234,956 results match your criteria Cell host & microbe[Journal]


Effect of Homeopathic Medicines on Intestinal Coccidia and Immune Response Cells in Spotted Rose Snapper (Lutjanus guttatus).

Homeopathy 2019 Apr 18. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas del Noroeste S. C. (CIBNOR), La Paz, México.

Background:  Homeopathy has been widely applied in freshwater species but rarely in marine fish. Farm stress destabilises host-pathogen equilibrium, favouring parasites and disease. Coccidian endoparasites cause intestinal infections and cell degeneration. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0039-1681062DOI Listing

Effects of Homeopathic Phosphorus on Encephalitozoon cuniculi-Infected Macrophages In-Vitro.

Homeopathy 2019 Apr 18. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Research Center, Graduating Program of Environmental and Experimental Pathology, Universidade Paulista - UNIP, São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Introduction:   (), a fungus that acts as an intracellular pathogen, causes a marked neurological syndrome in many host species and is a zoonotic concern. Although no well-established treatment for this syndrome is known, previous successful clinical experience using homeopathic phosphorus has been described in which symptom remission with no mortality occurred in 40/42 animals by means of unknown immunological mechanisms. The latter observation was the main motivation for this study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0039-1678700DOI Listing

Calu-3 cells are largely resistant to entry driven by filovirus glycoproteins and the entry defect can be rescued by directed expression of DC-SIGN or cathepsin L.

Virology 2019 Apr 3;532:22-29. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Infection Biology Unit, German Primate Center - Leibniz Institute for Primate Research, Kellnerweg 4, 37077 Göttingen, Germany; Faculty of Biology and Psychology, Wilhelm-Weber-Str. 2, University Göttingen, 37073 Göttingen, Germany. Electronic address:

Priming of the viral glycoprotein (GP) by the cellular proteases cathepsin B and L (CatB, CatL) is believed to be essential for cell entry of filoviruses. However, pseudotyping systems that predominantly produce non-filamentous particles have frequently been used to prove this concept. Here, we report that GP-mediated entry of retroviral-, rhabdoviral and filoviral particles depends on CatB/CatL activity and that this effect is cell line-independent. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virol.2019.03.020DOI Listing

MPL nano-liposomal vaccine containing P5 HER2/neu-derived peptide pulsed PADRE as an effective vaccine in a mice TUBO model of breast cancer.

J Control Release 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Biotechnology Research Center, Pharmaceutical Technology Institute, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran; Department of Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. Electronic address:

Liposomal peptide-based vaccines can potentially suppress cancer cells proliferation in the host. To enhance the effectiveness of vaccination against cancer, additional strategies should also be employed. One strategy to promote peptide-based vaccine efficacy and induce powerful immune responses, is simultaneous activation of CD4 and CD8 T cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jconrel.2019.04.019DOI Listing

[Association between IL-10 Gene -592(C→A) (rs1800872) SNP and GVHD after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in Children].

Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi 2019 Apr;27(2):573-579

Hematology Oncology Center of Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University, National Center for Children's Health, Beijing Key Laboratory of Pediatric Hematology Oncology; National Key Discipline of Pediatrics (Capital Medical University); Key Laboratory of Major Diseases in Children, Ministry of Education; Beijing 100045, ChinaE-mail:

Objective: To study the association between IL-10 gene-592(C→A) (rs1800872) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and the graft versus host disease (GVHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) in children.

Methods: Ninety-seven childhood patients and seventy-one donors in the Hematology Oncology Center of Beijing Children's Hospital from Jan 2011 to Jul 2017 were enrolled in this study. The genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood cells and the SNP genotype was analyzed using TaqMan SNP genotyping assay. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.19746/j.cnki.issn.1009-2137.2019.02.043DOI Listing

Progress and obstacles in culturing 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus', the bacterium associated with Huanglongbing (HLB).

Phytopathology 2019 Apr 18. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Auburn University, Entomology and Plant Pathology , 209 Life Sciecnes Building , Auburn, Alabama, United States , 36849 ;

In recent decades, 'Candidatus Liberibacter spp.' have emerged as a versatile group of psyllid-vectored plant pathogens and endophytes capable of infecting a wide range of economically important plant hosts. The most notable example is 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (CLas) associated with Huanglongbing (HLB) in several major citrus-producing areas of the world. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PHYTO-02-19-0051-RVWDOI Listing

Approaches for the successful isolation and cell culture of American species.

J Vector Borne Dis 2018 Oct-Dec;55(4):258-264

Emerging and Re-emerging Diseases Laboratory, CIR Hideyo Noguchi, Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán (UADY), Mérida, México.

Rickettsia are intracellular vector-borne bacteria, which are the etiologic agent of severe infections that could inflict death to their host. The intracellular behaviour of Rickettsia makes the study of its genetics, proteomics and cellular processes very difficult. Hence, isolation remains an important experimental technique that permits the obtention of important yields of bacteria, useful for a broad range of experiments. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0972-9062.256560DOI Listing

TNRC6 proteins modulate hepatitis C virus replication by spatially regulating the binding of miR-122/Ago2 complexes to viral RNA.

Nucleic Acids Res 2019 Apr 18. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Department of Medicine, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA.

The liver-specific microRNA, miR-122, is an essential host factor for replication of the hepatitis C virus (HCV). miR-122 stabilizes the positive-strand HCV RNA genome and promotes its synthesis by binding two sites (S1 and S2) near its 5' end in association with Ago2. Ago2 is essential for both host factor activities, but whether other host proteins are involved is unknown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkz278DOI Listing

Highly reversible potassium-ion intercalation in tungsten disulfide.

Chem Sci 2019 Mar 27;10(9):2604-2612. Epub 2018 Dec 27.

CAS Key Laboratory of Design and Assembly of Functional Nanostructures, and Fujian Key Laboratory of Nanomaterials , Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter , Chinese Academy of Sciences , Fuzhou , Fujian 350002 , P.R. China . Email:

Rechargeable potassium-ion batteries (PIBs) show promise beyond Li-ion technology in large-scale electrical-energy storage due to the abundance and low cost of potassium resources. However, the intercalation of large-size K generally results in irreversible structural degradation and short lifespan to the hosts, representing a major obstacle. Here, we report a new electrochemical K-intercalation host, tungsten disulfide (WS), which can store 0. Read More

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http://xlink.rsc.org/?DOI=C8SC04350G
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c8sc04350gDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6419940PMC
March 2019
1 Read

Light emission enhancement by supramolecular complexation of chemiluminescence probes designed for bioimaging.

Chem Sci 2019 Mar 16;10(10):2945-2955. Epub 2019 Jan 16.

School of Chemistry , Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences , Israel . Email:

Chemiluminescence offers advantages over fluorescence for bioimaging, since an external light source is unnecessary with chemiluminescent agents. This report demonstrates the first encapsulation of chemiluminescence phenoxy-adamantyl-1,2-dioxetane probes with trimethyl β-cyclodextrin. Clear proof for the formation of a 1 : 1 host-guest complex between the adamantyl-1,2-dioxetane probe and trimethyl β-cyclodextrin was provided by mass spectroscopy and NMR experiments. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c8sc05174gDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6427943PMC

Spatiotemporal control of coacervate formation within liposomes.

Nat Commun 2019 Apr 17;10(1):1800. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Bionanoscience, Kavli Institute of Nanoscience Delft, Delft University of Technology, Van der Maasweg 9, 2629 HZ, Delft, The Netherlands.

Liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS), especially coacervation, plays a crucial role in cell biology, as it forms numerous membraneless organelles in cells. Coacervates play an indispensable role in regulating intracellular biochemistry, and their dysfunction is associated with several diseases. Understanding of the LLPS dynamics would greatly benefit from controlled in vitro assays that mimic cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-09855-xDOI Listing

Bacterial glycosyltransferase-mediated cell-surface chemoenzymatic glycan modification.

Nat Commun 2019 Apr 17;10(1):1799. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Molecular Medicine, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA, 92037, USA.

Chemoenzymatic modification of cell-surface glycan structures has emerged as a complementary approach to metabolic oligosaccharide engineering. Here, we identify Pasteurella multocida α2-3-sialyltransferase M144D mutant, Photobacterium damsela α2-6-sialyltransferase, and Helicobacter mustelae α1-2-fucosyltransferase, as efficient tools for live-cell glycan modification. Combining these enzymes with Helicobacter pylori α1-3-fucosyltransferase, we develop a host-cell-based assay to probe glycan-mediated influenza A virus (IAV) infection including wild-type and mutant strains of H1N1 and H3N2 subtypes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-09608-wDOI Listing

Optimized cultivation of porcine choroid plexus epithelial cells, a blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier model, for studying granulocyte transmigration.

Lab Invest 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Germany.

The blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB) plays important roles during the transport of substances into the brain, the pathogenesis of central nervous system (CNS) diseases, and neuro-immunological processes. Along these lines, transmigration of granulocytes across the blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier (BCSFB) is a hallmark of inflammatory events in the CNS. Choroid plexus (CP) epithelial cells are an important tool to generate in vitro models of the BCSFB. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41374-019-0250-9DOI Listing

Autophagy links antimicrobial activity with antigen presentation in Langerhans cells.

JCI Insight 2019 Apr 18;4(8). Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Division of Dermatology, Department of Medicine, and.

DC, through the uptake, processing, and presentation of antigen, are responsible for activation of T cell responses to defend the host against infection, yet it is not known if they can directly kill invading bacteria. Here, we studied in human leprosy, how Langerhans cells (LC), specialized DC, contribute to host defense against bacterial infection. IFN-γ treatment of LC isolated from human epidermis and infected with Mycobacterium leprae (M. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.126955DOI Listing

Rapid screening of engineered microbial therapies in a 3D multicellular model.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027;

Synthetic biology is transforming therapeutic paradigms by engineering living cells and microbes to intelligently sense and respond to diseases including inflammation, infections, metabolic disorders, and cancer. However, the ability to rapidly engineer new therapies far outpaces the throughput of animal-based testing regimes, creating a major bottleneck for clinical translation. In vitro approaches to address this challenge have been limited in scalability and broad applicability. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1820824116DOI Listing

Roles of the Transcription Factors Sfl2 and Efg1 in White-Opaque Switching in a/α Strains of Candida albicans.

mSphere 2019 Apr 17;4(2). Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank, Department of Biology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, USA

remains the most pervasive fungal pathogen colonizing humans. The majority of isolates from hosts are heterozygous at the mating type locus (/α), and a third of these have recently been shown to be capable of switching to the opaque phenotype. Here we have investigated the roles of two transcription factors (TFs) Sfl2 and Efg1, in repressing switching in /α strains. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mSphere.00703-18DOI Listing

Analysis of the Transcriptome of Bordetella pertussis during Infection of Mice.

mSphere 2019 Apr 17;4(2). Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Cell Biology, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia, USA

causes the disease whooping cough through coordinated control of virulence factors by the virulence gene system. Microarrays and, more recently, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) have been used to describe gene expression profiles of and other pathogens. In previous studies, we have analyzed the gene expression profiles of , and we hypothesize that the infection transcriptome profile is significantly different from that under laboratory growth conditions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mSphereDirect.00154-19DOI Listing

A Live Vaccine Delivering PcrV through the Type III Secretion System Protects against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

mSphere 2019 Apr 17;4(2). Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Departamento de Genética, Facultad de Biología, Universidad de Sevilla, Seville, Spain

is a common Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen that is intrinsically resistant to a wide range of antibiotics. The development of a broadly protective vaccine against remains a major challenge. Here, we used an attenuated strain of serovar Typhimurium as a vehicle to express antigens. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mSphere.00116-19DOI Listing

Discovery of small molecule inhibitors targeting the E3 ubiquitin ligase activity of the HSV-1 ICP0 protein using an high throughput screening assay.

J Virol 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

University of Kansas Medical Center, Department of Microbiology, Molecular Genetics, Immunology, 3901 Rainbow Blvd, Building Hixon, room 3009, Kansas City, KS, 66160

Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) has infected more than 80% of the population. Reactivation of the virus causes diseases ranging in severity from benign cold sores to fatal encephalitis. Current treatments involve viral DNA replication inhibitors but emergence of drug resistant mutants is observed frequently, highlighting the need for novel anti-viral therapies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00619-19DOI Listing

Asparagine is a critical limiting metabolite for vaccinia virus protein synthesis during glutamine deprivation.

J Virol 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Division of Biology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506, USA

Viruses actively interact with host metabolism because viral replication relies on host cells to provide nutrients and energy. Vaccinia virus (VACV; the prototype poxvirus) prefers glutamine to glucose for efficient replication to the extent that VACV replication is hindered in glutamine-free medium. Remarkably, our data show that VACV replication can be fully rescued from glutamine depletion by asparagine supplementation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01834-18DOI Listing

Phosphoproteome analysis of cells infected with adapted and non-adapted influenza A virus reveals novel pro- and antiviral signaling networks.

J Virol 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Institute of Biochemistry, Medical Faculty, Friedrichstrasse 24, Justus Liebig University, 35392 Giessen (Germany), Member of the German Center for Lung Research

Influenza A viruses (IAVs) quickly adapt to new environments and are well known to cross species barriers. To reveal a molecular basis for these phenomena, we compared the Ser/Thr and Tyr phosphoproteomes of murine lung epithelial cells early and late after infection with mouse-adapted SC35M virus or its non-adapted SC35 counterpart. With this analysis we identified a large set of upregulated Ser/Thr phosphorylations common to both viral genotypes, while Tyr phosphorylations showed little overlap. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00528-19DOI Listing

Interplay between the epigenetic enzyme lysine (K)-specific demethylase 2B and Epstein-Barr virus infection.

J Virol 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

International Agency for Research on Cancer, World Health Organization, Lyon, France.

The histone modifier lysine (K)-specific demethylase 2B (KDM2B) plays a role in differentiation of hematopoietic cells, and its expression appears to be deregulated in certain cancers of hematological and lymphoid origins. We have previously found that the gene is differentially methylated in cell lines derived from Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated endemic Burkitt lymphoma (eBL) compared with EBV-negative sporadic BL cells. However, whether KDM2B plays a role in eBL development has not been previously investigated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00273-19DOI Listing

Complex membrane remodeling during virion assembly of the 30,000 years-old Mollivirus sibericum.

J Virol 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Ultrastructural Bio-imaging (UBI), Center for ressources and research in technology (C2RT) and Department of Cell Biology and Infection, Institut Pasteur, 25-28, rue du Dr. Roux, 75015 Paris, France.

Cellular membranes ensure functional compartmentalization by dynamic fusion-fission remodeling and are often targeted by viruses during entry, replication, assembly and egress. Nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDVs) can recruit host-derived open membrane precursors to form their inner viral membrane. Using complementary 3D-electron microscopy techniques including focused-ion beam scanning electron microscopy and electron tomography, we show that the giant Mollivirus sibericum utilizes the same strategy but also displays unique features. Read More

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http://jvi.asm.org/lookup/doi/10.1128/JVI.00388-19
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00388-19DOI Listing
April 2019
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The reduced folate carrier: an entry receptor for a novel feline leukemia virus variant.

J Virol 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Laboratory of Molecular Immunology and Infectious Disease, Joint Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Yamaguchi University, 1677-1 Yoshida, Yamaguchi 753-8515, Japan

Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is horizontally transmitted among cats and causes a variety of hematopoietic disorders. Five subgroups of FeLV, A-D and T, each with distinct receptor usage, have been described. Recently, we identified a new FeLV Env (TG35-2) gene from a pseudotyped virus that does not belong to any known subgroup. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00269-19DOI Listing

A genome-wide haploid genetic screen identifies heparan sulfate-associated genes and the macropinocytosis modulator TMED10 as factors supporting vaccinia virus infection.

J Virol 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Medical Microbiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands

Vaccinia virus is a promising viral vaccine and gene delivery candidate, and has historically been used as a model to study poxvirus-host cell interactions. We employed a genome-wide insertional mutagenesis approach in human haploid cells to identify host factors crucial for vaccinia virus infection. A library of mutagenized HAP1 cells was exposed to Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara (MVA). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.02160-18DOI Listing

Fundamental contribution and host range determination of ANP32A and ANP32B in influenza A virus polymerase activity.

J Virol 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin 150069, China

The polymerase of the influenza virus is part of the key machinery necessary for viral replication. However, the avian influenza virus polymerase is restricted in mammalian cells. The cellular protein ANP32A has been recently found to interact with viral polymerase, and to both influence polymerase activity and interspecies restriction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00174-19DOI Listing

Development of a secretory expression system with high compatibility between expression elements and an optimized host for endoxylanase production in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

Microb Cell Fact 2019 Apr 17;18(1):72. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

National Engineering Laboratory for Cereal Fermentation Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, 214122, China.

Background: In terms of protein production, the internal environment of the host influences the activity of expression elements, thus affecting the expression level of the target protein. Native expression elements from a specific strain always function well in the original host. In the present study, to enhance the endoxylanase (XynA) production level in Corynebacterium glutamicum CGMCC1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12934-019-1116-yDOI Listing

PAR2-Mediated cAMP Generation Suppresses TRPV4-Dependent Ca Signaling in Alveolar Macrophages to Resolve TLR4-Induced Inflammation.

Cell Rep 2019 Apr;27(3):793-805.e4

Department of Pharmacology and Centre for Lung and Vascular Biology, University of Illinois, College of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA. Electronic address:

Alveolar macrophages (AMs), upon sensing pathogens, trigger host defense by activating toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), but the counterbalancing mechanisms that deactivate AM inflammatory signaling and prevent lethal edema, the hallmark of acute lung injury (ALI), remain unknown. Here, we demonstrate the essential role of AM protease-activating receptor 2 (PAR2) in rapidly suppressing inflammation to prevent long-lasting injury. We show that thrombin, released during TLR4-induced lung injury, directly activates PAR2 to generate cAMP, which abolishes Ca entry through the TRPV4 channel. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2019.03.053DOI Listing

The Influenza A Virus Endoribonuclease PA-X Usurps Host mRNA Processing Machinery to Limit Host Gene Expression.

Cell Rep 2019 Apr;27(3):776-792.e7

Graduate Program in Molecular Microbiology, Sackler School of Graduate Biomedical Sciences, Tufts University, Boston, MA, USA; Department of Molecular Biology and Microbiology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:

Many viruses shut off host gene expression to inhibit antiviral responses. Viral proteins and host proteins required for viral replication are typically spared in this process, but the mechanisms of target selectivity during host shutoff remain poorly understood. Using transcriptome-wide and targeted reporter experiments, we demonstrate that the influenza A virus endoribonuclease PA-X usurps RNA splicing to selectively target host RNAs for destruction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2019.03.063DOI Listing

CD89 Is a Potent Innate Receptor for Bacteria and Mediates Host Protection from Sepsis.

Cell Rep 2019 Apr;27(3):762-775.e5

INSERM U1149, Centre de Recherche sur l'Inflammation, Paris, France; CNRS ERL8252, Paris, France; Université Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Faculté de Médecine, Site Xavier Bichat, Paris, France; Inflamex Laboratory of Excellence, Paris, France. Electronic address:

Direct bacterial recognition by innate receptors is crucial for bacterial clearance. Here, we show that the IgA receptor CD89 is a major innate receptor that directly binds bacteria independently of its cognate ligands IgA and c-reactive protein (CRP). This binding is only partially inhibited by serum IgA and induces bacterial phagocytosis by CD11c dendritic cells and monocytes and/or macrophages, suggesting a physiological role in innate host defense. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S22111247193039
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2019.03.062DOI Listing
April 2019
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Saikosaponin A protects chickens against pullorum disease via modulation of cholesterol.

Poult Sci 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Animal Medicine, College of Agriculture and Forestry, Linyi University, Linyi, Shandong 276000, P.R. China.

The worsening problem of antibiotic resistance prompts the need for alternative strategies that do not directly target bacteria. Virulent Salmonella pullorum strains can invade macrophages and lead to a systemic infection. Saikosaponin A (SSa), a bioactive saponin isolated from Radix bupleuri, has been demonstrated to exhibit anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, and cholesterol regulatory activity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3382/ps/pez197DOI Listing

NK cells negatively regulate CD8 T cells via natural cytotoxicity receptor (NCR) 1 during LCMV infection.

PLoS Pathog 2019 Apr 17;15(4):e1007725. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Institute of Microbiology, ETH Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland.

Besides their function in recognizing cancerous and virally infected cells, natural killer (NK) cells have the potential to shape adaptive immune responses. However, the mechanisms employed by NK cells to negatively regulate virus-specific CD8 T cell responses remain to be fully defined. Using activating receptor natural cytotoxicity receptor (NCR) 1 deficient (NCR1gfp/gfp) mice, we found increased numbers of virus-specific CD8 T cells, leading to enhanced virus control during acute LCMV infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1007725DOI Listing

Dual RNA-seq of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola infecting rice reveals novel insights into bacterial-plant interaction.

PLoS One 2019 17;14(4):e0215039. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

State Key Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Subtropical Agro-bioresources, College of Life Science and Technology, Guangxi University, Nanning Guangxi, China.

The Gram-negative bacterium Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola (Xoc) is the causal agent of rice bacterial leaf streak (BLS), one of the most destructive diseases of rice (Oryza sativa L.) that is the important staple crop. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215039PLOS

Neuroprotection During Infection Is Related To the Release of Neurotrophic Factors BDNF and NGF.

J Parasitol 2019 Apr;105(2):313-320

1   Laboratory of Neurochemistry and Cell Biology, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Institute of Health Sciences, Federal University of Bahia, Av. Reitor Miguel Calmon s/no. Vale do Canela, Salvador-BA, 40110-902, Brazil.

is a parasite that infects many animal species and has tropism for various tissues, particularly the nervous system, where it generally remains in cysts. Under infection, glial cells activate immune responses by a Th2 profile, suggesting an immunologically privileged environment that controls parasite proliferation, with neuronal preservation. In this study, we investigated the role of soluble neurotrophic factors released by glial cells on neuronal integrity during infection in vitro. Read More

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April 2019
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A bipartite begomovirus infecting (family ) in the Dominican Republic represents a distinct phylogenetic lineage and has a high degree of host specificity.

Phytopathology 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

University of California, Davis, Department of Plant Pathology , 1 Shields Ave , Davis, California, United States , 95616 ;

plants in and around agricultural fields in the Azua Valley of the southeastern Dominican Republic often show striking golden mosaic symptoms. Leaf samples from plants showing these symptoms were collected in 2012 and 2013, and PCR tests with degenerate primers revealed begomovirus DNA-A and DNA-B components. The complete sequences of the DNA-A and DNA-B components of four isolates show high degree of sequence identity (>96%), and a genome organization typical of New World (NW) bipartite begomoviruses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PHYTO-02-19-0061-RDOI Listing

Interrater Reliability of Clinical Grading Measures for Cutaneous Chronic Graft-vs-Host Disease.

JAMA Dermatol 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Dermatology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina.

Importance: Cutaneous chronic graft-vs-host disease (cGVHD) is common after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant and is often associated with poor patient outcomes. A reliable and practical method for assessing disease severity and response to therapy among these patients is urgently needed.

Objective: To evaluate the interrater agreement and reliability of skin-specific and range of motion (ROM) variables of the 2014 National Institutes of Health (NIH) response criteria for cGVHD and a skin sclerosis grading scale (SSG). Read More

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http://archderm.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?doi=10.1001/jam
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamadermatol.2018.5459DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Immunohistochemical evaluation of HLA-G and FoxP3+ T regulatory cells in oral cavity and lower lip squamous cell carcinomas.

Braz Oral Res 2019 11;33:e020. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte - UFRN, Department of Clinical Analysis and Toxicology, Natal, RN, Brazil.

Human Leukocyte Antigen G (HLA-G) is a molecule involved in the tumor immunosuppression and also in the generation of regulatory T (Treg) cells, thus leading to evasion to the immune system host, and consequently, contributing to tumor progression in several cancers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the immunoexpression of HLA-G by tumor cells and FoxP3+ Treg cells in 25 oral tongue squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) and 25 lower lip SCCs and analyze their relationship with clinical parameters. HLA-G expression was higher in oral tongue SCCs than in lower lip SCCs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1807-3107bor-2019.vol33.0020DOI Listing

Demystifying a hexuronic acid ligand that recognizes Toxoplasma gondii and blocks its invasion into host cells.

Org Biomol Chem 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Dr. Homi Bhabha Road, Pune, 411008, India.

Toxoplasma gondii is a ubiquitous eukaryotic pathogen responsible for toxoplasmosis in humans and animals. This parasite is an obligate intracellular pathogen and actively invades susceptible host cells, a process which is mediated by specific receptor-ligand interactions. Here, we have identified an unnatural 2,4-disulfated d-glucuronic acid (Di-S-GlcA), a hexuronic acid composed of heparin/heparan sulfate, as a potential carbohydrate ligand that can selectively bind to T. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9ob00744jDOI Listing

Methods for the study of innate immunity in Drosophila melanogaster.

Wiley Interdiscip Rev Dev Biol 2019 Apr 16:e344. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Entomology, Cornell Institute of Host-Microbe Interactions and Disease, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York.

From flies to humans, many components of the innate immune system have been conserved during metazoan evolution. This foundational observation has allowed us to develop Drosophila melanogaster, the fruit fly, into a powerful model to study innate immunity in animals. Thanks to an ever-growing arsenal of genetic tools, an easily manipulated genome, and its winning disposition, Drosophila is now employed to study not only basic molecular mechanisms of pathogen recognition and immune signaling, but also the nature of physiological responses activated in the host by microbial challenge and how dysregulation of these processes contributes to disease. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/wdev.344
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/wdev.344DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

The right response at the right time: Exploring helminth immune modulation in sticklebacks by experimental co-infection.

Mol Ecol 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Evolutionary Ecology, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Biology, Plön, Germany.

Parasites are one of the strongest selective agents in nature. They select for hosts that evolve counter-adaptive strategies to cope with infection. Helminth parasites are special because they can modulate their hosts' immune responses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mec.15106DOI Listing

The benefit of chronic graft-versus-host disease in patients with acute myeloid leukemia relapsed after allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

Ann Hematol 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Hematology, Changhai Hospital, The Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, China.

To investigate the effect of chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) on the outcomes of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients who relapsed after allogenic hematopoietic cell transplantation, we performed a retrospective analysis on 218 patients with a median follow-up of 21.4 (3.4-179. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00277-019-03682-2DOI Listing

Allogeneic donor split skin grafts for treatment of refractory ulcers in cutaneous chronic graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation-a retrospective analysis on seven patients.

Ann Hematol 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Plastic, Reconstructive and Hand Surgery, University Hospital, Regensburg, Germany.

Refractory skin ulcers due to severe chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) remain to be associated with significant morbidity and mortality.We performed an allogeneic donor skin transplantation in seven adult patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for cGVHD-associated refractory skin ulcers. While four patients received a split skin graft (SSG), in one patient, a full thickness skin graft for two small refractory ulcers of the ankle was performed, and one patient received in vitro expanded donor keratinocyte grafts derived from hair roots of the original unrelated donor. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00277-019-03687-xDOI Listing

Relapse Following Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Acute Myeloid Leukemia Apparently Due to Somatic Cell Evolution via Epigenetic Variation and Immune Selection.

Authors:
Neil S Greenspan

Pathog Immun 2019 27;4(1):79-84. Epub 2019 Feb 27.

Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio.

In this brief commentary, I discuss a recently published study that documents the role of immune escape in relapse of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Of particular interest, the mechanism identified by the authors for the ability of the malignant cells to evade destruction by host T cells is the loss of cell surface expression of HLA class II molecules based on processes other than mutation. The authors labeled this mechanism for altered cell surface display of HLA class II antigens "epigenetic. Read More

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https://paijournal.com/index.php/paijournal/article/view/285
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http://dx.doi.org/10.20411/pai.v4i1.285DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6423549PMC
February 2019
1 Read

T cells and the skin: from protective immunity to inflammatory skin disorders.

Nat Rev Immunol 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Dermatology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Skin is our primary interface with the environment, and T cells are crucial for orchestrating host immune responses against pathogenic microorganisms at this site. Effective skin immune responses require the generation of antigen-specific effector T cells, which home to cutaneous sites of injury or infection. Long-lasting immunity against future immune challenges is mediated by memory T cells. Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41577-019-0162-3
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41577-019-0162-3DOI Listing
April 2019
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Cell therapy for Parkinson's disease is coming of age: current challenges and future prospects with a focus on immunomodulation.

Gene Ther 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Leloir Institute Foundation- IIBBA CONICET, Patricias Argentinas 435, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, 1405, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease that affects more than 1% of people over the age of 60. The principal feature of this disease is the progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons (DAn) within the nigrostriatal system, causing the motor symptoms observed in these patients. At present, there is no therapeutic approach with a cytoprotective effect that can prevent DAn cell death or disease progression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41434-019-0077-4DOI Listing
April 2019
4 Reads

Advances in the role of HCV nonstructural protein 5a (NS5A) of 3a genotype in inducing insulin resistance by possible phosphorylation of AKT/PKB.

Sci Rep 2019 Apr 16;9(1):6150. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Centre of Excellence in Molecular Biology, University of Punjab, Lahore, 54000, Lahore, Pakistan.

HCV genes interfere with host cellular genes and play crucial role in pathogenesis. The mechanism under which HCV genes induce insulin resistance is not much clear. This study is aimed to examine the role of HCV NS5A in inducing insulin resistance by examining its affect in the phosphorylation level of AKT/PKB. Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-019-42602-2
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-42602-2DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

CteG is a Chlamydia trachomatis effector protein that associates with the Golgi complex of infected host cells.

Sci Rep 2019 Apr 16;9(1):6133. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

UCIBIO, Departamento de Ciências da Vida, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, Caparica, Portugal.

Chlamydia trachomatis is a bacterial pathogen causing ocular and genital infections in humans. C. trachomatis multiplies exclusively inside host cells within a characteristic vacuole, from where it manipulates host cells by injecting them with type III secretion effector proteins. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-42647-3DOI Listing

A semi-synthetic neolignan derivative from dihydrodieugenol B selectively affects the bioenergetic system of Leishmania infantum and inhibits cell division.

Sci Rep 2019 Apr 16;9(1):6114. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Centre for Parasitology and Mycology, Instituto Adolfo Lutz, São Paulo, 01246-000, Brazil.

Leishmaniasis is a neglected disease that affects more than 12 million people, with a limited therapy. Plant-derived natural products represent a useful source of anti-protozoan prototypes. In this work, four derivatives were prepared from neolignans isolated from the Brazilian plant Nectandra leucantha, and their effects against intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania (L. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-42273-zDOI Listing

The in vitro host cell immune response to bovine-adapted Staphylococcus aureus varies according to bacterial lineage.

Sci Rep 2019 Apr 16;9(1):6134. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Animal & Bioscience Department, Teagasc, Grange, Dunsany, Co. Meath, Ireland.

Mastitis is the most economically important disease affecting dairy cattle worldwide. Staphylococcus aureus is a highly prevalent cause of mastitis, causing infections ranging from sub-clinical to gangrenous. However, the interaction between the genotype of the infecting strain of S. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-42424-2DOI Listing

An apically located hybrid guanylate cyclase-ATPase is critical for the initiation of Ca signalling and motility in .

J Biol Chem 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Division of Infection and Immunity, The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Australia.

Protozoan parasites of the phylum Apicomplexa actively move through tissue in order to initiate and perpetuate infection. The regulation of parasite motility relies on cyclic nucleotide-dependent kinases, but how these kinases are activated remains unknown. Here, using an array of biochemical and cell biology approaches, we show that the apicomplexan parasite expresses a large guanylate cyclase protein (TgGC), which contains several upstream ATPase transporter-like domains. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.RA118.005491DOI Listing