253,566 results match your criteria Cell host & microbe[Journal]


Positive selection and convergent evolution shape molecular phenotypic traits of innate immunity receptors in tits (Paridae).

Mol Ecol 2020 Jul 11. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Charles University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Viničná 7, 128 43, Prague, Czech Republic.

Despite widespread variability and redundancy abounding animal immunity, little is currently known about the rate of evolutionary convergence (functionally analogous traits not inherited from a common ancestor) in host molecular adaptations to parasite selective pressures. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) provide the molecular interface allowing hosts to recognize pathogenic structures and trigger early danger signals initiating an immune response. Using a novel combination of bioinformatic approaches, here we explore genetic variation in ligand-binding regions of bacteria-sensing TLR4 and TLR5 in 29 species belonging to the tit family of passerine birds (Aves: Paridae). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mec.15547DOI Listing

Inhibition of miR-93 promotes interferon effector signaling to suppress influenza A infection by upregulating JAK1.

Int Immunopharmacol 2020 Jul 8;86:106754. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Institute of Organ Transplantation, Changzhen Hospital, Navy Medical University, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Type I interferons play a critical role in host defense against influenza virus infection. Interferon cascade induces the expression of interferon-stimulated genes then subsequently promotes antiviral immune responses. The microRNAs are important regulators of innate immunity, but microRNAs-mediated regulation of interferon cascade during influenza infection remains to be fully identified. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2020.106754DOI Listing

Molecular mechanisms of enterococcal-bacteriophage interactions and implications for human health.

Curr Opin Microbiol 2020 Jul 8;56:38-44. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Department of Immunology and Microbiology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO 80045, United States. Electronic address:

Once overlooked as passive bystanders of the human intestinal microbiota, new evidence is shedding light on the importance of enterococci and their bacteriophages (phages) in shaping human health. Natural predators of enterococci, phages represent a narrow spectrum, precision targeting modality for the eradication of problematic enterococci within the microbiota or infected tissue. The identification of enterococcal phage receptors, absorption factors, and transcriptional responses following phage infection reveals a complex predator-prey relationship that modulates enterococcal cell surface architecture, susceptibility to antibiotics, and adaptation to host associated environments. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mib.2020.06.003DOI Listing

Tumour budding, poorly differentiated clusters, and T-cell response in colorectal cancer.

EBioMedicine 2020 Jul 8;57:102860. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Program in MPE Molecular Pathological Epidemiology, Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA; Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA; Cancer Immunology and Cancer Epidemiology Programs, Dana-Farber Harvard Cancer Center, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Tumour budding and poorly differentiated clusters (PDC) represent forms of tumour invasion. We hypothesised that T-cell densities (reflecting adaptive anti-tumour immunity) might be inversely associated with tumour budding and PDC in colorectal carcinoma.

Methods: Utilising 915 colon and rectal carcinomas in two U. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ebiom.2020.102860DOI Listing

IFNβ-induced exosomal linc-EPHA6-1 promotes cytotoxicity of NK cells by acting as a ceRNA for hsa-miR-4485-5p to up-regulate NKp46 expression.

Life Sci 2020 Jul 8:118064. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Provincial Key Laboratory for Transfusion-Transmitted Infectious Diseases, Institute of Blood Transfusion, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Chengdu, Sichuan 610052, China; Toronto General Research Institute, University of Toronto, ON M5G 1L6, Canada. Electronic address:

Aims: Exosomes contain functional molecules from their cells of origin and can enter recipient cells for intercellular communication. Interferon β (IFNβ) has been shown to induce some lncRNAs to regulate host immune response and play a major role in the positive regulation of the activity of natural killer (NK) cells. We aim to clarify whether IFNβ induced exosomes can regulate the cytotoxicity of NK cells by transferring specific lncRNAs into NK cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2020.118064DOI Listing

Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron-Infecting Bacteriophage Isolates Inform Sequence-Based Host Range Predictions.

Cell Host Microbe 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Department of Microbiology & Immunology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. Electronic address:

Our emerging view of the gut microbiome largely focuses on bacteria, while less is known about other microbial components, such as bacteriophages (phages). Though phages are abundant in the gut, very few phages have been isolated from this ecosystem. Here, we report the genomes of 27 phages from the United States and Bangladesh that infect the prevalent human gut bacterium Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chom.2020.06.011DOI Listing

Breastmilk Feeding Practices Are Associated with the Co-Occurrence of Bacteria in Mothers' Milk and the Infant Gut: the CHILD Cohort Study.

Cell Host Microbe 2020 Jul 9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Children's Hospital Research Institute of Manitoba and Developmental Origins of Chronic Diseases in Children Network (DEVOTION), Winnipeg, MB, Canada; Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada. Electronic address:

Gut microbiota play a critical role in infant health. It is now accepted that breastmilk contains live bacteria from endogenous and exogenous sources, but it remains unclear whether these bacteria transfer to the infant gut and whether this process is influenced by breastmilk feeding practices. Here, we show that certain bacteria, including Streptococcus spp. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chom.2020.06.009DOI Listing

Metagenome Data on Intestinal Phage-Bacteria Associations Aids the Development of Phage Therapy against Pathobionts.

Cell Host Microbe 2020 Jul 3. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Department of Immunology and Genomics, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka 545-8585, Japan; Division of Metagenome Medicine, Human Genome Center, the Institute of Medical Sciences, the University of Tokyo, Tokyo 108-8639, Japan; Division of Innate Immune Regulation, International Research and Development Center for Mucosal Vaccines, the Institute of Medical Sciences, the University of Tokyo, Tokyo 108-8639, Japan; Collaborative Research Institute for Innovative Microbiology, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8657, Japan. Electronic address:

The application of bacteriophages (phages) is proposed as a highly specific therapy for intestinal pathobiont elimination. However, the infectious associations between phages and bacteria in the human intestine, which is essential information for the development of phage therapies, have yet to be fully elucidated. Here, we report the intestinal viral microbiomes (viromes), together with bacterial microbiomes (bacteriomes), in 101 healthy Japanese individuals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chom.2020.06.005DOI Listing

Outcome of peripheral blood allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation as a treatment option in patients with severe aplastic anemia between 40 and 50 years.

Hematol Oncol Stem Cell Ther 2020 Jul 3. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Hematology, Oncology and Stem Cell Transplantation Research Center, Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The frontline treatment for patients younger than 40 years with severe aplastic anemia (AA) is allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) from a human leukocyte antigen-identical sibling donor. However, in patients with severe AA who are older than 40 years, allogeneic HSCT has been found to be associated with increased treatment-related mortality and toxicity, even when matched sibling donors are used. We report our institutional experience with allogeneic HSCT in patients with severe AA between 40 and 50 years. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hemonc.2020.06.004DOI Listing

SARS-CoV-2 and Male Infertility: Possible Multifaceted Pathology.

Reprod Sci 2020 Jul 10. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Bioscience and Nursing, MAHSA University, Petaling Jaya, Malaysia.

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causing the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) on 11th March 2020. Bulk of research on this virus are carried out to unveil its multivariate pathology. Surprisingly, men are reportedly more vulnerable to COVID-19 even with higher fatality rate compared to women. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s43032-020-00261-zDOI Listing

Effect of Cathepsine L1 on Transformation of Malignant Melanoma B16 Cells into Melanocytes.

Bull Exp Biol Med 2020 Jul 10. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Laboratory of Cell Immunity, N. N. Blokhin National Medical Research Center of Oncology, Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia.

We studied the effects of cathepsins produced by immunocompetent cells of intact mice, mice with B16 melanoma, mice with removed B16 melanoma, and mice with removed Ehrlich carcinoma on the growth of B16 melanoma. Incubation of B16 melanoma cells with cathepsins from immunocompetent cells of intact mice, mice with B16 melanoma, and mice with removed Ehrlich carcinoma did not affect tumor growth. Incubation of B16 melanoma cells with cathepsin from immunocompetent cells of mice with removed B16 melanoma was followed by complete loss of malignancy by these cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10517-020-04862-1DOI Listing

Identification of host factors limiting the overexpression of recombinant Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase in Escherichia coli.

Biotechnol Lett 2020 Jul 10. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Biotechnology Division, CSIR-Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology, Palampur, 176061, Himachal Pradesh, India.

Objective: Superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme has implications in modulating the cell's redox state. The study aims to explore the host genetic factors that limit the heterologous expression of a thermostable SOD from Potentilla atrosanguinea (Pa-SOD) in E. coli. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10529-020-02962-6DOI Listing

The interplay between innate lymphoid cells and T cells.

Mucosal Immunol 2020 Jul 10. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Unité Lymphocytes et Immunité, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France.

ILCs and T cells are closely related functionally but they significantly differ in their ability to circulate, expand, and renew. Cooperation and reciprocal functional regulation suggest that these cell types are more complementary than simply redundant during immune responses. How ILCs shape T-cell responses is strongly dependent on the tissue and inflammatory context. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41385-020-0320-8DOI Listing

Overexpressed coiled-coil domain containing protein 8 (CCDC8) mediates newly synthesized HIV-1 Gag lysosomal degradation.

Sci Rep 2020 Jul 10;10(1):11416. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

School of Medicine, Nankai University, Tianjin, China.

Normally, HIV-1 enters into CD4+ cells through membrane fusion, and newly synthesized HIV-1 viral proteins assemble on the plasma membrane to form viral particles and bud out. In the previous study, we found host factor coiled-coil domain containing protein 8 (CCDC8) can strongly inhibit HIV-1 production, but the underline mechanism is not clear. Here we show that overexpression of CCDC8 reverses the normal HIV-1 production process, and causes newly assembled HIV-1 Gag particles to be endocytosed on the plasma membrane, rather than budding out. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-68341-3DOI Listing

Structural basis of a novel repressor SghR controlling Agrobacterium infection by cross-talking to plants.

J Biol Chem 2020 Jul 10. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.

infects various plants and causes crown gall diseases involving temporal expression of virulence factors. SghA is a newly-identified virulence factor enzymatically releasing salicylic acid from its glucoside conjugate and controlling the plant tumor development. Here we report the structural basis of SghR, a LacI-type transcription factor and highly conserved in Rhizobiaceae family, regulating the expression of SghA and involved in tumorigenesis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.RA120.012908DOI Listing

Extracellular vesicles secreted by HBV-infected cells modulate HBV persistence in hydrodynamic HBV transfection mouse model.

J Biol Chem 2020 Jul 10. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Tokai University, Japan.

Hepatitis B, a viral infection that affects the liver, is thought to affect over 257 million people worldwide, and long-term infection can lead to life-threatening issues such as cirrhosis or liver cancer. Chronic hepatitis B develops by the interaction between Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and host immune response. However, questions of how HBV-infected cells thwart immune system defenses remain unanswered. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.RA120.014317DOI Listing

Activation of Human Vδ2 γδ T Cells by Promotes Enhanced Anti-Staphylococcal Adaptive Immunity.

J Immunol 2020 Jul 10. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Host Pathogen Interactions Group, School of Biochemistry and Immunology, Trinity Biomedical Sciences Institute, Dublin 2, Ireland

Murine studies have shown the potential for γδ T cells to mediate immunity to in multiple tissue settings by the secretion of diverse cytokines. However, the role played by γδ T cells in human immune responses to is almost entirely unknown. In this study, we establish the capacity of human Vδ2 γδ T cells for rapid activation in response to In coculture with -infected monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs), Vδ2 cells derived from peripheral blood rapidly upregulate CD69 and secrete high levels of IFN-γ. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.2000143DOI Listing

Human inborn errors of immunity: An expanding universe.

Sci Immunol 2020 Jul;5(49)

Laboratory of Clinical Immunology and Microbiology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

Molecular, cellular, and clinical studies of human inborn errors of immunity have revolutionized our understanding of their pathogenesis, considerably broadened their spectrum of immunological and clinical phenotypes, and enabled successful targeted therapeutic interventions. These studies have also been of great scientific merit, challenging a number of immunological notions initially established in inbred mice while revealing previously unrecognized mechanisms of host defense by leukocytes and other cells and of both innate and adaptive tolerance to self. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciimmunol.abb1662DOI Listing

Energetics and IC50 based epitope screening in SARS CoV-2 (COVID 19) spike protein by immunoinformatic analysis implicating for a suitable vaccine development.

J Transl Med 2020 Jul 10;18(1):281. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Departmentof Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Cell and Molecular Therapeutics Laboratory, Oriental Institute of Science and Technology, Midnapore, India.

Background: The recent outbreak by SARS-CoV-2 has generated a chaos in global health and economy and claimed/infected a large number of lives. Closely resembling with SARS CoV, the present strain has manifested exceptionally higher degree of spreadability, virulence and stability possibly due to some unidentified mutations. The viral spike glycoprotein is very likely to interact with host Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmits its genetic materials and hijacks host machinery with extreme fidelity for self propagation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12967-020-02435-4DOI Listing

Antithymocyte Globulin for Matched Sibling Donor Transplantation in Patients With Hematologic Malignancies: A Multicenter, Open-Label, Randomized Controlled Study.

J Clin Oncol 2020 Jul 10:JCO2000150. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Peking University People's Hospital, Peking University Institute of Hematology, National Clinical Research Center for Hematologic Disease, Beijing Key Laboratory of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation, and Peking-Tsinghua Center for Life Sciences, Beijing, China.

Purpose: The role of antithymocyte globulin (ATG) in preventing acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) after HLA-matched sibling donor transplantation (MSDT) is still controversial.

Patients And Methods: We performed a prospective, multicenter, open-label, randomized controlled trial (RCT) across 23 transplantation centers in China. Patients ages 40-60 years with standard-risk hematologic malignancies with an HLA-matched sibling donor were randomly assigned to an ATG group (4. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.20.00150DOI Listing

Mapping of Recognition Sites of Monoclonal Antibodies Responsible for the Inhibition of Pneumolysin Functional Activity.

Biomolecules 2020 Jul 8;10(7). Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Institute of Biotechnology, Life Sciences Center, Vilnius University, Sauletekio av. 7, LT-10257 Vilnius, Lithuania.

The pathogenicity of many bacteria, including depends on pore-forming toxins (PFTs) that cause host cell lysis by forming large pores in cholesterol-containing cell membranes. Therefore, PFTs-neutralising antibodies may provide useful tools for reducing pathogenic effects. This study aimed at the development and characterisation of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) with neutralising activity to PFT pneumolysin (PLY). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom10071009DOI Listing

Photon Management through Virus-Programmed Supramolecular Arrays.

Adv Biosyst 2017 Oct 17;1(10):e1700088. Epub 2017 Aug 17.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Ave., Cleveland, OH, 44106, USA.

Photon extraction and capture efficiency is a complex function of the material's composition, its molecular structure at the nanoscale, and the overall organization spanning multiple length scales. The architecture of the material defines the performance; nanostructured features within the materials enhance the energy efficiency. Photon capturing materials are largely produced through lithographic, top-down, manufacturing schemes; however, there are limits to the smallest dimension achievable using this technology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adbi.201700088DOI Listing
October 2017

Modulating Immunological Responses of Electrospun Fibers for Tissue Engineering.

Authors:
Nowsheen Goonoo

Adv Biosyst 2017 Aug 17;1(8):e1700093. Epub 2017 Jul 17.

Physical Chemistry I, Department of Chemistry and Biology & Research Center of Micro and Nanochemistry and Engineering (Cµ), University of Siegen, 57076, Siegen, Germany.

The promise of tissue engineering is to improve or restore functions of impaired tissues or organs. However, one of the biggest challenges to its translation to clinical applications is the lack of tissue integration and functionality. The plethora of cellular and molecular events occurring following scaffold implantation is a major bottleneck. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adbi.201700093DOI Listing

Nanoscale Mapping of Multiple Lectins on Cell Surfaces by Single-Molecule Force Spectroscopy.

Adv Biosyst 2017 Jul 16;1(7):e1700050. Epub 2017 Jun 16.

Groupe d'Etude des Interactions Hôte-Pathogène (GEIHP, EA 3142), UNIV Angers, UNIV Brest, Université Bretagne-Loire, 4 rue Larrey, 49933, Angers cedex 9, France.

Molecular recognition events driven by protein-carbohydrate interactions play fundamental roles in various physiological and pathological processes in living organisms, including cohesion inside tissues, innate immune response, cancer cell metastasis, and infections. Unlike widely investigated carbohydrates, detailed knowledge of both the spatial organization of specific lectins and their identification on cell surfaces remains an essential prerequisite for the understanding of pathogen adhesion to host tissues and subsequent infection prevention. In this study, the spatially resolved localization, identification, and quantification of multiple carbohydrate-binding sites are directly revealed on the surface of fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adbi.201700050DOI Listing

Morphological Characterization of the Self-Assembly of Virus Movement Proteins into Nanotubes in the Absence of Virus Particles.

Adv Biosyst 2017 Dec 24;1(12):e1700113. Epub 2017 Oct 24.

Department of Biological and Macromolecular Materials, Fraunhofer Institute for Microstructure of Materials and Systems IMWS, Halle, 06120, Germany.

One infection mechanism of plant viruses is the generation of nanotubes by viral movement proteins, allowing cell-to-cell virus particle transport. Previously, it was assumed that viral nanotubes extend directly from the host-cell plasma membrane. In virus-infected plants, these nanotubes reach an extraordinary diameter:length ratio (≈100 nm:µm or mm range). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adbi.201700113DOI Listing
December 2017

Structural basis for RIFIN-mediated activation of LILRB1 in malaria.

Nature 2020 Jul 10. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

The Plasmodium species that cause malaria are obligate intracellular parasites, and disease symptoms occur as they replicate within human blood. Despite risking immune detection, the parasite delivers proteins that bind host receptors to infected erythrocyte surfaces. In the causative agent of the most deadly human malaria, Plasmodium falciparum, RIFINs form the largest erythrocyte surface protein family. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2530-3DOI Listing

Infectious disease antibodies for biomedical applications: A mini review of immune antibody phage library repertoire.

Int J Biol Macromol 2020 Jul 7. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Institute for Research in Molecular Medicine, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang, Malaysia; Analytical Biochemistry Research Centre, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang, Malaysia. Electronic address:

Antibody phage display is regarded as a critical tool for the development of monoclonal antibodies for infectious diseases. The different classes of antibody libraries are classified based on the source of repertoire used to generate the libraries. Immune antibody libraries are generated from disease infected host or immunization against an infectious agent. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.06.268DOI Listing

Optimal donor for African Americans with hematologic malignancy: HLA-haploidentical relative or umbilical cord blood transplant.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2020 Jul 7. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research, Department of Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI. Electronic address:

While hematopoietic cell transplant from an HLA-matched unrelated donor is potentially curative for hematologic malignancy, survival is lower for African Americans compared to Caucasians. As only about 20% of African Americans will have an HLA-matched unrelated donor many of these patients undergo HLA-haploidentical relative or umbilical cord blood transplantation. Thus, the current analyses studied transplant-outcomes after HLA-haploidentical relative (n=249) and umbilical cord blood (n=118) transplants for African Americans with hematologic malignancy between 2008 and 2016. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2020.06.029DOI Listing

Transbilayer Movement of Sphingomyelin Precedes Catastrophic Breakage of Enterobacteria-Containing Vacuoles.

Curr Biol 2020 Jun 26. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Division of Protein and Nucleic Acid Chemistry, Francis Crick Avenue, Cambridge CB2 0QH, UK; University of Cambridge, Department of Medicine, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, UK. Electronic address:

Pathogenic bacteria enter the cytosol of host cells through uptake into bacteria-containing vacuoles (BCVs) and subsequent rupture of the vacuolar membrane [1]. Bacterial invaders are sensed either directly, through cytosolic pattern-recognition receptors specific for bacterial ligands, or indirectly, through danger receptors that bind host molecules displayed in an abnormal context, for example, glycans on damaged BCVs [2-4]. In contrast to damage caused by Listeria monocytogenes, a Gram-positive bacterium, BCV rupture by Gram-negative pathogens such as Shigella flexneri or Salmonella Typhimurium remains incompletely understood [5, 6]. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2020.05.083DOI Listing

Machine Learning Predicts Lymph Node Metastasis in Early-Stage Oral Tongue Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2020 Jun 13. Epub 2020 Jun 13.

Professor, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China; and Department Head, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, The Affiliated Stomatological Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China. Electronic address:

Purpose: Early-stage oral tongue squamous cell cancer (OTSCC) has a rate of metastasis to the cervical lymph nodes of 20 to 50%. This study aimed to build and validate 4 machine learning (ML) models to predict the occurrence of lymph node metastasis before and after surgery for early-stage (cT1N0 to cT2N0) OTSCC.

Materials And Methods: We designed a retrospective cross-sectional study and reviewed the clinical and pathologic records of patients with early-stage OTSCC. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joms.2020.06.015DOI Listing

Human Virus Transcriptional Regulators.

Cell 2020 Jul;182(1):24-37

Biology Department, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215, USA; Bioinformatics Program, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215, USA. Electronic address:

Viral genomes encode transcriptional regulators that alter the expression of viral and host genes. Despite an emerging role in human diseases, a thorough annotation of human viral transcriptional regulators (vTRs) is currently lacking, limiting our understanding of their molecular features and functions. Here, we provide a comprehensive catalog of 419 vTRs belonging to 20 different virus families. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2020.06.023DOI Listing

Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation with post-transplant cyclophosphamide for patients with HIV and haematological malignancies: a feasibility study.

Lancet HIV 2020 Jul 7. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Background: Allogeneic blood or marrow transplantation (alloBMT) is a potentially life-saving treatment for individuals with HIV and haematological malignancies; challenges include identifying donors and maintaining antiretroviral therapy (ART). The objectives of our study were to investigate interventions to expand donor options and to prevent ART interruptions for patients with HIV in need of alloBMT.

Methods: This single-arm, interventional trial took place at the Johns Hopkins Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center (Baltimore, MD, USA). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-3018(20)30073-4DOI Listing

Amino Assets: How Amino Acids Support Immunity.

Cell Metab 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Max Planck Institute for Immunobiology and Epigenetics, Freiburg 79108, Germany. Electronic address:

Amino acids are fundamental building blocks supporting life. Their role in protein synthesis is well defined, but they contribute to a host of other intracellular metabolic pathways, including ATP generation, nucleotide synthesis, and redox balance, to support cellular and organismal function. Immune cells critically depend on such pathways to acquire energy and biomass and to reprogram their metabolism upon activation to support growth, proliferation, and effector functions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmet.2020.06.010DOI Listing

Varicella zoster virus encodes a viral decoy RHIM to inhibit cell death.

PLoS Pathog 2020 Jul 10;16(7):e1008473. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Discipline of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, School of Medical Sciences, The University of Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Herpesviruses are known to encode a number of inhibitors of host cell death, including Rip Homotypic Interaction Motif (RHIM)-containing proteins. Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is a member of the alphaherpesvirus subfamily and is responsible for causing chickenpox and shingles. We have identified a novel viral RHIM in the VZV capsid triplex protein, open reading frame (ORF) 20, that acts as a host cell death inhibitor. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1008473DOI Listing

Myeloid Liver Kinase B1 depletion is associated with a reduction in alveolar macrophage numbers and an impaired host defense during gram-negative pneumonia.

J Infect Dis 2020 Jul 10. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Center for Experimental and Molecular Medicine Amsterdam University Medical Centers, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Liver kinase B1 (LKB1) has been studied extensively as a tumor suppressor gene (Stk11) in the context of cancer. We hypothesized that myeloid LKB1 plays a role in innate immunity during pneumonia.

Methods: Mice deficient for LKB1 in myeloid cells (LysM-cre x Stk11fl/fl ) or neutrophils (Mrp8-cre x Stk11fl/fl) were infected with Klebsiellapneumoniae via the airways. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiaa416DOI Listing

Biological evaluation of selected 1,2,3-triazole derivatives as antibacterial and antibiofilm agent.

Curr Top Med Chem 2020 Jul 9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Universidade Fluminense Federal, Molecular Epidemiology and Biotechnology Laboratory (LEMB), Rodolpho Albino University Laboratory (LURA), Niterói-RJ. Brazil.

Background: Resistance to antimicrobial agents is a major public health problem, being Staphylococcus aureus prevalent in infections in hospital and community environments and, admittedly, related to biofilm formation in biotic and abiotic surfaces. Biofilms form a complex and structured community of microorganisms surrounded by an extracellular matrix adhered to each other and to a surface that gives them even more protection and resistance to the action of antimicrobial agents, as well as against host defenses.

Methods: Aiming to control and solve these problems, our study sought to evaluate the action of 1,2,3-triazoles against a Staphylococcus aureus isolate in planktonic and in the biofilm form, evaluating the activity of this triazole through Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) tests. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1568026620666200710104737DOI Listing

Mini-Metagenomics and Nucleotide Composition Aid the Identification and Host Association of Novel Bacteriophage Sequences.

Adv Biosyst 2019 Nov 16;3(11):e1900108. Epub 2019 Aug 16.

Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, 443 Via Ortega, Stanford, CA, 94305, USA.

A broad spectrum of metagenomic and single cell sequencing techniques have become popular for dissecting environmental microbial diversity, leading to the characterization of thousands of novel microbial lineages. In addition to recovering bacterial and archaeal genomes, metagenomic assembly can also produce genomes of viruses that infect microbial cells. Because of their diversity, lack of marker genes, and small genome size, identifying novel bacteriophage sequences from metagenomic data is often challenging, especially when the objective is to establish phage-host relationships. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adbi.201900108DOI Listing
November 2019

A metabolite roadmap of the wood-forming tissue in Populus tremula.

New Phytol 2020 Jul 10. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Umeå Plant Science Centre, Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, S-901 83, Umeå, Sweden.

Wood, or secondary xylem, is the product of xylogenesis, a developmental process that begins with the proliferation of cambial derivatives and ends with mature xylem fibers and vessels with lignified secondary cell walls. Fully mature xylem has undergone a series of cellular processes including cell division, cell expansion, secondary wall formation, lignification and programmed cell death. A complex network of interactions between transcriptional regulators and signal transduction pathways controls wood formation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nph.16799DOI Listing

Evolutionarily distant I domains can functionally replace the essential ligand-binding domain of TRAP.

Elife 2020 Jul 10;9. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Integrative Parasitology, Center for Infectious Diseases, Heidelberg University Medical School, Heidelberg, Germany.

Inserted (I) domains function as ligand-binding domains in adhesins that support cell adhesion and migration in many eukaryotic phyla. These adhesins include integrin αβ heterodimers in metazoans and single subunit transmembrane proteins in apicomplexans such as TRAP in and MIC2 in . Here we show that the I domain of TRAP is essential for sporozoite gliding motility, mosquito salivary gland invasion and mouse infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.57572DOI Listing

Natural defect of a plant rhabdovirus glycoprotein gene: a case study of virus-plant co-evolution.

Phytopathology 2020 Jul 10. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Southwest University, National Citrus Engineering and Technology Research Center, Citrus Research Institute, Beibei, Chongqing, China.

Seven isolates of a putative cytorhabdovirus (family Rhabdoviridae, order Mononegavirales) designated as citrus-associated rhabdovirus (CiaRV) were identified in citrus, passion fruit, and paper bush from the same geographical area in China. CiaRV, bean-associated cytorhabdovirus (Brazil), and papaya virus E (Ecuador) should be taxonomically classified in the species Papaya cytorhabdovirus. Due to natural mutations, the glycoprotein (G) and P4 genes were impaired in citrus-infecting isolates of CiaRV, resulting in an atypical rhabdovirus genome organization of 3' leader-N-P-P3-M-L-5' trailer. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PHYTO-05-20-0191-FIDOI Listing

Suppressive effects of Streptococcus thermophilus KLDS 3.1003 on some foodborne pathogens revealed through in vitro, in vivo and genomic insights.

Food Funct 2020 Jul 10. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Key Laboratory of Dairy Science, Ministry of Education, College of Food Science, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030, China.

Foodborne diseases (FBDs) remain a persistent global challenge and recent research efforts suggest that lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains can contribute towards their prevention and treatment. This study investigates the genetic properties of Streptococcus thermophilus KLDS 3.1003 as a potential probiotic and health-promoting LAB strain as well as its in vitro and in vivo activities against two foodborne pathogens. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0fo01218aDOI Listing

Comprehensive analysis of full genome sequence and -milRNA/target mRNAs to discover the mechanism of hypovirulence in strains on pear infection with BdCV1 and BdPV1.

IMA Fungus 2019 7;10. Epub 2019 Jun 7.

State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, Wuhan, Hubei 430070 People's Republic of China.

Pear ring rot disease, mainly caused by , is widespread in most pear and apple-growing regions. Mycoviruses are used for biocontrol, especially in fruit tree disease. BdCV1 ( chrysovirus 1) and BdPV1 ( partitivirus 1) influence the biological characteristics of strains. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s43008-019-0008-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7325678PMC

In vitro inhibition effects of hepatitis B virus by dandelion and taraxasterol.

Infect Agent Cancer 2020 6;15:44. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, National Clinical Research Center for Infectious Diseases, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Zhejiang, China.

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes hepatitis, which progresses to fatal liver diseases and remains a global health problem. Current treatments for chronic hepatitis B are unable to cure hepatitis. Thus, new antiviral drugs must be developed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13027-020-00309-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7336670PMC

Obesity, the most common comorbidity in SARS-CoV-2: is leptin the link?

Int J Obes (Lond) 2020 Jul 9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Pennington Biomedical Research Center, 6400, Perkins Road, Baton Rouge, LA 70808, USA.

Overweight and obesity are major risk factors for diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and lung disease. These diseases are the most commonly reported health conditions that predispose individuals with SARS-CoV-2 infection to require hospitalization including intensive care unit admissions. The innate immune response is the host's first line of defense against a human coronavirus infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41366-020-0640-5DOI Listing

SARS-CoV-2 and bat RaTG13 spike glycoprotein structures inform on virus evolution and furin-cleavage effects.

Nat Struct Mol Biol 2020 Jul 9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Structural Biology of Disease Processes Laboratory, Francis Crick Institute, London, UK.

SARS-CoV-2 is thought to have emerged from bats, possibly via a secondary host. Here, we investigate the relationship of spike (S) glycoprotein from SARS-CoV-2 with the S protein of a closely related bat virus, RaTG13. We determined cryo-EM structures for RaTG13 S and for both furin-cleaved and uncleaved SARS-CoV-2 S; we compared these with recently reported structures for uncleaved SARS-CoV-2 S. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41594-020-0468-7DOI Listing

Pulmonary paracoccidioidomycosis in AhR deficient hosts is severe and associated with defective Treg and Th22 responses.

Sci Rep 2020 Jul 9;10(1):11312. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Departamento de Imunologia, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

AhR is a ligand-activated transcription factor that plays an important role in the innate and adaptive immune responses. In infection models, it has been associated with host responses that promote or inhibit disease progression. In pulmonary paracoccidioidomycosis, a primary fungal infection endemic in Latin America, immune protection is mediated by Th1/Th17 cells and disease severity with predominant Th2/Th9/Treg responses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-68322-6DOI Listing

Secretion of a mammalian chondroitinase ABC aids glial integration at PNS/CNS boundaries.

Sci Rep 2020 Jul 9;10(1):11262. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Centre for Reconstructive Neuroscience, Institute of Experimental Medicine, Czech Academy of Sciences, Videnska 1083, 14220, Prague 4, Czech Republic.

Schwann cell grafts support axonal growth following spinal cord injury, but a boundary forms between the implanted cells and host astrocytes. Axons are reluctant to exit the graft tissue in large part due to the surrounding inhibitory environment containing chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans (CSPGs). We use a lentiviral chondroitinase ABC, capable of being secreted from mammalian cells (mChABC), to examine the repercussions of CSPG digestion upon Schwann cell behaviour in vitro. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-67526-0DOI Listing

Phytochemical analysis and in vitro anti-proliferative activity of Viscum album ethanolic extracts.

BMC Complement Med Ther 2020 Jul 9;20(1):215. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Hiscia Institute, Society for Cancer Research, Arlesheim, Switzerland.

Background: Viscum album L. (Santalaceae), commonly known as mistletoe, is a hemiparasitic plant traditionally used in complementary cancer treatment. Its antitumor potential is mostly attributed to the presence of aqueous soluble metabolites; however, the use of ethanol as solvent also permits the extraction of pharmacological compounds with antitumor potential. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12906-020-02987-4DOI Listing

Protein Coding and Long Noncoding RNA (lncRNA) Transcriptional Landscape in SARS-CoV-2 Infected Bronchial Epithelial Cells Highlight a Role for Interferon and Inflammatory Response.

Genes (Basel) 2020 Jul 7;11(7). Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Cancer Research Center, Qatar Biomedical Research Institute (QBRI), Hamad Bin Khalifa University (HBKU), Qatar Foundation (QF), Doha 34110, Qatar.

The global spread of COVID-19, caused by pathogenic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) underscores the need for an imminent response from medical research communities to better understand this rapidly spreading infection. Employing multiple bioinformatics and computational pipelines on transcriptome data from primary normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBE) during SARS-CoV-2 infection revealed activation of several mechanistic networks, including those involved in immunoglobulin G (IgG) and interferon lambda (IFNL) in host cells. Induction of acute inflammatory response and activation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) was prominent in SARS-CoV-2 infected NHBE cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/genes11070760DOI Listing

Three-Dimensional Regeneration of Patient-Derived Intestinal Organoid Epithelium in a Physiodynamic Mucosal Interface-on-a-Chip.

Micromachines (Basel) 2020 Jul 7;11(7). Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA.

The regeneration of the mucosal interface of the human intestine is critical in the host-gut microbiome crosstalk associated with gastrointestinal diseases. The biopsy-derived intestinal organoids provide genetic information of patients with physiological cytodifferentiation. However, the enclosed lumen and static culture condition substantially limit the utility of patient-derived organoids for microbiome-associated disease modeling. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/mi11070663DOI Listing