3,856 results match your criteria Cells[Journal]


Cell-Type Targeted NF-kappaB Inhibition for the Treatment of Inflammatory Diseases.

Cells 2020 Jul 6;9(7). Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, Medical Center-University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, 79098 Freiburg, Germany.

Deregulated NF-k activation is not only involved in cancer but also contributes to the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory diseases like rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and multiple sclerosis (MS). Ideally, therapeutic NF-KappaB inhibition should only take place in those cell types that are involved in disease pathogenesis to maintain physiological cell functions in all other cells. In contrast, unselective NF-kappaB inhibition in all cells results in multiple adverse effects, a major hindrance in drug development. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells9071627DOI Listing

Mertk Interacts with Tim-4 to Enhance Tim-4-Mediated Efferocytosis.

Cells 2020 Jul 6;9(7). Epub 2020 Jul 6.

School of Life Sciences, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 61005, Korea.

Apoptotic cells expressing phosphatidylserine (PS) on their cell surface are directly or indirectly recognized by phagocytes through PS-binding proteins. The PS-binding protein Tim-4 secures apoptotic cells to phagocytes to facilitate the engulfment of apoptotic cells. However, the molecular mechanism by which Tim-4 transduces signals to phagocytes during Tim-4-mediated efferocytosis is incompletely understood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells9071625DOI Listing

Development of Artificial Plasma Membranes Derived Nanovesicles Suitable for Drugs Encapsulation.

Cells 2020 Jul 6;9(7). Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Biology and Biotechnology, University of Pavia, 27100 Pavia, Italy.

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are considered as promising nanoparticle theranostic tools in many pathological contexts. The increasing clinical employment of therapeutic nanoparticles is contributing to the development of a new research area related to the design of artificial EVs. To this aim, different approaches have been described to develop mimetic biologically functional nanovescicles. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells9071626DOI Listing

Kinase-Independent Functions of MASTL in Cancer: A New Perspective on MASTL Targeting.

Cells 2020 Jul 6;9(7). Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Turku Bioscience Centre, University of Turku and Åbo Akademi University, 20520 Turku, Finland.

Microtubule-associated serine/threonine kinase-like (MASTL; Greatwall) is a well-characterized kinase, whose catalytic role has been extensively studied in relation to cell-cycle acceleration. Importantly, MASTL has been implicated to play a substantial role in cancer progression and subsequent studies have shown that MASTL is a significant regulator of the cellular actomyosin cytoskeleton. Several kinases have non-catalytic properties, which are essential or even sufficient for their functions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells9071624DOI Listing

A Concise Review on Tissue Engineered Artificial Skin Grafts for Chronic Wound Treatment: Can We Reconstruct Functional Skin Tissue In Vitro?

Authors:
Agata Przekora

Cells 2020 Jul 6;9(7). Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Medical University of Lublin, Chodzki 1 Street, 20-093 Lublin, Poland.

Chronic wounds occur as a consequence of a prolonged inflammatory phase during the healing process, which precludes skin regeneration. Typical treatment for chronic wounds includes application of autografts, allografts collected from cadaver, and topical delivery of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial agents. Nevertheless, the mentioned therapies are not sufficient for extensive or deep wounds. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells9071622DOI Listing

Modeling of Cell Nuclear Mechanics: Classes, Components, and Applications.

Cells 2020 Jul 6;9(7). Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Biology Department, The University of Massachusetts at Amherst, Amherst, MA 01003, USA.

Cell nuclei are paramount for both cellular function and mechanical stability. These two roles of nuclei are intertwined as altered mechanical properties of nuclei are associated with altered cell behavior and disease. To further understand the mechanical properties of cell nuclei and guide future experiments, many investigators have turned to mechanical modeling. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells9071623DOI Listing

miR-7 Regulates GLP-1-Mediated Insulin Release by Targeting β-Arrestin 1.

Cells 2020 Jul 6;9(7). Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Medicine, Fleischer Institute for Diabetes and Metabolism (FIDAM), Einstein-Mount Sinai Diabetes Research Center (ES-DRC), Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, NY 10461, USA.

Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) has been shown to potentiate glucose-stimulated insulin secretion binding GLP-1 receptor on pancreatic β cells. β-arrestin 1 (βARR1) is known to regulate the desensitization of GLP-1 receptor. Mounting evidence indicates that microRNAs (miRNAs, miRs) are fundamental in the regulation of β cell function and insulin release. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells9071621DOI Listing

Molecular Basis of the Function of Transcriptional Enhancers.

Cells 2020 Jul 5;9(7). Epub 2020 Jul 5.

Laboratory of Gene Expression Regulation in Development, Institute of Gene Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, 34/5 Vavilov St., 119334 Moscow, Russia.

Transcriptional enhancers are major genomic elements that control gene activity in eukaryotes. Recent studies provided deeper insight into the temporal and spatial organization of transcription in the nucleus, the role of non-coding RNAs in the process, and the epigenetic control of gene expression. Thus, multiple molecular details of enhancer functioning were revealed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells9071620DOI Listing

Canonical and Noncanonical Autophagy as Potential Targets for COVID-19.

Cells 2020 07 5;9(7). Epub 2020 Jul 5.

Institute of Research, Development, and Innovation in Healthcare Biotechnology in Elche (IDiBE), Miguel Hernández University (UMH), 03202 Elche, Spain.

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic necessitates a review of the molecular mechanisms underlying cellular infection by coronaviruses, in order to identify potential therapeutic targets against the associated new disease (COVID-19). Previous studies on its counterparts prove a complex and concomitant interaction between coronaviruses and autophagy. The precise manipulation of this pathway allows these viruses to exploit the autophagy molecular machinery while avoiding its protective apoptotic drift and cellular innate immune responses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells9071619DOI Listing

Astrocyte- and Neuron-Derived Extracellular Vesicles from Alzheimer's Disease Patients Effect Complement-Mediated Neurotoxicity.

Cells 2020 Jul 4;9(7). Epub 2020 Jul 4.

Laboratory of Clinical Investigation, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health (NIA/NIH), Baltimore, MD 21224, USA.

We have previously shown that blood astrocytic-origin extracellular vesicles (AEVs) from Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients contain high complement levels. To test the hypothesis that circulating EVs from AD patients can induce complement-mediated neurotoxicity involving Membrane Attack Complex (MAC) formation, we assessed the effects of immunocaptured AEVs (using anti-GLAST antibody), in comparison with neuronal-origin (N)EVs (using anti-L1CAM antibody), and nonspecific CD81+ EVs (using anti-CD81 antibody), from the plasma of AD, frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), and control participants. AEVs (and, less effectively, NEVs) of AD participants induced Membrane Attack Complex (MAC) expression on recipient neurons (by immunohistochemistry), membrane disruption (by EthD-1 assay), reduced neurite density (by Tuj-1 immunohistochemistry), and decreased cell viability (by MTT assay) in rat cortical neurons and human iPSC-derived neurons. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells9071618DOI Listing

Nanoceria Particles Are an Eligible Candidate to Prevent Age-Related Macular Degeneration by Inhibiting Retinal Pigment Epithelium Cell Death and Autophagy Alterations.

Cells 2020 Jul 4;9(7). Epub 2020 Jul 4.

Department of Biotechnology and Applied Clinical Sciences, University of L'Aquila, via Vetoio, Coppito 2, 67100 L'Aquila, Italy.

Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) dysfunction and degeneration underlie the development of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), which is the leading cause of blindness worldwide. In this study, we investigated whether cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO-NPs or nanoceria), which are anti-oxidant agents with auto-regenerative properties, are able to preserve the RPE. On ARPE-19 cells, we found that CeO-NPs promoted cell viability against HO-induced cellular damage. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells9071617DOI Listing

Deep Characterization of Circular RNAs from Human Cardiovascular Cell Models and Cardiac Tissue.

Cells 2020 Jul 4;9(7). Epub 2020 Jul 4.

Section of Bioinformatics and Systems Cardiology, Klaus Tschira Institute for Integrative Computational Cardiology, University Hospital Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany.

For decades, cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been the leading cause of death throughout most developed countries. Several studies relate RNA splicing, and more recently also circular RNAs (circRNAs), to CVD. CircRNAs originate from linear transcripts and have been shown to exhibit tissue-specific expression profiles. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells9071616DOI Listing

Neurovascular Inflammaging in Health and Disease.

Cells 2020 Jul 4;9(7). Epub 2020 Jul 4.

Institute of Biophysics, Biological Research Centre, 6726 Szeged, Hungary.

Aging is characterized by a chronic low-grade sterile inflammation dubbed as inflammaging, which in part originates from accumulating cellular debris. These, acting as danger signals with many intrinsic factors such as cytokines, are sensed by a network of pattern recognition receptors and other cognate receptors, leading to the activation of inflammasomes. Due to the inflammasome activity-dependent increase in the levels of pro-inflammatory interleukins (IL-1β, IL-18), inflammation is initiated, resulting in tissue injury in various organs, the brain and the spinal cord included. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells9071614DOI Listing

Methylation in Clusters and Its Applications in Cancer Therapy.

Cells 2020 Jul 3;9(7). Epub 2020 Jul 3.

I3S-Institute for Innovation & Health Research, University of Porto, 4200-135 Porto, Portugal.

genes are commonly known for their role in embryonic development, defining the positional identity of most structures along the anterior-posterior axis. In postembryonic life, gene aberrant expression can affect several processes involved in tumorigenesis such as proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion. Epigenetic modifications are implicated in gene expression deregulation, and it is accepted that methylation events affecting gene expression play crucial roles in tumorigenesis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells9071613DOI Listing

Water-Soluble -Docecaborate-Containing Pteroyl Derivatives Targeting Folate Receptor-Positive Tumors for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy.

Cells 2020 Jul 3;9(7). Epub 2020 Jul 3.

School of Life Science and Technology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503, Japan.

Water-soluble pteroyl--dodecaborate conjugates (PBCs 1-4), were developed as folate receptor (FRα) targeting boron carriers for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). PBCs 1-4 had adequately low cytotoxicity with IC values in the range of 1~3 mM toward selected human cancer cells, low enough to use as BNCT boron agents. PBCs 1-3 showed significant cell uptake by FRα positive cells, especially U87MG glioblastoma cells, although the accumulation of PBC 4 was low compared with PBCs 1-3 and L-4-boronophenylalanine (L-BPA). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells9071615DOI Listing

Purinergic Signaling in the Hallmarks of Cancer.

Cells 2020 Jul 3;9(7). Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Department of Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology, Instituto de Neurobiología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Boulevard Juriquilla #3001, Juriquilla Querétaro 76230, Mexico.

Cancer is a complex expression of an altered state of cellular differentiation associated with severe clinical repercussions. The effort to characterize this pathological entity to understand its underlying mechanisms and visualize potential therapeutic strategies has been constant. In this context, some cellular (enhanced duplication, immunological evasion), metabolic (aerobic glycolysis, failure in DNA repair mechanisms) and physiological (circadian disruption) parameters have been considered as cancer hallmarks. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells9071612DOI Listing

Identification of Novel Molecular Markers of Human Th17 Cells.

Cells 2020 Jul 3;9(7). Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Laboratory of Epigenetics, Institute of Medical Biology, Polish Academy of Sciences, 93-232 Lodz, Poland.

Th17 cells are important players in host defense against pathogens such as , , and . Th17 cell-mediated inflammation, under certain conditions in which balance in the immune system is disrupted, is the underlying pathogenic mechanism of certain autoimmune disorders, e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells9071611DOI Listing

Identification of miRNA Master Regulators in Breast Cancer.

Cells 2020 Jul 3;9(7). Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Laboratorio de Genómica, Instituto Nacional de Cancerología, Tlalpan, CDMX 14080, Mexico.

Breast cancer is the neoplasm with the highest number of deaths in women. Although the molecular mechanisms associated with the development of this tumor have been widely described, metastatic disease has a high mortality rate. In recent years, several studies show that microRNAs or miRNAs regulate complex processes in different biological systems including cancer. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells9071610DOI Listing

Show Me Your Friends and I Tell You Who You Are: The Many Facets of Prion Protein in Stroke.

Cells 2020 Jul 2;9(7). Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Neurology Department, Experimental Research in Stroke and Inflammation (ERSI), University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, 20246 Hamburg, Germany.

Ischemic stroke belongs to the leading causes of mortality and disability worldwide. Although treatments for the acute phase of stroke are available, not all patients are eligible. There is a need to search for therapeutic options to promote neurological recovery after stroke. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells9071609DOI Listing

Latest Developed Strategies to Minimize the Off-Target Effects in CRISPR-Cas-Mediated Genome Editing.

Cells 2020 Jul 2;9(7). Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Life Sciences, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM), Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia.

Gene editing that makes target gene modification in the genome by deletion or addition has revolutionized the era of biomedicine. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 emerged as a substantial tool due to its simplicity in use, less cost and extraordinary efficiency than the conventional gene-editing tools, including zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) and Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs). However, potential off-target activities are crucial shortcomings in the CRISPR system. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells9071608DOI Listing

KLF4 Acts as a wt-CFTR Suppressor through an AKT-Mediated Pathway.

Cells 2020 Jul 2;9(7). Epub 2020 Jul 2.

BioISI-Biosystems & Integrative Sciences Institute, Faculty of Sciences, University of Lisbon, 1749-016 Lisbon, Portugal.

Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is caused by >2000 mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene, but one mutation-F508del-occurs in ~80% of patients worldwide. Besides its main function as an anion channel, the CFTR protein has been implicated in epithelial differentiation, tissue regeneration, and, when dysfunctional, cancer. However, the mechanisms that regulate such relationships are not fully elucidated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells9071607DOI Listing

The Role of Hyaluronic Acid in Cartilage Boundary Lubrication.

Cells 2020 Jul 2;9(7). Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Materials and Interfaces, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel.

Hydration lubrication has emerged as a new paradigm for lubrication in aqueous and biological media, accounting especially for the extremely low friction (friction coefficients down to 0.001) of articular cartilage lubrication in joints. Among the ensemble of molecules acting in the joint, phosphatidylcholine (PC) lipids have been proposed as the key molecules forming, in a complex with other molecules including hyaluronic acid (HA), a robust layer on the outer surface of the cartilage. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells9071606DOI Listing

IL-6 Trans-Signaling in the Brain Influences the Metabolic Phenotype of the 3xTg-AD Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

Cells 2020 Jul 2;9(7). Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Institute of Neurosciences and Department of Cellular Biology, Physiology and Immunology, Faculty of Biosciences, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Spain.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that causes the most prevalent dementia in the elderly people. Obesity and insulin resistance, which may cause major health problems , are risk factors for AD, and cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) have a role in these conditions. IL-6 can signal either through a membrane receptor or by trans-signaling, which can be inhibited by the soluble form of the co-receptor gp130 (sgp130). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells9071605DOI Listing

The Diversity of Intermediate Filaments in Astrocytes.

Cells 2020 Jul 2;9(7). Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology - Molecular Cell Physiology, Institute of Pathophysiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Despite the remarkable complexity of the individual neuron and of neuronal circuits, it has been clear for quite a while that, in order to understand the functioning of the brain, the contribution of other cell types in the brain have to be accounted for. Among glial cells, astrocytes have multiple roles in orchestrating neuronal functions. Their communication with neurons by exchanging signaling molecules and removing molecules from extracellular space takes place at several levels and is governed by different cellular processes, supported by multiple cellular structures, including the cytoskeleton. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells9071604DOI Listing

Expression of miR-135b in Psoriatic Skin and Its Association with Disease Improvement.

Cells 2020 Jul 2;9(7). Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Dermatology Department, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Hospital Universitario de la Princesa (IISP), 28006 Madrid, Spain.

miRNAs have been associated with psoriasis since just over a decade. However, we are far from a complete understanding of their role during the development of this disease. Our objective was to characterize the cutaneous expression of miRNAs not previously described in psoriasis, the changes induced following the treatment with biologicals and their association with disease improvement. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells9071603DOI Listing

Roles of miR-640 and Zinc Finger Protein 91 (ZFP91) in Angiopoietin-1-Induced In Vitro Angiogenesis.

Cells 2020 Jul 2;9(7). Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Critical Care, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC H4A 3J1, Canada.

Angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) is a ligand of Tie-2 receptors that promotes angiogenesis. It has been established that regulatory loops exist between angiogenic growth factors and distinct pro or anti-angiogenic miRNAs, but the nature and the roles of Ang-1-regulated miRNAs remain unclear. In this study, we assessed the role of miR-640 in Ang-1-induced angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells9071602DOI Listing

Extracellular Vesicles as Delivery Vehicles of Specific Cellular Cargo.

Cells 2020 Jul 2;9(7). Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Internal Medicine I, Cardiology, Medical Faculty, RWTH Aachen University, 52074 Aachen, Germany.

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) mediate cell-to-cell communication via the transfer of biomolecules locally and systemically between organs. It has been elucidated that the specific EV cargo load is fundamental for cellular response upon EV delivery. Therefore, revealing the specific molecular machinery that functionally regulates the precise EV cargo intracellularly is of importance in understanding the role of EVs in physiology and pathophysiology and conveying therapeutic use. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells9071601DOI Listing

Synthesis and Evaluation of Dodecaboranethiol Containing Kojic Acid (KA-BSH) as a Novel Agent for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy.

Cells 2020 Jun 25;9(6). Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Research Center of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Nakaku, Sakai 599-8531, Japan.

Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a form of tumor-cell selective particle irradiation using low-energy neutron irradiation of boron-10 (B) to produce high-linear energy transfer (LET) alpha particles and recoiling Li nuclei (B [n, alpha] Li) in tumor cells. Therefore, it is important to achieve the selective delivery of large amounts of B to tumor cells, with only small amounts of B to normal tissues. To develop practical materials utilizing B carriers, we designed and synthesized novel dodecaboranethiol (BSH)-containing kojic acid (KA-BSH). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells9061551DOI Listing

Nicotinamide Supplementation during the In Vitro Maturation of Oocytes Improves the Developmental Competence of Preimplantation Embryos: Potential Link to SIRT1/AKT Signaling.

Cells 2020 Jun 25;9(6). Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Division of Applied Life Science (BK21 Plus), Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 52828, Korea.

Nicotinamide (NAM), the amide form of vitamin B3, plays pivotal roles in regulating various cellular processes including energy production and maintenance of genomic stability. The current study aimed at deciphering the effect of NAM, when administered during in vitro maturation (IVM), on the developmental competence of bovine preimplantation embryos. Our results showed that low NAM concentrations reduced the oxidative stress and improved mitochondrial profile, total cleavage and 8-16 cell stage embryo development whereas the opposite profile was observed upon exposure to high NAM concentrations (10 mM onward). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells9061550DOI Listing

Molecular Basis for Ser/Thr Specificity in PKA Signaling.

Cells 2020 Jun 25;9(6). Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Department of Biochemistry, University of Kassel, 34132 Kassel, Germany.

cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) is the major receptor of the second messenger cAMP and a prototype for Ser/Thr-specific protein kinases. Although PKA strongly prefers serine over threonine substrates, little is known about the molecular basis of this substrate specificity. We employ classical enzyme kinetics and a surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based method to analyze each step of the kinase reaction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells9061548DOI Listing

A Review on Notch Signaling and Colorectal Cancer.

Cells 2020 Jun 25;9(6). Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Department of Urology, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40202, USA.

Colorectal cancer (CRC) has one of the highest mortality rates despite the advancement of treatment options. Aggressive CRC remains difficult to treat owing to the activation of oncogenic signaling pathways such as the Notch signaling pathway. The role of Notch receptors varies according to the difference in their structures; in particular, aberrant activation of Notch1 has been attributed to the severity of CRC. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells9061549DOI Listing

Insight into Salivary Gland Aquaporins.

Cells 2020 Jun 25;9(6). Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Laboratory of Pathophysiological and Nutritional Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Université Libre de Bruxelles, 808 Route de Lennik, Blg G/E CP 611, B-1070 Brussels, Belgium.

The main role of salivary glands (SG) is the production and secretion of saliva, in which aquaporins (AQPs) play a key role by ensuring water flow. The AQPs are transmembrane channel proteins permeable to water to allow water transport across cell membranes according to osmotic gradient. This review gives an insight into SG AQPs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells9061547DOI Listing

Protein Kinase CK2 Regulates Nerve/Glial Antigen (NG)2-Mediated Angiogenic Activity of Human Pericytes.

Cells 2020 Jun 25;9(6). Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Institute for Clinical & Experimental Surgery, Saarland University, 66421 Homburg, Germany.

Protein kinase CK2 is a crucial regulator of endothelial cell proliferation, migration and sprouting during angiogenesis. However, it is still unknown whether this kinase additionally affects the angiogenic activity of other vessel-associated cells. In this study, we investigated the effect of CK2 inhibition on primary human pericytes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells9061546DOI Listing

A Systematic Review of WNT Signaling in Endothelial Cell Oligodendrocyte Interactions: Potential Relevance to Cerebral Small Vessel Disease.

Cells 2020 Jun 25;9(6). Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Maastricht University, PO Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Key pathological features of cerebral small vessel disease (cSVD) include impairment of the blood brain barrier (BBB) and the progression of white matter lesions (WMLs) amongst other structural lesions, leading to the clinical manifestations of cSVD. The function of endothelial cells (ECs) is of major importance to maintain a proper BBB. ECs interact with several cell types to provide structural and functional support to the brain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells9061545DOI Listing

Circular RNAs in Sepsis: Biogenesis, Function, and Clinical Significance.

Cells 2020 Jun 25;9(6). Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Raras (CIBERER), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 28029 Madrid, Spain.

Sepsis is a life-threatening condition that occurs when the body responds to an infection that damages it is own tissues. The major problem in sepsis is rapid, vital status deterioration in patients, which can progress to septic shock with multiple organ failure if not properly treated. As there are no specific treatments, early diagnosis is mandatory to reduce high mortality. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells9061544DOI Listing

Genetic Control of Muscle Diversification and Homeostasis: Insights from .

Cells 2020 Jun 25;9(6). Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Institute of Genetics Reproduction and Development, iGReD, INSERM U1103, CNRS UMR6293, University of Clermont Auvergne, 28 Place Henri Dunant, 63000 Clermont-Ferrand, France.

In the fruit fly, , the larval somatic muscles or the adult thoracic flight and leg muscles are the major voluntary locomotory organs. They share several developmental and structural similarities with vertebrate skeletal muscles. To ensure appropriate activity levels for their functions such as hatching in the embryo, crawling in the larva, and jumping and flying in adult flies all muscle components need to be maintained in a functionally stable or homeostatic state despite constant strain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells9061543DOI Listing

Loss of ZC4H2 and RNF220 Inhibits Neural Stem Cell Proliferation and Promotes Neuronal Differentiation.

Cells 2020 Jul 1;9(7). Epub 2020 Jul 1.

State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Evolution, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650223, China.

The ubiquitin E3 ligase RNF220 and its co-factor ZC4H2 are required for multiple neural developmental processes through different targets, including spinal cord patterning and the development of the cerebellum and the locus coeruleus. Here, we explored the effects of loss of ZC4H2 and RNF220 on the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs) derived from mouse embryonic cortex. We showed that loss of either ZC4H2 or RNF220 inhibits the proliferation and promotes the differentiation abilities of NSCs in vitro. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells9071600DOI Listing

Chemerin Impairs In Vitro Testosterone Production, Sperm Motility, and Fertility in Chicken: Possible Involvement of Its Receptor CMKLR1.

Cells 2020 Jul 1;9(7). Epub 2020 Jul 1.

INRA UMR85 Physiologie de la Reproduction et des Comportements, France CNRS UMR7247 Physiologie de la Reproduction et des Comportements, France Université François Rabelais de Tours F-37041 Tours, IFCE F-37380 Nouzilly, France.

The chemokine chemerin is a novel adipokine involved in the regulation of energy metabolism but also female reproductive functions in mammals. Its effects on male fertility are less studied. Here, we investigated the involvement of chemerin in chicken male reproduction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells9071599DOI Listing

ROS Mediate xCT-Dependent Cell Death in Human Breast Cancer Cells under Glucose Deprivation.

Cells 2020 Jul 1;9(7). Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan.

xCT, also known as solute carrier family 7 member 11 (SLC7A11), the light chain of the cystine/glutamate antiporter, is positively correlated with cancer progression due to antioxidant function. During glucose deprivation, the overexpression of xCT does not protect cancer cells but instead promotes cell death. Further understanding the mechanism of glucose deprivation-induced cell death is important for developing anticancer treatments targeting the glucose metabolism. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells9071598DOI Listing

DNA Damage- But Not Enzalutamide-Induced Senescence in Prostate Cancer Promotes Senolytic Bcl-xL Inhibitor Sensitivity.

Cells 2020 Jul 1;9(7). Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Francis Rodier Lab, Institut du Cancer de Montréal, Centre de Recherche du Centre Hospitalier de L'université de Montréal (CRCHUM), Montreal, QC H2X 0A9, Canada.

Cellular senescence is a natural tumor suppression mechanism defined by a stable proliferation arrest. In the context of cancer treatment, cancer cell therapy-induced senescence (TIS) is emerging as an omnipresent cell fate decision that can be pharmacologically targeted at the molecular level to enhance the beneficial aspects of senescence. In prostate cancer (PCa), TIS has been reported using multiple different model systems, and a more systematic analysis would be useful to identify relevant senescence manipulation molecular targets. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells9071593DOI Listing

Chemically Functionalized Water-Soluble Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Obstruct Vesicular/Plasmalemmal Recycling in Astrocytes Down-Stream of Calcium Ions.

Cells 2020 Jul 1;9(7). Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Departments of Neurobiology and Biomedical Engineering, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA.

We used single-walled carbon nanotubes chemically functionalized with polyethylene glycol (SWCNT-PEG) to assess the effects of this nanomaterial on astrocytic endocytosis and exocytosis. We observed that the SWCNT-PEG do not affect the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-evoked Ca elevations in astrocytes but significantly reduce the Ca-dependent glutamate release. There was a significant decrease in the endocytic load of the recycling dye during constitutive and ATP-evoked recycling. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells9071597DOI Listing

Exploring Therapeutic Targets to Reverse or Prevent the Transition from Metabolically Healthy to Unhealthy Obesity.

Cells 2020 Jul 1;9(7). Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Medical School, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia.

The prevalence of obesity and obesity-related metabolic comorbidities are rapidly increasing worldwide, placing a huge economic burden on health systems. Excessive nutrient supply combined with reduced physical exercise results in positive energy balance that promotes adipose tissue expansion. However, the metabolic response and pattern of fat accumulation is variable, depending on the individual's genetic and acquired susceptibility factors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells9071596DOI Listing

Circulating Tumor Cell Migration Requires Fibronectin Acting through Integrin B1 or SLUG.

Cells 2020 Jul 1;9(7). Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Department of Biological Sciences, Hunter College of The City University of New York, New York, NY 10065, USA.

Fibronectin (FN1) is an extracellular matrix protein gaining increasing attention for its multifaceted roles in cancer progression. Using our recently established circulating tumor cell (CTC) lines, we had demonstrated increased FN1 expression and enhanced migration in CTC lines, in comparison to primary tumor cell lines. Whether increased FN1 expression is directly required for CTC migration, and the specific role of FN1's regulation of integrin B1 (ITGB1) and SLUG (SNAI2) in CTC migration remains unclear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells9071594DOI Listing

Microglia Purinoceptor P2Y6: An Emerging Therapeutic Target in CNS Diseases.

Cells 2020 Jul 1;9(7). Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Neuroscience Laboratory, CHU de Québec Research Center (CHUL), Department of Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Laval University, Québec City, QC G1V 0A6, Canada.

The purinergic receptor P2Y6 is expressed in immune cells, including the microglia that are implicated in neurological disorders. Its ligand, UDP, is a signaling molecule that can serve as an "find-me" signal when released in significant quantities by damaged/dying cells. The binding of UDP by P2Y6R leads to the activation of different biochemical pathways, depending on the disease context and the pathological environment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells9071595DOI Listing

Targeted Brain Tumor Therapy by Inhibiting the MDM2 Oncogene: In Vitro and In Vivo Antitumor Activity and Mechanism of Action.

Cells 2020 Jul 1;9(7). Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Department of Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204, USA.

There is a desperate need for novel and efficacious chemotherapeutic strategies for human brain cancers. There are abundant molecular alterations along the p53 and MDM2 pathways in human glioma, which play critical roles in drug resistance. The present study was designed to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo antitumor activity of a novel brain-penetrating small molecule MDM2 degrader, termed SP-141. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells9071592DOI Listing

All-Trans Retinoic Acid Enhances both the Signaling for Priming and the Glycolysis for Activation of NLRP3 Inflammasome in Human Macrophage.

Cells 2020 Jul 1;9(7). Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Departments of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Debrecen, H-4012 Debrecen, Hungary.

All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is a derivative of vitamin A that has many important biological functions, including the modulation of immune responses. ATRA actions are mediated through the retinoic acid receptor that functions as a nuclear receptor, either regulating gene transcription in the nucleus or modulating signal transduction in the cytoplasm. NLRP3 inflammasome is a multiprotein complex that is activated by a huge variety of stimuli, including pathogen- or danger-related molecules. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells9071591DOI Listing

Non-Muscle Myosin 2A (NM2A): Structure, Regulation and Function.

Cells 2020 Jul 1;9(7). Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Group of Cell Biology of Bacterial Infections, i3S-Instituto de Investigação e Inovação em Saúde, IBMC, Universidade do Porto, 4200-135 Porto, Portugal.

Non-muscle myosin 2A (NM2A) is a motor cytoskeletal enzyme with crucial importance from the early stages of development until adulthood. Due to its capacity to convert chemical energy into force, NM2A powers the contraction of the actomyosin cytoskeleton, required for proper cell division, adhesion and migration, among other cellular functions. Although NM2A has been extensively studied, new findings revealed that a lot remains to be discovered concerning its spatiotemporal regulation in the intracellular environment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells9071590DOI Listing

Oxidative Inactivation of the Proteasome Augments Alveolar Macrophage Secretion of Vesicular SOCS3.

Cells 2020 Jun 30;9(7). Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Graduate Program in Immunology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) contain a diverse array of molecular cargoes that alter cellular phenotype and function following internalization by recipient cells. In the lung, alveolar macrophages (AMs) secrete EVs containing suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3), a cytosolic protein that promotes homeostasis via vesicular transfer to neighboring alveolar epithelial cells. Although changes in the secretion of EV molecules-including but not limited to SOCS3-have been described in response to microenvironmental stimuli, the cellular and molecular machinery that control alterations in vesicular cargo packaging remain poorly understood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells9071589DOI Listing

T-Cell Gene Therapy in Cancer Immunotherapy: Why It Is No Longer Just CARs on The Road.

Cells 2020 Jun 30;9(7). Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Oncology, National Center for Cancer Immune Therapy (CCIT-DK), Copenhagen University Hospital Herlev, 2730 Herlev, Denmark.

T-cells have a natural ability to fight cancer cells in the tumour microenvironment. Due to thymic selection and tissue-driven immunomodulation, these cancer-fighting T-cells are generally low in number and exhausted. One way to overcome these issues is to genetically alter T-cells to improve their effectiveness. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells9071588DOI Listing

Effect of cAMP Signaling Regulation in Osteogenic Differentiation of Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

Cells 2020 Jun 30;9(7). Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Histology and Embryology, Center for Biostructure Research, Medical University of Warsaw, 02-004 Warsaw, Poland.

The successful implementation of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) in bone regeneration depends on efficient osteogenic differentiation. However, a literature survey and our own experience demonstrated that current differentiation methods are not effective enough. Since the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into osteoblasts and adipocytes can be regulated by cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signaling, we investigated the effects of cAMP activator, forskolin, and inhibitor, SQ 22,536, on the early and late osteogenic differentiation of ADSCs cultured in spheroids or in a monolayer. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells9071587DOI Listing