253,504 results match your criteria Cell host & microbe[Journal]


Immunogenicity Evaluation of Chimeric Subunit Vaccine Comprising Adhesion Coli Surface Antigens from Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol 2020 Jul 9:1-10. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Applied Microbiology Research Center, Systems Biology and Poisonings Institute, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran,

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is the most common agent of diarrhea morbidity in developing countries. ETEC adheres to host intestinal epithelial cells via various colonization factors. The CooD and CotD proteins play a significant role in bacteria binding to the intestinal epithelial cells as adhesin tip subunits of CS1 and CS2 pili. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000509708DOI Listing

Co-culturing microalgae with endophytic bacteria increases nutrient removal efficiency for biogas purification.

Bioresour Technol 2020 Jul 2;314:123766. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

College of Biological, Chemical Science and Engineering, Jiaxing University, Jiaxing 314001, PR China.

Endophytic bacteria were isolated from Chlorella vulgaris and co-cultured with its host microalgae to determine whether this symbiotic system is suitable for purifying biogas and biogas slurry. Results showed that endophytic bacteria S395-1 and S395-2 belonged to different genera. Both strains promoted microalgae growth while improving photosynthetic performance, carbonic anhydrase activity, nutrient removal efficiency, and CO fixation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2020.123766DOI Listing

A scoutRNA Is Required for Some Type V CRISPR-Cas Systems.

Mol Cell 2020 Jun 30. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA; California Institute for Quantitative Biosciences, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA; Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA; Innovative Genomics Institute, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA; Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA; Molecular Biophysics & Integrated Bioimaging Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA; Gladstone Institutes, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94114, USA. Electronic address:

CRISPR-Cas12c/d proteins share limited homology with Cas12a and Cas9 bacterial CRISPR RNA (crRNA)-guided nucleases used widely for genome editing and DNA detection. However, Cas12c (C2c3)- and Cas12d (CasY)-catalyzed DNA cleavage and genome editing activities have not been directly observed. We show here that a short-complementarity untranslated RNA (scoutRNA), together with crRNA, is required for Cas12d-catalyzed DNA cutting. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molcel.2020.06.022DOI Listing

Listening In: Plasmacytoid DC, Monocyte-Derived DC, and Neutrophil Crosstalk in Antifungal Defense.

Authors:
Xin Liu Sunny Shin

Cell Host Microbe 2020 Jul;28(1):9-11

Department of Microbiology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. Electronic address:

Plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) are typically thought to be key in antiviral defense. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Guo, Kasahara et al. (2020) reveal a critical role for pDCs in antifungal immunity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chom.2020.06.015DOI Listing

JAcked Responses Go Viral: Hormonal Regulation of Antiviral RNAi.

Cell Host Microbe 2020 Jul;28(1):7-9

Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology, University of California, Riverside, Riverside, CA 92721, USA. Electronic address:

Little is known about the mechanism that regulates the core steps of antiviral RNA interference (RNAi) pathway in plants and animals. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Yang et al. (2020) provide compelling evidence for the regulation of antiviral RNAi by the jasmonate hormone signaling in plants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chom.2020.06.007DOI Listing

Everything Illuminated-Clostridium perfringens β-toxin.

Authors:
Wayne I Lencer

Cell Host Microbe 2020 Jul;28(1):5-6

Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA; Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA; Harvard Digestive Disease Center, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Electronic address:

In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Bruggisser et al. show that Clostridium perfringens β-toxin (CPB) binds platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) (also known as CD31) to induce membrane pores. The discovery explains the cell type specificity for CPB and, in large part, the basic pathophysiology of disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chom.2020.06.006DOI Listing

Going Keto? Say βHB-ye Bye to Your Gut Bifidobacteria.

Cell Host Microbe 2020 Jul;28(1):3-5

Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA. Electronic address:

Ketogenic diets (KDs) are popularly used to aid a myriad of conditions. KDs induce metabolic changes, but how microbiome alterations contribute to these changes remains unexplored. In a recent Cell paper, Ang et al. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chom.2020.06.012DOI Listing

Co-evolution and Co-speciation of Host-Gut Bacteria Systems.

Cell Host Microbe 2020 Jul;28(1):12-22

Department of Biological Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA; Center for Microbiome Informatics and Therapeutics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA; The Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA.

Mammalian gut microbiomes profoundly influence host fitness, but the processes that drive the evolution of host-microbiome systems are poorly understood. Recent studies suggest that mammals and their individual gut symbionts can have parallel evolutionary histories, as represented by their congruent phylogenies. These "co-phylogenetic" patterns are signatures of ancient co-speciation events and illustrate the cohesiveness of the mammalian host-gut microbiome entity over evolutionary times. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chom.2020.06.013DOI Listing

Not Your Typical Anti-CRISPR.

Authors:
Welkin E Johnson

Cell Host Microbe 2020 Jul;28(1):1-2

Biology Department, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA 02467. Electronic address:

In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, two papers by Osuna et al. describe the characterization of AcrIIA1, an anti-CRISPR protein distributed widely among Listeria phages. AcrIIA1 functions as an anti-CRISPR and as a dynamic repressor of acr loci, suggesting it may play an important role in lysogeny. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chom.2020.06.016DOI Listing

Structural features of coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 spike protein: Targets for vaccination.

Life Sci 2020 Jul 6:118056. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Institute of Immunology, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 305, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany. Electronic address:

Various human pathogenic viruses employ envelope glycoproteins for host cell receptor recognition and binding, membrane fusion and viral entry. The spike (S) glycoprotein of betacoronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is a homotrimeric class I fusion protein that exists in a metastable conformation for cleavage by host cell proteases furin and TMPRSS2, thereby undergoing substantial structural rearrangement for ACE2 host cell receptor binding and subsequent viral entry by membrane fusion. The S protein is densely decorated with N-linked glycans protruding from the trimer surface that affect S protein folding, processing by host cell proteases and the elicitation of humoral immune response. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2020.118056DOI Listing

The Global Phosphorylation Landscape of SARS-CoV-2 Infection.

Cell 2020 Jun 28. Epub 2020 Jun 28.

QBI COVID-19 Research Group (QCRG), San Francisco, CA 94158, USA; Quantitative Biosciences Institute (QBI), University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA; J. David Gladstone Institutes, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA; Department of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA; Department of Microbiology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029, USA. Electronic address:

The causative agent of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has infected millions and killed hundreds of thousands of people worldwide, highlighting an urgent need to develop antiviral therapies. Here we present a quantitative mass spectrometry-based phosphoproteomics survey of SARS-CoV-2 infection in Vero E6 cells, revealing dramatic rewiring of phosphorylation on host and viral proteins. SARS-CoV-2 infection promoted casein kinase II (CK2) and p38 MAPK activation, production of diverse cytokines, and shutdown of mitotic kinases, resulting in cell cycle arrest. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2020.06.034DOI Listing

Combined transcriptomics and proteomics to identify differential proteins involved in the immune response to the parasite Schistosoma japonicum in snail hosts pre-infected with Exorchis sp.

Acta Trop 2020 Jul 6:105623. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

State Key laboratory of Cellular Stress Biology, Innovation Center for Cell Signaling Network, State-province Joint Engineering Laboratory of Targeted Drugs from Natural Products, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian, China; Cancer Research Center of Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian, P. R. China; Parasitology Research Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian, China. Electronic address:

Oncomelania hupensis is the obligate intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum, and it also serves as the first intermediate host for Exorchis sp., which uses Parasilurus asoyus as its definitive host rather than humans. In previous studies, Tang et al. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2020.105623DOI Listing

Beyond polysulfides shuttle and Li dendrite formation: addressing the sluggish S redox kinetics for practical high energy Li-S batteries.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2020 Jul 9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Argonne National Laboratory, Chemical Sciences & Engineering Division, 9700 South, Cass Ave, 60439, Argonne, UNITED STATES.

Electrolyte modulation has been reported to simultaneously suppress polysulfide shuttle effect and lithium dendrite formation of lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries. However, the sluggish S redox kinetics, especially under high S loading and lean electrolyte operation, has been intensively ignored, which dramatically limits the cycle life and energy density of practical Li-S pouch cells. Herein, we demonstrate that a rational combination of selenium doping, core-shell hollow host structure, and fluorinated ether electrolytes enables ultrastable Li stripping/plating and essentially no polysulfide shuttle as well as fast redox kinetics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202007159DOI Listing

In vivo synthesis of bacterial amyloid curli contributes to joint inflammation during S. Typhimurium infection.

PLoS Pathog 2020 Jul 9;16(7):e1008591. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Lewis Katz School of Medicine, Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America.

Reactive arthritis, an autoimmune disorder, occurs following gastrointestinal infection with invasive enteric pathogens, such as Salmonella enterica. Curli, an extracellular, bacterial amyloid with cross beta-sheet structure can trigger inflammatory responses by stimulating pattern recognition receptors. Here we show that S. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1008591DOI Listing

The interaction between cuticle free fatty acids (FFAs) of the cockroaches Blattella germanica and Blatta orientalis  and hydrolases produced by the entomopathogenic fungus Conidiobolus coronatus.

PLoS One 2020 9;15(7):e0235785. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

National Institute of Public Health-National Institute of Hygiene, Warsaw, Poland.

The interactions between entomopathogenic fungi and insects serve a classic example of a co-evolutionary arms race between pathogens and their target host. The cuticle, site of the first contact between insects and entomopathogenic fungus, is an important defensive barrier against pathogens. It is covered by a layer of lipids that appears to play a key role in these processes and cuticular free fatty acid (FFA) profiles are consider as a determinant of susceptibility, or resistance, to fungal infections. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0235785PLOS

Dengue virus induces PCSK9 expression to alter antiviral responses and disease outcomes.

J Clin Invest 2020 Jul 9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Dengue Research, Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

Dengue virus (DENV) infection requires cholesterol as a pro-viral factor although statin treatment did not show antiviral efficacy in dengue patients. Here, we show that DENV infection manipulates cholesterol metabolism in cells residing in low oxygen microenvironments (hypoxia) such as the liver, spleen and lymph nodes. DENV infection induced proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), which reduces low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) recycling and hence cholesterol uptake. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI137536DOI Listing

Type VI secretion systems of plant-pathogenic Burkholderia glumae BGR1 play a functionally distinct role in interspecies interactions and virulence.

Mol Plant Pathol 2020 Jul 9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Department of Integrated Biological Science, Pusan National University, Busan, Korea.

In the environment, bacteria show close association, such as interspecies interaction, with other bacteria as well as host organisms. The type VI secretion system (T6SS) in gram-negative bacteria is involved in bacterial competition or virulence. The plant pathogen Burkholderia glumae BGR1, causing bacterial panicle blight in rice, has four T6SS gene clusters. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mpp.12966DOI Listing

Alveolar macrophage-derived extracellular vesicles inhibit endosomal fusion of influenza virus.

EMBO J 2020 Jul 9:e105057. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

Alveolar macrophages (AMs) and epithelial cells (ECs) are the lone resident lung cells positioned to respond to pathogens at early stages of infection. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are important vectors of paracrine signaling implicated in a range of (patho)physiologic contexts. Here we demonstrate that AMs, but not ECs, constitutively secrete paracrine activity localized to EVs which inhibits influenza infection of ECs in vitro and in vivo. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.15252/embj.2020105057DOI Listing

LRRK2 activation controls the repair of damaged endomembranes in macrophages.

EMBO J 2020 Jul 9:e104494. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Host-Pathogen Interactions in Tuberculosis Laboratory, The Francis Crick Institute, London, UK.

Cells respond to endolysosome damage by either repairing the damage or targeting damaged endolysosomes for degradation via lysophagy. However, the signals regulating the decision for repair or lysophagy are poorly characterised. Here, we show that the Parkinson's disease (PD)-related kinase LRRK2 is activated in macrophages by pathogen- or sterile-induced endomembrane damage. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.15252/embj.2020104494DOI Listing

Envelope proteins as antiviral drug target.

J Drug Target 2020 Jul 8:1-21. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

School of Biotechnology, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi -110067, India.

Attachment of a virus with a specific receptor on the cell surface is the first and foremost step in virus infection. In case of enveloped viruses, their interaction with the host cell receptor is mediated by viral encoded glycoproteins on its envelope, a host derived lipid bilayer. Since, virus entry is a multistep process, after receptor recognition, envelope proteins mediate internalisation of virus particles into the host cell. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1061186X.2020.1792916DOI Listing

Proteome-wide Data Analysis Reveals Tissue-specific Network Associated with SARS-CoV-2 Infection.

J Mol Cell Biol 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Shanghai Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Center for Excellence in Molecular Cell Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 320 Yueyang Road, Shanghai, China.

For patients with COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2, the damages to multiple organs have been clinically observed. Since most of current investigations for virus-host interaction are based on cell level, there is an urgent demand to probe tissue-specific features associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Based on collected proteomic datasets from human lung, colon, kidney, liver and heart, we constructed a virus-receptor network, a virus-interaction network and a virus-perturbation network. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jmcb/mjaa033DOI Listing

Biological responses to physicochemical properties of biomaterial surface.

Chem Soc Rev 2020 Jul 9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Department of Biomaterials, Institute of Clinical Dentistry, University of Oslo, 0317 Oslo, Norway. h.j.haugen.odont.uio.no.

Biomedical scientists use chemistry-driven processes found in nature as an inspiration to design biomaterials as promising diagnostic tools, therapeutic solutions, or tissue substitutes. While substantial consideration is devoted to the design and validation of biomaterials, the nature of their interactions with the surrounding biological microenvironment is commonly neglected. This gap of knowledge could be owing to our poor understanding of biochemical signaling pathways, lack of reliable techniques for designing biomaterials with optimal physicochemical properties, and/or poor stability of biomaterial properties after implantation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0cs00103aDOI Listing

The impact of host immune cells on the development of neurofibromatosis type 1: The abnormal immune system provides an immune microenvironment for tumorigenesis.

Neurooncol Adv 2019 May-Dec;1(1):vdz037. Epub 2019 Oct 18.

Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, People's Republic of China.

The immune system plays an essential role in the development of tumors, which has been demonstrated in multiple types of cancers. Consistent with this, immunotherapies with targets that disrupt these mechanisms and turn the immune system against developing cancers have been proven effective. In neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), an autosomal dominant genetic disorder, the understanding of the complex interactions of the immune system is incomplete despite the discovery of the pivotal role of immune cells in the tumor microenvironment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/noajnl/vdz037DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7212924PMC
October 2019

An Alginate-Based Hydrogel with a High Angiogenic Capacity and a High Osteogenic Potential.

Biores Open Access 2020 5;9(1):174-182. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

EA7516, CHIMERE, Jules Verne University of Picardie, Amiens, France.

In bone tissue engineering, autologous cells are combined with osteoconductive scaffolds and implanted into bone defects. The major challenge is the lack of post-implantation vascular growth into biomaterial. The objective of the present study was to develop a new alginate-based hydrogel that enhances the regeneration of bone defects after surgery. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/biores.2020.0010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7337169PMC

The origin of phagocytosis in Earth history.

Authors:
Daniel B Mills

Interface Focus 2020 Aug 12;10(4):20200019. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Department of Geological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.

Phagocytosis, or 'cell eating', is a eukaryote-specific process where particulate matter is engulfed via invaginations of the plasma membrane. The origin of phagocytosis has been central to discussions on eukaryogenesis for decades-, where it is argued as being either a prerequisite for, or consequence of, the acquisition of the ancestral mitochondrion. Recently, genomic and cytological evidence has increasingly supported the view that the pre-mitochondrial host cell-a archaeon branching within the 'Asgard' archaea-was incapable of phagocytosis and used alternative mechanisms to incorporate the alphaproteobacterial ancestor of mitochondria. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsfs.2020.0019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7333901PMC

Extracellular proteostasis prevents aggregation during pathogenic attack.

Nature 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE), Tübingen, Germany.

In metazoans, the secreted proteome participates in intercellular signalling and innate immunity, and builds the extracellular matrix scaffold around cells. Compared with the relatively constant intracellular environment, conditions for proteins in the extracellular space are harsher, and low concentrations of ATP prevent the activity of intracellular components of the protein quality-control machinery. Until now, only a few bona fide extracellular chaperones and proteases have been shown to limit the aggregation of extracellular proteins. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2461-zDOI Listing

Envelope protein ubiquitination drives entry and pathogenesis of Zika virus.

Nature 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA.

Zika virus (ZIKV) belongs to the family Flaviviridae, and is related to other viruses that cause human diseases. Unlike other flaviviruses, ZIKV infection can cause congenital neurological disorders and replicates efficiently in reproductive tissues. Here we show that the envelope protein (E) of ZIKV is polyubiquitinated by the E3 ubiquitin ligase TRIM7 through Lys63 (K63)-linked polyubiquitination. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2457-8DOI Listing

The development of the dog heartworm is highly sensitive to sterols which activate the orthologue of the nuclear receptor DAF-12.

Sci Rep 2020 Jul 8;10(1):11207. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

INTHERES, Université de Toulouse, INRAE, ENVT, 31027, Toulouse Cedex 3, France.

Prevention therapy against Dirofilaria immitis in companion animals is currently threatened by the emergence of isolates resistant to macrocyclic lactone anthelmintics. Understanding the control over developmental processes in D. immitis is important for elucidating new approaches to heartworm control. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-67466-9DOI Listing

Hepatitis C virus NS3-4A protease regulates the lipid environment for RNA replication by cleaving host enzyme 24-dehydrocholesterol reductase.

J Biol Chem 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Microbiology, Harvard Medical School, Blavatnik Institute, United States.

Many RNA viruses create specialized membranes for genome replication by manipulating host lipid metabolism and trafficking, but in most cases, we do not know the molecular mechanisms responsible or how specific lipids may impact the associated membrane and viral process.  For example, hepatitis C virus (HCV) causes a specific, large-fold increase in the steady-state abundance of intracellular desmosterol, an immediate precursor of cholesterol, resulting in increased fluidity of the membrane where HCV RNA replication occurs. Here, we establish the mechanism responsible for HCV's effect on intracellular desmosterol, whereby the HCV NS3-4A protease controls activity of 24-dehydrocholesterol reductase (DHCR24), the enzyme that catalyzes conversion of desmosterol to cholesterol. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.RA120.013455DOI Listing

Gut microbiota dysbiosis and altered tryptophan catabolism contribute to autoimmunity in lupus-susceptible mice.

Sci Transl Med 2020 Jul;12(551)

Department of Pathology, Immunology, and Laboratory Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA.

The autoimmune disease systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is characterized by the production of pathogenic autoantibodies. It has been postulated that gut microbial dysbiosis may be one of the mechanisms involved in SLE pathogenesis. Here, we demonstrate that the dysbiotic gut microbiota of triple congenic (TC) lupus-prone mice (B6. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.aax2220DOI Listing

LY6E Restricts the Entry of Human Coronaviruses, Including the Currently Pandemic SARS-CoV-2.

J Virol 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Baruch S. Blumberg Institute, Hepatitis B Foundation, 3805 Old Easton Road, Doylestown, PA 18902. USA.

C3A is a sub-clone of human hepatoblastoma HepG2 cell line with strong contact inhibition of growth. We fortuitously found that C3A was more susceptible to human coronavirus HCoV-OC43 infection than HepG2, which was attributed to the increased efficiency of virus entry into C3A cells. In an effort to search for the host cellular protein(s) mediating the differential susceptibility of the two cell lines to HCoV-OC43 infection, we found that ArfGAP with dual pleckstrin homology (PH) domains 2 (ADAP2), gamma-interferon-inducible lysosome/endosome-localized thiolreductase (GILT) and lymphocyte antigen 6 family member E (LY6E), the three cellular proteins with identified function of interfering virus entry, expressed at significantly higher levels in HepG2 cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00562-20DOI Listing

Murine leukemia virus P50 protein counteracts APOBEC3 by blocking its packaging.

J Virol 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Illinois Chicago College of Medicine, Chicago, IL

Apolipoprotein B editing, catalytic subunit 3 (APOBEC3) family members are cytidine deaminases that play important roles in intrinsic responses to retrovirus infection. Complex retroviruses like HIV-1 encode the viral infectivity factor (Vif) protein to counteract APOBEC3 proteins. Vif induces degradation of APOBEC3G and other APOBEC3 proteins and thereby prevents their packaging into virions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00032-20DOI Listing

Reconstitution of an RNA virus replicase in artificial giant unilamellar vesicles supports full replication and provides protection for the dsRNA replication intermediate.

J Virol 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Department of Plant Pathology; University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40546, USA

Positive-strand RNA viruses are important pathogens of humans, animals and plants and replicate inside host cells by co-opting numerous host factors and subcellular membranes. To gain insights into the assembly of viral replicase complexes (VRCs) and dissect the roles of various lipids and co-opted host factors, we have reconstituted (TBSV) replicase using artificial giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs). We demonstrate that reconstitution of VRCs on GUVs with ER-like phospholipid composition results in a complete cycle of replication and asymmetrical RNA synthesis, which is hallmark of (+)RNA viruses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00267-20DOI Listing

Swine Promyelocytic Leukemia Isoform II Inhibits Pseudorabies Virus Infection by Suppressing Viral Gene Transcription in PML-NBs.

J Virol 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China

Promyelocytic leukaemia nuclear bodies (PML-NBs) possess an important intrinsic antiviral activity against α-herpesvirus infection. PML is the structural backbone of NBs, comprising different isoforms. However, the contribution of each isoform to α-herpesvirus restriction is not well understood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01197-20DOI Listing

H9N2 influenza virus infections in human cells require a balance between NA sialidase activity and HA receptor affinity.

J Virol 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan

Some avian influenza (AI) viruses have a deletion of up to 20-30 amino acids in their NA stalk. This has been associated with changes in virus replication and host range. Currently prevalent H9N2 AI viruses only have a 2 or 3 amino acid deletion, which were detected in G1 and Y280 lineage viruses, respectively. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01210-20DOI Listing

Human NK Cell Cytoskeletal Dynamics and Cytotoxicity Are Regulated by LIM Kinase.

J Immunol 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115;

NK cells provide immune surveillance and host protection against viruses and tumors through their cytotoxic effector function. Cytoskeletal rearrangement is necessary for NK cell lytic granule trafficking and immune synapse formation to trigger apoptosis of targeted cells. LIM kinase (LIMK) regulates F-actin remodeling by phosphorylating cofilin to inhibit actin severing and depolymerization. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.2000186DOI Listing

Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells Must Partner with the Myeloid-Macrophage Lineage for Long-Term Postviral Lung Disease.

J Immunol 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110;

Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are implicated in host defense and inflammatory disease, but these potential functional roles need more precise definition, particularly using advanced technologies to better target ILC2s and engaging experimental models that better manifest both acute infection and chronic, even lifelong, disease. In this study, we use a mouse model that applies an improved genetic definition of ILC2s via -conditional gene targeting and takes advantage of a distinct progression from acute illness to chronic disease, based on a persistent type 2 immune response to respiratory infection with a natural pathogen (Sendai virus). We first show that ILC2s are activated but are not required to handle acute illness after respiratory viral infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.2000181DOI Listing

Casein Kinase 1 Regulates Cytorhabdovirus Replication and Transcription by Phosphorylating a Phosphoprotein Serine-rich Motif.

Plant Cell 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

China Agricultural University CITY: Beijing China [CN]

Casein kinase 1 (CK1) family members are conserved Ser/Thr protein kinases that regulate important development processes in all eukaryotic organisms. However, the functions of CK1 in plant immunity remain largely unknown. Barley yellow striate mosaic virus (BYSMV), a plant cytorhabdovirus, infects cereal crops and is obligately transmitted by the small brown planthopper (SBPH). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1105/tpc.20.00369DOI Listing

The NLRP1 Inflammasome in Human Skin and Beyond.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Jul 6;21(13). Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Dermatology, University Hospital of Zurich, 8091 Zurich, Switzerland.

Inflammasomes represent a group of protein complexes that contribute to host defense against pathogens and repair processes upon the induction of inflammation. However, aberrant and chronic inflammasome activation underlies the pathology of numerous common inflammatory diseases. Inflammasome assembly causes activation of the protease caspase-1 which in turn activates proinflammatory cytokines and induces a lytic type of cell death termed pyroptosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21134788DOI Listing

Structure and Function of Bovine Whey Derived Oligosaccharides Showing Synbiotic Epithelial Barrier Protective Properties.

Nutrients 2020 Jul 6;12(7). Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Nestlé Institute of Health Sciences, Société des Produits Nestlé S.A., 1000-Lausanne 26, Switzerland.

Commensal gut microbiota and probiotics have numerous effects on the host's metabolic and protective systems, which occur primarily through the intestinal epithelial cell interface. Prebiotics, like galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) are widely used to modulate their function and abundance. However, important structure-function relations may exist, requiring a detailed structural characterization. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12072007DOI Listing

Harnessing NK Cell Checkpoint-Modulating Immunotherapies.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jul 6;12(7). Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Institute of cellular therapeutics, Hannover Medical School, 30625 Hannover, Germany.

During the host immune response, the precise balance of the immune system, regulated by immune checkpoint, is required to avoid infection and cancer. These immune checkpoints are the mainstream regulator of the immune response and are crucial for self-tolerance. During the last decade, various new immune checkpoint molecules have been studied, providing an attractive path to evaluate their potential role as targets for effective therapeutic interventions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071807DOI Listing

Histone Deacetylase 6 Knockout Mice Exhibit Higher Susceptibility to Influenza A Virus Infection.

Viruses 2020 Jul 6;12(7). Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Otago, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand.

The host innate defence against influenza virus infection is an intricate system with a plethora of antiviral factors involved. We have identified host histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) as an anti-influenza virus factor in cultured cells. Consistent with this, we report herein that HDAC6 knockout (KO) mice are more susceptible to influenza virus A/PR/8/1934 (H1N1) infection than their wild type (WT) counterparts. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v12070728DOI Listing

Molecular Aspects of COVID-19 Differential Pathogenesis.

Pathogens 2020 Jul 6;9(7). Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Neuroscience, University of Nebraska Medical Centre, Omaha, NE 68198, USA.

In the absence of therapeutic interventions, and a possible vaccine candidate, the spread of COVID-19 disease and associated fatalities are on the rise. The high mutation frequency in the genomic material of these viruses supports their ability to adapt to new environments, resulting in an efficient alteration in tissue tropism and host range. Therefore, the coronavirus' health threats could be relevant for the long-term. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9070538DOI Listing

Pilot study of a new online extracorporeal photopheresis system in patients with steroid refractory or dependent chronic graft vs host disease.

J Clin Apher 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Division of Transfusion Medicine, Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.

Background: A new protocol has been developed on the Amicus Separator that enables the device to perform online extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP) procedures when used in conjunction with the Phelix photoactivation device and associated disposable kit. The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and performance of the Amicus ECP System in adult subjects with steroid-refractory or dependent chronic graft vs host disease (cGVHD).

Study Design And Methods: Eight subjects with mild to severe cGVHD underwent 31 procedures. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jca.21804DOI Listing

Multifunctional silk coating on additively manufactured porous titanium to prevent implant-associated infection and stimulate bone regeneration.

Biomed Mater 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Orthopedie, Universitair Medisch Centrum Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, Utrecht, 3508 GA, NETHERLANDS.

Despite the tremendous progress in the design and manufacturing of metallic implants, they do not outlive the patients. To illustrate, more than half of hip replacements will fail mainly due to implant infection and loosening. Surface engineering approaches and, in particular, coatings would facilitate implant bio-functionality via recruitment of more host cells for new bone formation and inhibition of bacterial colonization. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1748-605X/aba40bDOI Listing

Unrelated donor transplant recipients given Thymoglobuline have superior GRFS when compared to matched related donor recipients transplanted without ATG.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2020 Jul 5. Epub 2020 Jul 5.

Faculty of Medicine and Health, University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW, 2050, Australia; Westmead Hospital, Hawkesbury Rd, Westmead, NSW, 2145, Australia.

Recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) from unrelated (URD) and mismatched related donors (MMRD) typically have a higher incidence of acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) compared to matched related donors (MRD). Anti-T-cell globulins (ATG) are often used to reduce GVHD in these recipients. We report the outcomes of 211 adult peripheral blood stem cell transplant recipients with myeloid malignancies who received a standardized transplant protocol, in which ATG (Thymoglobuline 4. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2020.06.030DOI Listing

Vav3 Mediates Pseudomonas aeruginosa Adhesion to the Cystic Fibrosis Airway Epithelium.

Cell Rep 2020 Jul;32(1):107842

Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Gynecology & Obstetrics, University of Geneva, Geneva 1211, Switzerland; Faculty of Medicine, Department of Cell Physiology & Metabolism, University of Geneva, Geneva 1211, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa) represents the leading cause of airway infection in cystic fibrosis (CF). Early airways colonization can be explained by enhanced adhesion of Pa to the respiratory epithelium. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) on fully differentiated primary cultures of airway epithelial cells from CF and non-CF donors predict that VAV3, β1 INTEGRIN, and FIBRONECTIN genes are significantly enriched in CF. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.107842DOI Listing

A proposed treatment for pathogenic enveloped viruses having high rates of mutation or replication.

Authors:
Kevin Roe

Scand J Immunol 2020 Jul 8:e12928. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Retired, San Jose, California, United States of America.

Several enveloped viruses, particularly some RNA viruses, have high rates of mutation or replication, which can make them virulent pathogens in humans and other mammals. A proposed treatment could use synthesized proteins to mask pathogenic viral surface proteins to quickly induce an immune attack on specific enveloped viruses by using existing immune cells. One treatment could inject dual-protein ligand masks into patients' blood streams to mask pathogenic surface proteins used to infect mammalian cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sji.12928DOI Listing

Influenza A viruses use multivalent sialic acid clusters for cell binding and receptor activation.

PLoS Pathog 2020 Jul 8;16(7):e1008656. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Laboratory of Experimental Biophysics, Institute of Physics, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Route Cantonale, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Influenza A virus (IAV) binds its host cell using the major viral surface protein hemagglutinin (HA). HA recognizes sialic acid, a plasma membrane glycan that functions as the specific primary attachment factor (AF). Since sialic acid alone cannot fulfill a signaling function, the virus needs to activate downstream factors to trigger endocytic uptake. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1008656DOI Listing