced anti-tumor efficacy of checkpoint inhibitors in combination with the histone deacetylase inhibitor Belinostat in a murine hepatocellular carcinoma model.

Cancer Immunol Immunother 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Center for Applied Medical Research (CIMA), Program of Immunology and Immunotherapy, University of Navarra, Pío XII 55, 31008, Pamplona, Spain.

Immune checkpoint inhibitors are currently tested in different combinations in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Nivolumab, an anti-PD-1 agent, has gained approval in the second-line setting in the USA. Epigenetic drugs have immune-mediated antitumor effects that may improve the activity of immunotherapy agents. Read More

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December 2018

MicroRNA-124 inhibits TNF-α- and IL-6-induced osteoclastogenesis.

Rheumatol Int 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Division of Laboratory Medicine, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Japan.

Receptor activator for nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL)-independent osteoclastogenic pathway was reported recently. MicroRNA (miR)-124 has been known to suppress RANKL-dependent osteoclastogenesis by inhibiting NFATc1 expression. However, whether miR-124 regulates a RANKL-independent pathway has not been elucidated. Read More

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December 2018

Fabrication of composite microfluidic devices for local control of oxygen tension in cell cultures.

Lab Chip 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Physiology and Biomedical Engineering, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA.

Oxygen tension is a central component of the cellular microenvironment and can serve as a trigger for changes in cell phenotype and function. There is a strong need to precisely control and modulate oxygen tension in cell culture systems in order to more accurately model the physiology and pathophysiology observed in vivo. The objective of this paper was to develop a simple, yet effective strategy for local control of oxygen tension in microfluidic cell cultures. Read More

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December 2018

AuNP-peptide probe for caspase-3 detection in living cells by SERS.

Analyst 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

State Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, 300457 Tianjin, China. and Research Centre of Food Science and Human Health, School of Medicine, Nankai University, 300071 Tianjin, China.

Colloidal nanoparticles can be used as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates because the very close spacing between particles existing in these colloidal systems is beneficial for the generation of extremely strong and highly spatially localized electric field enhancements. Herein, a caspase-3-specified peptide was used as a molecular cross-linker to engineer gold nanoparticle (AuNP) junctions in a controllable manner. The peptide was designed with a sequence of CCALNNPFFDVED (Cys-Cys-Ala-Leu-Asn-Asn-Pro-Phe-Phe-Asp-Val-Glu-Asp) or CCALNNKYDDVED (Cys-Cys-Ala-Leu-Asn-Asn-Lys-Tyr-Asp-Asp-Val-Glu-Asp), where the CALNN (Cys-Ala-Leu-Asn-Asn) fragment helps to stabilize AuNP suspension in aqueous media and the sequence of DVED (Asp-Glu-Val-Asp) can be cleaved by caspase-3. Read More

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December 2018
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Factors influencing the photoelectrochemical device performance sensitized by ruthenium polypyridyl dyes.

Dalton Trans 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Urban Environmental Sciences, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 1-1 Minami Osawa, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0397, Japan. and Research Center for Hydrogen Energy-based Society, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Japan.

The dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical cells (DSPECs) incorporating a family of ruthenium complexes [RuII(bipyP)(bipy)2] (P1), [RuII(bipyP)(dmb)2] (P2), [RuII(bipyP)(dtbb)2] (P3) and [RuII(bipyP)(dnb)2] (P4), where bipyP = 2,2'-bipyridine-4,4'-diphosphonic acid, bipy = 2,2'-bipyridine, dmb = 4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine, dtbb = 4,4'-di-tert-butyl-2,2'-bipyridine, and dnb = 4,4'-dinonyl-2,2'-bipyridine, were fabricated in a dye-only system (do-DSPEC) and in a system where the electrolyte solution was loaded with EDTA sacrificial agent (sa-DSPEC). The increasing number of the alkyl chains of the ancillary bipy ligand shifts the ground- and excited-state potentials to the more negative values, although the introduction of the longer nonyl chain in P4 shows the opposite effect. In do-DSPECs, the photocurrent and hydrogen production performance follows the order P4 > P3 > P2 > P1, which correlates well with the degree of the excited-state quenching by electron injection to the conduction band of TiO2. Read More

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December 2018

Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)/Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 (IGF1) Receptor Cross-talk in Human Cells.

Curr Opin Endocr Metab Res 2018 Oct 5;2:29-33. Epub 2018 Feb 5.

Laboratory of Endocrinology and Receptor Biology, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.

Thyroid stimulating hormone and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptors (TSHRs and IGF1Rs, respectively) interact leading to additive or synergistic stimulation of cellular responses. Recent findings provide evidence that the interaction between TSHRs and IGF1Rs is similar to that described for other G protein-coupled receptors and receptor tyrosine kinases. These types of interactions occur at or proximal to the receptors and are designated "receptor cross-talk. Read More

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October 2018

Thyroid Hormone Deiodination and Action in the Gonads.

Authors:
Arturo Hernandez

Curr Opin Endocr Metab Res 2018 Oct 7;2:18-23. Epub 2018 Feb 7.

Maine Medical Center Research Institute, Center for Molecular Medicine, Scarborough, Maine, USA.

Alterations in thyroid hormone (TH) status during developmental or adult age are associated with abnormal gonadal development and function in human and animal models. In the developing testis, aberrant levels of TH action lead to disruptions in cell proliferation and differentiation, ultimately influencing testicular size, spermatogenesis, steroidogenesis and male fertility. Recent work is increasingly identifying the systems and signaling pathways in gonadal cells that are affected by TH, as well as delineating the major factors that determine TH signaling in gonadal tissue. Read More

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October 2018

Data on retinoic acid and reduced serum concentration induced differentiation of Neuro-2a neuroblastoma cells.

Data Brief 2018 Dec 23;21:2435-2440. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Dr. B. R. Ambedkar Center for Biomedical Research, University of Delhi, 110007, India.

The present data describe the relative neuro-2a cellular differentiation induced by reducing serum concentration (0.1% FBS) in DMEM in the presence/absence of 20 μM retinoic acid (RA). Neurite outgrowth was observed within 24 h in DMEM supplemented with reduced serum and retinoic acid (GpIV). Read More

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December 2018

Dataset of single bacteria cells with different antibiotic susceptibility obtained by Raman spectroscopy.

Data Brief 2018 Dec 23;21:2430-2434. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, A. Nevskogo St. 14, 236016 Kaliningrad, Russia.

This data article contains Raman experimental data, obtained with Horiba Jobin-Yvon LabRam HR800 spectrometer (Japan), which can be used for rapid identification of () bacteria (Beijing clade) . Data present analyzed Raman spectra of bacterial cells with various drug resistances obtained from pulmonary and extra pulmonary samples. Data can provide information about characteristic maxima of different structures in biological cell. Read More

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December 2018

Quantification of Infectious Sendai Virus Using Plaque Assay.

Bio Protoc 2018 Nov;8(21)

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, USA.

Sendai virus (SeV) is an enveloped, single-stranded RNA virus of the family . SeV is a useful tool to study its infectious pathomechanism in immunology and the pathomechanism of a murine model of IgA nephropathy. Virus quantification is essential not only to determine the original viral titers for an appropriate application, but also to measure the viral titers in samples from the harvests from experiments. Read More

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November 2018
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Efficient Induction of T Cells against Conserved HIV-1 Regions by Mosaic Vaccines Delivered as Self-Amplifying mRNA.

Mol Ther Methods Clin Dev 2019 Mar 26;12:32-46. Epub 2018 Oct 26.

The Jenner Institute, Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7DQ, UK.

Focusing T cell responses on the most vulnerable parts of HIV-1, the functionally conserved regions of HIV-1 proteins, is likely a key prerequisite for vaccine success. For a T cell vaccine to efficiently control HIV-1 replication, the vaccine-elicited individual CD8 T cells and as a population have to display a number of critical traits. If any one of these traits is suboptimal, the vaccine is likely to fail. Read More

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March 2019
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AAV8 Gene Therapy for Crigler-Najjar Syndrome in Macaques Elicited Transgene T Cell Responses That Are Resident to the Liver.

Mol Ther Methods Clin Dev 2018 Dec 5;11:191-201. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Gene Therapy Program, Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Systemic delivery of adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors has been evaluated for the treatment of several liver diseases, including homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia, ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency, and hemophilia. Here, we evaluated this approach for the treatment of Crigler-Najjar syndrome. We administered wild-type rhesus macaques with 1. Read More

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December 2018

Lentiviral Vector Purification Using Genetically Encoded Biotin Mimic in Packaging Cell.

Mol Ther Methods Clin Dev 2018 Dec 23;11:155-165. Epub 2018 Oct 23.

UCL Cancer Institute, University College London, Paul O'Gorman Building, 72 Huntley Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK.

Lentiviral vectors (LVs) have recently witnessed an increasing demand in research and clinical applications. Their current purification processes represent the main bottleneck in their widespread use, as the methods used are cumbersome and yield low recoveries. We aimed to develop a one-step method to specifically purify LVs, with high yields and reduced levels of impurities, using the biotin-streptavidin system. Read More

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December 2018

Barcoding of Macaque Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells: A Robust Platform to Assess Vector Genotoxicity.

Mol Ther Methods Clin Dev 2018 Dec 25;11:143-154. Epub 2018 Oct 25.

Hematology Branch, National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

Gene therapies using integrating retrovirus vectors to modify hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells have shown great promise for the treatment of immune system and hematologic diseases. However, activation of proto-oncogenes via insertional mutagenesis has resulted in the development of leukemia. We have utilized cellular bar coding to investigate the impact of different vector designs on the clonal behavior of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) during expansion, as a quantitative surrogate assay for genotoxicity in a non-human primate model with high relevance for human biology. Read More

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December 2018

Alpha 1 Antitrypsin Gene Therapy Extends the Lifespan of Lupus-Prone Mice.

Mol Ther Methods Clin Dev 2018 Dec 18;11:131-142. Epub 2018 Oct 18.

Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA.

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a heterogeneous autoimmune disease characterized by high levels of pathogenic autoantibodies and tissue damage. Multiple studies showed that dendritic cell (DC) activation plays a critical role in SLE pathogenesis. Human alpha 1 antitrypsin (hAAT) is a serine proteinase inhibitor with potent anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective properties. Read More

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December 2018

Patient-derived xenograft model for uterine leiomyoma by sub-renal capsule grafting.

J Biol Methods 2018 16;5(2). Epub 2018 Apr 16.

Department of Cancer Biology and Genetics, The Comprehensive Cancer Center, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA.

Uterine leiomyoma (UL) or fibroid is a benign smooth muscle tumor of the myometrium with a lifetime incidence of approximately 70%. ULs often require medical intervention due to severe symptoms such as heavy menstrual bleeding and abdominal pain. Although the most common and effective management of ULs is surgical removal, the invasive surgical procedure imposes physical and psychological burdens on the patients. Read More

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A Comparative Review of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps in Sepsis.

Front Vet Sci 2018 28;5:291. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Cell Biology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis Davis, CA, United States.

Sepsis is the leading cause of critical illness and mortality in human beings and animals. Neutrophils are the primary effector cells of innate immunity during sepsis. Besides degranulation and phagocytosis, neutrophils also release neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), composed of cell-free DNA, histones, and antimicrobial proteins. Read More

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November 2018

Cartilage Tissue Engineering Using Stem Cells and Bioprinting Technology-Barriers to Clinical Translation.

Front Surg 2018 27;5:70. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Department of Surgery, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

There is no long-term treatment strategy for young and active patients with cartilage defects. Early and effective joint preserving treatments in these patients are crucial in preventing the development of osteoarthritis. Tissue engineering over the past few decades has presented hope in overcoming the issues involved with current treatment strategies. Read More

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November 2018

Pyrene-Imidazole Based Aggregation Modifier Leads to Enhancement in Efficiency and Environmental Stability for Ternary Organic Solar Cells.

Front Chem 2018 28;6:578. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

School of Optoelectronic Science and Engineering, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, China.

A novel pyrene-imidazole derivative (PyPI), which can form effcient π-π stacking in solid film, has been utilized in organic solar cells (OSCs). The stacking of small a molecule PyPI can facilitate a charge transfer and suppress fullerene aggregation. As a result, PTB7-Th: PyPI: PCBM based ternary OSC exhibits a high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 10. Read More

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November 2018
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The Micronemal Proteins P36 and P52 Act in Concert to Establish the Replication-Permissive Compartment Within Infected Hepatocytes.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2018 27;8:413. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Center for Global Infectious Disease Research, Seattle Children's Research Institute, Seattle, WA, United States.

Within the liver, sporozoites traverse cells searching for a "suitable" hepatocyte, invading these cells through a process that results in the formation of a parasitophorous vacuole (PV), within which the parasite undergoes intracellular replication as a liver stage. It was previously established that two members of the s48/45 protein family, P36 and P52, are essential for productive invasion of host hepatocytes by sporozoites as their simultaneous deletion results in growth-arrested parasites that lack a PV. Recent studies point toward a pathway of entry possibly involving the interaction of P36 with hepatocyte receptors EphA2, CD81, and SR-B1. Read More

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November 2018

A Systematic Review of Atypical Teratoid Rhabdoid Tumor in Adults.

Front Oncol 2018 28;8:567. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Division of Neuropathology, University of Alberta Hospital, Edmonton, AB, Canada.

Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor in adults is a relatively rare malignant neoplasm. It is characterized by the presence of rhabdoid cells in combination with loss of either the INI1 or BRG1protein from the tumor cells. A systematic review was conducted using MEDLINE using the terms "atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor" AND "adult. Read More

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November 2018
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